WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellars

  1. Learning Karaf Cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Onofré, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    This book is a tutorial written with a step-by-step approach to help you implement an optimum clustering solution in Apache Karaf Cellar quickly and efficiently. If you are new to Karaf and want to install and manage multiple Karaf instances by farming or clustering, then this book is for you. If you are a Java developer or a system administrator with basic knowledge of Karaf, you can use this book as a guide. Some background knowledge of OSGi and/or Karaf would be preferred but is not mandatory.

  2. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  3. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  4. 27 CFR 18.63 - Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded wine cellar. 18.63 Section 18.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Records and Reports § 18.63 Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar. A proprietor transferring concentrate, juice, or fruit mash to a bonded wine cellar shall prepare a record of transfer as required...

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Stephen; McCorison, Cassandra B.; Cavaletto, Jessica R.; Culley, David E.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-05-20

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelial growth in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds including alcohols, esters and formaldehyde is thought to improve air quality. It grows slowly but appears to outcompete ordinarily faster-growing species under anaerobic conditions.Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known.To fill this gap, its mitochondrial genome was assembled as part of a whole- genome shotgun-sequencing project.The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare, at only 23,743 bp, is the smallest yet reported for a filamentous fungus.It contains the complete set of 14 protein-coding genes seen typically in other filamentous fungi, along with genes for large and small ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 predicted tRNA genes capable of decoding all 20 amino acids, and a single open reading frame potentially coding for a protein of unknown function.The Z. cellare mitochondrial genome had genes encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. The high synteny among mitochondrial genomes of fungi in the Eurotiomycetes broke down almost completely in the Dothideomycetes.Only a low level of microsynteny was observed among protein-coding and tRNA genes in comparison with Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici), the only other fungus in the order Capnodiales with a sequenced mitochondrial genome, involving the three gene pairs atp8-atp9, nad2-nad3, and nad4L-nad5.However, even this low level of microsynteny did not extend to other fungi in the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated protein-coding genes confirmed the relationship between Z. cellare and M. graminicola in the Capnodiales, although conclusions were

  6. Best Cellar, Waupaca Area Public Library, Waupaca, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice of Youth Advocates, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the basement of the Waupaca Area Public Library, the Best Cellar is a separate room for young adults that allows teens the freedom to laugh, talk, snack, and listen to music without disturbing others. The furniture, collection, young adult population and community, hours of operation, staffing, planning, youth participation, and librarian and…

  7. [Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J; Wazny, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated.

  8. Customary rules of the Rajac wine cellars construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of implementing the customary rules of construction and organization of the Rajac wine cellars, as well as whether and to what extent they have been implemented so far. Wine cellars of the village of Rajac are a unique example of ethno-architecture in the Republic of Serbia and its surrounding. They are under the protection regime as a rare spatial cultural-historical entity, i.e. cultural property of exceptional importance to Serbia. The paper analyzes various elements of spatial development and structure, as well as specific characteristics of construction carried out by migrant workers. Considering that customary rules of construction are found in some other complexes of folk architecture in the immediate and broader surrounding of the Republic of Serbia (Korčula, Dubrovnik and Ilok in the Republic of Croatia, it has been indicated, based on comparative analysis, that it is possible that the same rules as those implemented during the foundation and development of the Rajac wine cellars have also been implemented later during their renovation by introducing new architectural principles through characteristic way of construction of Macedonian craftsmen-builders - migrant workers.

  9. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar may alternate the use...

  10. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  11. Seasonal analysis of the thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Traditional underground wine cellars are a good example of bioclimatic construction, providing optimum conditions for maturing wine with no energy consumption. This article studies the annual thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in one of the most well-known wine producing areas in Spain, the Ribera del Duero. For this we have applied a method based on multiple regression analysis using experimental data monitored for 1 year. The results show that the interior air temperature is fundamentally conditioned by the undisturbed temperature of the ground at the average depth of the wine cellar and by the temperature of the outside air (R{sup 2} varies between 0.937 and 0.974, with an average of 0.964 for the three wine cellars studied). However, the stability of the wine cellar during changes of outside temperature differs according to the time of year. In the spring and summer, the stability is excellent and the influence of the ground temperature is much greater than that of the outside air temperature (beta coefficient for the ground temperature is 0.85 compared to 0.17 for the outside air temperature). In the autumn and winter, the stability of the wine cellar is reduced by the increased ventilation, reducing the influence of the ground temperature ({beta} = 0.70) and increasing that of the outside air ({beta} = 0.42). (author)

  12. Persistence of two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora and Starmerella in the cellar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric eGrangeteau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different genera and/or species of yeasts present on grape-berries, in musts and wines are widely described. Nevertheless, the community of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in the cellar is still given little attention. Thus it is not known if the cellar is a real ecological niche for these yeasts or if it is merely a transient habitat for populations brought in by grape-berries during the winemaking period. This study focused on three species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts commonly encountered during vinification: Starmerella bacillaris (synonymy with Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Hanseniaspora uvarum. More than 1200 isolates were identified at the strain level by FT-IR spectroscopy (207 different FTIR strain pattern. Only a small proportion of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in musts came directly from grape-berries for the three species studied. Some strains were found in the must in 2 consecutive years and some of them were also found in the cellar environment before the arrival of the harvest of second vintage. This study demonstrates for the first time the persistence of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains from year to year in the cellar. Sulfur dioxide can affect yeast populations in the must and therefore their persistence in the cellar environment.

  13. Patagonian wines: implantation of an indigenous strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentations conducted in traditional and modern cellars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christian A; Rodríguez, María E; Sangorrín, Marcela; Querol, Amparo; Caballero, Adriana C

    2007-02-01

    In this work we evaluate the implantation capacity of the selected S. cerevisiae indigenous strain MMf9 and the quality of the produced wines in a traditional (T) and a modern (M) cellar with different ecological and technological characteristics in North Patagonia (Argentina). Red musts were fermented in 10,000 l vats using the indigenous strain MMf9 as well as the respective controls: a fermentation conducted with a foreign starter culture (BC strain) in M cellar and a natural fermentation in T cellar. Since commercial S. cerevisiae starters are always used for winemaking in M cellar and in order to compare the results, natural fermentations and fermentations conducted by the indigenous strain MMf9 were performed at pilot (200 l) scale in this cellar, concomitantly. Thirty indigenous yeasts were isolated at three stages of fermentation: initial, middle and end. The identification of the yeast biota associated to vinifications was carried out using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 PCR-RFLP. The intra-specific variability of the S. cerevisiae populations was evaluated using mtDNA-RFLP analysis. Wines obtained from all fermentations were evaluated for their chemical and volatile composition and for their sensory characteristics. A higher capacity of implantation of the indigenous MMf9 strain was evidenced in the fermentation carried out in M cellar (80% at end stage) than the one carried out in T cellar (40%). This behaviour could indicate that each cellar differs in the diversity of S. cerevisiae strains associated to wine fermentations. Moreover a higher capacity of implantation of the native starter MMf9 with regard to the foreign (BC) one was also found in M cellar. The selected indigenous strain MMf9 was able to compete with the yeast biota naturally present in the must. Additionally, a higher rate of sugar consumption and a lower fermentation temperature were observed in vinifications conducted by MMf9 strain with regard to control fermentations, producing wines with favourable

  14. Robert Lacoste's the darker side practical applications for electronic design concepts from circuit cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoste, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Robert Lacoste's The Darker Side column has quickly become a must read among Circuit Cellar devotees. His column provides readers with succinct theoretical concepts and practical applications on topics as far reaching as digital modulation to antenna basics. Difficult concepts are demystified as Robert shines a light on complex topics within electronic design.This book collects sixteen Darker Side articles that have been enriched with new, exclusive content from the author. An intro into The Darker Side will give examples of material that can enhance and optimize the way you design. A

  15. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  17. The Integration of Geotechnologies in the Evaluation of a Wine Cellar Structure through the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multidisciplinary methodology to evaluate an underground wine cellar structure using non-invasive techniques. In particular, a historical subterranean wine cellar that presents a complex structure and whose physical properties are unknown is recorded and analyzed using geomatics and geophysics synergies. To this end, an approach that integrates terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar is used to properly define a finite element-based structural model, which is then used as a decision tool to plan architectural restoration actions. The combination of both techniques implies the registration of external and internal information that eases the construction of structural models. Structural simulation for both stresses and deformations through FEM allowed identifying critical structural elements under great stress or excessive deformations. In this investigation, the ultimate limit state of cracking was considered to determine allowable loads due to the brittle nature of the material. This allowed us to set limit values of loading on the cellar structure in order to minimize possible damage.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations

  19. Functional morphology of the respiratory organs in the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides (Arachnida, Araneae, Pholcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric evaluation of the lungs of male and female cellar spiders (Pholcus phalangioideus) was carried out in 2 test groups with different body masses (mean value 10.8, males, and 26.6 mg, females). Males have significant higher lung volume to body mass ratios (2.49 vs. 2.13 × 10(-3) cm(3) g(-1)), which might result from the differences in body mass between sexes. Moreover, males have slightly more respiratory surface area per body mass (8.2 vs. 7.7 cm(2) g(-1)) and a little bit larger morphological diffusing capacities for oxygen (9.3 vs. 8.2 nmol s(-1) g(-1) kPa(-1)) than females, but both values were not significant. Metabolic rates were measured using flow through respirometry under video tracking: the CO2 release of male and female spiders was measured. Resting rates were 1.7 (males) and 1.5 nmol s(-1) g(-1) (females). Gluing of one spiracle did not influence the resting metabolic rate. Factorial scopes during stimulation to maximum metabolic rates were about 12 in intact animals, while elimination of one spiracle reduced the factorial scope to 5.2. Comparison with other araneomorph spiders strengthens the hypothesis that tracheae in spiders increase the metabolic rates of the tracheated species and do not only replace reduced lung capacity.

  20. SAFETY IN WINE CELLARS: THE SITUATION IN FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Gubiani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to set up a method of analysis of the safety levels in the wine industry, using a check list to carry out a survey on 30 wineries located in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The checklist, based on previous studies, included more than 500 items, divided into 5 main areas: A Buildings and workplaces; B Machinery; C Logistics; D Boiler room, electricity plants and fire prevention systems; E Noise and vibrations. The classification of each of the items was based on risk frequency and seriousness of damage. In order to obtain a value as a whole, different points were assigned to each of them. The results of this work shows that workers are exposed to a variety of hazards and one of the highest scores is connected to machinery. Some of these accidents occur because machines are used for a purpose for which they are unsuitable; others because security systems have not been provided or have been taken off. Other risk areas are the fuel tank or the exhaust oil stocking room. Indoors, the most hazardous areas are the grape unloading and the workshop one. Another result was that the older wine cellars are the most dangerous. The check list can become an important instrument for prevention and a useful tool to test safety levels of the working environment.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.

  2. Killer phenotype of indigenous yeasts isolated from Argentinian wine cellars and their potential starter cultures for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ullivarri, Miguel Fernández; Mendoza, Lucía M; Raya, Raúl R; Farías, Marta E

    2011-11-01

    Of 31 yeasts, from different surfaces of two cellars from the northwest region of Argentina, 11 expressed killer activity against the sensitive strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae P351. Five of these killer yeasts were identified as S. cerevisiae by phenotypic tests and PCR-RFLP analysis. Two S. cerevisiae killer strains, Cf5 and Cf8, were selected based on their excellent kinetic and enological properties as potential autochthonous mixed starter cultures to be used during wine fermentation. They could dominate the natural microbiota in fermentation vats and keep the typical sensorial characteristics of the wine of this region.

  3. Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel.

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    Andrew J Koh

    Full Text Available Scholars have for generations recognized the importance of wine production, distribution, and consumption in relation to second millennium BC palatial complexes in the Mediterranean and Near East. However, direct archaeological evidence has rarely been offered, despite the prominence of ancient viticulture in administrative clay tablets, visual media, and various forms of documentation. Tartaric and syringic acids, along with evidence for resination, have been identified in ancient ceramics, but until now the archaeological contexts behind these sporadic discoveries had been uneven and vague, precluding definitive conclusions about the nature of ancient viticulture. The situation has now changed. During the 2013 excavation season of the Kabri Archaeological Project, a rare opportunity materialized when forty large storage vessels were found in situ in an enclosed room located to the west of the central courtyard within the Middle Bronze Age Canaanite palace. A comprehensive program of organic residue analysis has now revealed that all of the relatively uniform jars contain evidence for wine. Furthermore, the enclosed context inherent to a singular intact wine cellar presented an unprecedented opportunity for a scientifically intensive study, allowing for the detection of subtle differences in the ingredients or additives within similar wine jars of apparently the same vintage. Additives seem to have included honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cedar oil, cyperus, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon, all or most of which are attested in the 18th century BC Mari texts from Mesopotamia and the 15th century BC Ebers Papyrus from Egypt. These additives suggest a sophisticated understanding of the botanical landscape and the pharmacopeic skills necessary to produce a complex beverage that balanced preservation, palatability, and psychoactivity. This new study has resulted in insights unachievable in the past, which contribute to a

  4. Validation of sensitivity and reliability of GPR and microgravity detection of underground cavities in complex urban settings: Test case of a cellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromčák, Jakub; Grinč, Michal; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Kubová, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We test here the feasibility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity methods in identifying underground voids, such as cellars, tunnels, abandoned mine-workings, etc., in complex urban conditions. For this purpose, we selected a cellar located under a private lot in a residential quarter of the town of Senec in Western Slovakia, which was discovered by chance when a small sinkhole developed on the yard just two meters away from the house. The size of our survey area was limited 1) by the presence of a technical room built at the back of the yard with a staircase leading to the garden, and 2) by the small width of the lot. Therefore the geophysical survey was carried out only in the backyard of the lot as we were not permitted to measure on neighbouring estates. The results from the GPR measurements obtained by the GSSI SIR-3000 system with 400 MHz antenna were visualized in the form of 2D radargrams with the corresponding transformed velocity model of studied cross-sections. Only the profiles running over the pavement next to the house yielded interpretable data because the local geological situation and the regular watering of the lawn covering prevailingly the backyard caused significant attenuation of the emitted GPR signal. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a distinctive negative anomaly indicating the presence of a shallow underground void. The quantitative interpretation by means of Euler deconvolution was utilized to validate the depth of the center and location of the cellar. Comparison with the gravitational effect of the cellar model calculated in the in-house program Polygrav shows a quite good correlation between the modelled and observed fields. Only a part of the aerial extent of the anomaly could be traced by the used geophysical methods due to accessibility issues. Nevertheless, the test cellar was successfully detected and interpreted by both methods, thus confirming their applicability in similar environmental and geotechnical

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  7. Wine and power. A spatial and stratigraphical study of the pottery and glass assemblages from the wine cellar in Bergen, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tøssebro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the centre of medieval Bergen lies the ruin of a stone building that contained the medieval town hall, the court room, prison cells and the Wine Cellar with the communal taproom. The building was constructed around 1300. In the Wine Cellar, the city council and later the Hanseatic kontor had royal monopoly on the small-scale wine sale in the town and received profits. This building complex is strongly related to a larger North European urbanization process, and cultural impulses brought to Bergen by German traders and craftsmen of the Hanseatic League. The aim of this article is to present a spatial and stratigraphic analysis of the archaeological material, more specifically the pottery and glass assemblages, recovered in the taproom of the Wine Cellar (room 1. I also try to assess this institution into a social context and address questions related to the link between wine, power and social distinctions in late medieval and early modern urban society. The stratigraphy shows that room 1 was sub-divided into smaller rooms, and the distribution of the archaeological material indicates that the different rooms had different functions and use, possibly related to the consumption of different kinds of alcoholic beverages and to social distinctions. This concept is also known from other contemporary wine cellars in the North German area like in Lübeck and Bremen, and puts this building and institution into a larger North European network that is related to the appearance of a new social elite in the growing towns.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  10. The male genital system of the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775 (Pholcidae, Araneae: development of spermatozoa and seminal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhl Gabriele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most arthropods pass through several molting stages (instars before reaching sexual maturity. In spiders, very little is known about the male genital system, its development and seminal secretions. For example, it is unknown whether spermatozoa exist prior to-, or only after the final molt. Likewise, it is unclear whether sperm are produced throughout male adulthood or only once in a lifetime, as is whether seminal secretions contain factors capable of manipulating female behavior. In order to shed light on these aspects of the reproductive biology of spiders, we investigated the male genital system of the common cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides, with special emphasis on its development and seminal secretions. Results Testes already display all stages of spermatogenesis in subadult males (about four weeks before the final molt. Their vasa deferentia possess proximally a very voluminous lumen containing dense seminal fluid and few spermatozoa, whereas the distal part is seemingly devoid of contents. Spermatoza of P. phalangioides are typical cleistospermia with individual secretion sheaths. In male stages approximately two weeks prior to the final molt, the lumina of the testes are wider and filled with a dense secretion. The wide, proximal portion of the vasa deferentia is filled with secretion and a large number of spermatozoa, and the narrow distal part also contains secretion. In adult males, the wide lumina of the testes are packed with spermatozoa and secretions. The latter are produced by the somatic cells that bear microvilli and contain many vesicles. The lumina of the vasa deferentia are narrow and filled with spermatozoa and secretions. We could identify a dense matrix of secretion consisting of mucosubstances and at least three types of secretion droplets, likely consisting of proteinaceous substances. Conclusion This study reveals that spermatogenesis begins weeks before maturity and takes place continuously in

  11. Analysis of Water Quality in Water Cellars under Different Rainfall Collecting Systems%不同集雨面及水窖形式下的窖水水质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢薇; 秦克丽; 丁昆仑; 孙文海

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented the results from a field experimental study on the water quality in water cellars with different rainfall collecting surfaces. The results showed that the best water quality was observed from the system of underground water cellar with roof rainfall runoff. This result provided useful guidance of proper rainwater harvesting system for domestic use in the rural areas.%对不同集雨面及水窖形式下的水窖水质状况开展系统试验研究.试验结果表明,由机瓦屋顶为集雨面、地下形式的蓄水水窖条件下,窖水水质最优.该结论为农村地区开展以生活用水为目的的雨水集蓄利用工程形式的选择提供了依据.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient

  14. 小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水——窖底水厌氧产甲烷及其替代锅炉燃煤的研究%Anaerobic Methane-production and Substituting Coal Burning Boiler of Bottom Pot Water and Bottom Cellar Water in the Small and Sauce Sweet Model Liquor Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊诚; 刘煦晴; 向家新; 向科; 黄羽

    2011-01-01

    对小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水、窖底水及其三者的混合液分别按中温厌氧、高温厌氧在实验室进行COD去除率及其沼气产率的条件试验.结果表明:在控制的HRT内,单独的锅底水、窖底水COD去除率均难以突破90%.高温厌氧,不同的窖底水与锅底水体积比试验条件下,体积比为1:5时,混合样的COD去除率最佳,可达91.7%;HRT 24 h的高温厌氧COD去除及产沼气效果明显优于HRT 48 h的中温厌氧;厌氧产甲烷的适宜pH为7.0芹右.以贵州省茅台镇郑氏酒业有限公司600 t/a改扩建工程为例,按优选的厌氧产气条件,全厂锅底水、窖底水、酒糟1:1浸出液厌氧产沼气可替代本厂现有的2台0.5 t/h燃煤锅炉204.8 t/a燃煤量.实验结果为小型白酒企业高浓度有机废水的厌氧处理及沼气的回收利用提供了科学依据.%Using mesotherm and hyperthermy anaerobic methods respectively, the condition test on the COD removal rate and methane productivity of bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and the mixed liquor in the small and sauce sweet model liquor enterprise is studied. Result of the testing demonstrates that, in the controlled HRT, the COD removal rates of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water alone are both lower than 90%.While the volume ratio of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water is 1: 5, the COD removal in the mixed liquor is up to 91.7%, much better than any other condition. And the COD removal and methane production effect of 24h-HRT hyperthermy is obviously excellent, compared with 48h-HRT mesotherm anaerobic condition. Besides, the best suitable pH value of anaerobic methane-production is 7.0. Taking 600 t/a expansion project of Maotai Town Zheng Wine Co, Ltd in Guizhou Province for example, under optimized anaerobic methane-production conditions, the anaerobic methane from bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and distillers'grain lixivium( 1: 1 ) in the whole factory can replace the existing coal

  15. 西班牙卡蒙纳的巴特勒酒窟——个与乡土相关的生物气候学建筑%The Batlle Wine Cellar in Gramona of Spain——A Local Bio-climate Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏阿茜·丹尔(嫒); 邱治平

    2011-01-01

    Europe's grape growing has undergone restructuring since 1990s. Gramona, a Spanish family liquor enterprise, moved away from the old building in the city center under this tendency and constructed a new building. In the first phase engineering in 2001, the architect reached the goal of minimizing energy consumption and optimizing the working space. In the second phase engineering in 2008, the architect Soazig Darnay takes an integrated consideration of the logic of visitor reception, the whole cellar building, its production and the surrounding environment. The project is based on the harmony of the cellar, the fields and the nearby mountains.%自20世纪90年代始,欧洲大陆的葡萄种植进入了结构调整期.卡蒙纳,一个西班牙的家庭式酒酿造企业,在这个倾向下迁离市中心的陈旧结构,修建了一座新的建筑体.在2001年第一期工程期间,建筑师达到了能量消耗减低和工作空间最优化的指标.在2008年的第二期工程规划期间,景观设计师苏阿茜·丹尔(嫒)(Soazig Darnay)对游人接待的逻辑和整座酒窟建筑及其生产活动与周边环境之融为一体进行了思考.项日建立在酒窟、田野和临近的山川和谐的概念上.

  16. 利用微生物生产多粮浓香型白酒粮香、糟香、窖香风味物质的研究%Research on Flavor Substances About Incense of Grains.Cellar and distiller's Grains of Multiple-grains Luzhou-flavor Liquor Produced by Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义正; 尹昌树; 刘波; 陈大理; 岳明生

    2012-01-01

    以筛选出的5株对宜宾多粮浓香型白酒酒体独特风格(粮香、糟香、窖香)起主要作用的微生物菌株进行风味物质的生产,确定了多菌种混合发酵的培养模式。对发酵液进行超临界CO2萃取的最佳工艺:萃取压力15MPa,萃取温度45℃,CO2流量为10L/h,分离压力为7MPa,分离温度为50℃,解析釜分离压力为4.5~6.0MPa,温度为55℃,萃取时间为4h。%Flavor substances were productod by 5 microbial strains which were filtered out and played a major role to Yibin multi-grain fragrant liquor unique style (incense of grains,cellar and distiller's grains). The mode of the multi-species mixed fermentation culture were determined. Optimum process of Supercritieal CO2 extraction: extraction pressure 15MPa, extraction temperature 45℃, CO2 flow rate of 10L/h, Separation pressure 7MPa, Separation temperature 50 ℃, resolve kettle separation pressure 4.5 -6.0MPa, the temperature of 55 ℃, extraction time 4h.

  17. Unrecognized potentials in the cellar; Unerkannte Potenziale im Keller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Manfred

    2013-06-15

    For years, it is known to the lobbyists of the decentralized technology that the time of the great dinosaurs under the power plants has expired. Small engines and turbines has long been existing in a manifold manner - but there is still a long way in order to use these small engines and turbines for reliable control energy.

  18. 27 CFR 4.22 - Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise specified in this section, be designated with a truthful and adequate statement of composition in... methods or materials of any kind to such an extent or in such manner as to affect the basic composition of... derived from fruit or other agricultural products having a high normal acidity, if the total...

  19. Saved from the cellar Gerhard Gentzen’s shorthand notes on logic and foundations of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    von Plato, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen is best known for his development of the proof systems of natural deduction and sequent calculus, central in many areas of logic and computer science today. Another noteworthy achievement is his resolution of the embarrassing situation created by Gödel's incompleteness results, especially the second one about the unprovability of consistency of elementary arithmetic. After these successes, Gentzen dedicated the rest of his short life to the main problem of Hilbert's proof theory, the question of the consistency of analysis. He was arrested in the summer of 1945 with other professors of the German University of Prague and died soon afterward of starvation in a prison cell. Attempts at locating his lost manuscripts failed at the time, but several decades later, two slim folders of shorthand notes were found. In this volume, Jan von Plato gives an overview of Gentzen's life and scientific achievements, based on detailed archival and systematic studies, and essential for placing the translations ...

  20. Overcoming the glass ceiling: views from the cellar and the roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Women's experiences as professionals and behavior therapists have changed considerably in the past 40 years. The author describes early challenges and experiences of discrimination as a young female professional. Although women's opportunities have improved considerably, women still experience unique career challenges and choices. The author provides some suggestions for women's career development.

  1. Australian Wine Tourism: Establishing a Career Path at the Cellar Door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kim Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Wine tourism in Australia has grown substantially in recent years and contributes to employment opportunities in regional areas. To meet the requirements of this growing sector, workers need a considerable degree of skill-specific training; development of wine tourism personnel will be required. This article examines challenging human resource…

  2. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking.

  3. Effects of Different Zinc Species on Cellar Zinc Distribution, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis and Viability in MDAMB231 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hong; Zhao, Wen-jie; Zheng, Wei-juan; Mao, Li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin; Hua, Zi-chun

    2016-03-01

    Intracellular metal elements exist in mammalian cells with the concentration range from picomoles per litre to micromoles per litre and play a considerable role in various biological procedures. Element provided by different species can influence the availability and distribution of the element in a cell and could lead to different biological effects on the cell's growth and function. Zinc as an abundant and widely distributed essential trace element, is involved in numerous and relevant physiological functions. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is regulated by metallothioneins, zinc transporter/SLC30A, Zrt-/Irt-like proteins/SLC39A and metal-response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), is crucial for normal cellular functioning. In this study, we investigated the influences of different zinc species, zinc sulphate, zinc gluconate and bacitracin zinc, which represented inorganic, organic and biological zinc species, respectively, on cell cycle, viability and apoptosis in MDAMB231 cells. It was found that the responses of cell cycle, apoptosis and death to different zinc species in MDAMB231 cells are different. Western blot analysis of the expression of several key proteins in regulating zinc-related transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis, including MTF-1, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in treated cells further confirmed the observed results on cell level.

  4. 小儿误坠酒窖抢救体会%Children Mistakenly Fall Cellar Rescue Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴忠

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies show that the accident has been a serious harm to the health and life of children, some people think that the accident injury is the leading kil er of children, is more than the sum of death due to other causes, but also occupy most of the children in hospital and emergency. The Children mistakenly fal wine cel ar,Leading to cerebral edema, metabolic acidosis, stress hyperglycemia, toxic hepatitis, myocardial damage and corneal chemical burns injury. So the damage is extremely rare, hereby report.%大量研究表明意外伤害已对儿童的健康与生命构成严重危害,有人认为意外伤害是儿童的头号杀手,比其他原因所致死亡的总和还要多,而且也占据了儿童住院和急诊的大多数[1],本例患儿误坠入酒窖,导致了脑水肿,代谢性酸中毒,应激性高血糖,中毒性肝炎,心肌损害且角膜化学伤等损伤,经积极救治,挽救了生命。因此类损伤极其少见,特此报道。

  5. Cellar Mud in the Role of the Two%窖泥在酿酒中的两个作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡鹏飞; 邵传贞; 姚庆乐; 李沙沙; 于文娟; 许玲

    2011-01-01

    通过检测、观察和试验,证明窖泥在浓香型白酒发酵过程中,发挥着两个重要的作用:1,作为微生物的栖息容器,向入池粮醅中提供发酵产香微生物,发酵生成浓香型白酒中的香味物质;2,发挥"以窖养糟"的作用,向酒醅中渗透其经过长期发酵吸附的挥发性微量香味成分,使酒味更加丰满和谐。%Through testing,observation and experiment,that mud pit in the process of fermentation liquor,play two important roles: one as a microbial habitat containers into the pool to provide food grains in the microbial fermentation of fragrant,fermented concentrated the flavor-flavor Liquor;2,play the conservation of fermented grains role,to the fermented grains after a long fermentation in the penetration of the adsorption of trace volatile flavor components,so that alcohol is more full and harmonious.

  6. Girl in the Cellar: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Investigation of Belief in Conspiracy Theories about the Kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eStieger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011, participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277 completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion.

  7. Welding repair process to bottom cast iron ash cellar of gas making furnace%造气炉炉底铸铁灰仓焊补工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔家怀

    2008-01-01

    通过对造气炉炉底灰仓的多次焊补,总结了比较成熟的焊前准备、焊接方法和工艺操作要领及对焊接设备、焊工资格、焊接环境等方面的要求,实践证明,该工艺是成功的.

  8. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion.

  9. 论"母亲水窖"与西部贫困农村女性的发展%"Mother's Water Cellars" and Women Development in Poverty-Stricken West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲

    2003-01-01

    水是人类生存和经济发展的命脉,西部尤其是西北地区的严重干旱缺水已成为制约经济发展的一大瓶颈.女性是艰辛生活的最直接承受者,缺水对女性发展的影响极为深远."母亲水窖"项目的实施给西部贫困农村女性的发展带来了良机,"母亲水窖"工程使女性得以平等获得水资源,促进女性身心健康水平进一步提高,使女性参与社会发展成为可能.

  10. Study on Pretreatment Technology and Method Research of Cellar Rainwater in Villages and Towns of Northwestern China%西北村镇集雨窖水前处理技术与方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 张国珍; 武福平; 尹振珑

    2014-01-01

    Traditional rural rainwater collection and utilization on rain water collection,compared to the safe han-dling of not doing enough to rain water rainwater collection,pretreatment equipment including net crude water slow-ly into system device,hydraulic cyclone desander;treatment structures with a labyrinth sedimentation tank;ecolog-ical treatment facilities have artificial ecosystems;slow-release sterilization emerging technology,provides a new way for rainwater treatment.The water quality of different water pretreatment were to improve rainwater for the pur-pose,through the experimental results,explores their respective advantages and disadvantages and application scope.Traditional rural rainwater collection and utilization on rain water collection,compared to the safe handling of not doing enough to rain water rainwater collection,pretreatment equipment including net crude water slowly into system device,hydraulic cyclone desander;treatment structures with a labyrinth sedimentation tank;ecological treatment facilities have artificial ecosystems;slow-release sterilization emerging technology,provides a new way for rainwater treatment.The water quality of different water pretreatment were to improve rainwater for the purpose, through the experimental results,explores their respective advantages and disadvantages and application scope.%在西北干旱和半干旱地区,传统的农村雨水利用注重的是收集的雨水水量,相比较对雨水水质的安全处理做的不够。集雨窖水作为生活饮用水,对当地居民健康损害严重,对其相应的前处理是后续深度处理开展的关键。集雨窖水前处理装置设备包括粗慢虑系统净水装置、水利旋流除砂器;处理构筑物有迷宫沉淀池;生态处理设施有人工生态系统;新兴的缓释消毒技术应用前景广阔。集雨窖水的前处理有效的降低了深度处理的难度,并节约了窖水的处理成本。

  11. As arquitecturas do vinho de um porto monofuncional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Abrunhosa Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a study of the Gaia trading centre, based on the importance of the Port Wine cellars in shaping the urban zone of the riverside area. The research focuses on the different types of cellars and their potential use for other activities, thus maintaining the identity of the area. Cellars could and should continue as structures dedicated to wine, but with different functions, since they are a part of an centuries-old port that is no longer monofunctional nor can it be so in the future.

  12. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Tobias; Grabolle, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875) were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  13. 78 FR 53503 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...), Formulas Online (FONL), and COLAs (Generic). Abstract: In an ongoing effort to improve customer service... coverage for adjacent wine cellars. The bond may be secured through a surety company or it may be...

  14. The role of spinal gap junction cellar communication in rat model with diabetic neuropathy pain%脊髓缝隙连接细胞间通讯在糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛维持中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟成; 李晓芸; 张文璇; 廖美娟; 杨承祥; 罗刚健

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价脊髓缝隙连接细胞间通讯在糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛维持中的作用.方法:雄性SD大鼠,2个月龄,体重180 ~ 220 g,采用腹腔注射1%链脲佐菌素(STZ)方法制备糖尿病模型,注射STZ后48 h血糖>16.7 mmol/L的大鼠作为糖尿病大鼠.采用随机数字表法将16只糖尿病大鼠分为糖尿病组(D组)和甘珀酸治疗组(G组),每组8只,另取8只同月龄的雄性SD大鼠为正常对照组(C组).G组于注射STZ后28 d鞘内注射缝隙连接阻滞剂甘珀酸25 μg,1次/d,连续7d;而D组大鼠则鞘内注射相同容量的甘珀酸溶剂.分别于注射STZ前(T1)、注射STZ后7、14、21、28、35 d时(T2~ T6)测定机械缩足反应阈(PWT).于T6时处死大鼠,取腰段脊髓组织检测Cx43的表达.结果:与C组比较,D组、G组T4~T6时PWT降低(P<0.05),T6时脊髓Cx43的表达增加(P<0.05);与D组比较,G组T1~T5时PWT无显著变化(P>0.05),T6时PWT升高(P<0.05),脊髓Cx43的表达减少(P<0.05).结论:脊髓缝隙连接细胞间通讯可能参与糖尿病大鼠神经病理性痛的维持.

  15. Marketingová strategie vinného sklepu

    OpenAIRE

    Habartová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis Marketing strategy of wine cellar will introduce strategic mareting and service marketing in theoretical part. Furthermore, in the theoretical part, I write about the segmentation, targeting and positioning. The practical part is devoted to the story of wine cellar, statistical data about wine and competition analysis. The most part of the practical part deals with questionnaire. The results of this investigation should be useful to the proper market segmentation, targeting and...

  16. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Baita radon-prone area (Romania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucos, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dicu, Tiberius, E-mail: tiberius.dicu@ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Nita, Dan; Burghele, Bety [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Sainz, Carlos [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n., 39011, Santander (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Baita radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Baita, Nucet, Finate, and Cimpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was found to be 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}, which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m{sup -3}, computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, p < 0.001, n = 82). For houses built during 1960-1970 an increasing trend for radon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p > 0.05). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings was clearly evidenced

  17. 40 CFR 401.11 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., radioactive materials, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal..., gas or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil or gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well, used either...

  18. Essai d'une table non-vibrante par enregistrement du mouvement brownien d'un galvanomètre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, P.B.; Jansen, M.T.

    1951-01-01

    Attempts to attain the natural limit of the sensitivity of a galvanometer, viz. the Brownian movement, have at first been unsuccessful in our institute. Neither a heavy slab of stone attached to an outer wall, nor a masonry of 1800 kg in the cellar embedded in a layer of sand 10 cm thick gave our th

  19. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  20. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875 were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  1. Holocnemus pluchei (Araneae, Pholcidae in Getränke- und Baumärkten in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiser, Nils

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some colonies of spiders belonging to the Mediterranean cellar spider Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763, were found in both beverage and do-it-yourself stores in Germany. Among these are the first records of H. pluchei in Berlin, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

  2. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  3. 27 CFR 28.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Regulations (19 CFR chapter I). Customs officer. Any officer of the Customs Service or any... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR part 28, Exportation of Alcohol. Beer. Beer, ale, porter, stout, and other... authorized to be conducted. Bonded wine cellar. Premises established under part 24 of this chapter for...

  4. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  5. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in...

  6. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  7. AUGUSTO'S SUNDIAL: IMAGE-BASED MODELING FOR REVERSE ENGENEERING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baiocchi

    2017-02-01

    The site is a portion of the dial plate of the “Horologium Augusti” inaugurated in 9 B.C.E. in the area of Campo Marzio and still present intact in the same position, in a cellar of a building in Rome, around 7 meter below the present ground level.

  8. 张格爱斐堡国际酒庄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Beijing Chateau Changyu AFIP Global is a European-style resort located in Miyun County of Beijing. Here await leafy avenues of Chinar trees, vineyards for grape picking, a Gothic castle, European-style town, extensive wine cellars, the Changyu History Museum and a scenic leisure area where visitors can drink their fill of wine culture, while relaxing close to nature.

  9. 北京张裕爱斐堡国际酒庄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Beijing Chateau Changyu AFIP Global is a European-style resort located in Miyun County of Beijing. Here await leafy avenues of Chinar trees, vineyards for grape picking, a Gothic castle, European-style town, extensive wine cellars, the Changyu History Museum and a scenic leisure area where visitors can drink their fill of wine culture, while relaxing close to nature.

  10. Radon - environmental pollutant from underground. Radon - Umweltgift aus dem Erdreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertreis, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radon is responsible for about 50% of the natural radiation load of 200 mrem/a in the Federal Republic of Germany. This implies that approximately 190.000 households with about 600.000 citizens of the Federal Republic face an increased risk of lung cancer. Hints are given as to the reduction of radon values in cellars and living rooms. (DG).

  11. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  12. THE LEAN SIX SIGMAAPPROACH FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN A HIGH QUALITY TUSCANY WINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of a Lean Six Sigma (LSS project to a winemaking process in a high-quality, Italian winery. LSS is used to focus on the problem through a quantitative analysis of waste and quality performances. The LSS basic algorithm (called “DMAIC” helps to detect and quantify critical aspects of the process for transferring liquid used in the cellar. The improvement solution is developed and applied through the modification of the cellar system and the process procedure. The results obtained with this solution are shown and discussed in this paper, so too the long term reliability of the improved process analyzed. The results obtained by this case study can help to understand the importance of the LSS method to drive the improvement of agricultural and agrofood productions also in terms of environmental impact which is strongly connected to waste reduction.

  13. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  14. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine...... to produce unpalatable mouldy and musty tastes. The test was first conducted in a climate chamber. The plasma air purifier was installed in a test rig developed for the testing and challenged by airflow with certain concentrations of TCA and TBA. Air samples upstream and downstream of the air purifier...... was collected by Tenax tubes and the concentration of TCA and TBA were analyzed by thermal desorption GC–MS. The results showed that the plasma air purifier was effective on removing TCA and TBA with a single pass efficiency of better than 82%. The effect was further validated in a wine cellar under a realistic...

  15. Vapor Intrusion from Entrapped NAPL Sources and Groundwater Plumes: Process Understanding and Improved Modeling Tools for Pathway Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    floor parameters Gas advection and diffusion, first order decay, 1-phase flow, energy equation Simulated radon transport into a basement with a...Journal 2: 222 -230. Pennell, K. G., O. Bozkurt, et al. (2009). "Development and application of a three-dimensional finite element vapor intrusion...Hydrol. 126: 167-180. Wang, F. and I. C. Ward (2002). " Radon entry, migration and reduction in houses with cellars." Building and Environment 37

  16. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  17. Heat from the full pipe. Heat distribution in buildings; Hitze aus vollem Rohr. Waermeverteilung im Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, Lutz [Dorsch und Hoffmann GmbH, Erkrath (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieeffizienz

    2011-01-15

    Who does not know that? During the inspection of the building one enters the actually unheated cellar. One already begins with sweating. However, the old boiler is not guilty of the too high temperatures in the basement. Also the armatures and pipes delivering the heat distribution frequently dispense their energy to the environment, long before thermal heat and hot drinking warm water reach their ultimate target position.

  18. History, Historiography and Cultural Management of the Wine-Growing Heritage of Mendoza (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti-Baldín, Graciela; Dirección de Patrimonio Histórico-Cultural. Subsecretaría de Cultura, Gobierno de Mendoza.

    2014-01-01

    landmark, and where grapevine cultivation and wine production have created an authentic culture. One importantsymbolic element is the wine cellar, the place where the wine is produced, which is not an isolated object but part ofa larger system together with the vineyards. This paper deals with the issue of industrial heritage from various perspectives:the historical, characterizing the wineries of each period and analyzing the recent boom in wine tourism;the historiography, introducing repres...

  19. Residual residential space as commons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Research on common pool resources (CPR), which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Resid...

  20. 井口硫化氢气体扩散及检测方法研究%Wellhead Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Diffusion and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴全; 李相方; 李玉军; 徐大融; 马龙; 任美鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对钻井过程中井口溢出的硫化氢气体在大气中扩散且难于检测的问题,建立井口位置流体力学模型.对无风和有风情况下硫化氢的浓度分布进行模拟,并对井口和方井处硫化氢检测方法进行研究.结果表明:无风情况下硫化氢气体容易在方井处积聚,风速对溢出口上部挡板空间硫化氢浓度分布影响很小,对方井处硫化氢浓度影响非常大.针对以上情况,建议在井口处安装倒置放置的扩散武传感器,方井处安装吸入武传感器.从而能更准确检测硫化氢浓度.%Build wellhead position hydrodynamics model , analog the hydrogen sulfide concentration in a condition of no wind or a wind and do researches about testing method of hydrogen sulfide at wellhead and cellar, aimed at hydrogen sulfide spreading and never being easily detected when it spills over from wellhead during drilling wells. It shows that without wind the hydrogen sulfide gas accumulates at the cellar and the speed of wind influents almost nothing on the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen sulfide at the board located in the wellhead and influents much to the hydrogen sulfide concentration at the cellar. Depending on that, a dispersive sensor upside down at the wellhead and a suction sensor at the cellar to test the hydrogen sulfide concentration accurately are suggested place.

  1. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Băiţa radon-prone area (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Dicu, Tiberius; Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Niţă, Dan; Burghele, Bety; Sainz, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Băiţa radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Băiţa, Nucet, Fînaţe, and Cîmpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Băiţa area was found to be 241±178 Bq m(-3), which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m(-3), computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, pradon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p>0.05).

  2. Highly effective technology and technique for extraction of oils from fruit-and-vegetable stones with use of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Gafurov; Adyl Safarov

    2009-01-01

    The oil extraction processes from oil-bearing cultures’ seeds and stones is time and energy-intensive. The study shows that during processing kernels of oil-bearing cultures under influence of electromagnetic field the destruction process of cellar structure is intensified in 7-9 times than in existing moist-heat processing. Moreover, the process runs shorter and under comparatively low temperature regime that reduces the electric power expenses. Using electromagnetic processing of oil-beari...

  3. Preparation and Application of Corn Stalk Silage in High Altitude Areas%高海拔地区玉米秸秆的青贮制作及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德辉; 付照武

    2015-01-01

    介绍了高海拔地区玉米秸秆的青贮方法(包括青贮窖制作、秸秆准备、秸秆入窖及平整压紧、封窖过程4个步骤),出窖时间,秸秆品质的检验(如质地、气味、颜色和pH值等),青贮饲料的饲喂技术,以期为当地玉米等饲草料资源的充分利用和家畜养殖提供参考。%In this paper, the preparation methods of corn stalk silage in high altitude areas, including constraction of silage cellar, preparation of corn stalk, placement of corn stalk into silage cellar, planishing corn stalk silage mound, sealing of silage cellar , terminal time of silage fermentation, test of corn stalk quality (character, odor, color, pH value, etc.) were introduced,and the silage feeding technology were also reviewed, so as to provide references for the full utilization of local corn and other forage resources and domestic animal breeding.

  4. The effect of ripening and storage conditions on the distribution of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine in Edam-cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunková, Leona; Bunka, Frantisek; Mantlová, Gabriela; Cablová, Andrea; Sedlácek, Ivo; Svec, Pavel; Pachlová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) in 4 layers of Dutch-type cheese (Edam-cheese) depending on 3 ripening/storage regimes during a 98-day period. Biogenic amines were analysed by means of ion-exchange chromatography. A further goal was to identify microbial sources of biogenic amines in the material analysed. Phenotype characterization and repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting were used to identify the isolated bacteria. The highest content of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine was determined in cheeses stored in a ripening cellar at a temperature of 10 degrees C during the whole observation period. Lower biogenic amines content was determined in samples which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 38 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). The lowest concentrations of biogenic amines were detected in cheeses which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 23 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). During the 98-day period, histamine was not detected in any of the regimes. Within the cheeses analysed, non-starter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum were detected as the main producers of the biogenic amines tested. In starter bacteria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris the decarboxylase activity tested was not detected.

  5. Bodegas subterráneas excavadas en tierra: Características de los suelos en la Ribera del Duero (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas, I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ground properties have a decisive effect on the interior conditions, as well as the integrity and durability of the underground wine cellars. The main objective of this paper is to determine the characteristics of the soils where these underground wine cellars have been dug. The results show that most of the soils present very similar plasticity and swelling properties. They are either concentrated in a very specific region of the plasticity chart or present zero plasticity. High-plasticity soils are uncommon, owing to the higher risk of swelling leading to stability problems in the wine cellars. In terms of grain size, silts and sands under 0.4 mm predominate, with a somewhat lower presence of clays. No wine cellars were found that had been dug in earth with very high plasticity or where gravels or clean sands predominate. We recommend that any new wine cellars should be excavated in earth with similar characteristics.

    Las propiedades de la tierra influyen de manera decisiva en las condiciones interiores, la integridad y la durabilidad de las bodegas subterráneas. El principal objetivo del presente artículo es determinar las características de los suelos donde se excavan las bodegas subterráneas. Los resultados demuestran que la mayoría de los suelos presentan unas características de plasticidad y expansibilidad muy similares. Se concentran en una región muy concreta de la carta de plasticidad o presentan plasticidad nula. Los suelos con alta plasticidad no son habituales, debido al mayor riesgo de sufrir expansiones y provocar problemas en las bodegas. En cuanto a granulometría predominan los limos y arenas menores de 0,4 mm, con un contenido en arcillas menor. No se han encontrado bodegas excavadas en terrenos con muy alta plasticidad, ni tampoco donde predominen gravas o arenas limpias. Recomendamos que las nuevas bodegas sean excavadas en terrenos de similares características.

  6. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  7. [Results of an investigation of enamel fragments from Benvenuto Cellini's "Saliera" using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A blackmail letter was submitted in the context of the theft of Cellini's salt cellar (Saliera) from the Museum of Fine Arts in Vienna. Dark blue enamel fragments were included in this letter as a proof of authenticity. The comparison of this material with enamel believed to originate from the original artwork, using microspectrography and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in the scanning electron microscope showed similar elemental composition. Accordingly, the further investigations could concentrate on this blackmail attempt in spite of numerous other confession letters received.

  8. Organoleptické defekty vína zpôsobené plesňami

    OpenAIRE

    Peško, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    This thesis dealt with the issue of an impact of mildew on wine quality. It clarifies the negative effects of mold which already occur in vineyard on grape bunches and the rest of the vine bush. It also explains that the mold is not getting into the wine only from mold infected grapes but also during the wine making and wine improving in cellar management. The thesis analyzes the characteristics and impacts of mold secondary metabolites and their wine quality affecting changes. It further des...

  9. Post-mining in Walloon region; L'apres-mine en region wallonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, R. [Liege Univ. (Belgium); Delbeuck, C.; Flamion, B. [Direction Generale des Ressources naturelles et de l' Environnement, Jambes (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    several studies are presently undertaken in the Walloon Region so as to assess the long term environmental impact caused by the shutting down of coal mines and their pumping operations. In many locations, new problems are encountered, such as sudden underground water appearance at hill slopes, coal heaps instability or flooding of underground cellars. Slope instability increase risks. The main goals of the presented studies are to suppress or at least to limit those risks and inconveniences and propose solutions to be implemented in the framework of the existing dewatering facilities built by the Walloon Region and local authorities in mines induced subsidence areas. (authors)

  10. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  11. [Death on a sauna stove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddat, Saskia Sabrina; Tsokos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman noticed a strange smell from the cellar of her house. When she followed the smell, she found her 64-year-old husband with the face and upper part of his body lying on the stove of the private sauna. He was dead when the emergency doctor arrived. The autopsy revealed upper gastrointestinal bleeding from mucosal lesions in the esophagus with an agonal fall on the sauna stove as the cause of death. In addition, there were signs of chronic alcohol and drug abuse.

  12. A Cultural Resources Inventory of the John Martin Reservoir, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-31

    CAU m V 14 0 = ~ C Q( 4) 4)h (1C C LJ 4AO 4J 110 4.0 Go u 0. .C M ) .0 m- 0 1.4 NO LMi ~w vih hiw UC Ca4~CA hiC 4M. 1C hi to. S.0 c- C qJ ( CA qjQ w...interest underground cistern and the possible locations in this property to Elisa Jane Pierce, probably his of a privy and a root cellar. Depressions to

  13. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R. [and others

    1991-12-31

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait`s oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  14. James E.Thompson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ When fresh-faced college graduate James Thompson,an employee of a removals firm for US military personnel stationed in Japan,lost his job in 1964,he emptied his savings account,cashed in his plane ticket back to the US,and started his own company.Thirty-four years on,Thompson's firm,Crown Worldwide,has become one of the world's largest relocation and specialist logistics firms,with offices in more than 50 countries offering a diverse portfolio of services ranging from traditional moving services to fine art transportation and wine cellaring.

  15. VARIATION ANALYSIS OF HPV16 CELL-TYPE-SPECIFIC ENHANCER IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus16type(HPV16)ishighly associated with cervical carcinoma.Sometransfor mation genes in high-risk HPV genomeplayed ani mportant role[1].The E6and E7genes inHPV16can over-express intransfor mepithelial cellsand viral early promoter P97controls the expressionof E6/E7genes.Long control region(LCR)inHPV16genome induces the activity of P97.Thereexits cell-type-specific enhancer(CTSE)in LCRand there are many cellar factors specific bindingsites in CTSE such as NF1,AP1,TEF-2,whichbindspecifically...

  16. 白酒废水厌氧条件优选的实验研究%Liquor wastewater anaerobic conditions optimization of experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煦晴; 贺珍; 邓光天; 向科; 熊诚

    2011-01-01

    对小型酱香型白酒厂的锅底水、窖底水等高浓度有机废水在实验室进行了高温厌氧消化试验,结果表明:在55℃的高温反应条件下,经连续培养,锅底水、窖底水的混合水样比单独的锅底水、窖底水厌氧消化效果好,混合水进水浓度以24 000 mg/L为宜,最佳配比为锅底水:窖底水5∶1、HRT 48 h时COD去除率达最高值90.17%、最佳pH7.0、反应器中VFA的浓度在1 869 mg/L时产气量达峰值,COD浓度可降至2 575 mg/L.参数条件优选试验结果表明:该废水厌氧过程存在着明显的两相阶段,处理工艺以两相厌氧为宜;水解酸化反应器HRT以16 h为宜,厌氧反应器(产甲烷阶段)HRT可控制在32 h.%The pot bottom water、cellar bottom water of sauce sweet model liquor enterprise, high concentration organic waste water treatment of the pot bottom water and cellar bottom water of sauce sweet model liquor enterprise was made in the laboratory at high emperature with anaerobic digestion test. The experimental results show that at the high temperature of 55 ℃ reaction conditions, by continuous training, of pot of water, the mixed water cellar bottom water than is better than single pot of water and bottom water. The mixed water inlet concentration to 24 000 mg/L is perferabhle, Best ratio for pot water: bottom water cellar 5:1, HRT 48 h COD removal would reach peak 90. 17%, best pH7. 0. In reactor in 1 869mg VFA concentration when gas production peaked, COD concentration can be reduced to 2 575 mg/L. Parameters optimization experiment results show that the wastewater anaerobic processes exist obvious two-phase stage, treatment process to two-phase anaerobic preferable; Hydrolysis acidification reactor HRT to 16 h preferable, anaerobic reactors (methanogenesis stage) HRT can be controlled in 32 h.

  17. Archaeological Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    From July to August of 1995 a jointarchaeological team from the InnerMongolian Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute and Japan’sEast Asian Archaeology Research Society unearthed the remains of a primitive human community dating back 6,000 years.This site was discovered at Wangmu Mountain on the southem bank of Daihai Lake in Liangcheng County Inner Mongolia. Within an area of 200 square meters,17 dwelling remains,22 cellars and over 100 pottery,stone and bone articles were unearthed.

  18. Investigation of various structures of DNA molecules (Ⅲ)——Coil-globe transition of λ-DNA induced by cationic surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯喜增; 林璋; 王琛; 白春礼

    1999-01-01

    The structure transition of λ-DNA induced by cationic surfactant cellar media was investigated by using CD, SEM and AFM. The experimental data of CD revealed that λ-DNA can be induced from B-form to a collapsed structure with the addition of the cationic surfactant CTAB to the system. The condensed process of λ-DNA from coil state to small globular state (diameter about 1.25 μm) and finally big globular state (diameter about 5.4 μm) was observed by using SEM and AFM.

  19. AlpArray in Austria and Slovakia: technical realization, site description and noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolínský, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    We report the technical realization and performance of thirty temporary seismic broadband deployments for the AlpArray project in eastern Austria and western Slovakia. Reftek 151 60s sensors and Reftek 130/130S digitizers form the core instrumentation of our seismic stations; these are mostly installed inside abandoned or occasionally used basements or cellars in small buildings or huts. We describe our type of installation and briefly introduce the site conditions for each of the thirty installations. We present a probabilistic power spectral density analysis to assess the noise conditions at all sites and potential relations to the installation design.

  20. Turismo enológico y rutas del vino en Cataluña. Análisis de casos: D.O. Penedès, D.O. Priorat y D.O. Montsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse comparatively three Catalan D.O.: Montsant, Penedès and Priorat. After this three cases we can observe two different types of touristic wine promotion: one of them, emergent and with an interesting projection of future, with small and medium cellars who produces high quality wines; the other example is a known destination in process of establishment and maturation with a strong influence of multinational enterprises. After this two examples we can analyse the state of the art and the problem of the wine tourism in both destinations, trying also to do different re-commendations.

  1. Highly effective technology and technique for extraction of oils from fruit-and-vegetable stones with use of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Gafurov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oil extraction processes from oil-bearing cultures’ seeds and stones is time and energy-intensive. The study shows that during processing kernels of oil-bearing cultures under influence of electromagnetic field the destruction process of cellar structure is intensified in 7-9 times than in existing moist-heat processing. Moreover, the process runs shorter and under comparatively low temperature regime that reduces the electric power expenses. Using electromagnetic processing of oil-bearing kernels provides increase of oil output up to 20-25% as well.

  2. Violent explosion after inadvertent mixing of nitric acid and isopropanol – Review 15 years later finds basic accident data corrupted, no evidence of broad learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Folmer Nielsen, Merete; Hagen Mikkelsen, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    steel tank disintegrated with such force that fragments lodged in walls of concrete. The explosion ravaged the cellar, destroyed equipment, blew out a masonry wall and released large amounts of nitrous oxide fumes. Likely, 62% nitric acid (CAS 7697-37-2) and isopropanol (2-propanol, CAS 67-63-0) reacted...... the brewery to court for negligence, they did not report or investigate the accident, or attempt to disseminate information available to them. Today, the general literature is silent on the explosion hazards of mixing the two chemicals. The paper argues that without institutional support, learning...

  3. Research on the Culture of Manmade Pit Mud by Different Formula%不同配方人工窖泥的培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海峰; 沈才洪; 卢中明; 敖宗华; 李长江; 杨甲平

    2011-01-01

    Manmade pit mud formula was studied with clay soil, ponds mud, top cellar mud, wheat bran, soybean cake powder, apple fermented liquid etc. as raw materials. In manmade pit mud culture period, we had done regular sensory, microbiological and physicochemical analysis of sampling pit mud. The results showed that scientific proportioning of clay soil A2, top cellar mud B2, wheat bran C2, Daqu powder D2, apple fermented liquid E2, composite functional bacteria liquid F2 could produce manmade pit mud with the best quality.%以鲜黄泥、鱼塘泥、窖皮泥、麸皮、大曲粉、苹果发酵液等为原料进行人工窖泥的配方研究。在人工窖泥培养期间,定期对窖泥取样进行感官、微生物及理化研究分析。结果表明,采用鲜黄泥A2、窖皮泥B2、麸皮C2、大曲粉D2、苹果发酵液E2、复合功能菌液F2等进行合理科学配比所生产出的人工窖泥质量最优。

  4. A critical process analysis of wine production to improve cost, quality and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C M; Bauer, F F; Burton, S; Lorenzen, L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Wine production in South Africa is delocalised, with numerous small-to-medium sized producers within several regions within the Western Cape. Whilst adapting to new technological changes, producers have to respond to pressure from consumers and governments regarding the environmental consequences of winemaking, especially water usage and pollution. To date, no systematic analysis integrating the various aspects of winemaking in South Africa has been done. This study assessed both physical inputs and outputs. A detailed questionnaire was developed to broadly assess these parameters and was submitted to all cellars in South Africa. Case studies were performed at three cellars during the 2002 harvest season to validate the questionnaires and collect missing information. Based on this, and a cocurrent project, the following parameters were correlated to the tons of grapes presses per annum: effluent parameters which include chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, quantity of effluent; wine produced, water consumed, and electricity consumed. These parameters were used to develop an input/output model. This model may be used by wineries to predict their water and electrical consumption, wine produced and effluent characteristics provided they know the tonnage of grapes pressed per year.

  5. French Jura flor yeasts: genotype and technological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Claudine; Colin, Anne; Alais, Anne; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2009-03-01

    Fifty-four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from Jura "Vin Jaune" velum and characterized by conventional physiological and molecular tests including ITS RFLP and sequence analysis, karyotyping and inter delta typing. ITS RFLP and sequence revealed a specific group of related strains different from the specific profile of Sherry flor yeast caused by a 24 bp deletion in the ITS1 region described by Esteve-Zarzoso et al. (Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 85:151-158, 2004). Interdelta typing, the most discriminative method, revealed a high diversity of Jura flor yeast strains and gathered strains in clusters unequally shared between the northern and southern part of the Jura vineyard. The assessment of phenotypic diversity among the isolated strains was investigated for three wine metabolites (ethanal, acetic acid, and sotolon) from micro scale velum tests. Except at an early stage of ageing, the production of these metabolites was not correlated to the five genetic groups obtained by interdelta typing, but correlated to the cellar where strains had been isolated. The different strains isolated in a cellar produced mostly one type of velum (thin or thick, grey or white); but thin and grey velums, recognized as responsible for high quality wines, were obtained more frequently for one of the five groups of delta genotypes.

  6. City, architecture and wine: Wine tourism in the contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Douglimar Meireles de

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the growth of activities related to wine tourism is a potent driver of transformations in territories and societies. Wine landscapes of ancestral regions such as La Rioja in Spain, Bordeaux in France or also in the so-called “New World”, such as the Napa Valley in the United States, Mendoza in Argentina and many others around the world, demonstrate a new age where the wine tourism is essential for affecting their economies and leaving a mark in the contemporary society, in which architecture plays a major role to achieve these goals. In Brazil, an emerging country in wine production, the Valley of the Vineyards is one of the most traditional areas of production and it has been through major changes over the past decades. The countless vineyards, wine cellars, tourist establishments and the growing urbanization are redefining the landscape of the region. Using bibliographic revision to explore different perspectives on the theme, this article aims at highlighting the social, cultural and technical implications related to this kind of tourism. Moreover, both positive and negative effects reflect the identity and the characteristics of each area, along with cultural and architectural elements that are disposed in each wine cellar, time and place.

  7. Switching modalities in a sentence verification task: ERP evidence for embodied language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ann Hald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In an ERP experiment using written language materials only, we investigated a potential modulation of the N400 by the Modality Switch Effect. The Modality Switch Effect occurs when a first sentence, describing a fact grounded in one modality, is followed by a second sentence describing a second fact grounded in a different modality. For example, A cellar is dark (visual, was preceded by either another visual property Ham is pink or by a tactile property A mitten is soft. We also investigated whether the Modality Switch Effect occurs for false sentences (A cellar is light. We found that, for true sentences, the ERP at the underlined critical word dark elicited a significantly greater frontal, early N400-like effect (270-370 ms when there was a modality mismatch than when there was a modality match. This pattern was not found for the false sentences. Results similar to the frontal negativity were obtained in a late time window (500-700 ms. The obtained ERP effect is similar to one previously obtained for pictures. We conclude that in this paradigm we obtained fast access to conceptual properties for modality matched pairs, which leads to embodiment effects similar to those previously obtained with pictorial stimuli.

  8. EL COOPERATIVISMO VITIVINíCOLA EN LA UNIóN EUROPEA Y ESPAñA. UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO EN LA DENOMINACIóN DE ORIGEN DE ALICANTE/THE WINE GROWING COOPERATIVISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND SPAIN. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN THE ORIGIN DENOMINATION OF ALICANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo MELIÁN NAVARRO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El cooperativismo vitivinícola es una importante realidad en los países de la Unión Europea, sobre todo en Francia e Italia donde se ubican las principales bodegas cooperativas europeas. En este trabajo se efectúa una caracterización del cooperativismo vitivinícola en la Unión Europea y España, con especial interés en una zona geográfica determinada, la correspondiente a la Denominación de Origen (D.O. Alicante, donde se realiza un estudio exploratorio a nivel de significación y representatividad de las bodegas cooperativas frente al total de empresas vitivinícolas (S.A., S.L. y empresas particulares en las principales magnitudes de producción y comercialización. Por otra parte se presenta un estudio empírico, centrado en un análisis bivariante basado en una encuesta realizada a las bodegas de la D.O. Alicante durante el periodo de marzo a junio de 2007, con la finalidad de conocer el sector desde la perspectiva de la oferta./The wine growing cooperativism is an important fact in the European countries, overall in France and Italy where the main European cooperative wine cellars. In this study a portrayal of cooperativism in the European Union and Spain, with special interest in a concrete geographic area, the one referred to the Origin Denomination of Alicante where a exploratory study in a level of signification and representativeness in the cooperative wine cellars in opposition to the wine growing companies (S.A. and S.L. and private companies in the main magnitudes of production and marketing. On the other hand, an empiric study is presented, focused on a bivariant analysis based on a survey carried out in the wine cellars of the Origin Denomination of Alicante for a period from March to June of 2007, with the aim of knowing the sector from an offer perspective.

  9. Study on Tat Mediated Magnetic Nanoparticles Having Composite Targeting Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; HUANG Jie; ZHAO Ai-jie; KANG Chun-sheng; CHANG Jin; PU Pei-yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new formulation of magnetic nanoparticles coated by a novel polymer matrix-O-Carboxylmethylated Chitosan (O-CMC) as a drug/gene carrier. The O-CMC magnetic nanoparticles were derivatized with a peptide sequence from the HIV-tat protein and transferrin to improve the translocationai property and cellar uptake of the nanoparticles. To evaluate the O-MNPsTat-Tf as a drug carrier, Methotrexate (MTX) was incorporated as a model drug and MTX-Ioaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf with an average diameter of 75 nm were prepared and characterized by TEM, AFM and VSM. The cytotoxicity of MTX-Ioaded OMNPs-Tat-Tf was investigated with C6 cells. The results showed that the MTXloaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf retained significant antitumor toxicity.

  10. A Relaying Incentive Scheme in Multihop Cellular Networks Based on Coalitional Game with Externalities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cuilian; Tian, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative multihop communication can greatly increase network throughput, yet packet forwarding for other nodes involves opportunity and energy cost for relays. Thus one of the pre-requisite problems in the successful implementation of multihop transmission is how to foster cooperation among selfish nodes. Existing researches mainly adopt monetary stimulating. In this manuscript, we propose instead a simple and self-enforcing forwarding incentive scheme free of indirect monetary remunerating for asymmetric (uplink multihop, downlink single-hop) cellar network based on coalitional game theory, which comprises double compensation, namely, Inter- BEA, global stimulating policy allotting resources among relaying coalitions according to group size, and Intra-BEA, local compensating and allocating rule within coalitions. Firstly, given the global allotting policy, we introduce a fair allocation estimating approach which includes remunerating for relaying cost using Myerson value for partition function game, to en...

  11. A framework for the evaluation of winery servicescapes: A New Zealand case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market to attract visitors, wineries are often seeking new means to enhance the visitor experience. However, despite recognition of the importance in the wine tourism literature of the setting in which wine experiences occur there has been little adoption of the servicescape concept from the marketing literature and its adoption as a potential diagnostic tool. The paper utilizes the concept to develop a potential diagnostic tool that may be used by wineries and cellar door venues to evaluate their servicescape attributes. Preliminary results are provided which demonstrate the utility of the servicescape framework but further research is required to test the framework in different culture and design settings.

  12. Youth Delegation of Secours Populaire Francais Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, a 30-member youth delegation of the Secours Populaire Francais (SPF) visited China from August 10 to 18, 2008. Through organizing the Chinese and French young people to watch the Olympic Games together, the visit aimed to enhance understanding and friendship and promote the Olympic spirit. During their visit, the delegation went to Gansu Province to attend the inauguration of the Friendship Water Cellars built with the SPF’s fund, watched Olympic games together with the students coming from the Dongqi Middle School of Hanwang County, Mianzhu City which suffered severe damage in the Sichuan earthquake and the Beijing No. 22 Middle School, and participated in the Chinese and French youth social activities.

  13. La tracciabilità della filiera vitivinicola: dal sistema di cantina alla gestione completa dell’azienda vitivinicola con strumenti GIS-Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Rosadini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nell’ultimo decennio le aziende Agrarie e Vitivinicole in particolare hanno visto aumentare in maniera considerevole le difficoltà di mercato ed al contempo hanno registrato una maturità e sensibilità da parte del consumatore. Questo nuovo contesto ha fatto sì che le esigenze di automazione, informatizzazione e relativa tracciabilità di prodotto sifacessero più pressanti e dettagliate, tanto da richiedere lo sviluppo di veri e propri Sistemi Informativi di Cantina eGIS agrario-vitivinicoli anche partendo da una analisi e un relativo approccio geospaziale delle problematiche presenti.AbstractThe new context of agricultural and wine-devoted farm duringlast decades has brought to the needs of automation, computerizationand traceability of its product, requiring the developmentof real Information Systems as a GIS agrarian wine cellar,starting from an analysis and the approach to the geospatialissues. 

  14. Excavation of the Wine-brewing Workshop Site at Lidu in Jinxian County, Jiangxi%江西进贤县李渡烧酒作坊遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江西省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In July-November 2002, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a rescuing excavation of the wine-brewing workshop site at Lidu Town in Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province. They revealed the vestiges of wells, kitchen ranges, airing houses, wine cellars, distillers, wall-foundations, drainage ditches, pavements, ash-pits and brick pillars. The unearthed objects include stone articles, pottery, porcelain, bamboo and wooden wares, irons and bronzes, mostly wine vessels. The workshop began production in the Yuan period and continued to function in Ming and Qing times. It is early in date, long in duration, rich in remains and distinct in local character among the sites of this type. The discovery provides valuable data for studying the origin and development of ancient Chinese wine-distilling techniques.

  15. Excavation of House-foundation No.6 on the Lantouwopu Site in Dehui City,Jilin%吉林德惠市揽头窝堡遗址六号房址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉林省揽头窝堡遗址考古队

    2003-01-01

    The No. 6 house-foundation on the Lantouwopu site excavated in 1998 is the remains ofa rectangular surface house with warming systems. Inside the room, there are kang heatable beds alongthe western, northern and eastern walls. On the surface they form a single entity, but the interior con-tains two independent flues. The vestiges yielded a great number of objects, including pottery, porcelainand irons. In addition, the white powder discovered on the bottom of the cellar in the house has beenidentified as remains of millet, which must have been an important crop at that time. Judged by the shapeof the house-foundation and the objects unearthed from there, this building was not an ordinary dwelling.In date it belongs to the late Jin period.

  16. Sunken garden: remarkable example of Iranian sustainable architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: sargol2fun@gmail.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.

  17. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Kaama-taguste udmurtide ettekujutused elamu kaitsevaimudest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranus Sadikov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of the Udmurts beyond the River Kaama includes the following supernatural creatures that protect houses and outbuildings: korkakuzjo, or the cottage guardian, gulbech taka - the cottage guardian, who appears in the shape of a ram and lives in the cellar, gidkuzjo - the guardian spirit of cattle-sheds or stables, minchokuzjo - the guardian of the sauna, kuzjõrsi - the long-haired fairy inhabiting the sauna. While korkakuzjo and gidkuzjo could be either good or evil creatures, then gulbech taka, minchokuzjo and kuzjõrsi were utterly malevolent. Besides believing in spirits connected to various buildings the Udmurts beyond the Kaama also believed in the presence of zõrtkuzjo, the guardian spirit of the whole household, which embodied the characteristic features of both the cottage and stable fairy. By nature, zõrtkuzjo was both a benevolent and an evil spirit.

  19. Frei house, Nueziders, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Frei house incorporates an air collector, a rock bed and hollow-core constructions for storage and distribution, leaving a requirement for only 17 kWh/m{sup a} (kWh/m{sup 2} per annum) for auxiliary heat in an average season. The system has minimal technical equipment, simple controls and only one fan. The back-draught dampers are self-operating. Another attribute is the high level of thermal comfort provided by the radiant heat from the hypocausts and murocausts. A wood stove in the cellar can supply hot air to the hypo/ murocausts if required. The larger part of the domestic hot water is solar heated by a heat exchanger in the duct from the air collector. (author)

  20. Developing a multidimensional framework for wine tourist behavior: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alebaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for a better empirical understanding of the multiple factors that drive the demand of wine tourism, this paper serves a twofold objective: first, to test the distinctiveness of motivations for visiting a wine region along with a winery; and secondly, to explore whether geographical distance between tourists׳ place of origin and the wine region can add to the ability of other wine consumer/tourist variables (product involvement; product knowledge; wine tourist identity; past experience to predict specific aspects of wine tourist behavior. In doing so, quantitative survey data were collected from 381 visitors of 12 wineries located in Northern Greece. Results from Principal Component and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analyses indicate that travel distance predicts wine purchasing at the cellar door as well as the motivational factors associated with ׳Socialization׳ and ׳Destination attractiveness׳. Further, the study proposes a conceptual framework for wine tourism motivation.

  1. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for Nero d'Avola wine and evaluation of selected starter implantation in pilot fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Romaniello, Rossana; Siesto, Gabriella; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Massari, Carmela; Poeta, Cinzia; Romano, Patrizia

    2010-11-15

    The present research studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts isolated from Nero d'Avola grapes, collected in different areas of the Sicily region. RAPD-PCR analysis with M13 primer was used for preliminary discrimination among 341 S. cerevisiae isolates. Inoculated fermentations with S. cerevisiae strains, exhibiting different RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, revealed the impact of selected strains on volatile compound concentration. Two selected strains were used in fermentation at cellar level and the restriction analysis of mtDNA on yeast colonies isolated during fermentation was used to control strain implantation. This study represents an important step to establish a collection of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a unique environment, such as Nero d'Avola vineyards. Different starter implantation throughout inoculated fermentation represents an additional character, which might be considered during the selection program for wine starter cultures.

  2. Residual residential space as commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rabinowitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on common pool resources (CPR, which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Residential Space (RRS. Based on findings from three main types of RRS in Israel, the article evaluates some of the mechanisms designed to regulate such space. In line with earlier work on CPR, the article suggests that legal instruments, important as they are for general guidance, do not suffice. To be effective they need to echo popular framings of Residual Residential Space, to be congruent with local sensibilities regarding micro-history, and to concur with expectations stake-holders might have from their own community.

  3. Effects of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Timón, M L; Ventanas, J

    1998-06-01

    Fifty-five hams from Iberian pigs were processed using two different dry-curing techniques, traditional and modern. Salt content, non-protein nitrogen and its fractions (peptide, amino acid and volatile basic nitrogen) from Biceps femoris muscles were quantified. The existence of an overlapping effect of both temperature and salt content on the general non-protein nitrogen production was observed. The most intense proteolytic breakdown took place when higher temperatures were reached during the drying stage. The difference in salt concentration seems to contribute to generating different quantities in the non-protein nitrogen fractions. The inclusion at the end of the cellar stage of a stuffing period would permit increasing the accumulation of free amino acid in high salted hams.

  4. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J

    2001-12-01

    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  5. THE CHOICE OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS DURING THE MATURATION PERIOD OF GRAPES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape growing by everything that it means, in Romania - the high number of the big viticultural unities and their geographical repartition for the whole country, the landscape diversity created into the viticultural unit, the wine cellars and so on – is relevant for the touristic activity. To the most favourable period of the viticultural tourism in Romania, activity that takes place in the same time with the agricultural one corresponds to the maturation phase of the grapes, regardless of the fact that the grapes are forfood or wine, between the end of july and the end of October.Regarding this type of tourism, certain preferences for food grapes, for sorts for wine, tasting of wines, including unruffled and frothy DOC, usually at the level of viticultural center or field, would impede the aleatory choice of the touristic destination and of the period, that is why it is imperative for the tourist to be informed.

  6. 1999 Excavation on the Gejiazhuang Site in Xingtai City,Hebei%河北邢台市葛家庄遗址1999年发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    河北省文物研究所; 吉林大学边疆考古研究中心; 邢台市文物管理处

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of 1999, the Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and other institutions carried out a large-scale excavation in the east of the northern area of the Gejiazhuang site in Xingtai City. The work resulted in the revelation of a great number of ash-pits, cellars, sacrificial pits and tombs, as well as quantities of pottery, stone, bone, antler, shell and bronze objects and oracle bones and shells. The remains discovered can be divided into four phases with six stages: The first phase belongs to the late Longshan culture, and the second, third and fourth, to the pre-dynastic, middle and late Shang cultures respectively. The second and fourth fall into two stages either, but the richest in content is the third phase. The excavation has important academic value to studying the origin of the Shang people, the demarcation between the Xia and the Shang, and the chronology of the Shang's history.

  7. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  8. The vintage effect overcomes the terroir effect: a three year survey on the wine yeast biodiversity in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese, two northern Italian vine-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Fabrizio, Vincenzo; Valdetara, Federica; Faccincani, Monica; Panont, Carlo Alberto; Picozzi, Claudia; Imazio, Serena; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A three year survey on the dominant yeast populations in samples of air, must and wine in different vineyards and cellars of two northern Italian vine-growing territories (six sites in Franciacorta and eight sites in Oltrepò Pavese areas) was carried out. A total of 505 isolates were ascribed to 31 different species by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8SrRNA-ITS2 region and partial sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene. The most commonly found species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (frequency, F' = 58.7%; incidence, I' = 53.5%), Hanseniaspora uvarum (F' = 14.3%; I' = 5.3%), Metschnikowia fructicola (F' = 11.1%; I' = 5.0%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (F' = 10.3%; I' = 3.8%). Among 270 S. cerevisiae new isolates, 156 (57.8%) revealed a different genetic pattern through polymorphism analysis of the interdelta regions by capillary electrophoresis, while 47 isolates (17.4 %) were clones of starter cultures. By considering the Shannon-Wiener index and results of principal component analysis (PCA) analyses, the year of isolation (vintage) proved to be a factor that significantly affected the biodiversity of the yeast species, whereas the geographical site (terroir) was not. Seventy-five per cent of S. cerevisiae isolates gathered in a unique cluster at a similarity level of 82%, while the remaining 25% were separated into minor groups without any evident relationship between δ-PCR profile and territory, year or source of isolation. However, in six cases a similar strain appeared at the harvesting time both in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas, whereas surprisingly no strain was reisolated in the same vineyard or cellar for consecutive years.

  9. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review – including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances – were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all – or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for

  10. Physical and chemical aspects of long-term biodeterioration of some polymers and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, A; Prosychevas, I; Levinskaite, L; Jaskelevicius, B

    2004-08-01

    A biodeterioration study was performed on synthetic polymeric materials including homogenous film made from poly(tetrafluorine ethylene), copolymer film made from tetrafluorine ethylene and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether, vulcanized rubber containing natural caoutchouc, and vulcanized rubber, the main component of which was synthetic butadiene nitrile caoutchouc. The materials were exposed for 12 years to the open air, in mycological containers, and in a cellar in maritime climate conditions: air humidity 72%-90% and seasonal average temperature of 17 degrees C in summer and -2.5 degrees C in winter. The studies of optical and electron microscopy revealed that microorganisms were able to develop not only on the surface of the materials but also to penetrate inside into deeper layers. The fungi that produced the most intensive deterioration in the fluorine polymers and vulcanized rubbers belonged to the Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Oidiodendron and Trichoderma genera. The fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Trichoderma viride produced the most intensive deterioration in the fluorine films, whereas Alternaria tenuissima, Cladosporium herbarum, C. sphaerospermum, and fungi of the Oidiodendron genus were widespread on vulcanized rubbers. Fungi of the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera prevailed on both fluorine films and rubbers exposed in a cellar. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the structures of poly(tetrafluorine ethylene) and the copolymer of tetrafluorine ethylene and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether did not change after the 12-year exposure; only insignificant changes in surface morphology were observed by optical microscopy. Vulcanized rubber made both from natural and from synthetic caoutchouc exposed for the same length of time showed rather evident changes in appearance and structure. X-ray graphical analysis revealed that new crystallization of the caoutchouc and a possible change in

  11. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  12. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in

  13. Study on MRI expression of spinal tuberculosis and brkucellare spondylitis%脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎的MRI表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会峰; 项良碧; 于海龙; 王琪; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To expore the difference between magnetic resonance image ( MRI) expression of spinal tuberculosis and brku-cellare spondylitis. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 10 patients with tuberculous spondylitis and 12 patients with bru-cellar spondylitis from Jan. 2012 to Oct. 2013. All the patients were scanned by MRI, and the expression difference of MRI were compared. Results The vertebral body of spinal tuberculosis was destroyed severely, and it often accompanied by the kyphosis and multiple-level para-vertebral abscess, and even adjacent organs tuberculosis. The vertebral body of brucellar spondylitis was destroyed lightly,and the abscess is often limited. Conclusion We can distinguish spinal tuberculosis and brucellar spondylitis by the typical difference of the expression of MRI.%目的:探索脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎的磁共振( magnetic resonance image,MRI)表现差异。方法回顾性分析我院自2012年1月至2013年10月收治的10例脊柱结核与12例布氏杆菌性脊柱炎患者的临床资料,所有患者均经MRI扫描,对比分析其MRI表现差异。结果脊椎结核椎体破坏严重,常伴有明显的后凸畸形和多节段椎旁脓肿,甚至邻近器官结核。布氏杆菌性脊柱炎椎体破坏较轻,脓肿局限,一般只波及邻近椎体。结论根据典型的MRI的表现差异,可以区分典型的脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎。

  14. Indigenous Georgian wine-associated yeasts and grape cultivars to edit the wine quality in a precision oenology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana eVigentini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32, Hanseniaspora gulliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27 and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11 were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196 were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar and Saperavi (black berry cultivar. Physical (°Brix and microbial analyses (plate counts were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavours, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi

  15. Indigenous Georgian Wine-Associated Yeasts and Grape Cultivars to Edit the Wine Quality in a Precision Oenology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Maghradze, David; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Bonello, Federica; Mezzapelle, Vito; Valdetara, Federica; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27), and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11) were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196) were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar) and Saperavi (black berry cultivar). Physical (°Brix) and microbial analyses (plate counts) were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavors, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate), 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi variety

  16. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  17. Construction of multi-functional delivery system: transferrin mediated tat and drug-loaded magnetic nanoparticles%复合功能传递系统的结构、铁转递蛋白的传递联系和药物载体的磁性颗粒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new formulation of magnetic nanoparticles coated by a novel polymer matrixO-Carboxylmethylated Chitosan (O-CMC) as drug/gene carrier. The O-CMC magnetic nanoparticles were derivatized with a peptide sequence from the HIV-tat protein and transferrin to improve the translocational property and cellar uptake of the nanoparticles. To evaluate the O-MNPs-Tat-Tf as drug carriers, Methotrexate (MTX) was incorporated as a model drug and MTX-loaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf with an average diameter of 75nm were prepared and characterized by TEM, AFM and VSM. The cytotoxicity of MTX-loaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf was investigated with C6 cells. The results showed that the MTX-loaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf retained significant antitumor toxicity; additionally, sustained release of MTX from O-CMC nanoparticles was observed in vitro, suggesting that the O-MNPs-Tat-Tf could be a novel magnetic targeting carrier. We also studied the ability of O-MNPs-Tat-Tf crossing BBB in rats by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  18. Vivienda residencial, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artigas, Francisco

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available This building has two levels, and has the following internal distribution. Ground floor: garage, cellar, service quarters, ironing room, etc. Top floor: living room, dining room, main bedroom, a bedroom with two beds, kitchen, study, etc. Vegetation plays an important role in the aesthetic composition of the external design, as a highly integrated element in the general pattern. The materials employed by the architect are of very fine quality and beauty, and have been chosen with ability and sincerity of purpose.Este edificio, que está desarrollado en dos niveles, presenta la siguiente distribución: En la planta baja: el garaje, bodega, habitaciones del servicio, cuarto de plancha, etc. En la planta superior: la sala de estar, comedor, dormitorio principal, un dormitorio de dos camas, cocina, estudio, etc. En la composición estética de las fachadas juega un papel importante la vegetación, como elemento plenamente integrado en el conjunto. Los materiales empleados, nobles y de gran belleza, lo han sido con acierto y sinceridad notable.

  19. Extension of habitat of female blood-sucking mosquitoes in Solomenskiy district, Kiev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Kilochytska

    2013-09-01

    2010 in Solomyanskyi district with measurement of temperature at the locations of collection. It turned out that the air temperature in the sheds was 2–4 °C lower than outside in the shade, in the basements lower by 4–11 °C, and in the cellars lower by 4–12 °C. Comparison of the temperature in the daytime habitats and number of mosquitoes found there showed a direct relation between the outdoor temperature and the number of mosquitoes in the daytime habitat on the premises. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the number of synanthropic blood-sucking mosquito species to increase owing to the occupation of domestic premises as a daytime habitat by those species of mosquitoes for which this phenomenon was not typical earlier. If global warming and the current trend to increase in summer temperatures persist, this can cause a deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the megalopolis.

  20. Ecology of Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria along Different Winemaking Processes of Tempranillo Red Wine from La Rioja (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía González-Arenzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB during alcoholic fermentation (AF and spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF of Tempranillo wines from four wineries of La Rioja has been studied analyzing the influence of the winemaking method, processing conditions, and geographical origin. Five different LAB species were isolated during AF, while, during MLF, only Oenococcus oeni was detected. Although the clonal diversity of O. oeni strains was moderate, mixed populations were observed, becoming at least one strain with distinct PFGE profile the main responsible for MLF. Neither the winemaking method nor the cellar situation was correlated with the LAB diversity. However, processing conditions influenced the total number of isolates and the percentage of each isolated species and strains. The winemaking method could cause that genotypes found in semicarbonic maceration did not appear in other wineries. Four genotypes of O. oeni were isolated in more than one of the rest wineries. These four together with other dominant strains might be included in a future selection process.

  1. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin. PMID:27708366

  2. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substances, amino groups and phenols are present in wine in large quantity, as they are always present in wine. However it doesn't give the clear answer which substances are present in analyzed samples. The answer to this question can be received only by the method of ionic chromatography. The content of total tannins shows short time of storage in wine cellars so wine wasn't stored long enough, i.e. they are commercial wines made for mass market production and consumption. Although they have less content of total tannin materials of given values, wine taste gives the correlation with other polyphenol materials that only give odour, aroma and 'bouquet' to wine. The relative error of mean value is very low which indicates the reproduction of results and reliability of the method of determination of total tannins in red wine.

  3. Eco-efficiency in the Portuguese wine production sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Andrade, Isabel; Franco, Justina; Bastos, Alexandra; Delgado, Fernando; Costa, Roberto; Pereira, Carlos D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The wine production sector is one of the more important and widely distributed agriculture sectors in Portugal, representing 555972600 liters in 2011 for the entire country (excluding the islands), in 146490 vineyards, representing a wide range of exploration dimension, that cover a total area of 175 773 ha. The wine sector accounts for 526820000€ of exports in 2005, and constitutes a high technology and highly competitive agricultural sector. The wine production systems vary from region to region, reflecting the property systems and the soil and climate conditions. Homogeneous wine production areas are often demarked and constitute a wine region with particular environmental and productive characteristics. Under the ECODEEP project, a set of energy and mass balances are being assessed for various Portuguese wine regions, namely Bairrada, Dão, Távora-Varosa and Alentejo. These wine regions vary in a number of characteristics, such as the use of irrigation, and the cultural practices. This work performs an analysis of yields and the use of energy and productive factors for different size vineyards and cellar processing methodologies for the above mentioned wine regions. The exhaustive survey is the basis for a LCA analysis that allows the comparison of different practices and highlights the more efficient and environmental friendly solutions, that will be presented. We give a particular attention to the comparison of more intensive vineyard conduction with the integrated protection ones.

  4. Wintering Reserve Queens in Mini-Plus and 3-Comb Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siuda Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an effective method of overwintering reserve honey bee queens in two-storey mini-plus mating nuclei and in 3-comb nuclei (frames 36 x 26 cm, Wielkopolski hive. The assay was performed during three wintering seasons (2005 - 2008 parallel at two centers in Poland: the Division of Apiculture at the University of Life Sciences (SGGW in Warsaw, and the Apiculture Division at the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM in Olsztyn. The results showed that 59% of queens overwintered in mini-plus nuclei and 77% in 3-comb nuclei. Among queens in mini-plus nuclei 63% overwintered in bee yard and only 55% in cellar. Within queens in 3-comb nuclei, 62% overwintered in Olsztyn and 91% in Warsaw. The highest survival rate of 93% was observed in Warsaw during the first season. Due to low survival rate, it is not recommended to overwinter the queens in miniplus nuclei.

  5. First-principles study of the structural, elastic,electronic, optical, and vibrational properties of intermetallic Pd2Ga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim A; Koc H; Deligoz E

    2012-01-01

    The structural,elastic,electronic,optical,and vibrational properties of the orthorhombic Pd2Ga compound are investigated using the norm-conserving pseudopotentials within the local density approximation in the frame of density functional theory.The calculated lattice parameters have been compared with the experimental values and found to be in good agreement with these results.The second-order elastic constants and the other relevant quantities,such as the Young's modulus,shear modulus,Poisson's ratio,anisotropy factor,sound velocity,and Debye temperature,have been calculated. It is shown that this compound is mechanically stable after analysing the calculated elastic constants. Furthermore,the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function and the optical constants,such as the optical dielectric constant and the effective number of electrons per unit cell,are calculated and presented.The phonon dispersion curves are derived using the direct method.The present results demonstrate that this compound is dynamically stable.

  6. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the wood-rotting fungi Serpula lacrymans and Coniophora puteana, and from Pinus sylvestris timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Richard J; Jones, Peter R H; Ratcliffe, Norman M; Spencer-Phillips, Peter T N

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by two wood-rotting basidiomycete fungi, Serpula lacrymans (dry rot fungus) and Coniophora puteana (cellar fungus), and the timber of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), were identified. Several volatile collection techniques were employed including dichloromethane solvent extraction, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thermal desorption of VOCs entrained on Tenax GR. In addition, a new method of solid sample injection (SSI) is described which utilises a low injector temperature and an all-glass deactivated injector liner designed to minimise both the formation of pyrolysis products and analyte degradation. All the volatile compounds collected were analysed using electron impact capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on HP-5, HP-Innowax and beta-cyclodextrin columns. SSI and Tenax thermal desorption were found to be the most effective extraction methods. A total of 19 VOCs were observed from S. lacrymans grown on glass slides and pine, 15 from C. puteana grown on glass slides and 12 from P. sylvestris timber. S. lacrymans was found to emit, in low abundance, six unique VOCs, of which 2-methylbutanal was the greatest. The major volatile compound emitted by S. lacrymans was 1-octen-3-ol, which was also found in lower abundance from C. puteana. Six VOCs, including diethylene glycol and 4-methyl methylbenzoate, were found to be unique to C. puteana, all in medium abundance: From P. sylvestris, the major volatiles identified were S-alpha-pinene and 3-carene.

  7. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  8. Locating Intermediality: Socialization by Communication and Consumption in the Popular Cultural Third Places of the Music Club and Football Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on two different case studies in the realm of popular culture, my contribu-tion will clarify the mechanisms involved in the (symbolic production and con-sumption of space. The music club and the soccer stadium function much in the same way, as interfaces between producers and consumers of places, prompting "pro-sumption of space" (Raumprosumenten. A loss of function in such "third places" cannot be linked to the transition from informal cellar clubs to (soberly designed regional discos outside the city - or from the national-league stadium to the World Cup arena (also outside the city. Nor can it be attributed to the me-diatization of these spaces by technology. On the contrary, we find an exponentia-tion of what third places had always already been, spaces of "intermediality" (be-tween work and leisure, between seriousness and play, between young people and adults. In the World Cup stadium, unique events, experiences and communicative propensities are produced in a highly consistent manner by means of communica-tion on different levels in series. In such cases, the spectators in the stadium, just like visitors to music clubs, rarely behave as passive consumers of what is staged, yet both groups contribute by their presence and symbolic activity to the success of such productions in the stadium and the club.

  9. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  10. Shang Period Site and Tombs at Daxinzhuang in Jinan City%济南市大辛庄商代居址与墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山东大学东方考古研究中心; 山东省文物考古研究所; 济南市考古研究所

    2004-01-01

    In March to June 2003, Shandong University, the Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology curried out an excavation on the Daxinzhuang site. The work brought about following results. (1) Four inscribed oracle bones of the Shang period were unearthed. (2) Three Shang cemeteries with 37 tombs were found to be of the middle Shang and the middle and late Shang respectively. (3) House-foundations, cellars and ash-pits were revealed along with a great number of objects. The other finds include quantities of faunal, floral and soil specimens. The excavation provided extremely important data for restudying the nature of the site, researching the Shang Dynasty relationship with the eastern land, and studying political system and social organization in the Shang period. The unearthed oracle-bone inscriptions will exert active influence upon studies of oracle-bones, archaeology of the Shang period, and research on the history of Shang Dynasty. The discovered natural specimens furnished valuable material for investigating then ecological environments, people's diet composition and the cultural meaning of faunal and floral remains.

  11. 兰州市农村生活用水的水化学特征分析%Analysis of hydrochemical characteristics of domestic water in rural areas of Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银萍; 罗永清; 陶玲; 李玉强

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of major ions, salinity, total hardness, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in domestic waters (cellar,well, spring, river, pool, tap waters) in rural areas of Lanzhou City were measured and compared with the background of Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water (GB5749-2006).Based on the results, domestic water salinity in rural areas of Lanzhou City was in the range of 0.14~2.72 g · L-l, with an average of 0.76±0.63 g · L-1.Significant differences were noted among the different domestic water types, with an order of decreasing salinity as follows: well water > spring water > pool water > tap water > river water > cellar water.Average total hardness of the waters was 397.06±307.13 mg · L-1, with also a decreasing order as follows: well water > river water > tap water > spring water > cellar water > pool water.With the exception of pool water, all the water samples had higher hardness than the background standards for drinking water.Ion concentrations, except potassium, were significant different in the water types.Well water had the highest ion concentration.Some well water samples had extreme concentrations of NO3--N, sulphate and chloride, far in excess of the background standards.But the average for all samples was lower than the standard.Significant differences (at P<0.05) also existed in EC and pH among different water types.The following hydrochemical types were noted for different water types: HCO3-Cl-Ca-Mg for well water, HCO3-Cl-Ca for spring water, HCO3-Cl-SO4-Ca-Na for pool water, and HCO3-Ca-Mg for cellar, river and tap waters.%结合国家饮用水卫生标准(GB5749-2006),对兰州市不同类型农村生活用水(水窖水,井水、泉水、河水、水库水及自来水等)的主要阴阳离子,矿化度、总硬度、pH、电导率等指标进行了测定和分析.结果表明:各类水体矿化度为0.14~2.72 g·L-1,平均矿化度为0.76±0.63 g·L-1,不同水体存在显著差异性,其大小

  12. Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The area offshore of New York City has been used for the disposal of dredged material for over a century. The area has also been used for the disposal of other materials such as acid waste, industrial waste, municipal sewage sludge, cellar dirt, and wood. Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (MDS), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of dredged material annually. In September 1997 the MDS was closed as a disposal site, and it and the surrounding area were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, currently is being remediated by placing a minimum 1-m-thick cap of clean dredged material on top of the surficial sediments that are contaminated from previous disposal of dredged and other materials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to map the sea floor geology of the HARS and changes in the characteristics of the surficial sediments over time.

  13. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  14. “Temperate and Nearly Cloudless”: The 9/11 Commission Report as Postmodern Pastiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Nadel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available “Tuesday, September 11, 2001 dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States”. Thus begins Chapter One of the 9/11 Commission Report, a chapter that bears the title, “‘We have Some Planes’”. As with all good pop fiction, the reader awaits to see what this quote means, although we know already that it will mark a crucial moment, one that renders the innocuous urgent, or gives meaning to a startling chaos of coincidence. Pop culture has taught us the formula well: Everything looks fine; high school kids sip pop and dance in front of the juke box; Ole Doc Jones is mowin’ the lawn while Mrs. Jones makes lemonade. BUT strange noises have been heard in the cellar; no one can find the cat; Mr. Grundy insists he saw flashing lights last night, but no one believes him because Mrs. Grundy says he’s been acting strange ever since she flushed his Viagra; mysteriously, all the clocks in Indianapolis have started running fast or slow by exactly 24 hours. Then we hear the message on the police radio: “we’ve got some planes…as large as football fields hovering over every Wall-Mart in the nation”. At last someone will believe the geeky newspaper boy and his big brother’s girlfriend, who knew all along he was on to something. Let’s hope it’s not too late.

  15. Radiological risk from thoron, a case study: The particularly radon-prone area of Bolsena, and the lesson learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, G.; Capaccioni, B.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Mostacci, D.; Perghem, A.; Tositti, L.

    2015-11-01

    The contribution of 220Rn is usually negligible compared to that of 222Rn: its very short half-life makes escape from its source site within the rock very unlikely and it never has time enough to filtrate through the ground and through cracks in the floors or cellar walls to reach living quarters. This however becomes untrue if walls built with 232Th-rich materials are present: then sizeable amounts of thoron may be detected in the closed areas bounded by those walls. This is the case for many dwellings in central Italy, and the town of Bolsena (northern Latium) is presented as a case study. A typical building of the area, entirely constructed with tuff blocks, is investigated and the annual dose rates calculated for varying distances from the wall. Thoron concentration was found to decrease with a relaxation length of 13 cm. Thoron was found to pose a significant risk. The rate of air exchange was found to produce little effect. Wall plastering acts as a filter: thoron diffuses through it but a HVL of less than 1 cm was found to prevail.

  16. AUGUSTO'S Sundial: Image-Based Modeling for Reverse Engeneering Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, V.; Barbarella, M.; Del Pizzo, S.; Giannone, F.; Troisi, S.; Piccaro, C.; Marcantonio, D.

    2017-02-01

    A photogrammetric survey of a unique archaeological site is reported in this paper. The survey was performed using both a panoramic image-based solution and by classical procedure. The panoramic image-based solution was carried out employing a commercial solution: the Trimble V10 Imaging Rover (IR). Such instrument is an integrated cameras system that captures 360 degrees digital panoramas, composed of 12 images, with a single push. The direct comparison of the point clouds obtained with traditional photogrammetric procedure and V10 stations, using the same GCP coordinates has been carried out in Cloud Compare, open source software that can provide the comparison between two point clouds supplied by all the main statistical data. The site is a portion of the dial plate of the "Horologium Augusti" inaugurated in 9 B.C.E. in the area of Campo Marzio and still present intact in the same position, in a cellar of a building in Rome, around 7 meter below the present ground level.

  17. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  18. Yeast population dynamics in spontaneous fermentations: comparison between two different wine-producing areas over a period of three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, M J; Rozès, N; Poblet, M; Guillamón, J M; Mas, A

    2001-09-01

    Yeast ecology, biogeography and biodiversity are important and interesting topics of research. The population dynamics of yeasts in several cellars of two Spanish wine-producing regions was analysed for three consecutive years (1996 to 1998). No yeast starter cultures had been used in these wineries which therefore provided an ideal winemaking environment to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenous yeast populations. Non-Saccharomyces yeast species were identified by RFLPs of their rDNA, while Saccharomyces species and strains were identified by RFLPs of their mtDNA. This study confirmed the findings of other reports that non-Saccharomyces species were limited to the early stages of fermentation whilst Saccharomyces dominated towards the end of the alcoholic fermentation. However, significant differences were found with previous studies, such as the survival of non-Saccharomyces species in stages with high alcohol content and a large variability of Saccharomyces strains (a total of 112, all of them identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with no clear predominance of any strain throughout all the fermentation, probably related to the absence of killer phenotype and lack of previous inoculation with commercial strains.

  19. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham.

  20. E-commerce et vente de vin en ligne: l’approche stratégique d’une petite entreprise (Strategic Analysis Of A Small Wine E-business Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P-C Pupion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine and spirit e-business is currently one of the most growing and competitive industries in France. In this study, we analyze the competitiv e model of wine e-business, through Porter’s competitive forces. We propose to highlight on strategic groups that interact within this industry in order to explain the strength and the aggressiveness of the competition within online wine’s business. We aim hereby to understand if and how small businesses take market shares in this particular business. Resource based view theory will be widely used to analyze key resources and competencies that are mandatory for a small company to get success in the wine industry. Based on a wine cellar case study, and its online website, this study demonstrates how important competencies valuation and value creation to customers are as part of a wine e- business strategy (build online catalog, design the web interface with value added for users/visitors, choose the most appropriate web infrastructure, redirect traffic to the website and convert visitors into customers, manage cu stomers relationship and loyalty, select an appropriate supply chain infrastructure.... By using Resource Based View theory we demonstrate that value offer is a core com ponent of the wine e-business model which is continuously moving alongside with the company and its website’s life cycle

  1. Escuela técnica superior de arquitectura de Pamplona/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echaide, Rafael

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available With the object of fomenting to the maximum the participation of the professors and pupils of the School of Architecture of Pamplona, there has been constructed a complex of very diaphonous spaces around an interior street, which is well illuminated and extremely built-up. The building, which has a built surface of 8,867 m2, without taking into account the cellars for installations, is equipped with a light cover of metal plate, supported by a tri-dimensional structure.Con el fin de fomentar al máximo la convivencia y la participación de los profesores y alumnos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Pamplona, se ha construido un conjunto de espacios muy diáfanos ordenados alrededor de una calle interior muy luminosa y con abundante edificación. El edificio, que alcanza una superficie construida total de 8.867 m2, sin contar los sótanos para instalaciones, dispone de cubierta ligera de chapa metálica, soportada por una estructura tridimensional

  2. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  3. Spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular simulation studies on the interaction of catalase with copper ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Jing, Mingyang; Zhao, Xingchen; Liu, Rutao

    2015-02-01

    In this research, the binding mechanism of Cu(2+) to bovine liver catalase (BLC) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking methods. The cellar experiment was firstly carried out to investigate the inhibition effect of catalase. During the fluorescence quenching study, after correcting the inner filter effect (IFE), the fluorescence of BLC was found to be quenched by Cu(2+). The quenching mechanism was determined by fluorescence lifetime measurement, and was confirmed to be the dynamic mode. The secondary structure content of BLC was changed by the addition of Cu(2+), as revealed by UV-vis absorption and CD spectra, which further induces the decrease in BLC activity. Molecular simulation study indicates that Cu(2+) is located between two β-sheets and two random coils of BLC near to the heme group, and interacts with His 74 and Ser 113 residues near a hydrophilic area. The decrease of α-helix and the binding of His 74 are considered to be the major reason for the inhibition of BLC activity caused by Cu(2+). The ITC results indicate that the binding stoichiometry of Cu(2+) to catalase is 11.4. Moreover, the binding of Cu(2+) to BLC destroyed H-bonds, which was confirmed by the CD result.

  4. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  5. 基于应变片的电子秤实验系统设计%Strain-Gauge-based Electronic Scale Experimental System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛东旭; 杜政道

    2014-01-01

    A strain-gauge-based electronic scale experimental system is introduced which is composed of sensor detecting circuit,signal amplifying and conditioning, signal converting and MCU with a LCD displaying modules.The aim of this design is to practice the project-oriented teaching section of strain-gauge sensor.The system is set into several modules with I/Os to enhance the practicing and understanding. The steps and key points to work out a weighting sensor with strain-gauges and load cellare emphasized.%本文介绍了一款基于应变片的数字显示电子秤实验系统的设计和制作,系统由传感器检测电路、检测信号放大电路、检测信号转换电路和显示电路组成。该设计是为了配合传感器相关教学来进行的,注重系统的模块化和输入输出的相对独立性。文中重点介绍了应变片传感器的制作过程和要点,以及针对应变片传感器的电路调试的步骤和要领。

  6. The imagination of touch: surrealist tactility in the films of Jan Švankmajer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Noheden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical examination of tactility in the Czech surrealist filmmaker Jan Švankmajer's film Down to the Cellar (1983. Švankmajer's deployment of tactile images in a surrealist context shows the need for a discussion of the imagination's role in the embodied film experience. Departing from Laura Marks's The Skin of the Film, this article seeks to explore the surrealist embodied imagination through surrealist poetics of analogy, as defined by André Breton, and the link between these and Walter Benjamin's writings on mimesis. Finally, the film is viewed from the perspective of Gaston Bachelard's ideas of “the imagination of matter,” where matter is seen as a highly potent stimulant for the imagination. Bachelard's notion of the imagination's multisensory properties further lends credence to Švankmajer's aims to liberate the imagination of the spectator through images that invoke touch. Kristoffer Noheden is a PhD candidate in cinema studies at the Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University. In his dissertation, he examines surrealism's attempts to create a new, re-enchanting myth with a focus on its expressions in surrealist cinema. He is the co-editor, with Daniel Brodén, of the anthology I gränslandet: Nya perspektiv på film och modernism (Gidlunds, 2013. He is also the translator into Swedish of books by William S. Burroughs, Leonora Carrington, Max Ernst, and others, and co-runs the surrealist-oriented publishing house Sphinx.

  7. ENOTOURISM: A NICHE TENDENCY WITHIN THE TOURISM MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BIBICIOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at establishing the required actions to be taken so as to improve perception on Romanian wine and vine tourism. In the Romanian wine and vine field, the main changes over the last ten years have been the modernization of wineries by maintaining the valuable local grape varieties and replanting soil with resistant and productive varieties, introducing new technologies in wine production processes and local producers’ relocation on the market. Besides all these, technical and material facilities were developed by rehabilitating, modernizing and opening of numerous wine cellars, constructing modern accommodation units within or close to vine areas and implementing marketing programmes aimed at promoting vine areas. The tendencies of hospitality industry corroborated with the change of interest and the perceptions of the tourism products consumers make us reach the following conclusion: enotourism has to be adapted to the innovative market spirit, an efficacious brand strategy has to be defined for the final goal of attracting as many consumers as possible. Eenotourism is that form of tourism which offers great local development opportunities to vineyards areas. To conclude, the study will describe the market features and tendencies, based on a large range of resources and it will present ideas connected to the tourism management and economic policies that may positively or negatively influence this field.

  8. A wireless and portable electronic nose to differentiate musts of different ripeness degree and grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-04-13

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry-The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties-Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  9. The 'experimental stable' of the BCG vaccine: safety, efficacy, proof, and standards, 1921-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2005-12-01

    The anti-tuberculosis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine was conceived and developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes in France. Between 1921 and A. Calmette's death in 1933, the vaccine went through a first period of national and international production and distribution for its use in humans. In France these activities were exclusively carried out by Calmette and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Initially improvised production in a small room in the cellar gave way in 1931 to the construction of the spacious and magnificent 'New laboratories for research on tuberculosis and the preparation of the BCG' within the premises of the Pasteur Institute. Presentation and image-building of the vaccine in France insisted on the fact that the BCG was not a commercial specialty but distributed free of charge. The technical monopoly of its production nevertheless lay with the Paris Pasteur Institute and standardization of scientific proof of safety, efficacy and stability was dominated by that Institute in France. In contrast, the international production and distribution of the vaccine was entrusted and transferred, free of charge, to trustworthy laboratories outside France. Multiplication of producers and users led to an increased need for standardization. For this process the analysis distinguishes between the standardization of scientific proof concerning safety, efficacy and stability of the vaccine and standardization of its medical uses. Whereas standardization was rather successful in the inter-war period in France, the international efforts remained rather unsuccessful. Only after world war II under Scandinavian leadership and in the context of mass vaccination programs supported by the WHO and UNICEF was the international standardization effectively implemented and succeeded at least to some extend.

  10. A low pressure gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) system for rainwater recycling: Flux stabilization and removal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, An; Wang, Jinlong; Lin, Dachao; Tang, Xiaobin; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Hui; Bai, Langming; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2017-04-01

    Rainwater is a nature resource, which can be widely used for non-potable and potable applications in water scared countries after appropriate treatment. Gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) process is a promising technology for decentralized rainwater treatment due to no backwashing, flushing and chemical cleaning. In this study, we established a single lab-scale GDM system for the stored rainwater (simulative cellar rainwater) treatment with two months operation, and a stored tap water was used as a compared system to evaluate the permeability and organics removal performance. Results showed that GDM exhibited a good performance for bacteria and turbidity removals, but the removal performance of DOC was undesirable due to the low rejection of low molecular-weight fulvic. Additionally, the permeate flux reached stable with the value of 6-6.5 L/m(2)h during 60 days operation in the rainwater system, however, the tap water system stabilized only at 4 L/m(2)h. Hydraulically reversible resistance accounted for large proportions (90%) of the total resistance, which indicated that the flux could be recovered by simple physical flushing. The bio-fouling layer adhered on the membrane surface was characterized at the end of the filtration experiment. Higher bio-activity with lower EPS (polysaccharides and proteins) contents of the fouling layer were found in the rainwater system compared with the control system, which was the main reason for the higher flux. These results show that rainwater can be treated in a single GDM process with low maintenance, which makes the process suitable for decentralized water supply.

  11. A critical test of organic P-N photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G.R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We present an urgent view of the field of organic solid state photovoltaic cells. This is a proper time to select the most promising materials from the Electrophotographic Industry, materials long tried in terms of stability, high quantum yield of charge carriers, but set apart by unusually high quantum yields at low applied fields. Our experience with the candidate dyes has covered new tests for identifiable impurities and removal of these impurities by verifiable methods. A new method of purification, reactive train sublimation, has been developed for DNT, one of the simplest of the outstanding perylene dyes, and the method seems applicable to some of the other promising perylene derivatives. It removes the offending impurity by converting it into the desired pure product. The role of water of hydration in the {open_quotes}wine cellar effect{close_quotes}, the slowly rising performance of newly made phthalocyanine containing cells has been analyzed. Under the concept of feasibility testing before a final refinement for practicality of materials and production methods, the hydration can be controlled for high level testing. At the same time, efforts go forward to eliminate the need. At least one of the best phthalocyanine components, X-H{sub 2}Pc, does not require water for peak performance. Finally, we have attacked BBIP (bis-benzimidazole perylene) one of the best and most enigmatic of the near infrared sensors. It has long been known and used as a mixture of synthetic isomers, and we hypothesize that either of these would be better than the uncontrolled mixture. A partial success in the form of isolating highly enriched crystals for an X-ray structure of the trans-molecule, is first presented here. A simple optical analysis method has been developed to follow enrichment procedures. For all of its difficult history, this material seems closest to a state of readiness for critical feasibility testing.

  12. C-Streams. Material and energy flows of non-energy use throughout the life cycle, and CO{sub 2} abatement by products of the chemical industry - Current situation and perspectives. Vol. 2. The use of plastic foams for thermal insulation of buildings and the resulting effects on energy demand and carbon dioxide emission; C-STROeME. Material- und Energiestroeme des nichtenergetischen Verbrauchs ueber den Lebenszyklus und CO{sub 2}-Minderung durch Produkte der Chemischen Industrie - Stand und Perspektiven. Bd. 2. Einfluss des Einsatzes von Kunststoffen auf den Energiebedarf und die energiebedingten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen im Bereich der Waermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Reichert, J.

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the net balances with regard to energy and CO{sub 2} for plastic foams used in thermal insulation. To this end, the energy demand required to produce the foams is determined first of all, and a calculation is then made of the amount of energy saved through the reduction in heat demand. By calculating the difference between these two totals the net balance is established. By analogy, the net CO{sub 2} emissions are also determined. All calculations are based on the total annual sales volumes in Germany of polyurethane foam (PUR), expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) and polystyrene extruder foam (XPS). Data published by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME) are used to calculate the energy needed to manufacture these foams. To determine the amount of energy saved by using these insulating materials, the sales volumes in cubic metres (m{sup 3}) are first of all converted to square metres (m{sup 2}) based on the average insulation thicknesses as published in the literature. Subsequently, the various insulation materials are allocated first of all to different types of buildings and then to a specific application, i.e. walls, roof or cellar. By using average values for heat conduction (both with and without insulation) a calculation is finally made of the energy saving and reduction in emissions of CO{sub 2} that have been achieved from applying the foams. Because of their historical relevance in environmental policy, the use of CFCs as foaming agents has also been taken into account in this study. (orig.)

  13. Multi-scale volumetric cell and tissue imaging based on optical projection tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Cho, Nam Hyun; Ryu, Yongjae; Jung, Sunwoo; Vavilin, Andrey; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu

    2016-04-01

    Optical projection tomography is a new optical imaging method for visualizing small biological specimens in three dimension. The most important advantage of OPT is to fill the gap between MRI and confocal microscope for the specimen having the range of 1-10 mm. Thus, it has been mainly used for whole-mount small animals and developmental study since this imaging modality was developed. The ability of OPT delivering anatomical and functional information of relatively large tissue in 3D has made it a promising platform in biomedical research. Recently, the potential of OPT spans its coverage to cellular scale. Even though there are increasing demand to obtain better understanding of cellular dynamics, only few studies to visualize cellular structure, shape, size and functional morphology over tissue has been investigated in existing OPT system due to its limited field of view. In this study, we develop a novel optical imaging system for 3D cellular imaging with OPT integrated with dynamic focusing technique. Our tomographic setup has great potential to be used for identifying cell characteristic in tissue because it can provide selective contrast on dynamic focal plane allowing for fluorescence as well as absorption. While the dominant contrast of optical imaging technique is to use the fluorescence for detecting certain target only, the newly developed OPT system will offer considerable advantages over currently available method when imaging cellar molecular dynamics by permitting contrast variation. By achieving multi-contrast, it is expected for this new imaging system to play an important role in delivering better cytological information to pathologist.

  14. Research on History of Grain Storages in Eastern Zhou Dynasty%东周储粮史研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智波; 余黎星

    2016-01-01

    In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, in order to grab the right of domination and rival for hegemony, every vassal state focused on the development of agricultural production and cereal storage. Agricultural development saw the appearance and application of iron farm tools, expansion of the artificial irrigation area, manual fertilization and popularization etc. During this period, the forms of grain storage were ground storage houses and underground barn cellars, which were divided into state and private grain storages. The cereal storages aimed at military spending, disaster relief, salary expenses of the officials, expenditure of the palace and so on. The cereal storage during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was a step forward both in its size and management.%东周时期,各诸侯国为了称雄争霸,都比较注重农业生产的发展及粮食的储藏。农业发展表现为:铁农具的出现和使用,人工灌溉面积扩大,人工施肥的推广等。这个时期,储粮形式有地上仓房和地下粮窖,储粮分为国家储粮和私人储粮。储粮的用途为:军费开支、救灾、官吏俸禄、王宫费用等。东周时期,储粮无论是规模和管理,都向前跨进了一步。

  15. Thermal State Of Permafrost In Urban Environment Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Kerimov, A. G.; Kurchatova, A.; Andruschenko, F.; Gubanov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risks and damage, caused by deformation of building and constructions in cryolithozone, are growing for decades. Worsening of cryo-ecological situation and loss of engineering-geocryological safety are induced by both technogenic influences on frozen basement and climate change. In such towns on permafrost as Vorkuta, Dixon more than 60% of objects are deformed, in Yakutsk, Igarka- nearly 40%, in Norilsk, Talnakh, Mirnij 35%, in old indigenous villages - approximately 100%; more than 80% ground dams with frozen cores are in poor condition. This situation is accompanied by activation of dangerous cryogenic processes. For example in growing seasonally-thaw layer is strengthening frost heave of pipeline foundation: only on Yamburg gas condensate field (Taz Peninsula) are damaged by frost heave and cut or completely replaced 3000 - 5000 foundations of gas pipelines. Intensity of negative effects strongly depends on regional geocryology, technogenic loads and climatic trends, and in Arctic we see a temperature rise - warming, which cause permafrost temperature rise and thaw). In built areas heat loads are more diverse: cold foundations (under the buildings with ventilated cellars or near termosyphons) are close to warm areas with technogenic beddings (mainly sandy), that accumulate heat, close to underground collectors for communications, growing thaw zones around, close to storages of snows, etc. Note that towns create specific microclimate with higher air temperature. So towns are powerful technogenic (basically, thermal) presses, placed on permafrost; in cooperation with climate changes (air temperature rise, increase of precipitation) they cause permafrost degradation. The analysis of dozens of urban thermal fields, formed in variable cryological and soil conditions, showed, that nearly 70% have warming trend, 20% - cooling and in 10% of cases the situation after construction is stable. Triggered by warming of climate changes of vegetation, depth and temperature of

  16. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  17. Port wine oxidation management: a multiparametric kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rui Costa; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António

    2013-06-05

    Port wine is a flagship fortified wine of Portugal, which undergoes a particularly long aging period, developing a dynamic sensory profile over time, responsible for several wine categories, which is dependent upon the type of aging (bottle or barrel). Therefore, the quality of the product is dependent upon the chemical mechanisms occurring during the aging process, such as oxidation or Maillard reactions. To attain the desired quality management, it is necessary to understand how technological parameters, such as temperature or oxygen exposure, affect the kinetics of the formation of key odorants, such as sotolon. There is a lack of information about the impact of the storage conditions (oxygen and temperature) on Port wine quality. In this study, the effect of these two parameters were investigated to increase the knowledge database concerning aging management of Port wines. It was found that sotolon formation is highly dependent upon oxygen and temperature. There is however a synergistic effect between these two parameters that could significantly increase the concentration. The kinetic parameters of oxygen, sotolon, and other compounds related to Port aging (cis- and trans-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan, 2-furfural, 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural, and 5-methyl-furfural) are also reported. Kinetic models with Monte Carlo simulations, where the oxygen permeability dispersion and temperature are the parameters under evaluation, were applied. On the basis of the modeling predictions, it would seem that the temperature of a cellar would have a more significant impact on the Port wines stored in containers where the oxygen intake is higher (barrels) when compared to containers with low oxygen permeability (bottles using cork stoppers).

  18. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  19. Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

    2006-08-01

    To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

  20. Edificios protoindustriales para la producción de vino en Sicilia. Los palmentosy las bodegas del Etna desde el s. XVII al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascone, G.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Etnian region, during XVII and XIX centuries wine production begins to be made in a proto-industrial way. Great industries for wine production are built in these dates with a great technological and architectural specialization. Many of these constructions are in use today with good conservation state, but others are abandoned or ruined. In this paper the main characteristics of the "palmenti" and wine cellars that yet exist are analyzed. Architectural aspects are related with simple functionality aspects devoting special attention to the press machinery. The present state of this architectural patrimony and reasons to preserve and reuse it are discussed. Several ways and proposals to achieve this are defined at the end.

    En la región del Etna, entre los siglos XVII y XIX, la producción del vino empieza a hacerse de un modo protoindustrial. En tales fechas se construyen numerosas infraestructuras de grandes dimensiones para producir vino, denotando una gran especialización tecnológica y arquitectónica. Muchas de estas construcciones se usan aún hoy, manteniéndose en buen estado; otras, sin embargo, avanzan hacia el abandono y el deterioro. En el presente estudio se analizan las características principales de las bodegas y de los "palmentos" que han llegado hasta nosotros. Se relacionan los aspectos arquitectónicos con los puramente funcionales y se dedica una atención especial a la maquinaria de prensado. Se detalla al final el estado actual en el que se encuentra este patrimonio arquitectónico y se discuten las razones que hoy día animan a conservarlo y a volver a ponerlo en funcionamiento. Por último, se definen rápidamente los modos concretos y las propuestas para llevarlo a cabo.

  1. Bioassay of Estrogenic Activity of Effluent and Influent in a Farm Wastewater Treatment Plant Using an in vitro Recombinant Assay with Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; FANG-NI LUO; GuI-XIA LIU; PING-TING ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Objective Environmental estrogens at an elevated concentration are known to produce adverse effects on human and animal life. However, the majority of researches have been focused on ndustrial discharges, while the impact of livestock wastes as a source of endocrine disrupters in aquatic environments has been rarely elucidated. In order to investigate the contribution of environmental estrogens from livestock, the estrogenic activity in water samples from a farm wastewater treatment plant was analyzed by a recombinant yeast screening method. Methods The extracts prepared from 15 selected water samples from the farm wastewater treatment plant, among which 6 samples were from pre-treatment section (influents) and 9 from post-treatment section (effluents), were analyzed for estrogenic activity by cellar bioassay. Yeast cells transfected with the expression plasmid of human estrogen receptor and the Lac Z reporter plasmid encoding β-galactossidase, were used to measure the estrogen-like compounds in the farm wastewater treatment plant. Results The wastewater samples from influents showed a higher estrogenic potency than the effluent samples showing a low induction of β-galactossidase relative to solvent control condition. By comparison with a standard curve for 1713-estradiol (E2), estrogenic potency in water samples from the influents was calculated as E2-equivalent and ranged from 0.1 to 150 pM E2-equivalent. The estrogenic potency in water samples from the effluents was significantly lower than that in the influents, and 7 water samples had less detectable limit in the total of 9 samples. Conclusion Yeast bioassay of estrogenic activity in most of the samples from the farm wastewater after disposal by traditional sewage treatment showed negative results.

  2. Discussion on the Relationship Between the Production Technology and the Quality of Origin Liquor in Baiyunbian Liquor Making%白云边酿造工艺与原酒质量的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向军; 张红

    2012-01-01

    原酒质量是成品酒质量的基础,白云边酒是中国兼香型白酒的典型代表。为保证白云边酒产品质量的稳定提高,白云边原酒质量是关键要素。要提高原酒质量就必须对原酒的风格质量特点,骨架成分特点熟悉和掌握,从酿造工艺上来提高原酒质量。在生产中,高温制曲、多次投料、高温堆积、高温发酵、高温流酒、窖池结构等主要工艺环节对白云边原酒的质量风格起着决定性的作用。%the quality of origin liquor is the basis of that of final product.The Baiyunbian liquor is the representative of Chinese multi-flavor type liquor.The quality of the origin liquor is the key factor to guarantee the stable improvement of the product quality.The style,as well as the characters of quality and major components of the origin liquor must be fully understood in order to improve the quality technologically.In production,the key processes such as the high temperature koji making,repeatedly feeding,high temperature piling and fermentation,high temperature liquor flowing,structure of cellar,etc.play the decisive roles in the quality style of Baiyunbian liquor.

  3. The Excavation of the Proto-porcelain Kilns of the Shang Dynasty at the Nanshan Hill in Huzhou City, Zhejiang%浙江湖州南山商代原始瓷窑址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    南山窑址原称“老鼠山窑址”,位于浙江省湖州市东林镇南山村阿边约100米的小山上.属于湖州青山窑址群。这里是西部高山向东部河网平原过渡的低山缓丘地区。%The middle reach of the Dong Tiaoxi River centered by Deqing County of Zhejiang Province, in- cluding Huzhou City is the important distribution area of the proto-porcelain kilns of the pre-Qin peri- od, within which over 100 kiln sites have been found, the dates of which lasted from the Xia and Shang Dynasties through the Warring-States Period, so this area is the important origin of the porcelain industry of China. In March through November 2010, the archaeologists made rescue excavations to the kiln sites at Nanshan Hill, which uncovered 800 sq m in total area. The revealed remains are kilns, ash pits, raw material cellars, water ditches, postholes and so on, and the recovered artifacts includ- ed proto-porcelain dou-stemmed bowls, jars, gui-tureens, zun-vessels, basins, bowls, yu-basins, vessel lids, and so on, as well as some impressed hard pottery wares. The terminus post quem of the Nanshan kiln site is about 1560-1500 BC, and its terminus ante quem is in the late Yinxu Period. The discovery and excavation of Nanshan kiln site are greatly meaningful to the exploration on the origina- tion of the porcelains of China.

  4. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative

  5. The archaeology of a contemporary "Leichenhalle" in Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Arthur Ricci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An archaeological/historical analysis of the 19th century Leichenhalle in the Prenzlauer Berg district of Berlin was undertaken in order to interpret the physical changes that the succeeding governments of Germany made to the building from 1886 to present day. The original construction was created to deal with poor living conditions during the industrial revolution. Following this, the Nazi party converted public sections of the building to serve as a memorial, incorporating expensive materials into the flooring creating the swastika symbol of the state across the floor while the cellar was modified to make an air-raid shelter. At the end of World War II, Berlin was divided amongst the Allied forces. Prenzlauer Berg became part of the Soviet Sector and attempted to remove all evidence of the former Nazi government. This included the removal of the Nazi memorial, yet the flooring of the monument room was spared. The building was then converted into a security guard house for the Stasi, which continued the Soviet precedent of using the entire building as a functional structure off limits to the public. Economic GDR architecture was added to the Leichenhalle, contrasting with the relatively expensive multicolored and designed brickwork of the original façade, only to be torn down during the reunification. This building reflects the various uses that a building can serve under radically differing governments during a short period and the problems that can come about historically when the government´s attempt to physically erase their predecessors or keep their actions in the building secret.

  6. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  7. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines.

  8. Bandaojing Liquor Organic Mud Pit Production Technology%扳倒井酒有机窖泥的生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡鹏飞; 胥伟宏; 信春晖; 许玲

    2013-01-01

    介绍了扳倒井有机窖泥的制作方法,包括窖泥功能菌的扩大培养条件及其培养基,窖泥的具体配料及其制作过程,扳倒井有机窖泥生产技术的特点;陈述了扳倒井判断成熟有机窖泥的检验标准,以及在改造老化窖池时的使用方法;说明了在酿酒生产过程中,为延缓池壁窖泥的老化而采取的措施,并讨论了池壁窖泥老化的主要原因,是因为现代建造的窖池多数是砖窖,导致能够养护窖泥的黄浆水大量渗漏。%This paper introduced a method for making Bandaojing organic mud pit, including functional bacteria in pit mud culture conditions and medium expansion, concrete batching and making process of pit mud, characteristics of Bandaojing organic mud pit production technology;stated Bandaojing judgment test mature organic mud pit standard, as well as in the transformation of aging cellar when using method;in the wine production process, to delay the aging pool wall pit mud measures, and discussed the main reasons of the pool wall pit mud aging, was the most modern construction of the pit was a brick kiln, leading to maintenance of pit mud of yellow serofluid bulk leakage.

  9. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  10. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  11. Edificio de servicios múltiples Valladolid/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, Eduardo

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available From the modules of the Coordinating Committee of administrative buildings, established in accord with requirements of space of the different jobs, this building has been constructed to globalize the numerous dependencies of various Ministries and Institutes. In essence, the construction is composed of two cellar levels for parking and services; a lower floor for the cafeteria and meeting hall; two upper floors for offices, connected with the nucleous of vertical communications. For the structure, as likewise for the dimensioning of the jobs and the windows and even the paving of the false ceiling, the basic module was 1.25 x 1.25 metresA partir de los módulos de la Junta Coordinadora de edificios administrativos, establecidos en función de las necesidades de espacio de los distintos puestos de trabaja se ha realizado este edificio que engloba las numerosas dependencias de varios Ministerios e Institutos. En esencia la construcción se compone de dos niveles de sótano para aparcamiento y servicios; una planta baja destinada a cafetería y salón de actos; dos cuerpos elevados, destinados a oficinas, enlazados por el núcleo de comunicaciones verticales. Para la estructura, así como para el dimensionamiento de los puestos de trabajo y de los huecos de ventana, e inclusa del despiece del pavimento y del falso techo, se ha partido de un módulo base de 1,25 X 1,25 metros.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  13. Pathological study on right atrium myocardium in rheumatic heart disease patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiang-ying; ZHANG Bao-ren; LI Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the pathological basis of right atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with mitral valve replacement of RHD were divided into AF group (n= 13) and sinus rhythm group (SN group) (n= 16). There was no significant statistical difference in clinical factors between the 2 groups. During the operation of valve replacement, the samples of right atrial appendages were taken and the qualitative and quantitative study were made by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results: (1) Light microscope: The interstitial fibrosis and the arrangement of myocardium was more disordered in AF group than that in SN group. However, no statistic difference was found in interstitial fibrosis and cellar hypertrophy degree between the 2 groups. (2) Electron microscope: Mitochondrial crosta broke and dissolved obviously in AF group. The mitochondrial volume in AF group was smaller than that in SN group. Volume density, average area and average perimeter in AF group were less than that in SN group; specific surface in AF group was bigger than that in SN group. There was significant difference of above factors between the 2 groups; but there was no significant difference of surface density and numerical density on area in the 2 groups. Volume density of myofibril in AF group and SN group were less than that in SN group. (3)Split of Intercalated disc(ID) gap was found in AF group, and there was marrowing and floccular substance in ID gap. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the pathological changes of right atrial myocardium between AF and SN with RHD, these changes may be the important pathological basis for RA fibrillation of AF patients with RHD.

  14. 浓香型白酒窖泥中细菌和古菌的组成与多样性%Microbial community compositions and diversity in pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶勇; 芮俊鹏; 李家宝; 徐占成; 李大平; 唐清兰; 魏勇; 李香真

    2014-01-01

    Pit mud (PM) plays a key role in controlling the quality of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor in anaerobic fermentation. Here, microbial community composition and diversity in PM samples using pyrosequencing technique were investigated. A total of 494293 valid sequences were obtained. The reads fell into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated to 21 phyla. The predominant groups were Firmicutes (66.8% of total reads), Bacteroidetes (16.0%), Euryarchaeota (9.0%), Spirochaetes (2.2%), Actinobacteria (1.8%) and Chloroflexi (1.0%). Microbial diversity increased with cellar age until 25 years old, but kept relatively constant from 25 to 50 years. A large difference between microbial communities was observed in the pit muds with different cellar ages. Lactobacillus predominanted in 1-year pit mud (62.3%), but its abundance decreased remarkably in 10-year and older pit muds. In contrast, the abundances ofPetrimonas,ClostridiumIVand methanogens increased dramatically. In addition, Archaea in PM were mainly composed of hydrogenotrophic methanogens such as Methanobrevibacter,Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium, while the H2/acetate-utilizingMethanosarcinawas more abundant in PM with cellar age of 25-50 years (3.1%-4.5%).This research supports the practical experience that old fermentation pits produce high quality Luzhou-flavor liquor.%窖池是中国浓香型白酒的根本,其中窖泥微生物则是决定白酒风味与品质的核心。通过454焦磷酸测序法系统研究了不同窖龄窖泥的细菌和古菌的群落组成及多样性。共获得494293个有效序列,可归为796个可操作分类单元(OTUs),分别属于21个门(phylum)。优势分类门(≥1%)分别为厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)66.8%、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)16.0%、广古菌门(Euryarchaeota)9.0%、螺旋体门(Spirochaetes)2.2%、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)1.8%和绿弯菌门(Chloroflexi)1.0%。窖泥微生物多样性在1~25年间随着窖龄的

  15. Dos obras de Friedrich F. Haindl, Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asylum of Wasserburg. It is a brick construction, faced with pre-manufactured concrete pieces; its plan is rectangular and consists of: cellar (under ground, ground floor and six stories. Arrangement of cellar: kitchen with its accessory rooms, laundry, storing rooms, as well as lavatories and installations. The entry is on the ground floor, with a forged iron front door which communicates with the spacious interior hall. This floor includes: dinnig room, chapel, library and administrative rooms. The first floor is assigned to: personnel and the Sisters' rooms, including a refectory, and the appartment of the janitor. The following four floors contain the total of the residents' rooms, with a common hall on each floor. On the top floor, the centre for medical assistance with rooms of different capacities is installed. The whole is completed by a garage and a garden. The residence for old people of Berchting. It has been installed in an old convent of two floors, adding a new building which consists of: cellar, ground floor, and two and three storeys. Old and new part arc connected by means of a glass aisle. The old building contains: rooms for personnel, Sisters and nurses, the chaplain's appartments; the kitchen, dining-room, refectory and living-room; administrative rooms, lavatories and services, storing rooms and workshops. In the new building are installed the rooms for the old; the rooms for boiler, oil tanks for heating, storing rooms, workshops; dinnig-room and lobby near the connexion aisle; main kitchen and small kitchens on each floor; personnel diningroom, laundry, lavatories, living-rooms and common terrace, as well as the centre for medical assistance with 22 beds. Each bedroom has its washbasin and incorporated closet, and all the resident's rooms have individual balconies. The whole new construction has been buil with concrete, harmonizing with the large glass walls of the aisle, with the common rooms and the bed

  16. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  17. Thermographic mapping of a complex vernacular settlement: the case study of Casalnuovo District within the Sassi of Matera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Balestra, Alessandro; Cardinale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Never as in the Sassi of Matera (Italy), the parties have a volumetric material identity and a special construction condition for which, first of all, you need to know the whole to which they give life, and then the individual components and their connections. The distribution of these building artifacts in symbiotic connection with the connective calcareous texture that hosts them, resulted in a spontaneously harmonious figurative balance that characterizes the constructive expedients employed and the distributive and morphological solutions. This is the reason why the Sassi, and the overlooking Park of Rupestrian Churches of Matera Murgia have been entered in 1993 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Our research focuses on a largely abandoned area within the Casalnuovo District, situated in the extreme south of the city, probably the place of the future Demoethnoanthropological Museum. It is known today that the particular shape of the area is made up of settlements mainly in cave; during the time architectures above ground, in a very limited number, filled almost completely the limited building space. Here there are the most archaic types and forms of building and wine cellars within the Sassi, essentially derive from the natural cave only slightly structured by man. The exterior construction complete the elementary cave and it is called lamione. The complexity of a built space like this one determines the need for a non-traditional approach, so you have to combine last generation tools and canonical ones for survey and energy diagnosis within a dialectic between memory, tradition and innovation, in order to identify solutions for an environment friendly recover of a cultural heritage such this one. Since the evaluation of the historical buildings conservation state using destructive techniques should be avoided to prevent the integrity of the cultural heritage, the development of non-destructive and non-contact techniques is very important. For this reason, an

  18. Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-01-01

    The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic acid bacteria species can be identified. They belong to the Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus genera. Throughout alcoholic fermentation, a natural selection occurs and finally the dominant species is O. oeni, due to interactions between yeasts and bacteria and between bacteria themselves. After bacterial growth, when the population is over 10(6) CFU/ml, malolactic transformation is the obvious change in wine composition. However, many other substrates can be metabolized. Some like remaining sugars and citric acid are always assimilated by lactic acid bacteria, thus providing them with energy and carbon. Other substrates such as some amino acids may be used following pathways restricted to strains carrying the adequate enzymes. Some strains can also produce exopolysaccharides. All these transformations greatly influence the sensory and hygienic quality of wine. Malic acid transformation is encouraged because it induces deacidification. Diacetyl produced from citric acid is also helpful to some extent. Sensory analyses show that many other reactions change the aromas and make malolactic fermentation beneficial, but they are as yet unknown. On the contrary, an excess of acetic acid, the synthesis of glucane, biogenic amines and precursors of ethylcarbamate are undesirable. Fortunately, lactic acid bacteria normally multiply in dry wines; moreover some of these activities are not widespread. Moreover, the most striking trait of wine lactic acid bacteria is their capacity to adapt to a hostile environment. The mechanisms for this are not yet completely elucidated

  19. 黄土丘陵区梯田大棚集雨滴灌的水土保持效益分析%The Soil and Water Conservation Benefit Analysis of Drip Irrigation by Collecting Rainwater of Terraces Greenhouses in Hilly-gully Area of Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 高建恩; 邵辉; 娄现勇

    2015-01-01

    Considering the problems of returning farmland to forest,the reduction of land resources caused by ecological environment construction,and the rapid development of high-efficiency agricultural soil and water conservation,this study analyzes the mode of high-efficiency agricultural water management in terraces greenhouses by designing the water management system in Majiagou water-shed in Ansai County,Yan'an City.The results show that combining different levels of terraces gap with the power of solar energy and gravity can collect rainwater.The cellar volume is 0.06 m3/m2.The irrigation quota of drip irrigation under plastic film inside the greenhouses is 1 800 m3/hm2 and the irrigation frequency is 12 times.The operation of the system can save irrigation cost 2.8 yuan/m2,reduce erosion 6 338 t/(km2 · a),save the soil backfill cost 0.5 yuan/(m2 · a).A single terraces greenhouse can enhance the economic income by 1 480 yuan a year.%退耕还林及生态环境建设使陕北地区农田面积减少,而水土保持型高效灌溉农业发展迅速.以安塞县马家沟梯田大棚为研究对象,分析了梯田大棚集雨滴灌的水土保持型高效农业用水模式,结果表明:梯田大棚滴灌采用棚面收集雨水存贮在下部水窖,利用不同阶层的梯田落差,结合太阳能及重力等动力,布置大棚膜下作物滴灌系统.设计的水窖容积0.06 m3/m2,灌水定额为1 800 m3/hm2,灌水次数为12次.系统运行后,可节省灌溉费用2.8元/m2,减少侵蚀6 338 t/(km2 · a ),节省回填费用 0.5 元/(m2 · a ),单个梯田大棚农户每年可增加经济收益1 480元.

  20. Vivienda unifamiliar en Aravaca Madrid – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Artajo, Alberto

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available This construction, made up of three storeys and basement was situated in one of the corners of the plot and the rest of the area could thus be used for building the following: swimming pool; tennis court; a small vegetable garden with hothouse and a big garden. The basement comprises: a garage with three parking places; boiler room; and living quarters for the staff; further, gymnasium with dressing rooms and sauna; a bar room with wine cellar; and a chapel. On the ground floor are situated: drawing room, living room, dining room and library; kitchen; larder; laundry and ironing room; staff bedroom and a terrace-drying room. The first floor consists of: four bedrooms each of which has a dressing room and bath room; parents bedroom with dressing room and bath room. The top floor holds: a hall for trophies plus an office room; play room; a study. The building is a point structure with screen walls in the basement and is on the outside entirely covered with tiles. The chimneys, the marked wings, as well as the sloping walls form a harmonious unit with a strong personality.El edificio, de tres plantas y sótano, se situó en uno de los extremos del terreno, aprovechándose el resto de la parcela para distribuir: una piscina; una pista de tenis; una pequeña huerta con invernadero, y amplias zonas ajardinadas. El sótano alberga: el garaje de tres plazas; el cuarto de calderas, y una vivienda para el servicio. El resto de la planta la ocupan: un gimnasio con vestuarios y sauna; una pequeña taberna con bodega; una capilla; una cámara acorazada, y un trastero. En la planta baja se sitúan: la zona noble, compuesta por salón, estar, comedor y biblioteca; y la zona de servicio, con oficio, cocina, despensa, lavadero y cuarto de plancha, dormitorio de servicio, y una terraza-tendedero. La planta primera consta de: cuatro dormitorios, cada uno con vestidor y cuarto de baño completo; y el dormitorio de padres, con vestidor, cuarto de ba

  1. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  2. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  3. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  4. Study on the kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor daqu%浓香型大曲糖化动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 张晓宇

    2013-01-01

    In order to study on the kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor Daqu, using the enzymes of 5% Daqu hydrolyzed soluble starch, at pH 4. 6, 30℃ , an Michaelis-Menten equation was deduced. The optimum pH value for the catalysis of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor Daqu was 6. 0. Studying the catalytic reaction rate under different temperatures, the calculation results showed that the activation energy of the enzyme catalytic reaction was 40. 966 kJ/mol. The kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-fla-vor Daqu was similar to a single enzyme, During the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor, it will contribute to manage the saccharification and fermentation process simultaneously by controlling the conditions of pits input into the cellar, such as the concentration of starch and starter, initial acidity and temperature.%为研究浓香型大曲的糖化动力学,用5%的大曲浸出液水解可溶性淀粉,在pH4.6、30℃的条件下,用菲林试剂法测定还原糖的含量,得出米氏方程;浓香型大曲糖化反应的最适pH值为6.0;在不同温度下测定糖化反应速率,计算得到活化能E为40.966 kJ/mol.试验证明,浓香型大曲糖化酶类的糖化反应动力学与单一酶相似.通过控制淀粉浓度(投粮量)、用曲量、入窖酸度和温度可以使浓香型大曲酒的糖化、发酵过程协调进行.

  5. 1,25二羟维生素D3缺乏与衰老的研究进展%Research Progress of the Defic ency of 1,25(OH)2D3 and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧; 陈听雨(综述); 张露青(审校)

    2015-01-01

    1,25二羟维生素D3[1,25(OH)2D3]是维生素D的活性形式,其不仅参与调节机体钙磷代谢,还对心血管系统、免疫系统、泌尿系统、神经系统等多系统的活动具有调节作用。研究显示维生素D的减少与多种老年性疾病密切相关,维生素D在控制和改善与衰老相关的疾病方面起到了积极的作用。其机制可能与1,25(OH)2D3可通过调控与细胞衰老和凋亡的相关基因、降低氧化应激、抑制肾素-血管紧张素系统以及减少端粒耗损等有关。%Abstratc :1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3] is the active form of vitamin D in human body, whose function is not only to regulate the metabolism of body′s calcium and phosphorus,but also to regulate the activity of cardiovascular system,immune system,urinary system,nervous system and so on .According to the research data,the reduction of vitamin D is closely related to a variety of age-related diseases,vitamin D plays a positive role in the aging process ,especially in controlling and improving the age-related diseases.The mechanism is associated with the function of 1,25(OH)2D3 in regulating cellar aging and apoptosis,lowering oxidative stress,inhibiting renin-angiotensin system and reducing telomere loss.

  6. Arqueología, Arquitectura e Historia en el Archivo Histórico Provincial de Jaén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos López, María Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From the necessity for restoration and the need to present a conservation proposal for one of the most symbolic buildings in Jaén, Andalucía, a discovery was made of what are, according to researchers, the last remains of the «ancient Arab palaces». Through a combined study of wall stratigraphy, archaeological intervention and the study of documentary sources, it has been possible to prove the historical sequence of the building which is the central office of the Provincial History Archive, located in one of the most historically relevant areas of the city. The building has been occupied since Roman times, later housing the Almohade Muslim dynasty, a royal palace, a convent, a university, a stronghold of resistance during the War of Independence, a men’s hospice and presently the History Archive. This is one example of how buildings stay alive in urban areas, adapting and transforming, and of the reading of these sequences and the mark that this constant state of development leaves on the facings, in the cellars.A partir de la necesidad de restaurar y presentar una propuesta de conservación para uno de los inmuebles más emblemáticos de la capital jiennense, se descubre lo que, a juicio de los investigadores, son los últimos restos de los «antiguos palacios árabes», y a través de un estudio combinado de estratigrafía muraria, intervención arqueológica y el estudio de las fuentes documentales, se ha podido constatar la secuencia histórica del edificio que es sede del Archivo Histórico Provincial, localizado en una de las zonas de más relevancia histórica de la ciudad. La ocupación documentada abarca desde niveles romanos, almohades, siendo más tarde palacio real, convento, universidad, plaza fuerte de la resistencia en la Guerra de la Independencia, hospicio de hombres y, finalmente, Archivo Histórico. Es un ejemplo de cómo los edificios se mantienen vivos dentro de la trama urbana, adaptándose, transformándose y de la

  7. Vivienda unifamiliar en Madrid – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Artajo Saracho, Alberto

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the main floor of this one family house is as follows: dining room, drawing room and living room; six bedrooms with four complete bathrooms; and the household section with kitchen, laundry and ironing room, breakfast room plus two additional bedrooms with adjoining bathrooms, On a smaller second floor there is a spacious study, extended towards the outside by terraces, whereas the basement holds a garage, rooms for the staff, a wine cellar and the play-room for the children. Arranged according to a west-east longitudinal distribution scheme, the façades of the building are oriented towards the south and the north. The northern side connects the main rooms with the back garden where a swimming pool and a tennis court are situated. The treatment of the façades an original combination of crown tile and facing bricks— is particularly interesting in view of the varying height of the roofs that are adapted to the irregular planform and are provided with tile covered chimneys.Esta vivienda unifamiliar distribuye, en una planta general: los ambientes principales del comedor, el salón y el estar; seis dormitorios con cuatro cuartos de baño completos; y la zona de servicios, con cocina, doble oficio, desayuno y dos dormitorios de servicio con baño completo. En una pequeña planta alta se sitúa un espacioso estudio, prolongado hacia el exterior por terrazas. El sótano alberga: un amplio garaje, los cuartos de servicio, una bodega y la sala de juegos para niños. Organizada de acuerdo con un esquema de distribución longitudinal oeste-este, sus fachadas principales se orientan al sur y al norte, predominando esta última para permitir la integración de los ambientes principales con el jardín posterior, dotado de piscina y pista de tenis. En el tratamiento de fachadas, a base de una original combinación de teja árabe y ladrillo visto, sobresale el interesante movimiento de las cubiertas, adaptado a la forma

  8. Club «Ventana sobre el Mundo» en el WorId Trade Center Nueva York - EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platner, Warren

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a very large space subdivided into twenty five dining and social areas, reception, concierge office, telephone room, sitting galleries, etc., occupying all of the 4000 m2 of the top floor of the World Trade Center. All the dining and sitting areas are glazed and so placed as to afford magnificent and stunning views of the city, the river and the harbor. Each decorative element, work of art and furniture piece have been carefully studied and designed by the architects to achieve this unique character. The same can be said about the surprising but pleasant effects obtained, all without overstepping the original budget. Among the most outstanding atmospheres created, the reception area, the mirror gallery, the main restaurant (300 hundred seats, the South dining room, the bar and the «Cellar in the Sky», deserve special mention.

    Se trata de una gran salón distribuido en veinticinco comedores y salones sociales, zonas de recepción, conserjería, teléfonos, galerías-estancias situados en los 4.000 m2 de la última planta del World Trade Center. Todo el perímetro está acristalado y las zonas de comer o de estar se han situado de forma que pueden alcanzar vistas maravillosas y sorprendentes de la ciudad, del río y del puerto. Todos los elementos de decoración, obras de arte y mobiliario han sido cuidadosamente estudiados y diseñados por los arquitectos con el fin de imprimirle un carácter único. De igual manera se ha procurado conseguir los más sorprendentes y agradables efectos, respetando siempre el presupuesto inicial. Entre todos los ambientes creados cabe distinguir: la recepción, la galería de espejos, el restaurante (300 asientos, el comedor sur, el bar y la «Bodega en el Cielo».

  9. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  10. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  11. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  12. São Gião de Nazaré (Portugal. Un tipo original de iglesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific importance of the Portuguese church of São Gião de Nazaré, considered one of the prototypes of 7th century Iberian Visigoth architecture, merited an archaeological analysis of its architecture in addition to the excavation of its cellars and prior to necessary restoration work on the building, which was on the brink of ruin. Readings discovered an original church with a nave with high rooms to the west and east, side rooms, iconostases and freestanding vaulted rectangular apse. The structure scarcely changed until its ruin and subsequent conversion into farm workers’ dwellings in the 18th century. The chronological ascription of the church, presently in doubt due to the problems concerning the architectural group traditionally called Visigoth, cannot be solved through the reading but can be enhanced by this as two different decorative groups are identified, one with reused pieces and the other with new sculptures. This deliberately sculpted decoration is now the chronological indicator to follow in dating the original church: for some, it is clearly Visigoth; for others, Asturian.La importancia científica de la iglesia portuguesa de São Gião de Nazaré, considerada como uno de los prototipos de la arquitectura visigoda peninsular del siglo VII, recomendaba un análisis arqueológico de su arquitectura complementario a la excavación del subsuelo y previo a los necesarios trabajos de restauración del edificio en amenaza de ruina. La lectura descubre una iglesia original de nave central con dos habitaciones altas a Oeste y Este, habitaciones laterales, iconostasis y ábside rectangular exento abovedado. Su estructura apenas varía hasta el momento de ruina y posterior transformación en casa labriega en el siglo XVIII. La adscripción cronológica de la iglesia, puesta en duda actualmente dentro de una problemática que afecta al conjunto de arquitectura tradicionalmente denominada visigoda, no se resuelve con la lectura

  13. Study on styrene grafting onto per-fluorinated polymers effects of irradiation and reaction conditions%过氟化聚合物的苯乙烯接枝研究--辐照条件与反应条件的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Matsuura; Tomoyuki Kakigi; Saneto Asano; Fumihiro Mutou; Akihiro Oshima; Masakazu Washio

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell is in focus as a very low exhaust new dynamo system. Especially polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) using proton exchange membranes (PEM) have attracted much attention for the electrical vehicle and other mobile applications such as cellar phone and personal computer. Conventional perfluoro-sulfonic acid membranes such as Nation() (DuPont de Nemours LTD.) have been the popular PEM used in PFEC. However, there are still several problems such as insufficient gas barrier properties, low thermal resistance, and their high costs.In this study, hawse have studied the partially fluorinated PEM for PEFC by radiation grafting onto per-fluorinated polymers such as PFA, FEP and ETFE with reactive styrene monomers using pre-irradiation grafting method in gas and in liquid phase, respectively, and successive sulfonation. Characteristic properties of the grafted and sulfonated materials have been discussed and optimized fabricating conditions were determined.Characteristic properties of the obtained materials have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry,thermogravimetric analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy, etc.In the case of irradiation in air, glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the grafted materials depend on the yields of styrene grafting onto the materials. That is higher yields of grafting give lower thermal stability. On the other hand, when the peroxy radicals were converted trapped radicals by exposure in air after irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere, Tg of the grafted materials hardly depends on the grafting yields.Moreover, the yields of grafting in gas phase were higher than that of liquid phase. However, the sample form of grafting in gas phase has been greatly changed, whereas the sample form of grafting in liquid phase has kept its original feature.Therefore, it is suggested that the fabricating conditions for PEFC membranes were preferred to irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere and grafting in liquid phase.Ion exchange capacities of

  14. Caracterização do suco de amora-preta elaborado em extrator caseiro Characterisation of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição físico-química, aceitabilidade e efeito do armazenamento na qualidade do suco de amora-preta elaborado em um extrator caseiro. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química e separados de acordo com o teor de antocianinas em três grupos: acima de 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, de 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue e Comanche e abaixo de 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97 e Cherokee. Os sucos foram pasteurizados e analisados quanto aos teores de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, carboidratos solúveis, extrato seco e antocianinas. A extração por 2 h apresentou rendimento de 84%. As antocianinas foram os compostos que sofreram alteração mais significativa na elaboração do suco, com redução média de 42%. O suco apresentou aceitabilidade superior a 85%. O armazenamento em adega ou sob refrigeração alterou de forma significativa apenas o teor de antocianinas dos sucos, cuja degradação foi menor nas amostras conservadas sob refrigeração.The aim of this study was the evaluation of physico-chemical composition, acceptability and storage effects on the quality of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor. Fruits were analysed for their chemical properties and divided in three groups, according to anthocyanin content: above 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue and Comanche and below 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97, Cherokee. The pasteurised juices were analysed for parameters related to quality, such as pH, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity, dry extract and anthocyanin content. Extraction for two hours resulted in a yield of 84%. Juice extraction reduced the anthocyanin content in average 42%. The acceptability was over 85%. Storage in wine cellar or refrigerator reduced the anthocyanin content of the juices, whose degradation was smaller in samples stored under refrigeration.

  15. Effects of mixed application of effective microorganisms (EM) and soil amendments on agronomic characteristic and quality of flue-cured tobacco%混施有效微生物群(EM)及土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦克苏; 胡婷婷; 李德仑; 涂永高; 于良骥; 涂光军

    2015-01-01

    degraded soils . Microbial fertilizer could improve the micro‐environment of plant rhizosphere , by increasing the diversity of microbial species and improving grow th and nutrient absorption capacity of root . There have been many reports about the effect of microbial fertilizer or soil amendment application on growth and development of crops , but the mixed application effect of microbial fertilizer and soil amendments was rarely mentioned . In this study , the combining effects of effective microorganisms ( EM ) and soil amendments on agronomic characteristic and quality of flue‐cured tobacco were investigated . A field trial designed as randomized block was carried out to reveal the effects of EM and soil amendment treatments ( T1 :conventional film transplanting ;T2 :conventional film transplanting + EM + soil amendments ;T3 :well cellar type transplanting ;T4 :well cellar type transplanting + EM + soil amendments) on leaves , root and stem development of flue‐cured tobacco during the growth period . Meanwhile , the effects of different treatments on yield and quality of flue‐cured tobacco were discussed . The results showed that the mixed application of EM and soil amendments promoted the growth of tobacco plant , especially at the maturity stage . Simultaneously , the mixed application of EM and soil amendments also improved the yield and quality of tobacco leaves , and optimized the grade of tobacco leaves . The yields of T2 and T4 treatments were 1 909 .31 kg/hm2 and 2 134 .91 kg/hm2 , which were higher than those of T1 and T3 by 5 .21%and 7 .13% , respectively . The output values of T2 and T4 were 29 460 .69 Chinese Yuan/hm2 and 35 162 .05 Chinese Yuan/hm2 , higher than those of corresponding controls ( T1 and T3 ) by 3 .84% and 8 .72% , respectively . For chemical composition , the mixed application of EM and soil amendments increased the contents of nicotine , potassium and chlorine , but decreased the content of total sugar in flue‐cured tobacco

  16. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  17. Optimization of coolant arrangement for fusion-fission hybrid reactor and analysis of ex-core nature circulation%聚变-裂变混合堆冷却剂布置优化及堆外自然循环分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻章程; 解衡

    2013-01-01

    The simulation and numerical computation with FLUENT code are conducted for the fuel zone of fusion-fission hybrid reactor.Two coolant flowing arrangement schemes,uniform flow,and proportional flow based on the gross heat of each fuel cell,are compared for optimization.The results of the numerical computation show that the heat conduction between adjacent fuel cells is weak and the heat is carried away by the coolant in the duct,and it is almost completely equal to the heat produced by corresponding fuel cell except the fuel cell 1.Then the value of heat structure of the coolant duct is the gross heat of each fuel cell that means there is no need to remodel the fuel zone with system analysis program.The fuel zone has lower maximum temperature and more even temperature distribution in the case of proportional flow compared with uniform flow,but the effect of flattening temperature is not obvious.The capacity of heat transfer of ex-core nature circulation in the imaginary LOCA is also evaluated.The results show that the reactor core will be melted within 520s after shut-down without the nature circulation and the maximum temperature in the fuel region will be only elevated to 584.4℃ within 1000s after shut-down if with the nature circulation.%根据聚变-裂变混合堆概念堆型的燃料区水冷设计,通过FLUENT建模和模拟计算,比较了均匀流量和按燃料单元发热量比例分配流量两种冷却剂布置方案.数值计算结果表明,这两种布置方案中燃料单元之间的导热很小,除燃料单元1中冷却管道外,其余的冷却管道带走的热量几乎等于相应燃料单元的发热量,在用系统分析程序等效建模时,不必重新确定冷却管道的热构件;对后一种布置方案燃料区的最高温度更低,温度分布更均匀,但温度展平效果并不明显.计算了堆外自然循环系统在假设的失水事故(LOCA)中的导热能力.结果表明,如果不采用自然循环系统,停堆后520s

  18. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  19. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  20. 植物铁蛋白结构、性质及其在纳米材料制备中的应用%Structure, Function of Phytoferritin and its Application in Nano Material Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广华; 云少君

    2012-01-01

    Ferritins are a broad superfamily of iron storage proteins,present in all living organisms and play important roles in controlling cellar iron homeostasis. To date, relatively little information is available on structure and function of phytoferritin compared to animal ferritin. Phytoferritin is observed in amyloplast whereas animal ferritins are largely found in the cytoplasm of cell. In contrast to animal ferritin,phytofer-ritins exhibit two major distinctive features in structure: (1)phytoferritin contains a specific extension pep-tide (EP) at the N-terminal while animal ferritin lacks. The EP is located on the exterior surface of protein,which recently has been found to act as a second ferroxidase center for iron-binding and oxidation,and regulate iron release during the germination and early growth of seedlings. (2) only H-type subunit has been identified in phytoferritin which is usually a heteropolymer consisting of two different subunits, H-l and H-2,sharing ~80℅ amino acid sequence identity. These two subunits in phytoferritin play a positively cooperative role in iron oxidative deposition in protein. The obtained ferritin has attracted great interest among researchers in the field of nanodevices due to its specific structure. Biomineralization of ferritin core has been extended to the artificial synthesis of homo-geneousmetal complex nanoparticles and semiconductor nanoparticles. The inner cavity of apophytoferritin is an ideal spatially restricted chemical reaction chamber for nanoparticles synthesis. This review focuses on recent progresses in structure,function of phytoferritin and its application in nano material science.%铁蛋白具有储存铁及调节体内铁平衡的功能,它广泛存在于大多数生物体中.和动物铁蛋白相比,关于植物铁蛋白的研究至今很少.目前已知,植物铁蛋白主要存在于淀粉体中,而动物铁蛋白则主要存在于细胞质中.植物铁蛋白和动物铁蛋白相比,其在结

  1. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  2. Identification and enzymatic properties of an excellent esterifying function strain%一株酯化功能菌分离鉴定及酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明遗; 霍再群; 侯长军; 王洪彬; 唐玉明; 任道群; 邓波; 卢中明

    2013-01-01

    An excellent esterifying function strain LZLJ 2103 was isolated and bred from ‘1573 National Treasures cellars',which was identified by combining the morphological and molecular characteristics.Alter incubation for 7d,the white colony of LZLJ 21-3 became pink gradually as time went on.Colony surface clustered around curly mycelia.IN the top of mycelium was the cleistothecium.The study of enzymatic properties of esterase from the strain showed that the optimal temperature for the enzyme was 40℃ and optimal pH was 5.0.Na+,K+,Mg2+,Fe2+ enhanced the enzyme activity,whereas Ca2+,Cu2+ inhibited the enzyme activity significantly.Internal transcribed spacers were amplified and sequenced.The 579bp sequence was compared with the known sequences in the GenBank database.Sequence alignment analysis has been done by bioinformatics software DNAMAN,DNAstar and Mega.The similarity of ITS between LZLJ 2103 and typical strain of Monascus purpureus was 99.5% and the divergence 0.5%.the phylogenetic analysis by NJ test showed that LZLJ 2013 came together with the known strains,which showed the highest similarity.According to morphological features and molecular analysis could draw the conclusion that LZLJ 2103 was belonged to one new strain of the Monascus purpureus.%从国家级重点文物遗产“国宝窖池”中分离选育得到一株高酯化力的发酵功能菌.结合形态学特征和分子解析对其进行了鉴定.菌落在麦芽汁琼脂培养基上初为白色随菌落成熟而变成粉红色,表面质地呈丛卷毛状.菌丝不规律地分枝,菌丝体顶端着生闭囊壳.酶学特性研究结果显示:所产酯化酶最造作用温度为30℃,最适pH为5.0,金属离子Na+、K+、Mg2+、Fe2+对该酶有明显的促进作用,而Ca2+、Cu2+对该酶有强烈的抑制作用.扩增菌株的内转录间隔区ITS序列,长度579bp利用GeneBank BLAST搜索同源序列,通过DNAMAN分别进行序列相似性比对.其中ITS序列与Monascus purpureus

  3. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    is just a set of foundations and a portal, considered national monuments. There, we enjoyed a delicious meal in the cellars of the Corralejo Hacienda before returning to Leon. The XIII MWPF was sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) through the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and individual research projects, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnológico del Estado de Guanajuato (CONCyTEG), Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla and Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. Also, we wish to thak to those who helped in the process of getting financial support for the meeting, specially Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo, President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and Dr José Luis Lucio Martínez, Rector of Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León. These proceedings have been published thanks to the support of PIFI 2011. This meeting was possible due to the commitment of the working groups and we wish to thank to their members for the decisive collaboration with the organizing committee. At the local level, we thank our graduate students: Carolina Luján, Vannia González, Selim Gomez and Carlos Alberto Vaquera for their invaluable contribution in the organization of the large amount of small but important things around the meeting. Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent talks which contributed to the success of the event. We are also grateful to all the participants for the nice academic and social atmosphere during the meeting and for providing their write-ups on time. The National organizing committee was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda (CINVESTAV-DF) Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV-Mérida) David Delepine (DF-UG) Axel de la Macorra (IAC/IF-UNAM) Lorenzo Díaz (BUAP

  4. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  5. Spectral ratio techniques as a tool for soil-structure interaction assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladina, C.; Lovati, S.; Marzorati, S.; Massa, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the last years many papers focused the attention on the estimation of site effects in correspondence of inhabited areas with the aim to evaluate if the free oscillations of a structure are able to modify the estimation of the fundamental frequency of the soil. In particular, a correct understanding of the source of a resonance amplification peak becomes relevant in the case where the frequencies of vibration of the buildings fall into the range where soil amplification is expected: in this case damage might increase in case of an earthquake due to an amplified structural response of the structure. In this work the results coming from ambient seismic noise measurements computed at 4 sites of Northern Italy, where seismic stations are installed inside buildings, are presented and discussed. The considered sites were selected in correspondence of very populated areas where both civil structures and industrial facilities are present: moreover in a such area, since the high level of background noise, where is not simple to find out site for a good seismic installation. The noise measurements were performed closed to 4 strong motion stations characterized by different types of installation: Bagolino station (BAG8), managed by the INGV (Italian National Institute for Geophysic and Vulcanology), installed in the basament of a primary school, with the sensor directly connected to the rock (limestone and dolomite); Aulla station (AUL), managed by the DPC (Italian Civil Protection), installed in the cellar of an ancient medieval fortress with the sensor directly connected to the rock (serpentine); Asolo station (ASO7), managed by the INGV, installed at the bottom of an ancient medieval fortress builded on an isolated hill (hard sandstone); in this case the sensor is installed on the foundations; Vobarno station (VOBA) managed by the INGV, located at the bottom of a primary school with the sensor installed on the foundations (plate foundation). The school, a two-stories RC

  6. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    parece afectar la vulnerabilidad a las termites del E. grandis cultivado en la región norte u oeste de Uruguay. Hasta el momento, los resultados de campo sugieren mejor desempeño para el sitio II que para el sitio I. Sin embargo, aún es muy pronto para extraer conclusiones válidas de los ensayos de doble capa o de estacas. La durabilidad natural podría estar relacionada con la densidad. Otros estudios son necesarios para extraer conclusiones certeras al respecto.AbstractOne of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of major economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanicalproperties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been reported. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Río Negro was evaluated. Two sixteen years old plantations, originated by seed of same source, were sampled. Natural durability of outer and inner heartwood was studied following EN 350-1 methods. Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 was tested as reference specie. EN 113 laboratory tests for fungal decay (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Serpula lacrymans and EN 118 for termites resistance (Reticulitermes spp. were performed. Field stakes, double layer and fungal cellar tests were established. They are still on course and partial results are reported below in this paper. Upon basic density radial profiles, it wasfound that outer heartwood was not mature wood, but can be assumed as transition wood. In general, E. grandis heartwood showed higher durability than Populus hybrid. E. grandis appeared moderately or seriously attacked by Reticulitermes spp. E. grandis juvenile wood can be classified according EN 350-1, as “Moderately Durable” against the brown rotter G. trabeum, whereas transition wood can be described as “Durable”.

  7. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  8. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  9. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    been followed by a roughly 5°F increase since the 1980s. Many areas in the continuous permafrost zone have seen increases in temperature in the seasonally active layer and a decrease in re-freezing rates. Changes in the discontinuous permafrost zone are initially much more observable due to the resulting thermokarst terrain (land surface formed as ice rich permafrost thaws), most notable in boreal forested areas. Climate warming in Alaska has potentially broad implications for human health and food security, especially in rural areas, as well as increased risk for injury with changing winter ice conditions. Additionally, such warming poses the potential for increasing damage to existing water and sanitation facilities and challenges for development of new facilities, especially in areas underlain by permafrost. Non-infectious and infectious diseases also are becoming an increasing concern. For example, from 1999 to 2006 there was a statistically significant increase in medical claims for insectbite reactions in five of six regions of Alaska, with the largest percentage increase occurring in the most northern areas. The availability and quality of subsistence foods, normally considered to be very healthy, may change due to changing access, changing habitats, and spoilage of meat in food storage cellars. These and other trends and potential outcomes resulting from a changing climate are further described in this report. In addition, we describe new science leadership activities that have been initiated to address and provide guidance toward conducting research aimed at making available information for policy makers and land management agencies to better understand, address, and plan for changes to the local and regional environment. This report cites data in both metric and standard units due to the contributions by numerous authors and the direct reference of their data.