WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellars

  1. Learning Karaf Cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Onofré, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    This book is a tutorial written with a step-by-step approach to help you implement an optimum clustering solution in Apache Karaf Cellar quickly and efficiently. If you are new to Karaf and want to install and manage multiple Karaf instances by farming or clustering, then this book is for you. If you are a Java developer or a system administrator with basic knowledge of Karaf, you can use this book as a guide. Some background knowledge of OSGi and/or Karaf would be preferred but is not mandatory.

  2. Radon in the air of wine cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon level differences between cellar types, variation of the radon concentration, the dose to the workers was studied. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary have been measured. 222Rn activity concentration in the air of wine cellars spreads over a wild range starting from ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bqm-3 up to 6 kBqm-3 characteristic for natural caves. (N.T.)

  3. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  4. 27 CFR 18.63 - Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded wine cellar. 18.63 Section 18.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Records and Reports § 18.63 Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar. A proprietor transferring concentrate, juice, or fruit mash to a bonded wine cellar shall prepare a record of transfer as required...

  5. [Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J; Wazny, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated.

  6. Customary rules of the Rajac wine cellars construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of implementing the customary rules of construction and organization of the Rajac wine cellars, as well as whether and to what extent they have been implemented so far. Wine cellars of the village of Rajac are a unique example of ethno-architecture in the Republic of Serbia and its surrounding. They are under the protection regime as a rare spatial cultural-historical entity, i.e. cultural property of exceptional importance to Serbia. The paper analyzes various elements of spatial development and structure, as well as specific characteristics of construction carried out by migrant workers. Considering that customary rules of construction are found in some other complexes of folk architecture in the immediate and broader surrounding of the Republic of Serbia (Korčula, Dubrovnik and Ilok in the Republic of Croatia, it has been indicated, based on comparative analysis, that it is possible that the same rules as those implemented during the foundation and development of the Rajac wine cellars have also been implemented later during their renovation by introducing new architectural principles through characteristic way of construction of Macedonian craftsmen-builders - migrant workers.

  7. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  8. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  9. Seasonal analysis of the thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Traditional underground wine cellars are a good example of bioclimatic construction, providing optimum conditions for maturing wine with no energy consumption. This article studies the annual thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in one of the most well-known wine producing areas in Spain, the Ribera del Duero. For this we have applied a method based on multiple regression analysis using experimental data monitored for 1 year. The results show that the interior air temperature is fundamentally conditioned by the undisturbed temperature of the ground at the average depth of the wine cellar and by the temperature of the outside air (R{sup 2} varies between 0.937 and 0.974, with an average of 0.964 for the three wine cellars studied). However, the stability of the wine cellar during changes of outside temperature differs according to the time of year. In the spring and summer, the stability is excellent and the influence of the ground temperature is much greater than that of the outside air temperature (beta coefficient for the ground temperature is 0.85 compared to 0.17 for the outside air temperature). In the autumn and winter, the stability of the wine cellar is reduced by the increased ventilation, reducing the influence of the ground temperature ({beta} = 0.70) and increasing that of the outside air ({beta} = 0.42). (author)

  10. Persistence of two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora and Starmerella in the cellar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric eGrangeteau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different genera and/or species of yeasts present on grape-berries, in musts and wines are widely described. Nevertheless, the community of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in the cellar is still given little attention. Thus it is not known if the cellar is a real ecological niche for these yeasts or if it is merely a transient habitat for populations brought in by grape-berries during the winemaking period. This study focused on three species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts commonly encountered during vinification: Starmerella bacillaris (synonymy with Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Hanseniaspora uvarum. More than 1200 isolates were identified at the strain level by FT-IR spectroscopy (207 different FTIR strain pattern. Only a small proportion of non-Saccharomyces yeasts present in musts came directly from grape-berries for the three species studied. Some strains were found in the must in 2 consecutive years and some of them were also found in the cellar environment before the arrival of the harvest of second vintage. This study demonstrates for the first time the persistence of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains from year to year in the cellar. Sulfur dioxide can affect yeast populations in the must and therefore their persistence in the cellar environment.

  11. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF...

  12. [Toxic components of the venom of the cellar spider Segestria florentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdiev, N Zh; Valieva, L A; Korneev, A S; Sadykov, A A; Salikhov, Sh I

    1987-08-01

    Two neurotoxins and one insectotoxin have been isolated from venom of the cellar spider Segestria florentina, their homogeneity being proved by disk electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and analysis of N-terminal amino acid residues. The neurotoxins are polypeptides with molecular mass about 5000 D. For the insectotoxin, containing 35 amino acid residues with molecular mass 3988 D, the total primary structure is established. PMID:3675645

  13. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  14. Robert Lacoste's the darker side practical applications for electronic design concepts from circuit cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoste, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Robert Lacoste's The Darker Side column has quickly become a must read among Circuit Cellar devotees. His column provides readers with succinct theoretical concepts and practical applications on topics as far reaching as digital modulation to antenna basics. Difficult concepts are demystified as Robert shines a light on complex topics within electronic design.This book collects sixteen Darker Side articles that have been enriched with new, exclusive content from the author. An intro into The Darker Side will give examples of material that can enhance and optimize the way you design. A

  15. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyorfi, Tamas, E-mail: gyorfi.tamas@ejf.hu [Eoetvoes Jozsef College (Hungary); Raics, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing {sup 137}Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster.

  16. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  18. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR...

  19. The Integration of Geotechnologies in the Evaluation of a Wine Cellar Structure through the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multidisciplinary methodology to evaluate an underground wine cellar structure using non-invasive techniques. In particular, a historical subterranean wine cellar that presents a complex structure and whose physical properties are unknown is recorded and analyzed using geomatics and geophysics synergies. To this end, an approach that integrates terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar is used to properly define a finite element-based structural model, which is then used as a decision tool to plan architectural restoration actions. The combination of both techniques implies the registration of external and internal information that eases the construction of structural models. Structural simulation for both stresses and deformations through FEM allowed identifying critical structural elements under great stress or excessive deformations. In this investigation, the ultimate limit state of cracking was considered to determine allowable loads due to the brittle nature of the material. This allowed us to set limit values of loading on the cellar structure in order to minimize possible damage.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations

  1. Wine and power. A spatial and stratigraphical study of the pottery and glass assemblages from the wine cellar in Bergen, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Tøssebro

    2013-01-01

    In the centre of medieval Bergen lies the ruin of a stone building that contained the medieval town hall, the court room, prison cells and the Wine Cellar with the communal taproom. The building was constructed around 1300. In the Wine Cellar, the city council and later the Hanseatic kontor had royal monopoly on the small-scale wine sale in the town and received profits. This building complex is strongly related to a larger North European urbanization process, and cultural impulses brought to...

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.

  3. Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Koh

    Full Text Available Scholars have for generations recognized the importance of wine production, distribution, and consumption in relation to second millennium BC palatial complexes in the Mediterranean and Near East. However, direct archaeological evidence has rarely been offered, despite the prominence of ancient viticulture in administrative clay tablets, visual media, and various forms of documentation. Tartaric and syringic acids, along with evidence for resination, have been identified in ancient ceramics, but until now the archaeological contexts behind these sporadic discoveries had been uneven and vague, precluding definitive conclusions about the nature of ancient viticulture. The situation has now changed. During the 2013 excavation season of the Kabri Archaeological Project, a rare opportunity materialized when forty large storage vessels were found in situ in an enclosed room located to the west of the central courtyard within the Middle Bronze Age Canaanite palace. A comprehensive program of organic residue analysis has now revealed that all of the relatively uniform jars contain evidence for wine. Furthermore, the enclosed context inherent to a singular intact wine cellar presented an unprecedented opportunity for a scientifically intensive study, allowing for the detection of subtle differences in the ingredients or additives within similar wine jars of apparently the same vintage. Additives seem to have included honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cedar oil, cyperus, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon, all or most of which are attested in the 18th century BC Mari texts from Mesopotamia and the 15th century BC Ebers Papyrus from Egypt. These additives suggest a sophisticated understanding of the botanical landscape and the pharmacopeic skills necessary to produce a complex beverage that balanced preservation, palatability, and psychoactivity. This new study has resulted in insights unachievable in the past, which contribute to a

  4. Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Andrew J; Yasur-Landau, Assaf; Cline, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have for generations recognized the importance of wine production, distribution, and consumption in relation to second millennium BC palatial complexes in the Mediterranean and Near East. However, direct archaeological evidence has rarely been offered, despite the prominence of ancient viticulture in administrative clay tablets, visual media, and various forms of documentation. Tartaric and syringic acids, along with evidence for resination, have been identified in ancient ceramics, but until now the archaeological contexts behind these sporadic discoveries had been uneven and vague, precluding definitive conclusions about the nature of ancient viticulture. The situation has now changed. During the 2013 excavation season of the Kabri Archaeological Project, a rare opportunity materialized when forty large storage vessels were found in situ in an enclosed room located to the west of the central courtyard within the Middle Bronze Age Canaanite palace. A comprehensive program of organic residue analysis has now revealed that all of the relatively uniform jars contain evidence for wine. Furthermore, the enclosed context inherent to a singular intact wine cellar presented an unprecedented opportunity for a scientifically intensive study, allowing for the detection of subtle differences in the ingredients or additives within similar wine jars of apparently the same vintage. Additives seem to have included honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cedar oil, cyperus, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon, all or most of which are attested in the 18th century BC Mari texts from Mesopotamia and the 15th century BC Ebers Papyrus from Egypt. These additives suggest a sophisticated understanding of the botanical landscape and the pharmacopeic skills necessary to produce a complex beverage that balanced preservation, palatability, and psychoactivity. This new study has resulted in insights unachievable in the past, which contribute to a greater understanding

  5. Validation of sensitivity and reliability of GPR and microgravity detection of underground cavities in complex urban settings: Test case of a cellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromčák, Jakub; Grinč, Michal; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Kubová, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We test here the feasibility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity methods in identifying underground voids, such as cellars, tunnels, abandoned mine-workings, etc., in complex urban conditions. For this purpose, we selected a cellar located under a private lot in a residential quarter of the town of Senec in Western Slovakia, which was discovered by chance when a small sinkhole developed on the yard just two meters away from the house. The size of our survey area was limited 1) by the presence of a technical room built at the back of the yard with a staircase leading to the garden, and 2) by the small width of the lot. Therefore the geophysical survey was carried out only in the backyard of the lot as we were not permitted to measure on neighbouring estates. The results from the GPR measurements obtained by the GSSI SIR-3000 system with 400 MHz antenna were visualized in the form of 2D radargrams with the corresponding transformed velocity model of studied cross-sections. Only the profiles running over the pavement next to the house yielded interpretable data because the local geological situation and the regular watering of the lawn covering prevailingly the backyard caused significant attenuation of the emitted GPR signal. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a distinctive negative anomaly indicating the presence of a shallow underground void. The quantitative interpretation by means of Euler deconvolution was utilized to validate the depth of the center and location of the cellar. Comparison with the gravitational effect of the cellar model calculated in the in-house program Polygrav shows a quite good correlation between the modelled and observed fields. Only a part of the aerial extent of the anomaly could be traced by the used geophysical methods due to accessibility issues. Nevertheless, the test cellar was successfully detected and interpreted by both methods, thus confirming their applicability in similar environmental and geotechnical

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  7. 论小水窖工程的技术要点%Technical Points of Small Water Cellar Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢贤品

    2014-01-01

    从2009年以来,华坪县遭遇了历史罕见干旱,给全县生产生活用水带来严重影响,农业生产损失巨大。尤其是山区和半山区水利工程严重不足,水利基础设施极为薄弱,抗御自然灾害能力低,因而在旱灾中受影响最深最广,损失最严重。本文通过讲述水窖工程建设的特点,并指出了工程建设和建后管护存在着的普遍问题,在此基础上,笔者在加强水窖工程建设方面的提出一些建议。%Since 2009, Huaping County experienced unprecedented drought, which had a serious impact on production and living water and caused huge losses in agricultural production. Especially the mountains and low mountainous areas are serious shortage of the water conservancy projects, and water infrastructure is extremely weak, ability to combat natural disasters is low, thus these areas were most affected by drought and had the most severe loss. By talking about construction features of water cellar project, this article pointed out the general problems in the management and protection of the project construction and after construction, on this basis, made a number of recommendations for strengthening water cellar project building.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives

  10. Wine and power. A spatial and stratigraphical study of the pottery and glass assemblages from the wine cellar in Bergen, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tøssebro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the centre of medieval Bergen lies the ruin of a stone building that contained the medieval town hall, the court room, prison cells and the Wine Cellar with the communal taproom. The building was constructed around 1300. In the Wine Cellar, the city council and later the Hanseatic kontor had royal monopoly on the small-scale wine sale in the town and received profits. This building complex is strongly related to a larger North European urbanization process, and cultural impulses brought to Bergen by German traders and craftsmen of the Hanseatic League. The aim of this article is to present a spatial and stratigraphic analysis of the archaeological material, more specifically the pottery and glass assemblages, recovered in the taproom of the Wine Cellar (room 1. I also try to assess this institution into a social context and address questions related to the link between wine, power and social distinctions in late medieval and early modern urban society. The stratigraphy shows that room 1 was sub-divided into smaller rooms, and the distribution of the archaeological material indicates that the different rooms had different functions and use, possibly related to the consumption of different kinds of alcoholic beverages and to social distinctions. This concept is also known from other contemporary wine cellars in the North German area like in Lübeck and Bremen, and puts this building and institution into a larger North European network that is related to the appearance of a new social elite in the growing towns.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  13. The male genital system of the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775 (Pholcidae, Araneae: development of spermatozoa and seminal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhl Gabriele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most arthropods pass through several molting stages (instars before reaching sexual maturity. In spiders, very little is known about the male genital system, its development and seminal secretions. For example, it is unknown whether spermatozoa exist prior to-, or only after the final molt. Likewise, it is unclear whether sperm are produced throughout male adulthood or only once in a lifetime, as is whether seminal secretions contain factors capable of manipulating female behavior. In order to shed light on these aspects of the reproductive biology of spiders, we investigated the male genital system of the common cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides, with special emphasis on its development and seminal secretions. Results Testes already display all stages of spermatogenesis in subadult males (about four weeks before the final molt. Their vasa deferentia possess proximally a very voluminous lumen containing dense seminal fluid and few spermatozoa, whereas the distal part is seemingly devoid of contents. Spermatoza of P. phalangioides are typical cleistospermia with individual secretion sheaths. In male stages approximately two weeks prior to the final molt, the lumina of the testes are wider and filled with a dense secretion. The wide, proximal portion of the vasa deferentia is filled with secretion and a large number of spermatozoa, and the narrow distal part also contains secretion. In adult males, the wide lumina of the testes are packed with spermatozoa and secretions. The latter are produced by the somatic cells that bear microvilli and contain many vesicles. The lumina of the vasa deferentia are narrow and filled with spermatozoa and secretions. We could identify a dense matrix of secretion consisting of mucosubstances and at least three types of secretion droplets, likely consisting of proteinaceous substances. Conclusion This study reveals that spermatogenesis begins weeks before maturity and takes place continuously in

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  17. 从湘窖酒业工业园区看企业文化的建筑表达%Study on the Enterprise Culture Architectural Expression from Hunan Wine Cellar Industrial Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 王小凡

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on Hunan cellar wine business Limited company industrial park as the research subject.By analyzing its corporate culture background,the entire distribution characteristics,the vertical surface modeling performance and the space environmental design,this research paper discusses the organizational culture integrated by industrial park,and proposes the development trend and importance of integration.%以湖南湘窖酒业有限公司工业园区为研究对象,通过对其企业文化背景、总体布局特点、立面造型表现、空间环境设计的分析,论述工业园区建筑所融合的企业文化,指出这种结合趋势的必然性和重要性。

  18. 粗滤技术在西北村镇集雨窖水处理中的预处理研究%Research on Pre-treatment of Crude Filter Techniques in Cellar Rainwater Treatment in the Northwest Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武福平; 李旭; 李舜; 刘晓东; 张国珍

    2012-01-01

    According to the water pollution situation of the rainwater cellar in northwest town, the pre-treatment effect of the crude filter technique is studied through the filed experiment. The biological stable is determined by the natural biofilm.and its influencing factors are analyzed. The results show that the crude fil-ter technique has a good treatment in cellar rainwater in the northwest town and has a good removal efficiency to the pollutions that are common in cellar water such as turbidity,organic matters,ammonia nitrogen, microbiology indecators. In the case that the filtration rate in the control 0. lm/h and the water temperature is 17. 1 ~ 21. 4 ℃,the biofilm forms for about 40 to 50 days. The average ammonia-nitrogen is 0. 47 mg/L,and ammonia-nitrogen removel reaches up to 64. 28%. The average CODMn, is 2. 63 mg/L,and CODMn, removel reaches up to 48. 11%. The average turbidity is 2. 27NTU,and turbidity removel reaches up to 89. 71 %. This water purification technology process is simple, without any drugs, with easy operation and management,and it is fit for northwest village household as a unit of distributed pit water treatment.%针对西北村镇集雨窖水的微污染特征,通过现场实验研究了粗滤技术对窖水的预处理效果.通过自然挂膜确定了膜的生物稳定期,并对其影响因素进行了分析.结果表明:粗滤净水技术能有效地处理西北村镇集雨窖水,对窖水常见的污染物如浊度、有机物、氨氮及微生物学指标有良好的去除效果.在粗滤系统滤速控制在0.1m/h,水温在17.1~21.4℃的情况下,生物膜形成时间大约在40~50d.出水氨氮平均0.47mg/L,氨氮去除率最高达64.28%;出水CODMm平均2.63mg/L,CODMn去除率最高达到48.11%.出水浊度平均2.27 NTU,浊度去除率最高达到89.71%;该净水技术工艺简单,无需投药,操作管理方便,适用于西北村镇以户为单位的分散式窖水生物慢滤处理的预处理.

  19. 小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水——窖底水厌氧产甲烷及其替代锅炉燃煤的研究%Anaerobic Methane-production and Substituting Coal Burning Boiler of Bottom Pot Water and Bottom Cellar Water in the Small and Sauce Sweet Model Liquor Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊诚; 刘煦晴; 向家新; 向科; 黄羽

    2011-01-01

    对小型酱香型白酒企业锅底水、窖底水及其三者的混合液分别按中温厌氧、高温厌氧在实验室进行COD去除率及其沼气产率的条件试验.结果表明:在控制的HRT内,单独的锅底水、窖底水COD去除率均难以突破90%.高温厌氧,不同的窖底水与锅底水体积比试验条件下,体积比为1:5时,混合样的COD去除率最佳,可达91.7%;HRT 24 h的高温厌氧COD去除及产沼气效果明显优于HRT 48 h的中温厌氧;厌氧产甲烷的适宜pH为7.0芹右.以贵州省茅台镇郑氏酒业有限公司600 t/a改扩建工程为例,按优选的厌氧产气条件,全厂锅底水、窖底水、酒糟1:1浸出液厌氧产沼气可替代本厂现有的2台0.5 t/h燃煤锅炉204.8 t/a燃煤量.实验结果为小型白酒企业高浓度有机废水的厌氧处理及沼气的回收利用提供了科学依据.%Using mesotherm and hyperthermy anaerobic methods respectively, the condition test on the COD removal rate and methane productivity of bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and the mixed liquor in the small and sauce sweet model liquor enterprise is studied. Result of the testing demonstrates that, in the controlled HRT, the COD removal rates of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water alone are both lower than 90%.While the volume ratio of bottom pot water and bottom cellar water is 1: 5, the COD removal in the mixed liquor is up to 91.7%, much better than any other condition. And the COD removal and methane production effect of 24h-HRT hyperthermy is obviously excellent, compared with 48h-HRT mesotherm anaerobic condition. Besides, the best suitable pH value of anaerobic methane-production is 7.0. Taking 600 t/a expansion project of Maotai Town Zheng Wine Co, Ltd in Guizhou Province for example, under optimized anaerobic methane-production conditions, the anaerobic methane from bottom pot water, bottom cellar water and distillers'grain lixivium( 1: 1 ) in the whole factory can replace the existing coal

  20. Application research of roughing and slow filtering techniques on rainwater collecting cellar water treatment in the towns in Northwest China%粕滤慢滤技术在西北村镇集雨窖水处理中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国珍; 李舜; 刘晓冬; 杨公博; 武福平

    2012-01-01

    针对西北村镇集雨窖水污染现状,采用粗滤慢滤组合净水工艺进行了现场试验研究.通过自然挂膜确定了膜的生物稳定期,并对其影响因素进行了分析.结果表明:粗滤慢滤小型净水装置能有效地处理西北村镇集雨窖水.对窖水的浊度、有机物、氨氮及微生物学指标有良好的去除效果.在粗滤慢滤装置滤速控制在0.1 m/h的情况下,生物膜生长期为40~50 d.在生物膜形成之后,出水氨氮平均0.285 mg/L,氨氮去除率最高达78.35%;出水CODMn平均2.27 mg/L,CODMn去除率最高达到61.58%.出水浊度平均0.56 NTU,浊度去除率最高达到98.99%.该净水技术工艺简单,无需投药,操作管理方便,适用于西北村镇等以户为单位的分散式窖水处理.%According to the current water pollution situation in the rainwater of collecting cellars in the towns in Northwest China, a spot experiment research was carried out to study the roughing and slow filtering process in this paper. Through the natural biofilm culturing, the biological stable stage of the bio-film was determined and the influential factors were also analyzed. The results showed.- small scale of roughing and slow filtering equipment could effectively treat the rainwater of collecting cellar in the towns in Northwest China This process could satisfactorily remove the normal pollutants in cellar water, such as turbidity, organics, ammonia, and microbiology indexes. If the filtering rate of roughing and slow filtering process was controlled under 0. 1 m/h, the biofilm growth period was about 40 to 50 days. After the constructing of biofilm, the average ammonia in effluent was 0. 285 mg/L, and the maximum ammonia removal rate could reach 78. 35 % -, average CODMn in effluent was 2. 27 mg/L and its maximum removal rate was 61. 58%. The average turbidity in effluent was 0. 56 NTU, and the maximum turbidity removal rate was 98. 99%. This water purification technology had the

  1. 西班牙卡蒙纳的巴特勒酒窟——个与乡土相关的生物气候学建筑%The Batlle Wine Cellar in Gramona of Spain——A Local Bio-climate Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏阿茜·丹尔(嫒); 邱治平

    2011-01-01

    Europe's grape growing has undergone restructuring since 1990s. Gramona, a Spanish family liquor enterprise, moved away from the old building in the city center under this tendency and constructed a new building. In the first phase engineering in 2001, the architect reached the goal of minimizing energy consumption and optimizing the working space. In the second phase engineering in 2008, the architect Soazig Darnay takes an integrated consideration of the logic of visitor reception, the whole cellar building, its production and the surrounding environment. The project is based on the harmony of the cellar, the fields and the nearby mountains.%自20世纪90年代始,欧洲大陆的葡萄种植进入了结构调整期.卡蒙纳,一个西班牙的家庭式酒酿造企业,在这个倾向下迁离市中心的陈旧结构,修建了一座新的建筑体.在2001年第一期工程期间,建筑师达到了能量消耗减低和工作空间最优化的指标.在2008年的第二期工程规划期间,景观设计师苏阿茜·丹尔(嫒)(Soazig Darnay)对游人接待的逻辑和整座酒窟建筑及其生产活动与周边环境之融为一体进行了思考.项日建立在酒窟、田野和临近的山川和谐的概念上.

  2. 利用微生物生产多粮浓香型白酒粮香、糟香、窖香风味物质的研究%Research on Flavor Substances About Incense of Grains.Cellar and distiller's Grains of Multiple-grains Luzhou-flavor Liquor Produced by Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义正; 尹昌树; 刘波; 陈大理; 岳明生

    2012-01-01

    以筛选出的5株对宜宾多粮浓香型白酒酒体独特风格(粮香、糟香、窖香)起主要作用的微生物菌株进行风味物质的生产,确定了多菌种混合发酵的培养模式。对发酵液进行超临界CO2萃取的最佳工艺:萃取压力15MPa,萃取温度45℃,CO2流量为10L/h,分离压力为7MPa,分离温度为50℃,解析釜分离压力为4.5~6.0MPa,温度为55℃,萃取时间为4h。%Flavor substances were productod by 5 microbial strains which were filtered out and played a major role to Yibin multi-grain fragrant liquor unique style (incense of grains,cellar and distiller's grains). The mode of the multi-species mixed fermentation culture were determined. Optimum process of Supercritieal CO2 extraction: extraction pressure 15MPa, extraction temperature 45℃, CO2 flow rate of 10L/h, Separation pressure 7MPa, Separation temperature 50 ℃, resolve kettle separation pressure 4.5 -6.0MPa, the temperature of 55 ℃, extraction time 4h.

  3. Unrecognized potentials in the cellar; Unerkannte Potenziale im Keller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Manfred

    2013-06-15

    For years, it is known to the lobbyists of the decentralized technology that the time of the great dinosaurs under the power plants has expired. Small engines and turbines has long been existing in a manifold manner - but there is still a long way in order to use these small engines and turbines for reliable control energy.

  4. Australian Wine Tourism: Establishing a Career Path at the Cellar Door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kim Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Wine tourism in Australia has grown substantially in recent years and contributes to employment opportunities in regional areas. To meet the requirements of this growing sector, workers need a considerable degree of skill-specific training; development of wine tourism personnel will be required. This article examines challenging human resource…

  5. 27 CFR 4.22 - Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise specified in this section, be designated with a truthful and adequate statement of composition in... methods or materials of any kind to such an extent or in such manner as to affect the basic composition of... derived from fruit or other agricultural products having a high normal acidity, if the total...

  6. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking.

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of water soluble ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots for cellar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xiangdong; Wang, Yan; Li, Xuequan; Ding, Li; Zhong, Wenying

    2013-03-01

    Strong fluorescence and low cytotoxicity ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a facile aqueous phase route. It overcame the defects such as instability and low quantum yield of the quantum dots synthesized by early aqueous phase route. L-Glutathione (GSH) and 3-mercaptopropaonic acid (MPA) were used as mixture stabilizers to synthesize high quality ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and their optical properties were investigated by using UV-vis spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer (FL), IR spectrophotometer and confocal laser scanning microscope. The synthesized ZnSe/ZnS QDs illuminated blue fluorescence under ultraviolet lamp. Its water-soluble property is excellent and the fluorescence intensity of ZnSe/ZnS QDs almost did not change after 4 months at room temperature. The average diameter of ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals is about 3 nm and quantum yield (QY) could reach to 70.6% after repeat determination. Low cytotoxicity was ensured by investigated SCG7901 and RAW264.7 cells. In comparison with cadmium based nanocrystals, ZnSe/ZnS QDs posed low cytotoxicity. The cells viability remained 96.7% when the QDs concentration was increased to 10 μmol/L. The results in vitro indicate that ZnSe/ZnS QDs-based probes have good stability, low toxicity and biocompatibility for fluorescence imaging in cancer model system.

  8. Cellar Mud in the Role of the Two%窖泥在酿酒中的两个作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡鹏飞; 邵传贞; 姚庆乐; 李沙沙; 于文娟; 许玲

    2011-01-01

    通过检测、观察和试验,证明窖泥在浓香型白酒发酵过程中,发挥着两个重要的作用:1,作为微生物的栖息容器,向入池粮醅中提供发酵产香微生物,发酵生成浓香型白酒中的香味物质;2,发挥"以窖养糟"的作用,向酒醅中渗透其经过长期发酵吸附的挥发性微量香味成分,使酒味更加丰满和谐。%Through testing,observation and experiment,that mud pit in the process of fermentation liquor,play two important roles: one as a microbial habitat containers into the pool to provide food grains in the microbial fermentation of fragrant,fermented concentrated the flavor-flavor Liquor;2,play the conservation of fermented grains role,to the fermented grains after a long fermentation in the penetration of the adsorption of trace volatile flavor components,so that alcohol is more full and harmonious.

  9. Welding repair process to bottom cast iron ash cellar of gas making furnace%造气炉炉底铸铁灰仓焊补工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔家怀

    2008-01-01

    通过对造气炉炉底灰仓的多次焊补,总结了比较成熟的焊前准备、焊接方法和工艺操作要领及对焊接设备、焊工资格、焊接环境等方面的要求,实践证明,该工艺是成功的.

  10. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion. PMID:23745118

  11. Study on Pretreatment Technology and Method Research of Cellar Rainwater in Villages and Towns of Northwestern China%西北村镇集雨窖水前处理技术与方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 张国珍; 武福平; 尹振珑

    2014-01-01

    Traditional rural rainwater collection and utilization on rain water collection,compared to the safe han-dling of not doing enough to rain water rainwater collection,pretreatment equipment including net crude water slow-ly into system device,hydraulic cyclone desander;treatment structures with a labyrinth sedimentation tank;ecolog-ical treatment facilities have artificial ecosystems;slow-release sterilization emerging technology,provides a new way for rainwater treatment.The water quality of different water pretreatment were to improve rainwater for the pur-pose,through the experimental results,explores their respective advantages and disadvantages and application scope.Traditional rural rainwater collection and utilization on rain water collection,compared to the safe handling of not doing enough to rain water rainwater collection,pretreatment equipment including net crude water slowly into system device,hydraulic cyclone desander;treatment structures with a labyrinth sedimentation tank;ecological treatment facilities have artificial ecosystems;slow-release sterilization emerging technology,provides a new way for rainwater treatment.The water quality of different water pretreatment were to improve rainwater for the purpose, through the experimental results,explores their respective advantages and disadvantages and application scope.%在西北干旱和半干旱地区,传统的农村雨水利用注重的是收集的雨水水量,相比较对雨水水质的安全处理做的不够。集雨窖水作为生活饮用水,对当地居民健康损害严重,对其相应的前处理是后续深度处理开展的关键。集雨窖水前处理装置设备包括粗慢虑系统净水装置、水利旋流除砂器;处理构筑物有迷宫沉淀池;生态处理设施有人工生态系统;新兴的缓释消毒技术应用前景广阔。集雨窖水的前处理有效的降低了深度处理的难度,并节约了窖水的处理成本。

  12. As arquitecturas do vinho de um porto monofuncional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Abrunhosa Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a study of the Gaia trading centre, based on the importance of the Port Wine cellars in shaping the urban zone of the riverside area. The research focuses on the different types of cellars and their potential use for other activities, thus maintaining the identity of the area. Cellars could and should continue as structures dedicated to wine, but with different functions, since they are a part of an centuries-old port that is no longer monofunctional nor can it be so in the future.

  13. 78 FR 53503 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...), Formulas Online (FONL), and COLAs (Generic). Abstract: In an ongoing effort to improve customer service... coverage for adjacent wine cellars. The bond may be secured through a surety company or it may be...

  14. 多重胁迫对嗜盐四联球菌CGMCC 3792存活率及细胞成分的影响%Influence of multiple stresses on the survival and cellar constituent of Tetragenococcus halophilus CGMCC 3792

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何桂强; 冯笑; 吴重德; 黄钧; 周荣清

    2016-01-01

    本研究以嗜盐四联球菌(Tetragenococcus halophilus CGMCC 3792)为实验菌株,考察了单因素(酸、热、盐)胁迫和交互保护对其存活的影响.结果表明,T.halophilus CGMCC 3792在pH4.0和45 ℃预适应处理60 min后细胞对酸致死胁迫(pH2.5,60 min)的存活率分别提高了10.6倍和8.8倍.此外,还考察了酸胁迫对细胞膜不饱和脂肪酸和胞内氨基酸含量的影响,结果表明,酸预适应后再经酸致死胁迫导致细胞膜不饱和脂肪酸18∶1n-9和18∶2n-6,9含量增加,分别是直接经酸致死胁迫的2.3倍和2.0倍;同时,分析胞内氨基酸含量,胞内谷氨酸、天冬氨酸、亮氨酸和异亮氨酸浓度分别是直接经酸致死胁迫的2.5倍、2.4倍、2.2倍和2.7倍.研究结果将有助于进一步解析嗜盐四联球菌环境胁迫抗性的生理机制.

  15. Marketingová strategie vinného sklepu

    OpenAIRE

    Habartová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis Marketing strategy of wine cellar will introduce strategic mareting and service marketing in theoretical part. Furthermore, in the theoretical part, I write about the segmentation, targeting and positioning. The practical part is devoted to the story of wine cellar, statistical data about wine and competition analysis. The most part of the practical part deals with questionnaire. The results of this investigation should be useful to the proper market segmentation, targeting and...

  16. Temporary protection of building excavation using jet grouting pilots with double anchoring Extent and equipment: page 119

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Mile

    2007-01-01

    In its first part this work focuses on the description and utilization of the “Jet Grouting” procedure as well as the description of soil examination with a standard penetration test (for the concrete object), which determines the characteristics of the soil layers and the physical characteristics of the ground. The client wishes to realize three cellars. To that end a layout of jet grouting columns has been prepared with a deviation from the reinforced concrete wall of the cellar. The deviat...

  17. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Baita radon-prone area (Romania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucos, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dicu, Tiberius, E-mail: tiberius.dicu@ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Nita, Dan; Burghele, Bety [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Sainz, Carlos [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n., 39011, Santander (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Baita radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Baita, Nucet, Finate, and Cimpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was found to be 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}, which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m{sup -3}, computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, p < 0.001, n = 82). For houses built during 1960-1970 an increasing trend for radon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p > 0.05). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings was clearly evidenced

  18. Short report on the excavations at Brigetio (Szőny-Vásártér in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Borhy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 2013 season at the site Brigetio/Szőny-Vásártér were concentrated on unearthing a cellar which had been found in 2012 as well as taking observations in the vicinity of the previously excavated metal-workshop nearby. According to these aims, we opened 12 sections – on both new and already excavated places – on a total surface of 210 m2, where a cellar with collapsed wooden ceiling and remains of other organic materials, and several objects indicating metalworking activity were found.

  19. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  20. 27 CFR 31.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the production of beer. CFR. The Code of Federal Regulations. Dealer. Any person who sells, or... 27 CFR Part 31, Alcohol Beverage Dealers. Beer. Beer, ale, porter, stout, and other similar fermented... establishment qualified under this chapter for the production, blending, cellar treatment, storage,...

  1. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine to ...

  2. 27 CFR 28.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Regulations (19 CFR chapter I). Customs officer. Any officer of the Customs Service or any... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR part 28, Exportation of Alcohol. Beer. Beer, ale, porter, stout, and other... authorized to be conducted. Bonded wine cellar. Premises established under part 24 of this chapter for...

  3. 北京张裕爱斐堡国际酒庄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Beijing Chateau Changyu AFIP Global is a European-style resort located in Miyun County of Beijing. Here await leafy avenues of Chinar trees, vineyards for grape picking, a Gothic castle, European-style town, extensive wine cellars, the Changyu History Museum and a scenic leisure area where visitors can drink their fill of wine culture, while relaxing close to nature.

  4. 张格爱斐堡国际酒庄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Beijing Chateau Changyu AFIP Global is a European-style resort located in Miyun County of Beijing. Here await leafy avenues of Chinar trees, vineyards for grape picking, a Gothic castle, European-style town, extensive wine cellars, the Changyu History Museum and a scenic leisure area where visitors can drink their fill of wine culture, while relaxing close to nature.

  5. 40 CFR 21.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. 1151, et seq. (f) Pollutant means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage..., wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste... CFR part 121, and regulations of the Small Business Administration promulgated thereunder. (b)...

  6. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  7. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in...

  8. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  9. 78 FR 40491 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...: 61201320025 Status: Excess Directions: Combs House; garage; cellar; milk house; workshop; barn; hay barn... State Road 230 & Spring Creek Meade KY 40108 Landholding Agency: GSA Property Number: 54201320019 Status: Excess GSA Number: 4-D-KY-0539-6-AE Directions: Disposal Agency: GSA; Landholding Agency: COE...

  10. Accident at chemically hazardous enterprises: numerical simulation of the process of neutralizing the toxic gas over the building roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Belyaev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2D numerical model was used to simulate the toxic gas neutralization when this gas flows from the opening in the cellar of the building. The helicopter is used to supply the neutralizer. The model is based on the K-gradient transport model and equation of potential flow. The results of numerical experiment are presented.

  11. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  12. THE LEAN SIX SIGMAAPPROACH FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN A HIGH QUALITY TUSCANY WINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of a Lean Six Sigma (LSS project to a winemaking process in a high-quality, Italian winery. LSS is used to focus on the problem through a quantitative analysis of waste and quality performances. The LSS basic algorithm (called “DMAIC” helps to detect and quantify critical aspects of the process for transferring liquid used in the cellar. The improvement solution is developed and applied through the modification of the cellar system and the process procedure. The results obtained with this solution are shown and discussed in this paper, so too the long term reliability of the improved process analyzed. The results obtained by this case study can help to understand the importance of the LSS method to drive the improvement of agricultural and agrofood productions also in terms of environmental impact which is strongly connected to waste reduction.

  13. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  14. Newly identifi ed message for rescue and repair from necrotic cell: Biology and clinical relevance of“endokine, HMGB1”

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Ikuro; Ito, Takashi; HASHIGUCHI, Teruto

    2007-01-01

    Responses to stimuli in cellar level are diverse and such hierarchical as secretion of stored factors,synthesis of lipid mediators and protein synthesis through genomic transcription. However, how can the cellsrespond in the case of necrosis? Recently a characteristic intranuclear protein, high-mobility group box 1 protein(HMGB1) is released from necrotic cells. The protein is an abundant nuclear protein with a dual functionboth inside and outside the cells. In physiological state, HMGB1 is p...

  15. 井口硫化氢气体扩散及检测方法研究%Wellhead Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Diffusion and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴全; 李相方; 李玉军; 徐大融; 马龙; 任美鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对钻井过程中井口溢出的硫化氢气体在大气中扩散且难于检测的问题,建立井口位置流体力学模型.对无风和有风情况下硫化氢的浓度分布进行模拟,并对井口和方井处硫化氢检测方法进行研究.结果表明:无风情况下硫化氢气体容易在方井处积聚,风速对溢出口上部挡板空间硫化氢浓度分布影响很小,对方井处硫化氢浓度影响非常大.针对以上情况,建议在井口处安装倒置放置的扩散武传感器,方井处安装吸入武传感器.从而能更准确检测硫化氢浓度.%Build wellhead position hydrodynamics model , analog the hydrogen sulfide concentration in a condition of no wind or a wind and do researches about testing method of hydrogen sulfide at wellhead and cellar, aimed at hydrogen sulfide spreading and never being easily detected when it spills over from wellhead during drilling wells. It shows that without wind the hydrogen sulfide gas accumulates at the cellar and the speed of wind influents almost nothing on the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen sulfide at the board located in the wellhead and influents much to the hydrogen sulfide concentration at the cellar. Depending on that, a dispersive sensor upside down at the wellhead and a suction sensor at the cellar to test the hydrogen sulfide concentration accurately are suggested place.

  16. Heat from the full pipe. Heat distribution in buildings; Hitze aus vollem Rohr. Waermeverteilung im Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, Lutz [Dorsch und Hoffmann GmbH, Erkrath (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieeffizienz

    2011-01-15

    Who does not know that? During the inspection of the building one enters the actually unheated cellar. One already begins with sweating. However, the old boiler is not guilty of the too high temperatures in the basement. Also the armatures and pipes delivering the heat distribution frequently dispense their energy to the environment, long before thermal heat and hot drinking warm water reach their ultimate target position.

  17. The Man in the White Raincoat

    OpenAIRE

    Rév, István

    2013-01-01

    In the late morning of 30 October 1956, revolutionaries attacked the headquarters of the Budapest Party committee, next to the City Opera in the eighth district of the city. Most probably, it was not a well-planned, premeditated siege; the attack was triggered by unsubstantiated and never confirmed beliefs about the existence in the cellars of underground prisons and torture chambers with hundreds of prisoners, women and children among them. The Ministry of Defense sent six tanks to assist th...

  18. A Hedonic Price Function for Australian Premium Table Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Oczkowski, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A hedonic price function, relating the price of Australian wine to its attributes, is estimated. Six attribute groups are found to be statistically important in explaining deviations from average wine prices, i.e., quality, cellaring potential, grape variety/style, grape region, grape vintage and producer size. Various interaction terms between these variables and the impact of the year of marketing are also modelled. The consequent marketing implications for producers and consumers are discu...

  19. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Băiţa radon-prone area (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Dicu, Tiberius; Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Niţă, Dan; Burghele, Bety; Sainz, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Băiţa radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Băiţa, Nucet, Fînaţe, and Cîmpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Băiţa area was found to be 241±178 Bq m(-3), which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m(-3), computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, pradon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p>0.05).

  20. Volatile and sensory characterization of Xarel.lo white wines

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Bartra-Sebastian, E.; Puig-Pujol, A.; García-Cazorla, J.; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study based on the profiling and quantification of the volatile composition and the application of descriptive sensory analysis of 25 commercial monovarietal white wines (var. Xarel.lo) from different vintages and from representative wine cellars along the Penedés region (Catalonia, Spain) was performed in order to characterize representative wines that are being commercialized under the O.D. Penedés. In addition, relationships between the instrumental (volatile) and sensory v...

  1. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  2. Characterization of Cavities Using the GPR, LIDAR and GNSS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo-Martín, Miguel Angel; Herrero-Tejedor, Tomás Ramón; Lapazaran, Javier; Perez-Martin, Enrique; Otero, Jaime; Prieto, Juan F.; Velasco, Jesús

    2015-11-01

    The study of the many types of natural and manmade cavities in different parts of the world is important to the fields of geology, geophysics, engineering, architectures, agriculture, heritages and landscape. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive geodetection and geolocation technique suitable for accurately determining buried structures. This technique requires knowing the propagation velocity of electromagnetic waves (EM velocity) in the medium. We propose a method for calibrating the EM velocity using the integration of laser imaging detection and ranging (LIDAR) and GPR techniques using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) as support for geolocation. Once the EM velocity is known and the GPR profiles have been properly processed and migrated, they will also show the hidden cavities and the old hidden structures from the cellar. In this article, we present a complete study of the joint use of the GPR, LIDAR and GNSS techniques in the characterization of cavities. We apply this methodology to study underground cavities in a group of wine cellars located in Atauta (Soria, Spain). The results serve to identify construction elements that form the cavity and group of cavities or cellars. The described methodology could be applied to other shallow underground structures with surface connection, where LIDAR and GPR profiles could be joined, as, for example, in archaeological cavities, sewerage systems, drainpipes, etc.

  3. Preparation and Application of Corn Stalk Silage in High Altitude Areas%高海拔地区玉米秸秆的青贮制作及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德辉; 付照武

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation methods of corn stalk silage in high altitude areas, including constraction of silage cellar, preparation of corn stalk, placement of corn stalk into silage cellar, planishing corn stalk silage mound, sealing of silage cellar , terminal time of silage fermentation, test of corn stalk quality (character, odor, color, pH value, etc.) were introduced,and the silage feeding technology were also reviewed, so as to provide references for the full utilization of local corn and other forage resources and domestic animal breeding.%介绍了高海拔地区玉米秸秆的青贮方法(包括青贮窖制作、秸秆准备、秸秆入窖及平整压紧、封窖过程4个步骤),出窖时间,秸秆品质的检验(如质地、气味、颜色和pH值等),青贮饲料的饲喂技术,以期为当地玉米等饲草料资源的充分利用和家畜养殖提供参考。

  4. Bodegas subterráneas excavadas en tierra: Características de los suelos en la Ribera del Duero (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas, I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ground properties have a decisive effect on the interior conditions, as well as the integrity and durability of the underground wine cellars. The main objective of this paper is to determine the characteristics of the soils where these underground wine cellars have been dug. The results show that most of the soils present very similar plasticity and swelling properties. They are either concentrated in a very specific region of the plasticity chart or present zero plasticity. High-plasticity soils are uncommon, owing to the higher risk of swelling leading to stability problems in the wine cellars. In terms of grain size, silts and sands under 0.4 mm predominate, with a somewhat lower presence of clays. No wine cellars were found that had been dug in earth with very high plasticity or where gravels or clean sands predominate. We recommend that any new wine cellars should be excavated in earth with similar characteristics.

    Las propiedades de la tierra influyen de manera decisiva en las condiciones interiores, la integridad y la durabilidad de las bodegas subterráneas. El principal objetivo del presente artículo es determinar las características de los suelos donde se excavan las bodegas subterráneas. Los resultados demuestran que la mayoría de los suelos presentan unas características de plasticidad y expansibilidad muy similares. Se concentran en una región muy concreta de la carta de plasticidad o presentan plasticidad nula. Los suelos con alta plasticidad no son habituales, debido al mayor riesgo de sufrir expansiones y provocar problemas en las bodegas. En cuanto a granulometría predominan los limos y arenas menores de 0,4 mm, con un contenido en arcillas menor. No se han encontrado bodegas excavadas en terrenos con muy alta plasticidad, ni tampoco donde predominen gravas o arenas limpias. Recomendamos que las nuevas bodegas sean excavadas en terrenos de similares características.

  5. Investigation of various structures of DNA molecules (Ⅲ)——Coil-globe transition of λ-DNA induced by cationic surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯喜增; 林璋; 王琛; 白春礼

    1999-01-01

    The structure transition of λ-DNA induced by cationic surfactant cellar media was investigated by using CD, SEM and AFM. The experimental data of CD revealed that λ-DNA can be induced from B-form to a collapsed structure with the addition of the cationic surfactant CTAB to the system. The condensed process of λ-DNA from coil state to small globular state (diameter about 1.25 μm) and finally big globular state (diameter about 5.4 μm) was observed by using SEM and AFM.

  6. Turismo enológico y rutas del vino en Cataluña. Análisis de casos: D.O. Penedès, D.O. Priorat y D.O. Montsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse comparatively three Catalan D.O.: Montsant, Penedès and Priorat. After this three cases we can observe two different types of touristic wine promotion: one of them, emergent and with an interesting projection of future, with small and medium cellars who produces high quality wines; the other example is a known destination in process of establishment and maturation with a strong influence of multinational enterprises. After this two examples we can analyse the state of the art and the problem of the wine tourism in both destinations, trying also to do different re-commendations.

  7. How MBA programs help the wine producers to innovate creating new employments?

    OpenAIRE

    Veissiere Delphine

    2015-01-01

    People love innovation: they are fascinating and usually curious to know how it works. But people love it until it affects them. The biggest obstacle is not technology but it is we humans and the institutions we live in. Both are stubbornly resistant to experimentation and to the change of the routine and the relative corporate organization. During the last fifteen years, a large room has been opened to the technological innovation in the vineyard and in the cellar but the new way to reach th...

  8. Expedition of 5 strontium-90 (90Sr) sources toward tobacco Honduran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the different activities that were carried out in relation to the identification of 5 strontium-90 sources and the technical consultantship in the related to the administration of the permission in the face of the regulatory authority of the country, for the transfer from the sources to the tobacco hondurena. The report covers the operation related to smear tests, identification and packing of the labeled sources of the container, that which took place in the cellar 19 located in the properties of the tobacco Nicaraguan (TANIC), in the period of February 21 at May 5 the 2000

  9. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  10. James E.Thompson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ When fresh-faced college graduate James Thompson,an employee of a removals firm for US military personnel stationed in Japan,lost his job in 1964,he emptied his savings account,cashed in his plane ticket back to the US,and started his own company.Thirty-four years on,Thompson's firm,Crown Worldwide,has become one of the world's largest relocation and specialist logistics firms,with offices in more than 50 countries offering a diverse portfolio of services ranging from traditional moving services to fine art transportation and wine cellaring.

  11. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  12. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  13. Post-mining in Walloon region; L'apres-mine en region wallonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, R. [Liege Univ. (Belgium); Delbeuck, C.; Flamion, B. [Direction Generale des Ressources naturelles et de l' Environnement, Jambes (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    several studies are presently undertaken in the Walloon Region so as to assess the long term environmental impact caused by the shutting down of coal mines and their pumping operations. In many locations, new problems are encountered, such as sudden underground water appearance at hill slopes, coal heaps instability or flooding of underground cellars. Slope instability increase risks. The main goals of the presented studies are to suppress or at least to limit those risks and inconveniences and propose solutions to be implemented in the framework of the existing dewatering facilities built by the Walloon Region and local authorities in mines induced subsidence areas. (authors)

  14. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  15. Switching modalities in a sentence verification task: ERP evidence for embodied language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ann Hald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In an ERP experiment using written language materials only, we investigated a potential modulation of the N400 by the Modality Switch Effect. The Modality Switch Effect occurs when a first sentence, describing a fact grounded in one modality, is followed by a second sentence describing a second fact grounded in a different modality. For example, A cellar is dark (visual, was preceded by either another visual property Ham is pink or by a tactile property A mitten is soft. We also investigated whether the Modality Switch Effect occurs for false sentences (A cellar is light. We found that, for true sentences, the ERP at the underlined critical word dark elicited a significantly greater frontal, early N400-like effect (270-370 ms when there was a modality mismatch than when there was a modality match. This pattern was not found for the false sentences. Results similar to the frontal negativity were obtained in a late time window (500-700 ms. The obtained ERP effect is similar to one previously obtained for pictures. We conclude that in this paradigm we obtained fast access to conceptual properties for modality matched pairs, which leads to embodiment effects similar to those previously obtained with pictorial stimuli.

  16. Breeding places of Phlebotomus ariasi in the cevennes focus of leishmaniasis in the south of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick-Kendrick, R

    1987-01-01

    In a search for sandfly breeding sites in the Cévennes, France, six larvae of Phlebotomus ariasi were found in rotted manure in a cellar housing goats, and six adult flies of the same species were collected from emergence traps, one in the same cellar and five on a disused refuse dump. No sandflies were found emerging from holes of long-tailed field mice (Apodemus spp.) and no sandfly larvae were extracted from 77 kg (dry weight) and 130 kg (undried weight) of samples of soil or litter from different places. Total catches and the proportions of male flies in CDC miniature light traps were much higher in peridomestic than silvatic stations. About 15% of males caught in 3 peridomestic stations had unrotated genitalia. It is concluded that the larval breeding sites of P. ariasi are probably peridomestic and have a high content of organic matter. Observations on colonized P. ariasi show that, although immature stages of this fly need moisture, their requirements are comparatively low. It is suggested that female P. ariasi choose oviposition sites by sensing the presence of immature stages already in an optimal place. PMID:3508261

  17. 微环境与酿酒%Microenvironment and Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万廷荃; 吴衍庸; 何志礼; 赵敏

    2013-01-01

    微环境单元可确保窖泥功能菌在其中生长良好。由微环境单元添加多孔物质组成的新型窖泥水分养分微流动性甚佳,用其做成的窖泥层能克服传统窖泥层之“表面效应”,窖池老熟快,优级品比率高。“功能曲”能使窖池中各部糟醅都出好酒。%Micro environment unit can ensure the pit mud functional bacteria grew well. New pit mud, which made up of environment unit with porous material, its water and nutrient micro liquidity is very good, and can overcome the surface effect of traditional pit mud layer, the cellar aging fast, high quality product rate. Function qu can make the grains of different cellar produce good wine.

  18. EL COOPERATIVISMO VITIVINíCOLA EN LA UNIóN EUROPEA Y ESPAñA. UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO EN LA DENOMINACIóN DE ORIGEN DE ALICANTE/THE WINE GROWING COOPERATIVISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND SPAIN. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN THE ORIGIN DENOMINATION OF ALICANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo MELIÁN NAVARRO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El cooperativismo vitivinícola es una importante realidad en los países de la Unión Europea, sobre todo en Francia e Italia donde se ubican las principales bodegas cooperativas europeas. En este trabajo se efectúa una caracterización del cooperativismo vitivinícola en la Unión Europea y España, con especial interés en una zona geográfica determinada, la correspondiente a la Denominación de Origen (D.O. Alicante, donde se realiza un estudio exploratorio a nivel de significación y representatividad de las bodegas cooperativas frente al total de empresas vitivinícolas (S.A., S.L. y empresas particulares en las principales magnitudes de producción y comercialización. Por otra parte se presenta un estudio empírico, centrado en un análisis bivariante basado en una encuesta realizada a las bodegas de la D.O. Alicante durante el periodo de marzo a junio de 2007, con la finalidad de conocer el sector desde la perspectiva de la oferta./The wine growing cooperativism is an important fact in the European countries, overall in France and Italy where the main European cooperative wine cellars. In this study a portrayal of cooperativism in the European Union and Spain, with special interest in a concrete geographic area, the one referred to the Origin Denomination of Alicante where a exploratory study in a level of signification and representativeness in the cooperative wine cellars in opposition to the wine growing companies (S.A. and S.L. and private companies in the main magnitudes of production and marketing. On the other hand, an empiric study is presented, focused on a bivariant analysis based on a survey carried out in the wine cellars of the Origin Denomination of Alicante for a period from March to June of 2007, with the aim of knowing the sector from an offer perspective.

  19. Study on Tat Mediated Magnetic Nanoparticles Having Composite Targeting Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; HUANG Jie; ZHAO Ai-jie; KANG Chun-sheng; CHANG Jin; PU Pei-yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new formulation of magnetic nanoparticles coated by a novel polymer matrix-O-Carboxylmethylated Chitosan (O-CMC) as a drug/gene carrier. The O-CMC magnetic nanoparticles were derivatized with a peptide sequence from the HIV-tat protein and transferrin to improve the translocationai property and cellar uptake of the nanoparticles. To evaluate the O-MNPsTat-Tf as a drug carrier, Methotrexate (MTX) was incorporated as a model drug and MTX-Ioaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf with an average diameter of 75 nm were prepared and characterized by TEM, AFM and VSM. The cytotoxicity of MTX-Ioaded OMNPs-Tat-Tf was investigated with C6 cells. The results showed that the MTXloaded O-MNPs-Tat-Tf retained significant antitumor toxicity.

  20. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (p<0.05). This is the first study that evaluates the toasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. PMID:27211676

  1. Effects of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Timón, M L; Ventanas, J

    1998-06-01

    Fifty-five hams from Iberian pigs were processed using two different dry-curing techniques, traditional and modern. Salt content, non-protein nitrogen and its fractions (peptide, amino acid and volatile basic nitrogen) from Biceps femoris muscles were quantified. The existence of an overlapping effect of both temperature and salt content on the general non-protein nitrogen production was observed. The most intense proteolytic breakdown took place when higher temperatures were reached during the drying stage. The difference in salt concentration seems to contribute to generating different quantities in the non-protein nitrogen fractions. The inclusion at the end of the cellar stage of a stuffing period would permit increasing the accumulation of free amino acid in high salted hams.

  2. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J

    2001-12-01

    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  3. Developing a multidimensional framework for wine tourist behavior: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alebaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for a better empirical understanding of the multiple factors that drive the demand of wine tourism, this paper serves a twofold objective: first, to test the distinctiveness of motivations for visiting a wine region along with a winery; and secondly, to explore whether geographical distance between tourists׳ place of origin and the wine region can add to the ability of other wine consumer/tourist variables (product involvement; product knowledge; wine tourist identity; past experience to predict specific aspects of wine tourist behavior. In doing so, quantitative survey data were collected from 381 visitors of 12 wineries located in Northern Greece. Results from Principal Component and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analyses indicate that travel distance predicts wine purchasing at the cellar door as well as the motivational factors associated with ׳Socialization׳ and ׳Destination attractiveness׳. Further, the study proposes a conceptual framework for wine tourism motivation.

  4. A framework for the evaluation of winery servicescapes: A New Zealand case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market to attract visitors, wineries are often seeking new means to enhance the visitor experience. However, despite recognition of the importance in the wine tourism literature of the setting in which wine experiences occur there has been little adoption of the servicescape concept from the marketing literature and its adoption as a potential diagnostic tool. The paper utilizes the concept to develop a potential diagnostic tool that may be used by wineries and cellar door venues to evaluate their servicescape attributes. Preliminary results are provided which demonstrate the utility of the servicescape framework but further research is required to test the framework in different culture and design settings.

  5. A Relaying Incentive Scheme in Multihop Cellular Networks Based on Coalitional Game with Externalities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cuilian; Tian, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative multihop communication can greatly increase network throughput, yet packet forwarding for other nodes involves opportunity and energy cost for relays. Thus one of the pre-requisite problems in the successful implementation of multihop transmission is how to foster cooperation among selfish nodes. Existing researches mainly adopt monetary stimulating. In this manuscript, we propose instead a simple and self-enforcing forwarding incentive scheme free of indirect monetary remunerating for asymmetric (uplink multihop, downlink single-hop) cellar network based on coalitional game theory, which comprises double compensation, namely, Inter- BEA, global stimulating policy allotting resources among relaying coalitions according to group size, and Intra-BEA, local compensating and allocating rule within coalitions. Firstly, given the global allotting policy, we introduce a fair allocation estimating approach which includes remunerating for relaying cost using Myerson value for partition function game, to en...

  6. Hotel na Vysočině

    OpenAIRE

    Machatka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce s názvem Hotel na Vysočině řeší projektovou dokumentaci ve stupni pro provedení stavby. Hotel má tři nadzemní podlaží. Objekt je nepodsklepený. Zastřešení je provedeno plochou a šikmou střechou. Zdící systém POROTHERM s kontaktním zateplením expandovaným polystyrenem EPS -F. The master thesis named Hotel at Vysočina solves project documentation in the degree for building construction. The hotel has three floors. The object is without a cellar. As roofing is used a flat and ...

  7. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. La tracciabilità della filiera vitivinicola: dal sistema di cantina alla gestione completa dell’azienda vitivinicola con strumenti GIS-Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Rosadini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nell’ultimo decennio le aziende Agrarie e Vitivinicole in particolare hanno visto aumentare in maniera considerevole le difficoltà di mercato ed al contempo hanno registrato una maturità e sensibilità da parte del consumatore. Questo nuovo contesto ha fatto sì che le esigenze di automazione, informatizzazione e relativa tracciabilità di prodotto sifacessero più pressanti e dettagliate, tanto da richiedere lo sviluppo di veri e propri Sistemi Informativi di Cantina eGIS agrario-vitivinicoli anche partendo da una analisi e un relativo approccio geospaziale delle problematiche presenti.AbstractThe new context of agricultural and wine-devoted farm duringlast decades has brought to the needs of automation, computerizationand traceability of its product, requiring the developmentof real Information Systems as a GIS agrarian wine cellar,starting from an analysis and the approach to the geospatialissues. 

  9. Controlled Microbial Cenoses in Closed Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina

    Controlled microbial cenoses have good prospects in closed spaces: for air treatment in LSS and cellars industrial premises; for sewage treatment in LSS; for increase of productivity and protect of plants from infections in LSS. Possible methods of formation of microbiocenoses are: selection, autoselection, artificial formation taking into account their biochemical properties and metabolic interactions. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bidobac-terium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces and Torulop-sis. Microbiocenoses do not contain pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, they possess opposing and probiotic properties. Different examples of microbial cenoses actions are to be presented in the paper.

  10. Influence of dynamic soil-structure interaction on building response to ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vibration from traffic and pile driving are an increasing problem in densely populated areas. To assess vibration levels in new or existing buildings near construction sites, roads or railways in the design phase, valid models for prediction of wave transmission via the ground and into a building...... must be used. In this regard it is often assumed that a no significant back coupling from the building to the ground exists. Thus, a model with free-field vibrations from the ground provides input at the base of the building model. The aim of the present paper is to examine whether—and to which extent......—this assumption makes sense. For this purpose, models with and without soil–structure interaction are compared for a variety of cases with respect to soil conditions, construction material and presence of a cellar under the building....

  11. Effects of shear rate, confinement, and particle parameters on margination in blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Ku, David N.; Aidun, Cyrus K.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of flow and particle properties on margination of particles in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cellar blood flow. We focus on margination of particles in the flow of moderately dense suspensions of RBCs. We hypothesize that margination rate in nondilute suspensions is mainly driven by the RBC-enhanced diffusion of marginating particles in the RBC-filled region. We derive a scaling law for margination length in a straight channel. Margination length increases cubically with channel height and is independent of shear rate. We verify this scaling law for margination length by DNS of flowing RBCs and marginating particles. We also show that rigidity and size both lead to particle margination with rigidity having a more significant effect compared to size within the range of parameters in this study.

  12. Review of WAG Field Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes, both miscible and immiscible. WAG injection is an oil recovery method initially aimed to improve sweep efficiency during gas injection. In some recent applications produced hydrocarbon gas has been...... reinjected in water-injection wells with the aim of improving oil recovery and pressure maintenance. Oil recovery by WAG injection has been attributed to contact of unswept zones, especially recovery of attic or cellar oil by exploiting the segregation of gas to the top or the accumulating of water toward...... noted. Though the injectivity and production problems are generally not detrimental for the WAG process, special attention has been given to breakthrough of injected phases (water or gas). Improved oil recovery by WAG injection is discussed as influenced by rock type, injection strategy, miscible...

  13. Kaama-taguste udmurtide ettekujutused elamu kaitsevaimudest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranus Sadikov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of the Udmurts beyond the River Kaama includes the following supernatural creatures that protect houses and outbuildings: korkakuzjo, or the cottage guardian, gulbech taka - the cottage guardian, who appears in the shape of a ram and lives in the cellar, gidkuzjo - the guardian spirit of cattle-sheds or stables, minchokuzjo - the guardian of the sauna, kuzjõrsi - the long-haired fairy inhabiting the sauna. While korkakuzjo and gidkuzjo could be either good or evil creatures, then gulbech taka, minchokuzjo and kuzjõrsi were utterly malevolent. Besides believing in spirits connected to various buildings the Udmurts beyond the Kaama also believed in the presence of zõrtkuzjo, the guardian spirit of the whole household, which embodied the characteristic features of both the cottage and stable fairy. By nature, zõrtkuzjo was both a benevolent and an evil spirit.

  14. THE CHOICE OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS DURING THE MATURATION PERIOD OF GRAPES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape growing by everything that it means, in Romania - the high number of the big viticultural unities and their geographical repartition for the whole country, the landscape diversity created into the viticultural unit, the wine cellars and so on – is relevant for the touristic activity. To the most favourable period of the viticultural tourism in Romania, activity that takes place in the same time with the agricultural one corresponds to the maturation phase of the grapes, regardless of the fact that the grapes are forfood or wine, between the end of july and the end of October.Regarding this type of tourism, certain preferences for food grapes, for sorts for wine, tasting of wines, including unruffled and frothy DOC, usually at the level of viticultural center or field, would impede the aleatory choice of the touristic destination and of the period, that is why it is imperative for the tourist to be informed.

  15. Excavation of the Wine-brewing Workshop Site at Lidu in Jinxian County, Jiangxi%江西进贤县李渡烧酒作坊遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江西省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In July-November 2002, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a rescuing excavation of the wine-brewing workshop site at Lidu Town in Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province. They revealed the vestiges of wells, kitchen ranges, airing houses, wine cellars, distillers, wall-foundations, drainage ditches, pavements, ash-pits and brick pillars. The unearthed objects include stone articles, pottery, porcelain, bamboo and wooden wares, irons and bronzes, mostly wine vessels. The workshop began production in the Yuan period and continued to function in Ming and Qing times. It is early in date, long in duration, rich in remains and distinct in local character among the sites of this type. The discovery provides valuable data for studying the origin and development of ancient Chinese wine-distilling techniques.

  16. Bytový dům, Uničov

    OpenAIRE

    Navarová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Cílem předpokládané diplomové práce je návrh bytového domu. Bytový dům je navržen jako dřevostavba o 3 nadzemních podlažích a bez podsklepení. Má sedlovou střechu se sklonem 22°a krov řešen pomocí vazníků. Objekt je situován ve městě Uničov. Object of presented dissertation is proposition of block of flats. Block of flats is based on wood technology with free stages without cellar. Block of flats is designed with 22°saddle roof based on rafters with tie beam. Object is situated in Uničov, ...

  17. 陇东地区饮用水中氟含量和分布研究%Study on Concentration and Distribution of Fluoride in Drinking Water in the Longdong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊杰

    2013-01-01

    选取位于黄土高原中心地区的甘肃陇东北部地区为研究对象,以SPANDS分光光度法测定饮用水中氟的含量,并探讨其分布规律.该地区饮用水主要分为3种类型:水窖水(水窖收集的雨水)、浅井水和深井水,水样总量为127个.试验结果表明,深井水氟含量为1.01 ~3.95 mg/L,浅井水为1.07 ~4.60 mg/L,雨水为0.09~1.24 mg/L,无论是深井水还是浅井水,其中氟含量都超过国家饮用水氟标准限值,而80个水窖水样品中,78个符合国家标准.由于受到地质条件和环境因素的影响,3种类型水中氟分布具有相似的规律,即由北向南其浓度逐渐降低.%With northern of Longdong District which situated in the central of Loess Plateau,Gansu Province as study object,fluoride concentration in drinking water was determined by using the SPADNS colorimetric method and the distribution law was discussed. Drinking water was classified into three types corresponding to the water from boreholes,shallow wells,and water cellars (water cellar was used to collect rain water) respectively. There were 127 water samples. The results showed that the concentrations of fluoride in the boreholes were varied from 1.01 to 3.95 mg/ L, ranging from 1.07 to 4.60 mg/L for the shallow wells, as well as from 0.09 to 1.24 mg/L for water cellars. From the analysis, it was found that the concentrations of fluoride in ground water from either boreholes or shallow wells were above the maximum allowable concentration for fluoride in drinking water of 1.0 mg/L in China,while for the samples from water cellars it was almost lower than the maximum allowable concentration with 78 out of 80. According to the distribution of fluoride, it was obvious that fluoride level in drinking water has integrated strongly to geological form and environmental factors,and their distribution display the similar regularity:their concentration decrease from northern to southern.

  18. The vintage effect overcomes the terroir effect: a three year survey on the wine yeast biodiversity in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese, two northern Italian vine-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Fabrizio, Vincenzo; Valdetara, Federica; Faccincani, Monica; Panont, Carlo Alberto; Picozzi, Claudia; Imazio, Serena; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A three year survey on the dominant yeast populations in samples of air, must and wine in different vineyards and cellars of two northern Italian vine-growing territories (six sites in Franciacorta and eight sites in Oltrepò Pavese areas) was carried out. A total of 505 isolates were ascribed to 31 different species by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8SrRNA-ITS2 region and partial sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene. The most commonly found species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (frequency, F' = 58.7%; incidence, I' = 53.5%), Hanseniaspora uvarum (F' = 14.3%; I' = 5.3%), Metschnikowia fructicola (F' = 11.1%; I' = 5.0%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (F' = 10.3%; I' = 3.8%). Among 270 S. cerevisiae new isolates, 156 (57.8%) revealed a different genetic pattern through polymorphism analysis of the interdelta regions by capillary electrophoresis, while 47 isolates (17.4 %) were clones of starter cultures. By considering the Shannon-Wiener index and results of principal component analysis (PCA) analyses, the year of isolation (vintage) proved to be a factor that significantly affected the biodiversity of the yeast species, whereas the geographical site (terroir) was not. Seventy-five per cent of S. cerevisiae isolates gathered in a unique cluster at a similarity level of 82%, while the remaining 25% were separated into minor groups without any evident relationship between δ-PCR profile and territory, year or source of isolation. However, in six cases a similar strain appeared at the harvesting time both in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas, whereas surprisingly no strain was reisolated in the same vineyard or cellar for consecutive years.

  19. Study on MRI expression of spinal tuberculosis and brkucellare spondylitis%脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎的MRI表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会峰; 项良碧; 于海龙; 王琪; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To expore the difference between magnetic resonance image ( MRI) expression of spinal tuberculosis and brku-cellare spondylitis. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 10 patients with tuberculous spondylitis and 12 patients with bru-cellar spondylitis from Jan. 2012 to Oct. 2013. All the patients were scanned by MRI, and the expression difference of MRI were compared. Results The vertebral body of spinal tuberculosis was destroyed severely, and it often accompanied by the kyphosis and multiple-level para-vertebral abscess, and even adjacent organs tuberculosis. The vertebral body of brucellar spondylitis was destroyed lightly,and the abscess is often limited. Conclusion We can distinguish spinal tuberculosis and brucellar spondylitis by the typical difference of the expression of MRI.%目的:探索脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎的磁共振( magnetic resonance image,MRI)表现差异。方法回顾性分析我院自2012年1月至2013年10月收治的10例脊柱结核与12例布氏杆菌性脊柱炎患者的临床资料,所有患者均经MRI扫描,对比分析其MRI表现差异。结果脊椎结核椎体破坏严重,常伴有明显的后凸畸形和多节段椎旁脓肿,甚至邻近器官结核。布氏杆菌性脊柱炎椎体破坏较轻,脓肿局限,一般只波及邻近椎体。结论根据典型的MRI的表现差异,可以区分典型的脊柱结核与布氏杆菌性脊柱炎。

  20. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in

  1. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  2. Mechanisms underlying neuroprotective roles of kallikrein in ischemic stroke%激肽释放酶神经保护作用的机制探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇平; 崔梅; 董强

    2011-01-01

    脑血管病发病率高,严重危害人类健康.探索缺血性脑损害的机制与阻断相应分子与细胞损害的环节是目前全世界神经科学工作者研究的焦点和热点.激肽释放酶-激肽系统(kallikrein-kinin system,KKS)是体内重要的炎性调节系统.综合探索KKS系统在脑缺血不同时期的作用,对缺血再灌注脑组织中激肽释放酶的动态变化进行系统的研究,从细胞内信号转导水平来探索B1和B2受体作用的深层机制,并进一步研究组织型激肽释放酶作用通路上新的相关蛋白分子及发现新的信号通路,这一系列的工作将对脑缺血的试验性治疗提供崭新的思路.%Ischemic stroke is one of the most common diseases that cause unnatural death and disability.It is a hot spot to study the mechanisms and the molecular and cellar key link in cerebral ischemic damage.Kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is a well known inflammation regulatory system that plays an important role in the pathophysiologic process after cerebral ischemia.However, current researches implies that this system may produce completely different effects during various stages of cerebral ischemia.Therefore, it is important to study the roles of kallikrein-kinin system as well as bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in cellar signal transduction after ischemic stroke, and to explore new target proteins in the kallikrein pathway.In this review, we reviewed the roles of KKS in various stages of cerebral ischemia, looking forward to provide promising targets for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  3. Indigenous Georgian Wine-Associated Yeasts and Grape Cultivars to Edit the Wine Quality in a Precision Oenology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Maghradze, David; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Bonello, Federica; Mezzapelle, Vito; Valdetara, Federica; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F' = 0.56, I' = 0.32), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (F' = 0.49, I' = 0.27), and Cryptococcus flavescens (F' = 0.31, I' = 0.11) were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196) were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar) and Saperavi (black berry cultivar). Physical (°Brix) and microbial analyses (plate counts) were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavors, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate), 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi variety inoculated

  4. Indigenous Georgian wine-associated yeasts and grape cultivars to edit the wine quality in a precision oenology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana eVigentini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32, Hanseniaspora gulliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27 and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11 were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196 were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar and Saperavi (black berry cultivar. Physical (°Brix and microbial analyses (plate counts were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavours, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi

  5. Indigenous Georgian Wine-Associated Yeasts and Grape Cultivars to Edit the Wine Quality in a Precision Oenology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Maghradze, David; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Bonello, Federica; Mezzapelle, Vito; Valdetara, Federica; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27), and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11) were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196) were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar) and Saperavi (black berry cultivar). Physical (°Brix) and microbial analyses (plate counts) were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavors, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate), 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi variety

  6. ENOTOURISM: A NICHE TENDENCY WITHIN THE TOURISM MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BIBICIOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at establishing the required actions to be taken so as to improve perception on Romanian wine and vine tourism. In the Romanian wine and vine field, the main changes over the last ten years have been the modernization of wineries by maintaining the valuable local grape varieties and replanting soil with resistant and productive varieties, introducing new technologies in wine production processes and local producers’ relocation on the market. Besides all these, technical and material facilities were developed by rehabilitating, modernizing and opening of numerous wine cellars, constructing modern accommodation units within or close to vine areas and implementing marketing programmes aimed at promoting vine areas. The tendencies of hospitality industry corroborated with the change of interest and the perceptions of the tourism products consumers make us reach the following conclusion: enotourism has to be adapted to the innovative market spirit, an efficacious brand strategy has to be defined for the final goal of attracting as many consumers as possible. Eenotourism is that form of tourism which offers great local development opportunities to vineyards areas. To conclude, the study will describe the market features and tendencies, based on a large range of resources and it will present ideas connected to the tourism management and economic policies that may positively or negatively influence this field.

  7. 焦炉煤气掺烧驰放气的生产实践%Production practice on heating with mixed gas of coke oven gas and purge gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炬; 史军伟; 梁文军; 汪海洋

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the process of heating with coke oven gas and purge gas.The influence of purge gas is analyzed,and the result shows that mixed with purge gas,vertical heating of coke oven is improved,temperature fluctuation in the coking chamber is reduced,labor intensity is reduced,pressure of main pipe in the cellar is increased, the longitudinal temperature meets the specified temperature, and there is no affect to the suction force of flue, formation of graphite or pushing.Therefore,this process brings remarkable economic benefit.%对焦炉煤气掺烧驰放气的工艺进行了介绍,并考察分析了掺烧驰放气的影响,结果表明,掺烧驰放气后,焦炉的高向加热得到改善,燃烧室温度波动减小,劳动强度降低,地下室主管压力提高,直行温度符合规定的标准温度,对烟道吸力、石墨的生成、推焦基本没有影响,经济效益显著。

  8. Strain-Gauge-based Electronic Scale Experimental System Design%基于应变片的电子秤实验系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛东旭; 杜政道

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了一款基于应变片的数字显示电子秤实验系统的设计和制作,系统由传感器检测电路、检测信号放大电路、检测信号转换电路和显示电路组成。该设计是为了配合传感器相关教学来进行的,注重系统的模块化和输入输出的相对独立性。文中重点介绍了应变片传感器的制作过程和要点,以及针对应变片传感器的电路调试的步骤和要领。%A strain-gauge-based electronic scale experimental system is introduced which is composed of sensor detecting circuit,signal amplifying and conditioning, signal converting and MCU with a LCD displaying modules.The aim of this design is to practice the project-oriented teaching section of strain-gauge sensor.The system is set into several modules with I/Os to enhance the practicing and understanding. The steps and key points to work out a weighting sensor with strain-gauges and load cellare emphasized.

  9. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  10. Present status and prospects of ultralow level radioactivity measurements (2). Underground laboratory and recent topics emerged from ultralow level radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of ultralow level radioactivity measurements in underground laboratories in Japan and Europe, and some researches using ultralow level radioactivity measurement technologies are stated. The background radiation originating cosmic ray is not excluded on the ground, but it decreased in the underground laboratory. Anticoincidence of underground measurement, countermeasure of radon, shielding materials, background of Ge measurement in Ogoya and other underground laboratories in Japan are reported. There are many underground laboratories for ultralow level radioactivity measurements in Europe, and a group of Collaboration of European Low-level underground LAboRatories (CELLAR) was organized. Some examples of ultralow level background of gamma ray measurements such as 152Eu, atomic bomb induced nuclide, natural induced radioactive nuclide by environmental neutron, measurement of 22Na, 108mAg and 110mAg, new evaluation method using 108mAg, high resolution analysis of change of 7Be and 210Pb in air, and nuclide in meteorite are reported. The sensitivity increasing method of low level radioactivity measurement and radioactive contamination of reagents are described. (S.Y.)

  11. Vivienda residencial, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artigas, Francisco

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available This building has two levels, and has the following internal distribution. Ground floor: garage, cellar, service quarters, ironing room, etc. Top floor: living room, dining room, main bedroom, a bedroom with two beds, kitchen, study, etc. Vegetation plays an important role in the aesthetic composition of the external design, as a highly integrated element in the general pattern. The materials employed by the architect are of very fine quality and beauty, and have been chosen with ability and sincerity of purpose.Este edificio, que está desarrollado en dos niveles, presenta la siguiente distribución: En la planta baja: el garaje, bodega, habitaciones del servicio, cuarto de plancha, etc. En la planta superior: la sala de estar, comedor, dormitorio principal, un dormitorio de dos camas, cocina, estudio, etc. En la composición estética de las fachadas juega un papel importante la vegetación, como elemento plenamente integrado en el conjunto. Los materiales empleados, nobles y de gran belleza, lo han sido con acierto y sinceridad notable.

  12. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  13. Ecology of Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria along Different Winemaking Processes of Tempranillo Red Wine from La Rioja (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía González-Arenzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB during alcoholic fermentation (AF and spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF of Tempranillo wines from four wineries of La Rioja has been studied analyzing the influence of the winemaking method, processing conditions, and geographical origin. Five different LAB species were isolated during AF, while, during MLF, only Oenococcus oeni was detected. Although the clonal diversity of O. oeni strains was moderate, mixed populations were observed, becoming at least one strain with distinct PFGE profile the main responsible for MLF. Neither the winemaking method nor the cellar situation was correlated with the LAB diversity. However, processing conditions influenced the total number of isolates and the percentage of each isolated species and strains. The winemaking method could cause that genotypes found in semicarbonic maceration did not appear in other wineries. Four genotypes of O. oeni were isolated in more than one of the rest wineries. These four together with other dominant strains might be included in a future selection process.

  14. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  15. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  16. How MBA programs help the wine producers to innovate creating new employments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissiere Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People love innovation: they are fascinating and usually curious to know how it works. But people love it until it affects them. The biggest obstacle is not technology but it is we humans and the institutions we live in. Both are stubbornly resistant to experimentation and to the change of the routine and the relative corporate organization. During the last fifteen years, a large room has been opened to the technological innovation in the vineyard and in the cellar but the new way to reach the final customer and to keep it loyal have been missed. The customer experience topic and the different gap of the customer satisfaction a producer should monitor and shorten, are rarely developed in the marketing training sessions in the MBA programs. It exists a real gap between the consumer perception and the way in which the wine is promoted. Producers are not aware about the new marketing techniques that should help them to grow and create new jobs on top of the wine production activities.

  17. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin. PMID:27708366

  18. “Temperate and Nearly Cloudless”: The 9/11 Commission Report as Postmodern Pastiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Nadel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available “Tuesday, September 11, 2001 dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States”. Thus begins Chapter One of the 9/11 Commission Report, a chapter that bears the title, “‘We have Some Planes’”. As with all good pop fiction, the reader awaits to see what this quote means, although we know already that it will mark a crucial moment, one that renders the innocuous urgent, or gives meaning to a startling chaos of coincidence. Pop culture has taught us the formula well: Everything looks fine; high school kids sip pop and dance in front of the juke box; Ole Doc Jones is mowin’ the lawn while Mrs. Jones makes lemonade. BUT strange noises have been heard in the cellar; no one can find the cat; Mr. Grundy insists he saw flashing lights last night, but no one believes him because Mrs. Grundy says he’s been acting strange ever since she flushed his Viagra; mysteriously, all the clocks in Indianapolis have started running fast or slow by exactly 24 hours. Then we hear the message on the police radio: “we’ve got some planes…as large as football fields hovering over every Wall-Mart in the nation”. At last someone will believe the geeky newspaper boy and his big brother’s girlfriend, who knew all along he was on to something. Let’s hope it’s not too late.

  19. Radiological risk from thoron, a case study: The particularly radon-prone area of Bolsena, and the lesson learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, G.; Capaccioni, B.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Mostacci, D.; Perghem, A.; Tositti, L.

    2015-11-01

    The contribution of 220Rn is usually negligible compared to that of 222Rn: its very short half-life makes escape from its source site within the rock very unlikely and it never has time enough to filtrate through the ground and through cracks in the floors or cellar walls to reach living quarters. This however becomes untrue if walls built with 232Th-rich materials are present: then sizeable amounts of thoron may be detected in the closed areas bounded by those walls. This is the case for many dwellings in central Italy, and the town of Bolsena (northern Latium) is presented as a case study. A typical building of the area, entirely constructed with tuff blocks, is investigated and the annual dose rates calculated for varying distances from the wall. Thoron concentration was found to decrease with a relaxation length of 13 cm. Thoron was found to pose a significant risk. The rate of air exchange was found to produce little effect. Wall plastering acts as a filter: thoron diffuses through it but a HVL of less than 1 cm was found to prevail.

  20. Extension of habitat of female blood-sucking mosquitoes in Solomenskiy district, Kiev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Kilochytska

    2013-09-01

    2010 in Solomyanskyi district with measurement of temperature at the locations of collection. It turned out that the air temperature in the sheds was 2–4 °C lower than outside in the shade, in the basements lower by 4–11 °C, and in the cellars lower by 4–12 °C. Comparison of the temperature in the daytime habitats and number of mosquitoes found there showed a direct relation between the outdoor temperature and the number of mosquitoes in the daytime habitat on the premises. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the number of synanthropic blood-sucking mosquito species to increase owing to the occupation of domestic premises as a daytime habitat by those species of mosquitoes for which this phenomenon was not typical earlier. If global warming and the current trend to increase in summer temperatures persist, this can cause a deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the megalopolis.

  1. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham. PMID:27468139

  2. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  3. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  4. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  5. An open-source and low-cost monitoring system for precision enology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Salvatore Filippo; Matese, Alessandro; Mancin, Mirko; Primicerio, Jacopo; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Winemaking is a dynamic process, where microbiological and chemical effects may strongly differentiate products from the same vineyard and even between wine vats. This high variability means an increase in work in terms of control and process management. The winemaking process therefore requires a site-specific approach in order to optimize cellar practices and quality management, suggesting a new concept of winemaking, identified as Precision Enology. The Institute of Biometeorology of the Italian National Research Council has developed a wireless monitoring system, consisting of a series of nodes integrated in barrel bungs with sensors for the measurement of wine physical and chemical parameters in the barrel. This paper describes an open-source evolution of the preliminary prototype, using Arduino-based technology. Results have shown good performance in terms of data transmission and accuracy, minimal size and power consumption. The system has been designed to create a low-cost product, which allows a remote and real-time control of wine evolution in each barrel, minimizing costs and time for sampling and laboratory analysis. The possibility of integrating any kind of sensors makes the system a flexible tool that can satisfy various monitoring needs. PMID:25490596

  6. Spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular simulation studies on the interaction of catalase with copper ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Jing, Mingyang; Zhao, Xingchen; Liu, Rutao

    2015-02-01

    In this research, the binding mechanism of Cu(2+) to bovine liver catalase (BLC) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking methods. The cellar experiment was firstly carried out to investigate the inhibition effect of catalase. During the fluorescence quenching study, after correcting the inner filter effect (IFE), the fluorescence of BLC was found to be quenched by Cu(2+). The quenching mechanism was determined by fluorescence lifetime measurement, and was confirmed to be the dynamic mode. The secondary structure content of BLC was changed by the addition of Cu(2+), as revealed by UV-vis absorption and CD spectra, which further induces the decrease in BLC activity. Molecular simulation study indicates that Cu(2+) is located between two β-sheets and two random coils of BLC near to the heme group, and interacts with His 74 and Ser 113 residues near a hydrophilic area. The decrease of α-helix and the binding of His 74 are considered to be the major reason for the inhibition of BLC activity caused by Cu(2+). The ITC results indicate that the binding stoichiometry of Cu(2+) to catalase is 11.4. Moreover, the binding of Cu(2+) to BLC destroyed H-bonds, which was confirmed by the CD result.

  7. A New Error Control Mechanism for Wireless ATM/AAL2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINShouyi; WANGJun; LINXiaokang

    2003-01-01

    Wireless ATIVI (asynchronous transfer mode) would be an ideal transport solution for next gener-ation wireless network. ATM would be used as switchinglayer; AAL2 (ATM ddaptation layer 2) would be employedto carry voice. In this article, a brief analysis of AAL2CPS (common part sublayer) packet loss rate over wire-less channel is presented. Because of many burst errorsover wireless links, the error-correcting capability of orig-inal ATM/AAL2 HEC is always overwhelmed so that lossrate of the ATIVI cell and CPS packet is very high. Toreduce the CPS Packet loss rate, a new ATIVI/AAL2 cellstructure is proposed. Two new methods, ATIVI cell headerbits dispersal (ACHBD) and CPS packet header concen-trated protection (CPHCP), are used in this new struc-ture. With ACHBD, all of the bits in header are interlaceduniformly in the ATM cell. Any burst errors in transmis-sion are spread out as isolated random errors in the wholecell. All the CPS packet headers in the same ATIVI cellare put together in CPHCP mechanism to be protected.Numerical results of this new structure and these two newerror-correcting methods over wireless channel show thatthe CPS packet loss rate is remarkably reduced. Thesemechanisms are effective means to improve the reliabilityof the wireless ATIVI/AAL2 network.

  8. An Open-Source and Low-Cost Monitoring System for Precision Enology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a dynamic process, where microbiological and chemical effects may strongly differentiate products from the same vineyard and even between wine vats. This high variability means an increase in work in terms of control and process management. The winemaking process therefore requires a site-specific approach in order to optimize cellar practices and quality management, suggesting a new concept of winemaking, identified as Precision Enology. The Institute of Biometeorology of the Italian National Research Council has developed a wireless monitoring system, consisting of a series of nodes integrated in barrel bungs with sensors for the measurement of wine physical and chemical parameters in the barrel. This paper describes an open-source evolution of the preliminary prototype, using Arduino-based technology. Results have shown good performance in terms of data transmission and accuracy, minimal size and power consumption. The system has been designed to create a low-cost product, which allows a remote and real-time control of wine evolution in each barrel, minimizing costs and time for sampling and laboratory analysis. The possibility of integrating any kind of sensors makes the system a flexible tool that can satisfy various monitoring needs.

  9. An Open-Source and Low-Cost Monitoring System for Precision Enology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Salvatore Filippo; Matese, Alessandro; Mancin, Mirko; Primicerio, Jacopo; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Winemaking is a dynamic process, where microbiological and chemical effects may strongly differentiate products from the same vineyard and even between wine vats. This high variability means an increase in work in terms of control and process management. The winemaking process therefore requires a site-specific approach in order to optimize cellar practices and quality management, suggesting a new concept of winemaking, identified as Precision Enology. The Institute of Biometeorology of the Italian National Research Council has developed a wireless monitoring system, consisting of a series of nodes integrated in barrel bungs with sensors for the measurement of wine physical and chemical parameters in the barrel. This paper describes an open-source evolution of the preliminary prototype, using Arduino-based technology. Results have shown good performance in terms of data transmission and accuracy, minimal size and power consumption. The system has been designed to create a low-cost product, which allows a remote and real-time control of wine evolution in each barrel, minimizing costs and time for sampling and laboratory analysis. The possibility of integrating any kind of sensors makes the system a flexible tool that can satisfy various monitoring needs. PMID:25490596

  10. Eco-efficiency in the Portuguese wine production sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Andrade, Isabel; Franco, Justina; Bastos, Alexandra; Delgado, Fernando; Costa, Roberto; Pereira, Carlos D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The wine production sector is one of the more important and widely distributed agriculture sectors in Portugal, representing 555972600 liters in 2011 for the entire country (excluding the islands), in 146490 vineyards, representing a wide range of exploration dimension, that cover a total area of 175 773 ha. The wine sector accounts for 526820000€ of exports in 2005, and constitutes a high technology and highly competitive agricultural sector. The wine production systems vary from region to region, reflecting the property systems and the soil and climate conditions. Homogeneous wine production areas are often demarked and constitute a wine region with particular environmental and productive characteristics. Under the ECODEEP project, a set of energy and mass balances are being assessed for various Portuguese wine regions, namely Bairrada, Dão, Távora-Varosa and Alentejo. These wine regions vary in a number of characteristics, such as the use of irrigation, and the cultural practices. This work performs an analysis of yields and the use of energy and productive factors for different size vineyards and cellar processing methodologies for the above mentioned wine regions. The exhaustive survey is the basis for a LCA analysis that allows the comparison of different practices and highlights the more efficient and environmental friendly solutions, that will be presented. We give a particular attention to the comparison of more intensive vineyard conduction with the integrated protection ones.

  11. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substances, amino groups and phenols are present in wine in large quantity, as they are always present in wine. However it doesn't give the clear answer which substances are present in analyzed samples. The answer to this question can be received only by the method of ionic chromatography. The content of total tannins shows short time of storage in wine cellars so wine wasn't stored long enough, i.e. they are commercial wines made for mass market production and consumption. Although they have less content of total tannin materials of given values, wine taste gives the correlation with other polyphenol materials that only give odour, aroma and 'bouquet' to wine. The relative error of mean value is very low which indicates the reproduction of results and reliability of the method of determination of total tannins in red wine.

  12. Feasibility of Alternatives in Rural Tourism in Strandja Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Soysal

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starndja Mountain as specific rural part of Bulgaria and Turkey is a popular tourist destination. StrandjaRegion has a different tourism potential and for the purposes of this measure under rural tourism we mustunderstand “tourism based in rural areas”.The main focus of this survey is to create feasibility of alternatives that have emerged from interviewswith farm based rural tourism entrepreneurs. The aim of the article is to develop understanding ofimprovements in rural tourism business. It means special facilities for:Accommodation in farm based rural houses – farm produce promotional stands for the relevanthousehold produce. Provision and improvement of outdoor areas, leisure time and recreation facilities –horse riding, sport fishing, eco-paths etc.Renovation of buildings for rural tourism purposes, i.e. buildings ofhistoric and cultural interest {old cellars, mills, etc.} Well kept tradition and Balkan FolkloreFarm based rural tourism in Strandja Region has a lot of potential benefits, especially when the area iseconomically less developed.

  13. First-principles study of the structural, elastic,electronic, optical, and vibrational properties of intermetallic Pd2Ga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim A; Koc H; Deligoz E

    2012-01-01

    The structural,elastic,electronic,optical,and vibrational properties of the orthorhombic Pd2Ga compound are investigated using the norm-conserving pseudopotentials within the local density approximation in the frame of density functional theory.The calculated lattice parameters have been compared with the experimental values and found to be in good agreement with these results.The second-order elastic constants and the other relevant quantities,such as the Young's modulus,shear modulus,Poisson's ratio,anisotropy factor,sound velocity,and Debye temperature,have been calculated. It is shown that this compound is mechanically stable after analysing the calculated elastic constants. Furthermore,the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function and the optical constants,such as the optical dielectric constant and the effective number of electrons per unit cell,are calculated and presented.The phonon dispersion curves are derived using the direct method.The present results demonstrate that this compound is dynamically stable.

  14. Refurbishing of domestic natural gas service pipelines with Live Service Insertion; Sanierung von Erdgas-Hausanschluessen mit Live Service Insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittl, M.

    1996-03-01

    When using the `live service injection` refurbishing process, the old steel domestic connection is reproduced without any underground work. The refurbishing is done exclusively from the building cellar. A considerable reduction in costs from conventional methods of construction is therefore possible. The main application for `live service injection` is for supply undertakings with extensive refurbishment potential. Main pipelines and domestic connection pipes can be renewed at different times and independently of one another. This makes flexible and quick completion at site possible; the gas customer is only cut off from the supply for about four hours. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Einsatz des Sanierungsverfahrens Live Service Insertion wird der alte Stahl-Hausanschluss komplett ohne Tiefbau wiederhergestellt. Die Sanierung wird dabei ausschliesslich vom Gebaeudekeller aus vorgenommen. Eine erhebliche Kostenreduzierung zur konventionellen Bauweise ist damit moeeglich. Der Haupteinsatz fuer Live Service Insertion ergibt sich fuer Versorgungsunternehmen mit umfangreichem Sanierungspotential. Hauptleitungen und Hausanschlussleitungen koennen zeitlich getrennt und unabhaengig voneinander erneuert werden. Dadurch ist eine flexible und zuegige Baustellenabwicklung moeglich; der Gaskunde ist nur fuer etwa vier Stunden von der Versorgung getrennt. (orig.)

  15. Use of irradiation in clearance and preservation of items of collector's or historical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiation unit for the conservation of historical items will be installed in the cellars of the Roztoky Museum in Czechoslovakia. The irradiation equipment and the safety system were designed by the Nuclear Research Institute, Rez. A 60Co source of an activity of 75 TBq will allow the irradiation of objects placed concentrically in two circles in a 5x5 m room. With irradiation times of 24 to 48 hours, provided two irradiation cycles a week are run for 40 weeks a year, about 2000 average items (eg., 80 cm high statues) per year will be irradiated. The irradiation cost represents a negligible part of the historical conservation budget. In the research of radiation effects on materials, authentic items dating back to the 16th to 18th century were irradiated. Colour fastness and stability of other material properties were proved up to doses of 100 kGy. Neutron radiography experiments were also carried out at the Nuclear Research Institute, Rez, for diagnostics of insect and fungi infested wood. The WWR-S reactor can be used in experiments with equipment having an exposure field of up to 40 cm in diameter and exposure times of up to tens of minutes. (J.F.)

  16. Assessment of sustainability in Austrian wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Franz Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to find out whether environmental sustainability can be measured not only with regard to climate change and carbon consumption but also as to other criteria concerning material consumption, energy, soil, biodiversity and water. We investigated which measures in the vineyard and wine cellar can lead to “better” sustainability while ensuring a high quality standard. 343 activities were identified to fulfill 61 quality objectives. Of the 2,191 sustainability assessments that were determined the measurements of the individual sustainability criteria vary and are in some cases even negatively correlated. Nevertheless, it was still possible to differentiate sustainably managed wineries from others in all of the Austrian wine producing areas. In our approach, a specifically developed online tool can calculate the expression of ecological, economic and social sustainability and show the effects in a spider diagram in the form of a traffic light rating system. Moreover, an algorithm suggests adequately which quality improvements can be achieved. If part of the management system is changed the online tool will show the positive and negative sustainability effects.

  17. E-commerce et vente de vin en ligne: l’approche stratégique d’une petite entreprise (Strategic Analysis Of A Small Wine E-business Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P-C Pupion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine and spirit e-business is currently one of the most growing and competitive industries in France. In this study, we analyze the competitiv e model of wine e-business, through Porter’s competitive forces. We propose to highlight on strategic groups that interact within this industry in order to explain the strength and the aggressiveness of the competition within online wine’s business. We aim hereby to understand if and how small businesses take market shares in this particular business. Resource based view theory will be widely used to analyze key resources and competencies that are mandatory for a small company to get success in the wine industry. Based on a wine cellar case study, and its online website, this study demonstrates how important competencies valuation and value creation to customers are as part of a wine e- business strategy (build online catalog, design the web interface with value added for users/visitors, choose the most appropriate web infrastructure, redirect traffic to the website and convert visitors into customers, manage cu stomers relationship and loyalty, select an appropriate supply chain infrastructure.... By using Resource Based View theory we demonstrate that value offer is a core com ponent of the wine e-business model which is continuously moving alongside with the company and its website’s life cycle

  18. Shang Period Site and Tombs at Daxinzhuang in Jinan City%济南市大辛庄商代居址与墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山东大学东方考古研究中心; 山东省文物考古研究所; 济南市考古研究所

    2004-01-01

    In March to June 2003, Shandong University, the Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology curried out an excavation on the Daxinzhuang site. The work brought about following results. (1) Four inscribed oracle bones of the Shang period were unearthed. (2) Three Shang cemeteries with 37 tombs were found to be of the middle Shang and the middle and late Shang respectively. (3) House-foundations, cellars and ash-pits were revealed along with a great number of objects. The other finds include quantities of faunal, floral and soil specimens. The excavation provided extremely important data for restudying the nature of the site, researching the Shang Dynasty relationship with the eastern land, and studying political system and social organization in the Shang period. The unearthed oracle-bone inscriptions will exert active influence upon studies of oracle-bones, archaeology of the Shang period, and research on the history of Shang Dynasty. The discovered natural specimens furnished valuable material for investigating then ecological environments, people's diet composition and the cultural meaning of faunal and floral remains.

  19. The imagination of touch: surrealist tactility in the films of Jan Švankmajer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Noheden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical examination of tactility in the Czech surrealist filmmaker Jan Švankmajer's film Down to the Cellar (1983. Švankmajer's deployment of tactile images in a surrealist context shows the need for a discussion of the imagination's role in the embodied film experience. Departing from Laura Marks's The Skin of the Film, this article seeks to explore the surrealist embodied imagination through surrealist poetics of analogy, as defined by André Breton, and the link between these and Walter Benjamin's writings on mimesis. Finally, the film is viewed from the perspective of Gaston Bachelard's ideas of “the imagination of matter,” where matter is seen as a highly potent stimulant for the imagination. Bachelard's notion of the imagination's multisensory properties further lends credence to Švankmajer's aims to liberate the imagination of the spectator through images that invoke touch. Kristoffer Noheden is a PhD candidate in cinema studies at the Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University. In his dissertation, he examines surrealism's attempts to create a new, re-enchanting myth with a focus on its expressions in surrealist cinema. He is the co-editor, with Daniel Brodén, of the anthology I gränslandet: Nya perspektiv på film och modernism (Gidlunds, 2013. He is also the translator into Swedish of books by William S. Burroughs, Leonora Carrington, Max Ernst, and others, and co-runs the surrealist-oriented publishing house Sphinx.

  20. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  1. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines. PMID:19754174

  2. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  3. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative

  4. 清代前期流人的迁入与齐齐哈尔民居风俗的演变%On the Immigration of Exiles in the Early Qing Dynasty and the Evolution of Qiqihar′s Living Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝林; 孟庆阳

    2012-01-01

    Under the influence of the exiles′ culture in the early Qing Dynasty,the living customs of Qiqihar have evolved culturally.Living customs,such as cellar,shack and Majiazi,evolved into civil structural main house.Then,the brick and tile structure are formed.People change the mixed residence states and transform into a living custom taking the family as a unit which is more meaningful from the aspect of human relations.Chinese courtyard houses which have the feature of central plains culture are emerged in the design of living pattern.The evolution of living customs symbolizes the development and progress of Qiqihar social history.%清代前期在流人文化影响下,齐齐哈尔由游牧土著文化形态的地窨子、窝棚和马架子演变为土木结构的正房形式,进而发展到砖瓦结构的民居形式。居住方式一改过去杂居状态,演变为以家庭为单位的居住形式,从而具有了人伦意义;在民居格局设计上出现了具有中原文化特点的四合院建筑。这些民居风俗的演变,标志着齐齐哈尔社会历史的发展与进步。

  5. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  6. In vitro and in vivo study of Baicalin-loaded mixed micelles for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiqun; Yang, Xiaoye; Zhao, Lili; Jiao, Yan; Liu, Jiyong; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to research the potential functions and the mechanism of absorption of the baicalin (BC)-loaded micelle system that contained Pluronic P123 copolymer (P123) and sodium taurocholate (ST) as carrier materials via oral delivery. Based on the numerous advantages of oral administration, such as cost-effectiveness, flexible and accommodated dosing regimen, and improved compliance for patients, the ST-P123-MMs system would be evaluated as oral delivery vehicle of BC. In this study, X-ray powder diffractometer analysis confirmed the phase change of BC after being incorporated in mixed micelles. The release study in simulated gastric fluid/simulated intestinal fluid exhibited that BC-loaded ST-P123-MMs presented a sustained drug release behavior. Compared with coumarin-6 solution, higher cellar uptake efficiency was achieved for coumarin-6 loaded ST-P123-MMs towards Caco-2 cell lines. The in situ perfusion test in rat indicated that the absorption of BC-loaded ST-P123-MMs in intestinal tract was stronger than BC solution. After oral administration, the Cmax and AUC of BC-loaded ST-P123-MMs were 1.77 times and 1.54 times as high as those of BC suspension in rat, respectively. Promisingly, the formulated BC exhibited a prolonged circulation time with the oral bioavailability increased to 1.54-fold compared with the control group. These results all suggested that P123 and ST mixed micelles could serve as a promising approach to oral administration of BC. PMID:25693642

  7. Edificio de servicios múltiples Valladolid/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, Eduardo

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available From the modules of the Coordinating Committee of administrative buildings, established in accord with requirements of space of the different jobs, this building has been constructed to globalize the numerous dependencies of various Ministries and Institutes. In essence, the construction is composed of two cellar levels for parking and services; a lower floor for the cafeteria and meeting hall; two upper floors for offices, connected with the nucleous of vertical communications. For the structure, as likewise for the dimensioning of the jobs and the windows and even the paving of the false ceiling, the basic module was 1.25 x 1.25 metresA partir de los módulos de la Junta Coordinadora de edificios administrativos, establecidos en función de las necesidades de espacio de los distintos puestos de trabaja se ha realizado este edificio que engloba las numerosas dependencias de varios Ministerios e Institutos. En esencia la construcción se compone de dos niveles de sótano para aparcamiento y servicios; una planta baja destinada a cafetería y salón de actos; dos cuerpos elevados, destinados a oficinas, enlazados por el núcleo de comunicaciones verticales. Para la estructura, así como para el dimensionamiento de los puestos de trabajo y de los huecos de ventana, e inclusa del despiece del pavimento y del falso techo, se ha partido de un módulo base de 1,25 X 1,25 metros.

  8. 免疫应答反应的抑制因素研究进展%Research progress of the suppression of immune response factors.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎; 陈潇; 胡永秀

    2010-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases and severe infection process, inhibition of the immune response can maintain the body' s self-tolerance and to avoid excessive damage. There are many mechanisms of immune response inhibition, including the cellar inhibition, molecular inhibition, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents, ect. There are many kinds of cells that have immunosuppression function, including immune cells, tumor cells and endocrine cells and so on, and the mechanisms of immunosuppression induced by these cells are studied comprehensively. Therefore, the cells with immunosuppressive function are recently more and more attractive.%在自身免疫性疾病和重症感染过程中,通过抑制免疫应答反应可以维持机体自身耐受并避免免疫反应过度导致的损伤.免疫应答反应的抑制机制因素包括很多,如发挥免疫抑制作用的细胞、免疫抑制作用的相关分子,免疫抑制的药物及生物制剂等等.其中,以发挥免疫抑制作用的细胞种类较多,涉及到免疫细胞,肿瘤细胞及内分泌细胞等多种细胞,且其诱导形成免疫抑制的机制研究也较为全面.因此受到了更多关注.

  9. Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-06-16

    "Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

  10. The 'experimental stable' of the BCG vaccine: safety, efficacy, proof, and standards, 1921-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2005-12-01

    The anti-tuberculosis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine was conceived and developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes in France. Between 1921 and A. Calmette's death in 1933, the vaccine went through a first period of national and international production and distribution for its use in humans. In France these activities were exclusively carried out by Calmette and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Initially improvised production in a small room in the cellar gave way in 1931 to the construction of the spacious and magnificent 'New laboratories for research on tuberculosis and the preparation of the BCG' within the premises of the Pasteur Institute. Presentation and image-building of the vaccine in France insisted on the fact that the BCG was not a commercial specialty but distributed free of charge. The technical monopoly of its production nevertheless lay with the Paris Pasteur Institute and standardization of scientific proof of safety, efficacy and stability was dominated by that Institute in France. In contrast, the international production and distribution of the vaccine was entrusted and transferred, free of charge, to trustworthy laboratories outside France. Multiplication of producers and users led to an increased need for standardization. For this process the analysis distinguishes between the standardization of scientific proof concerning safety, efficacy and stability of the vaccine and standardization of its medical uses. Whereas standardization was rather successful in the inter-war period in France, the international efforts remained rather unsuccessful. Only after world war II under Scandinavian leadership and in the context of mass vaccination programs supported by the WHO and UNICEF was the international standardization effectively implemented and succeeded at least to some extend.

  11. C-Streams. Material and energy flows of non-energy use throughout the life cycle, and CO{sub 2} abatement by products of the chemical industry - Current situation and perspectives. Vol. 2. The use of plastic foams for thermal insulation of buildings and the resulting effects on energy demand and carbon dioxide emission; C-STROeME. Material- und Energiestroeme des nichtenergetischen Verbrauchs ueber den Lebenszyklus und CO{sub 2}-Minderung durch Produkte der Chemischen Industrie - Stand und Perspektiven. Bd. 2. Einfluss des Einsatzes von Kunststoffen auf den Energiebedarf und die energiebedingten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen im Bereich der Waermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Reichert, J.

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the net balances with regard to energy and CO{sub 2} for plastic foams used in thermal insulation. To this end, the energy demand required to produce the foams is determined first of all, and a calculation is then made of the amount of energy saved through the reduction in heat demand. By calculating the difference between these two totals the net balance is established. By analogy, the net CO{sub 2} emissions are also determined. All calculations are based on the total annual sales volumes in Germany of polyurethane foam (PUR), expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) and polystyrene extruder foam (XPS). Data published by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME) are used to calculate the energy needed to manufacture these foams. To determine the amount of energy saved by using these insulating materials, the sales volumes in cubic metres (m{sup 3}) are first of all converted to square metres (m{sup 2}) based on the average insulation thicknesses as published in the literature. Subsequently, the various insulation materials are allocated first of all to different types of buildings and then to a specific application, i.e. walls, roof or cellar. By using average values for heat conduction (both with and without insulation) a calculation is finally made of the energy saving and reduction in emissions of CO{sub 2} that have been achieved from applying the foams. Because of their historical relevance in environmental policy, the use of CFCs as foaming agents has also been taken into account in this study. (orig.)

  12. Research on History of Grain Storages in Eastern Zhou Dynasty%东周储粮史研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智波; 余黎星

    2016-01-01

    In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, in order to grab the right of domination and rival for hegemony, every vassal state focused on the development of agricultural production and cereal storage. Agricultural development saw the appearance and application of iron farm tools, expansion of the artificial irrigation area, manual fertilization and popularization etc. During this period, the forms of grain storage were ground storage houses and underground barn cellars, which were divided into state and private grain storages. The cereal storages aimed at military spending, disaster relief, salary expenses of the officials, expenditure of the palace and so on. The cereal storage during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was a step forward both in its size and management.%东周时期,各诸侯国为了称雄争霸,都比较注重农业生产的发展及粮食的储藏。农业发展表现为:铁农具的出现和使用,人工灌溉面积扩大,人工施肥的推广等。这个时期,储粮形式有地上仓房和地下粮窖,储粮分为国家储粮和私人储粮。储粮的用途为:军费开支、救灾、官吏俸禄、王宫费用等。东周时期,储粮无论是规模和管理,都向前跨进了一步。

  13. Multi-scale volumetric cell and tissue imaging based on optical projection tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Cho, Nam Hyun; Ryu, Yongjae; Jung, Sunwoo; Vavilin, Andrey; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu

    2016-04-01

    Optical projection tomography is a new optical imaging method for visualizing small biological specimens in three dimension. The most important advantage of OPT is to fill the gap between MRI and confocal microscope for the specimen having the range of 1-10 mm. Thus, it has been mainly used for whole-mount small animals and developmental study since this imaging modality was developed. The ability of OPT delivering anatomical and functional information of relatively large tissue in 3D has made it a promising platform in biomedical research. Recently, the potential of OPT spans its coverage to cellular scale. Even though there are increasing demand to obtain better understanding of cellular dynamics, only few studies to visualize cellular structure, shape, size and functional morphology over tissue has been investigated in existing OPT system due to its limited field of view. In this study, we develop a novel optical imaging system for 3D cellular imaging with OPT integrated with dynamic focusing technique. Our tomographic setup has great potential to be used for identifying cell characteristic in tissue because it can provide selective contrast on dynamic focal plane allowing for fluorescence as well as absorption. While the dominant contrast of optical imaging technique is to use the fluorescence for detecting certain target only, the newly developed OPT system will offer considerable advantages over currently available method when imaging cellar molecular dynamics by permitting contrast variation. By achieving multi-contrast, it is expected for this new imaging system to play an important role in delivering better cytological information to pathologist.

  14. Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

    2006-08-01

    To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

  15. A critical test of organic P-N photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G.R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We present an urgent view of the field of organic solid state photovoltaic cells. This is a proper time to select the most promising materials from the Electrophotographic Industry, materials long tried in terms of stability, high quantum yield of charge carriers, but set apart by unusually high quantum yields at low applied fields. Our experience with the candidate dyes has covered new tests for identifiable impurities and removal of these impurities by verifiable methods. A new method of purification, reactive train sublimation, has been developed for DNT, one of the simplest of the outstanding perylene dyes, and the method seems applicable to some of the other promising perylene derivatives. It removes the offending impurity by converting it into the desired pure product. The role of water of hydration in the {open_quotes}wine cellar effect{close_quotes}, the slowly rising performance of newly made phthalocyanine containing cells has been analyzed. Under the concept of feasibility testing before a final refinement for practicality of materials and production methods, the hydration can be controlled for high level testing. At the same time, efforts go forward to eliminate the need. At least one of the best phthalocyanine components, X-H{sub 2}Pc, does not require water for peak performance. Finally, we have attacked BBIP (bis-benzimidazole perylene) one of the best and most enigmatic of the near infrared sensors. It has long been known and used as a mixture of synthetic isomers, and we hypothesize that either of these would be better than the uncontrolled mixture. A partial success in the form of isolating highly enriched crystals for an X-ray structure of the trans-molecule, is first presented here. A simple optical analysis method has been developed to follow enrichment procedures. For all of its difficult history, this material seems closest to a state of readiness for critical feasibility testing.

  16. Thermal State Of Permafrost In Urban Environment Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Kerimov, A. G.; Kurchatova, A.; Andruschenko, F.; Gubanov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risks and damage, caused by deformation of building and constructions in cryolithozone, are growing for decades. Worsening of cryo-ecological situation and loss of engineering-geocryological safety are induced by both technogenic influences on frozen basement and climate change. In such towns on permafrost as Vorkuta, Dixon more than 60% of objects are deformed, in Yakutsk, Igarka- nearly 40%, in Norilsk, Talnakh, Mirnij 35%, in old indigenous villages - approximately 100%; more than 80% ground dams with frozen cores are in poor condition. This situation is accompanied by activation of dangerous cryogenic processes. For example in growing seasonally-thaw layer is strengthening frost heave of pipeline foundation: only on Yamburg gas condensate field (Taz Peninsula) are damaged by frost heave and cut or completely replaced 3000 - 5000 foundations of gas pipelines. Intensity of negative effects strongly depends on regional geocryology, technogenic loads and climatic trends, and in Arctic we see a temperature rise - warming, which cause permafrost temperature rise and thaw). In built areas heat loads are more diverse: cold foundations (under the buildings with ventilated cellars or near termosyphons) are close to warm areas with technogenic beddings (mainly sandy), that accumulate heat, close to underground collectors for communications, growing thaw zones around, close to storages of snows, etc. Note that towns create specific microclimate with higher air temperature. So towns are powerful technogenic (basically, thermal) presses, placed on permafrost; in cooperation with climate changes (air temperature rise, increase of precipitation) they cause permafrost degradation. The analysis of dozens of urban thermal fields, formed in variable cryological and soil conditions, showed, that nearly 70% have warming trend, 20% - cooling and in 10% of cases the situation after construction is stable. Triggered by warming of climate changes of vegetation, depth and temperature of

  17. Bioassay of Estrogenic Activity of Effluent and Influent in a Farm Wastewater Treatment Plant Using an in vitro Recombinant Assay with Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; FANG-NI LUO; GuI-XIA LIU; PING-TING ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Objective Environmental estrogens at an elevated concentration are known to produce adverse effects on human and animal life. However, the majority of researches have been focused on ndustrial discharges, while the impact of livestock wastes as a source of endocrine disrupters in aquatic environments has been rarely elucidated. In order to investigate the contribution of environmental estrogens from livestock, the estrogenic activity in water samples from a farm wastewater treatment plant was analyzed by a recombinant yeast screening method. Methods The extracts prepared from 15 selected water samples from the farm wastewater treatment plant, among which 6 samples were from pre-treatment section (influents) and 9 from post-treatment section (effluents), were analyzed for estrogenic activity by cellar bioassay. Yeast cells transfected with the expression plasmid of human estrogen receptor and the Lac Z reporter plasmid encoding β-galactossidase, were used to measure the estrogen-like compounds in the farm wastewater treatment plant. Results The wastewater samples from influents showed a higher estrogenic potency than the effluent samples showing a low induction of β-galactossidase relative to solvent control condition. By comparison with a standard curve for 1713-estradiol (E2), estrogenic potency in water samples from the influents was calculated as E2-equivalent and ranged from 0.1 to 150 pM E2-equivalent. The estrogenic potency in water samples from the effluents was significantly lower than that in the influents, and 7 water samples had less detectable limit in the total of 9 samples. Conclusion Yeast bioassay of estrogenic activity in most of the samples from the farm wastewater after disposal by traditional sewage treatment showed negative results.

  18. Analysis of two solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water preparation in multi-family houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a large research project dealing with the optimization of solar heating systems from the points of view of heat storage management, heat store and hydraulics' design as well as control algorithms, solar heating plants were installed in two identical refurbished multi-family houses located side-by-side at Duebendorf, Switzerland. The refurbishment works included new windows and doors, a new facades' thermal insulation, further thermal insulation applied to cellar and attic and a new oil-fired boiler. The two solar plants had identical solar collector arrays, but differed in the heat store and hydraulics design. In the first one the heat produced by the oil boiler is supplied to the same store as the heat from the collectors. In the second one the heat production of the oil boiler is directly supplied to the heat consumers, and also the solar heat may be directed to the floor heating through a store by-pass. The two systems were monitored for one year. Monitoring results indicate that the second system has, indeed, some advantages from the point of view of increased solar output from the collectors. But in the climate of Zurich and that type of retrofitted houses the larger heat production still has to come from the oil boiler and the major optimization potential for energy savings lies in the boiler's operational efficiency and a good management of the heat it produces. The solar fraction was about 20%. The report also includes cost figures for both systems. This pioneering comparative evaluation of two solar heating system designs contains data still of interest 17 years on

  19. Assessment of radiological effect of the indoor radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all the sources of environmental radiation, radon and its progeny are considered to be responsible for a significant dose to man, especially when they are in enclosed areas like underground mines, caves, cellars, poorly designed and badly ventilated houses. Linear extrapolation from the dose response value of the uranium miners exposed to higher levels of radon and its daughters also suggest that the majority of the lung cancer incidence could be due to radon. Higher indoor radon levels and shift in the disequilibrium of the progeny concentration in dwellings caused by the lower ventilation rate leads to severalfold increase of lung cancer incidence from radon. The large risk which is anticipated calls for further studies in this field and may also lead to the conclusion that the slight, but much feared, burden due to man-made radioactivity could be more than compensated by controlling critical segments of the environmental radioactivity. In this report the study of risk due to breathing of indoor radon is briefly reviewed. Dose equivalent to the exposed tissue of the respiratory tract of the people living in dwellings are evaluated. Like most of the risk assessment of low level radiation, the effort to quantify the effect of radon in terms of death rate dose due to lung cancer attributable to radon levels indoors, has to rely on the extrapolation from the effects of the higher exposure rate. In situations where soil or building materials contain elevated radium levels, living in energy efficient houses may be as dangerous as heavy smoking. (author). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 41 refs

  20. Quantifying the Benefits of Shallow Posthole Installation for the Future French Permanent Broadband Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Charade, O.; Bonaime, S.; Louis-Xavier, T.; Arnold, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (réseau sismologique et géodésique français) infrastructure, more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations have to be deployed in metropolitan France within the forthcoming years. This requires a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost, especially for the 60 percent of stations that we expect to be settled in open environments. During the last two years we tested various types of sensor's hosting infrastructures with a strong focus on recently released posthole sensors that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes. Tests were performed at 3 different sites (two GEOSCOPE stations and a dedicated open-field prototype site) with geological conditions spanning from hard rocks to very soft soils. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed at different depths, from the surface to a maximum of 20m deep, and in different types of casing. Moreover, a reference sensor, either installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault, has been operated continuously. We present a comprehensive comparison of the seismic noise level measured in the different hosting infrastructures and for several frequency bands corresponding to various sources of noise. At high and low frequencies, seismic noise level in some boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. Between 0.005 and 0.05Hz, we observe a strong decrease of seismic noise level on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and is mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved clearly depends on the local geology. All these tests, together with estimated installation costs, point toward the deployment of sensors in shallow boreholes at the future French broadband stations located in open environments.

  1. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. PMID:27122124

  2. Edificios protoindustriales para la producción de vino en Sicilia. Los palmentosy las bodegas del Etna desde el s. XVII al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascone, G.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Etnian region, during XVII and XIX centuries wine production begins to be made in a proto-industrial way. Great industries for wine production are built in these dates with a great technological and architectural specialization. Many of these constructions are in use today with good conservation state, but others are abandoned or ruined. In this paper the main characteristics of the "palmenti" and wine cellars that yet exist are analyzed. Architectural aspects are related with simple functionality aspects devoting special attention to the press machinery. The present state of this architectural patrimony and reasons to preserve and reuse it are discussed. Several ways and proposals to achieve this are defined at the end.

    En la región del Etna, entre los siglos XVII y XIX, la producción del vino empieza a hacerse de un modo protoindustrial. En tales fechas se construyen numerosas infraestructuras de grandes dimensiones para producir vino, denotando una gran especialización tecnológica y arquitectónica. Muchas de estas construcciones se usan aún hoy, manteniéndose en buen estado; otras, sin embargo, avanzan hacia el abandono y el deterioro. En el presente estudio se analizan las características principales de las bodegas y de los "palmentos" que han llegado hasta nosotros. Se relacionan los aspectos arquitectónicos con los puramente funcionales y se dedica una atención especial a la maquinaria de prensado. Se detalla al final el estado actual en el que se encuentra este patrimonio arquitectónico y se discuten las razones que hoy día animan a conservarlo y a volver a ponerlo en funcionamiento. Por último, se definen rápidamente los modos concretos y las propuestas para llevarlo a cabo.

  3. Identification of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from grape juices. Assessment of its biochemical activities relevant to flavor development in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Saguir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Maria Saguir1,3, Iris Eleonora Loto Campos1, Carmen Maturano1, Maria Cristina Manca de Nadra1,2,31Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina; 2Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (Cerela, Tucumán, Argentina; 3Career Investigators from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, ArgentinaAbstract: We investigated the dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB from grape juice and commencement of malolactic fermentation (MLF samples of a cellar located in Argentina and assessment of its β-glucosidase activity and butter aroma compounds production. LAB number found in grape juice (approximately log10 3.3 was lower than that obtained in the MLF samples. Oenococcus oeni was predominant, accounting for 68% of the 81 LAB isolated. Majority of whole cells derived from O. oeni cultures at the end of the exponential growth showed detectable β-glucosidase activity. Contrarily, the highest proportion of them did not produce diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butylene glycol. A direct relation between both properties among the O. oeni strains could not be established. In the selected MS25 strain, L-malic acid was compatible with good enzyme activity and was partially able to annul the negative influence of the low pH (3.8. In different conditions, the aroma compounds were lower than 4 mg/ml, especially at pH 3.8 and in presence of L-malic acid (2.5 g/l. This strain could have adequate characteristics for potential use in winemaking. Finally, the assessment of both biochemical properties in O. oeni should be considered as a quality criterion for selecting starter cultures for the improvement of the wines aroma.Keywords: isolation, lactic acid bacteria, biochemical properties, aroma, wine

  4. Pathological study on right atrium myocardium in rheumatic heart disease patients with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiang-ying; ZHANG Bao-ren; LI Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the pathological basis of right atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with mitral valve replacement of RHD were divided into AF group (n= 13) and sinus rhythm group (SN group) (n= 16). There was no significant statistical difference in clinical factors between the 2 groups. During the operation of valve replacement, the samples of right atrial appendages were taken and the qualitative and quantitative study were made by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results: (1) Light microscope: The interstitial fibrosis and the arrangement of myocardium was more disordered in AF group than that in SN group. However, no statistic difference was found in interstitial fibrosis and cellar hypertrophy degree between the 2 groups. (2) Electron microscope: Mitochondrial crosta broke and dissolved obviously in AF group. The mitochondrial volume in AF group was smaller than that in SN group. Volume density, average area and average perimeter in AF group were less than that in SN group; specific surface in AF group was bigger than that in SN group. There was significant difference of above factors between the 2 groups; but there was no significant difference of surface density and numerical density on area in the 2 groups. Volume density of myofibril in AF group and SN group were less than that in SN group. (3)Split of Intercalated disc(ID) gap was found in AF group, and there was marrowing and floccular substance in ID gap. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the pathological changes of right atrial myocardium between AF and SN with RHD, these changes may be the important pathological basis for RA fibrillation of AF patients with RHD.

  5. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  6. Dos obras de Friedrich F. Haindl, Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asylum of Wasserburg. It is a brick construction, faced with pre-manufactured concrete pieces; its plan is rectangular and consists of: cellar (under ground, ground floor and six stories. Arrangement of cellar: kitchen with its accessory rooms, laundry, storing rooms, as well as lavatories and installations. The entry is on the ground floor, with a forged iron front door which communicates with the spacious interior hall. This floor includes: dinnig room, chapel, library and administrative rooms. The first floor is assigned to: personnel and the Sisters' rooms, including a refectory, and the appartment of the janitor. The following four floors contain the total of the residents' rooms, with a common hall on each floor. On the top floor, the centre for medical assistance with rooms of different capacities is installed. The whole is completed by a garage and a garden. The residence for old people of Berchting. It has been installed in an old convent of two floors, adding a new building which consists of: cellar, ground floor, and two and three storeys. Old and new part arc connected by means of a glass aisle. The old building contains: rooms for personnel, Sisters and nurses, the chaplain's appartments; the kitchen, dining-room, refectory and living-room; administrative rooms, lavatories and services, storing rooms and workshops. In the new building are installed the rooms for the old; the rooms for boiler, oil tanks for heating, storing rooms, workshops; dinnig-room and lobby near the connexion aisle; main kitchen and small kitchens on each floor; personnel diningroom, laundry, lavatories, living-rooms and common terrace, as well as the centre for medical assistance with 22 beds. Each bedroom has its washbasin and incorporated closet, and all the resident's rooms have individual balconies. The whole new construction has been buil with concrete, harmonizing with the large glass walls of the aisle, with the common rooms and the bed

  7. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of two-storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not

  8. Vivienda unifamiliar en Madrid – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Artajo Saracho, Alberto

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the main floor of this one family house is as follows: dining room, drawing room and living room; six bedrooms with four complete bathrooms; and the household section with kitchen, laundry and ironing room, breakfast room plus two additional bedrooms with adjoining bathrooms, On a smaller second floor there is a spacious study, extended towards the outside by terraces, whereas the basement holds a garage, rooms for the staff, a wine cellar and the play-room for the children. Arranged according to a west-east longitudinal distribution scheme, the façades of the building are oriented towards the south and the north. The northern side connects the main rooms with the back garden where a swimming pool and a tennis court are situated. The treatment of the façades an original combination of crown tile and facing bricks— is particularly interesting in view of the varying height of the roofs that are adapted to the irregular planform and are provided with tile covered chimneys.Esta vivienda unifamiliar distribuye, en una planta general: los ambientes principales del comedor, el salón y el estar; seis dormitorios con cuatro cuartos de baño completos; y la zona de servicios, con cocina, doble oficio, desayuno y dos dormitorios de servicio con baño completo. En una pequeña planta alta se sitúa un espacioso estudio, prolongado hacia el exterior por terrazas. El sótano alberga: un amplio garaje, los cuartos de servicio, una bodega y la sala de juegos para niños. Organizada de acuerdo con un esquema de distribución longitudinal oeste-este, sus fachadas principales se orientan al sur y al norte, predominando esta última para permitir la integración de los ambientes principales con el jardín posterior, dotado de piscina y pista de tenis. En el tratamiento de fachadas, a base de una original combinación de teja árabe y ladrillo visto, sobresale el interesante movimiento de las cubiertas, adaptado a la forma

  9. Textual Research on "Litchi Wine" in Xuzhou Fu in Qing Dynasty%清代叙州府“荔枝酒”考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌受勋

    2012-01-01

    The wines such as "Chongbi Wine","Litchi-Green" and "Green Litchi" are fermented yellow rice wines after several-times making,not the fruit wine made by the litchi.The place Gongguanba in Xuzhou Fu(an official residence) in Qing Dynasty not only makes quality Luzhou-flavor liquor,but also makes "Litchi-Green" wine with its place of the original literary quotation.Located on the joint of shipping and communication,the leading wine workshops with first productions of wine in Gongguanba in Qing Dynasty uses the ancient wine cellar in Ming Dynasty,and their cereals wine with unique making skills and techniques becomes famous along Minjiang River and Yangtze River areas.The cereals wine is the royal tributary wine named "Litchi Wine" highly introduced by Cao Yin,an officer in Emperor Kangxi period.The conclusion is not only from some literatures as evidences but also from the evidence in archaeological studies and modern microorganism technology.%唐宋时戎州"重碧酒"、"荔枝绿"、"绿荔枝"都是经过多重酿造的发酵黄酒,而不是用荔枝酿成的果酒。清代的叙州府公馆坝既产优质曲酒,又是"绿荔枝"酒典故的产生地。处于水陆交通重要节点上的清代公馆坝糟坊头酿酒作坊用明代古窖,使用独特酿造工艺酿制的杂粮酒享誉岷江、长江沿线,而这种杂粮酒就是康熙时受到江宁织造曹寅高度赞誉的皇家贡酒"荔枝酒"。这个结论不仅可以从文献中得到证明,而且还得到考古和现代微生物技术的证实。

  10. Thermographic mapping of a complex vernacular settlement: the case study of Casalnuovo District within the Sassi of Matera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Balestra, Alessandro; Cardinale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Never as in the Sassi of Matera (Italy), the parties have a volumetric material identity and a special construction condition for which, first of all, you need to know the whole to which they give life, and then the individual components and their connections. The distribution of these building artifacts in symbiotic connection with the connective calcareous texture that hosts them, resulted in a spontaneously harmonious figurative balance that characterizes the constructive expedients employed and the distributive and morphological solutions. This is the reason why the Sassi, and the overlooking Park of Rupestrian Churches of Matera Murgia have been entered in 1993 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Our research focuses on a largely abandoned area within the Casalnuovo District, situated in the extreme south of the city, probably the place of the future Demoethnoanthropological Museum. It is known today that the particular shape of the area is made up of settlements mainly in cave; during the time architectures above ground, in a very limited number, filled almost completely the limited building space. Here there are the most archaic types and forms of building and wine cellars within the Sassi, essentially derive from the natural cave only slightly structured by man. The exterior construction complete the elementary cave and it is called lamione. The complexity of a built space like this one determines the need for a non-traditional approach, so you have to combine last generation tools and canonical ones for survey and energy diagnosis within a dialectic between memory, tradition and innovation, in order to identify solutions for an environment friendly recover of a cultural heritage such this one. Since the evaluation of the historical buildings conservation state using destructive techniques should be avoided to prevent the integrity of the cultural heritage, the development of non-destructive and non-contact techniques is very important. For this reason, an

  11. São Gião de Nazaré (Portugal. Un tipo original de iglesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific importance of the Portuguese church of São Gião de Nazaré, considered one of the prototypes of 7th century Iberian Visigoth architecture, merited an archaeological analysis of its architecture in addition to the excavation of its cellars and prior to necessary restoration work on the building, which was on the brink of ruin. Readings discovered an original church with a nave with high rooms to the west and east, side rooms, iconostases and freestanding vaulted rectangular apse. The structure scarcely changed until its ruin and subsequent conversion into farm workers’ dwellings in the 18th century. The chronological ascription of the church, presently in doubt due to the problems concerning the architectural group traditionally called Visigoth, cannot be solved through the reading but can be enhanced by this as two different decorative groups are identified, one with reused pieces and the other with new sculptures. This deliberately sculpted decoration is now the chronological indicator to follow in dating the original church: for some, it is clearly Visigoth; for others, Asturian.La importancia científica de la iglesia portuguesa de São Gião de Nazaré, considerada como uno de los prototipos de la arquitectura visigoda peninsular del siglo VII, recomendaba un análisis arqueológico de su arquitectura complementario a la excavación del subsuelo y previo a los necesarios trabajos de restauración del edificio en amenaza de ruina. La lectura descubre una iglesia original de nave central con dos habitaciones altas a Oeste y Este, habitaciones laterales, iconostasis y ábside rectangular exento abovedado. Su estructura apenas varía hasta el momento de ruina y posterior transformación en casa labriega en el siglo XVIII. La adscripción cronológica de la iglesia, puesta en duda actualmente dentro de una problemática que afecta al conjunto de arquitectura tradicionalmente denominada visigoda, no se resuelve con la lectura

  12. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  13. 黄土丘陵区梯田大棚集雨滴灌的水土保持效益分析%The Soil and Water Conservation Benefit Analysis of Drip Irrigation by Collecting Rainwater of Terraces Greenhouses in Hilly-gully Area of Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 高建恩; 邵辉; 娄现勇

    2015-01-01

    Considering the problems of returning farmland to forest,the reduction of land resources caused by ecological environment construction,and the rapid development of high-efficiency agricultural soil and water conservation,this study analyzes the mode of high-efficiency agricultural water management in terraces greenhouses by designing the water management system in Majiagou water-shed in Ansai County,Yan'an City.The results show that combining different levels of terraces gap with the power of solar energy and gravity can collect rainwater.The cellar volume is 0.06 m3/m2.The irrigation quota of drip irrigation under plastic film inside the greenhouses is 1 800 m3/hm2 and the irrigation frequency is 12 times.The operation of the system can save irrigation cost 2.8 yuan/m2,reduce erosion 6 338 t/(km2 · a),save the soil backfill cost 0.5 yuan/(m2 · a).A single terraces greenhouse can enhance the economic income by 1 480 yuan a year.%退耕还林及生态环境建设使陕北地区农田面积减少,而水土保持型高效灌溉农业发展迅速.以安塞县马家沟梯田大棚为研究对象,分析了梯田大棚集雨滴灌的水土保持型高效农业用水模式,结果表明:梯田大棚滴灌采用棚面收集雨水存贮在下部水窖,利用不同阶层的梯田落差,结合太阳能及重力等动力,布置大棚膜下作物滴灌系统.设计的水窖容积0.06 m3/m2,灌水定额为1 800 m3/hm2,灌水次数为12次.系统运行后,可节省灌溉费用2.8元/m2,减少侵蚀6 338 t/(km2 · a ),节省回填费用 0.5 元/(m2 · a ),单个梯田大棚农户每年可增加经济收益1 480元.

  14. Overwintering of vineyard yeasts: survival of interacting yeast communities in grapes mummified on vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eSipiczki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of grape must into wine involves the development and succession of yeast populations differing in species composition. The initial population is formed by vineyard strains which are washed into the must from the crushed grapes and then completed with yeasts coming from the cellar environment. As the origin and natural habitat of the vineyard yeasts are not fully understood, this study addresses the possibility that grape yeasts can be preserved in berries left behind on vines at harvest until the spring of the next year. These berries become mummified during the winter on the vines. To investigate whether yeasts can survive in these overwintering grapes, mummified berries were collected in 16 localities in the Tokaj wine region (Hungary-Slovakia in early March. The collected berries were rehydrated to recover viable yeasts by plating samples onto agar plates. For the detection of minority species which would not be detected by direct plating, an enrichment step repressing the propagation of alcohol-sensitive yeasts was also included in the process. The morphological, physiological and molecular analysis identified 13 basidiomycetous and 23 ascomycetous species including fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance among the 3879 isolates. The presence of viable strains of these species demonstrates that the grapes mummified on the vine can serve as a safe reservoir of yeasts, and may contribute to the maintenance of grape-colonizing yeast populations in the vineyard over years, parallel with other vectors and habitats. All basidiomycetous species were known phylloplane yeasts. Three Hanseniaspora species and pigmented Metschnikowia strains were the most frequent ascomycetes. Other fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance were detected only in the enrichment cultures. Saccharomyces (S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum were recovered from 13 % of the samples. No Candida zemplinina was found. The isolates with Aureobasidium

  15. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  16. Vivienda unifamiliar en Aravaca Madrid – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Artajo, Alberto

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available This construction, made up of three storeys and basement was situated in one of the corners of the plot and the rest of the area could thus be used for building the following: swimming pool; tennis court; a small vegetable garden with hothouse and a big garden. The basement comprises: a garage with three parking places; boiler room; and living quarters for the staff; further, gymnasium with dressing rooms and sauna; a bar room with wine cellar; and a chapel. On the ground floor are situated: drawing room, living room, dining room and library; kitchen; larder; laundry and ironing room; staff bedroom and a terrace-drying room. The first floor consists of: four bedrooms each of which has a dressing room and bath room; parents bedroom with dressing room and bath room. The top floor holds: a hall for trophies plus an office room; play room; a study. The building is a point structure with screen walls in the basement and is on the outside entirely covered with tiles. The chimneys, the marked wings, as well as the sloping walls form a harmonious unit with a strong personality.El edificio, de tres plantas y sótano, se situó en uno de los extremos del terreno, aprovechándose el resto de la parcela para distribuir: una piscina; una pista de tenis; una pequeña huerta con invernadero, y amplias zonas ajardinadas. El sótano alberga: el garaje de tres plazas; el cuarto de calderas, y una vivienda para el servicio. El resto de la planta la ocupan: un gimnasio con vestuarios y sauna; una pequeña taberna con bodega; una capilla; una cámara acorazada, y un trastero. En la planta baja se sitúan: la zona noble, compuesta por salón, estar, comedor y biblioteca; y la zona de servicio, con oficio, cocina, despensa, lavadero y cuarto de plancha, dormitorio de servicio, y una terraza-tendedero. La planta primera consta de: cuatro dormitorios, cada uno con vestidor y cuarto de baño completo; y el dormitorio de padres, con vestidor, cuarto de ba

  17. Isotopes in environmental studies - Aquatic Forum 2004. Proceedings of an international conference. Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of key processes in the aquatic environment, responsible for its future development and its protection, were at the forefront of the IAEA's International Conference on Isotopes in Environmental Studies - AQUATIC FORUM 2004 convened in Monaco from 25 to 29 October 2004, which was the most important gathering of the year of isotope environmental scientists. Over 320 experts from 60 IAEA Member States and 6 international organizations delivered 185 oral presentations in 6 plenary and 31 parallel sessions and made 130 poster presentations. The conference reviewed the present state of the art isotopic methods for investigation of the aquatic environment. The main conference subjects considered were: (i) behaviour, transport and distribution of isotopes in the aquatic environment; (ii) climate change studies using isotopic records in the marine environment; (iii) groundwater dynamics, modelling and management of freshwater sources; (iv) important global projects, such as WOCE, WOMARS, SHOTS, GEOTRACES; (v) joint IAEA-UNESCO submarine groundwater investigations in the Mediterranean Sea, the Southwest Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; (vi) new trends in radioecological investigations, concentrating on the protection of marine biota against radioactive contamination; (vii) transfers in analytical technologies from bulk analyses to particle and compound specific analyses of environmental samples; (viii) development of new isotopic techniques, such as AMS and ICPMS, and their successful applications in environmental studies; and many other exciting topics which were presented and discussed during the Conference. Four workshops were held simultaneously: - ATOMS-Med Workshop - development of a project proposal for oceanographic investigations in the Eastern Mediterranean. - El Nino - Research Co-ordination Meeting of the new IAEA Coordinated Research Project investigating climate change using isotopic records in the marine environment. - CELLAR Workshop

  18. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  19. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  20. Caracterização do suco de amora-preta elaborado em extrator caseiro Characterisation of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição físico-química, aceitabilidade e efeito do armazenamento na qualidade do suco de amora-preta elaborado em um extrator caseiro. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química e separados de acordo com o teor de antocianinas em três grupos: acima de 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, de 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue e Comanche e abaixo de 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97 e Cherokee. Os sucos foram pasteurizados e analisados quanto aos teores de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, carboidratos solúveis, extrato seco e antocianinas. A extração por 2 h apresentou rendimento de 84%. As antocianinas foram os compostos que sofreram alteração mais significativa na elaboração do suco, com redução média de 42%. O suco apresentou aceitabilidade superior a 85%. O armazenamento em adega ou sob refrigeração alterou de forma significativa apenas o teor de antocianinas dos sucos, cuja degradação foi menor nas amostras conservadas sob refrigeração.The aim of this study was the evaluation of physico-chemical composition, acceptability and storage effects on the quality of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor. Fruits were analysed for their chemical properties and divided in three groups, according to anthocyanin content: above 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue and Comanche and below 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97, Cherokee. The pasteurised juices were analysed for parameters related to quality, such as pH, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity, dry extract and anthocyanin content. Extraction for two hours resulted in a yield of 84%. Juice extraction reduced the anthocyanin content in average 42%. The acceptability was over 85%. Storage in wine cellar or refrigerator reduced the anthocyanin content of the juices, whose degradation was smaller in samples stored under refrigeration.

  1. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  2. Study on the kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor daqu%浓香型大曲糖化动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 张晓宇

    2013-01-01

    In order to study on the kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor Daqu, using the enzymes of 5% Daqu hydrolyzed soluble starch, at pH 4. 6, 30℃ , an Michaelis-Menten equation was deduced. The optimum pH value for the catalysis of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-flavor Daqu was 6. 0. Studying the catalytic reaction rate under different temperatures, the calculation results showed that the activation energy of the enzyme catalytic reaction was 40. 966 kJ/mol. The kinetics of saccharifying enzymes of Luzhou-fla-vor Daqu was similar to a single enzyme, During the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor, it will contribute to manage the saccharification and fermentation process simultaneously by controlling the conditions of pits input into the cellar, such as the concentration of starch and starter, initial acidity and temperature.%为研究浓香型大曲的糖化动力学,用5%的大曲浸出液水解可溶性淀粉,在pH4.6、30℃的条件下,用菲林试剂法测定还原糖的含量,得出米氏方程;浓香型大曲糖化反应的最适pH值为6.0;在不同温度下测定糖化反应速率,计算得到活化能E为40.966 kJ/mol.试验证明,浓香型大曲糖化酶类的糖化反应动力学与单一酶相似.通过控制淀粉浓度(投粮量)、用曲量、入窖酸度和温度可以使浓香型大曲酒的糖化、发酵过程协调进行.

  3. Study on styrene grafting onto per-fluorinated polymers effects of irradiation and reaction conditions%过氟化聚合物的苯乙烯接枝研究--辐照条件与反应条件的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Matsuura; Tomoyuki Kakigi; Saneto Asano; Fumihiro Mutou; Akihiro Oshima; Masakazu Washio

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell is in focus as a very low exhaust new dynamo system. Especially polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) using proton exchange membranes (PEM) have attracted much attention for the electrical vehicle and other mobile applications such as cellar phone and personal computer. Conventional perfluoro-sulfonic acid membranes such as Nation() (DuPont de Nemours LTD.) have been the popular PEM used in PFEC. However, there are still several problems such as insufficient gas barrier properties, low thermal resistance, and their high costs.In this study, hawse have studied the partially fluorinated PEM for PEFC by radiation grafting onto per-fluorinated polymers such as PFA, FEP and ETFE with reactive styrene monomers using pre-irradiation grafting method in gas and in liquid phase, respectively, and successive sulfonation. Characteristic properties of the grafted and sulfonated materials have been discussed and optimized fabricating conditions were determined.Characteristic properties of the obtained materials have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry,thermogravimetric analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy, etc.In the case of irradiation in air, glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the grafted materials depend on the yields of styrene grafting onto the materials. That is higher yields of grafting give lower thermal stability. On the other hand, when the peroxy radicals were converted trapped radicals by exposure in air after irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere, Tg of the grafted materials hardly depends on the grafting yields.Moreover, the yields of grafting in gas phase were higher than that of liquid phase. However, the sample form of grafting in gas phase has been greatly changed, whereas the sample form of grafting in liquid phase has kept its original feature.Therefore, it is suggested that the fabricating conditions for PEFC membranes were preferred to irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere and grafting in liquid phase.Ion exchange capacities of

  4. Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-01-01

    The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic acid bacteria species can be identified. They belong to the Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus genera. Throughout alcoholic fermentation, a natural selection occurs and finally the dominant species is O. oeni, due to interactions between yeasts and bacteria and between bacteria themselves. After bacterial growth, when the population is over 10(6) CFU/ml, malolactic transformation is the obvious change in wine composition. However, many other substrates can be metabolized. Some like remaining sugars and citric acid are always assimilated by lactic acid bacteria, thus providing them with energy and carbon. Other substrates such as some amino acids may be used following pathways restricted to strains carrying the adequate enzymes. Some strains can also produce exopolysaccharides. All these transformations greatly influence the sensory and hygienic quality of wine. Malic acid transformation is encouraged because it induces deacidification. Diacetyl produced from citric acid is also helpful to some extent. Sensory analyses show that many other reactions change the aromas and make malolactic fermentation beneficial, but they are as yet unknown. On the contrary, an excess of acetic acid, the synthesis of glucane, biogenic amines and precursors of ethylcarbamate are undesirable. Fortunately, lactic acid bacteria normally multiply in dry wines; moreover some of these activities are not widespread. Moreover, the most striking trait of wine lactic acid bacteria is their capacity to adapt to a hostile environment. The mechanisms for this are not yet completely elucidated

  5. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  6. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  7. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  8. Arqueología, Arquitectura e Historia en el Archivo Histórico Provincial de Jaén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos López, María Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From the necessity for restoration and the need to present a conservation proposal for one of the most symbolic buildings in Jaén, Andalucía, a discovery was made of what are, according to researchers, the last remains of the «ancient Arab palaces». Through a combined study of wall stratigraphy, archaeological intervention and the study of documentary sources, it has been possible to prove the historical sequence of the building which is the central office of the Provincial History Archive, located in one of the most historically relevant areas of the city. The building has been occupied since Roman times, later housing the Almohade Muslim dynasty, a royal palace, a convent, a university, a stronghold of resistance during the War of Independence, a men’s hospice and presently the History Archive. This is one example of how buildings stay alive in urban areas, adapting and transforming, and of the reading of these sequences and the mark that this constant state of development leaves on the facings, in the cellars.A partir de la necesidad de restaurar y presentar una propuesta de conservación para uno de los inmuebles más emblemáticos de la capital jiennense, se descubre lo que, a juicio de los investigadores, son los últimos restos de los «antiguos palacios árabes», y a través de un estudio combinado de estratigrafía muraria, intervención arqueológica y el estudio de las fuentes documentales, se ha podido constatar la secuencia histórica del edificio que es sede del Archivo Histórico Provincial, localizado en una de las zonas de más relevancia histórica de la ciudad. La ocupación documentada abarca desde niveles romanos, almohades, siendo más tarde palacio real, convento, universidad, plaza fuerte de la resistencia en la Guerra de la Independencia, hospicio de hombres y, finalmente, Archivo Histórico. Es un ejemplo de cómo los edificios se mantienen vivos dentro de la trama urbana, adaptándose, transformándose y de la

  9. Radon and tritium in human life. The real threat aspects and social responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radon is the heaviest radioactive colorless, odorless, undetectable by human feelings and noble atomic gas, contributing by around 54% to the world average total radiation exposure and by more than 58% of the average natural radioactivity. Radon is released from all kind of soils and from building materials and can built up within dwellings and other closed spaces. Established until 1990 as the second cause of lung cancer, the scientists paid more attention to the radon and his daughters effects. The radon maximum permissible level was accepted between 150 Bq/m3 and 600 Bq/m3, being different for different countries. The telluric radon is represented by three abundant isotopes: Rn-222 as successor of U-238 via Ra-226 from uranium chain having more than 90% of effects, Rn-220 from thorium chain and Rn-219 from U-235, both last isotopes having a too short half time to be important in radiological risk by inhalation. The risk by direct body irradiation or by radon ingestion is 104 less than by radon inhalation risk. The interest of different countries in order to reduce the radon effects was sustained by appropriate studies. In USA the radon studies were monitored by National Research Center and as a consequence its Committee for Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI issued a special report regarding radon. The activities regarding the mining, transport and processing are accompanied by radon release. The miner dwellings are located generally into areas of high potential radon release from all kind of natural sources as mountains, faults line or cracks. The existing type of dwellings is very permissive for gaseous elements, especially for radon. The building can accumulate the radon into the airtight or unventilated rooms like gap, cellar, and basement and so on. By the other side many antinuclear NGOs are very active and belligerent against Nuclear Power Plants, especially regarding tritium from CANDU reactor. It must be maintained that all

  10. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  11. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow

  12. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  13. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ventilation in living spaces, in the cellar or in the crawl space, are less effective: the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 10 - 60%. The efficiencies of prevention techniques are analogous to those of remediation techniques. Active SSD is the most efficient prevention technique. The efficiency of passive SSD and passive radon piping is lower, typically 20 - 50%. However, widespread use of such systems can be recommended. Radon-proof membrane in the base floor reduces the radon concentration on average by 50%. The impact of remedial techniques and preventive techniques on energy consumption is significant for active SSD, mainly due to the power consumption of the electrical fan used and potentially also to a lesser degree due to cooling of the base floor. The impact on energy consumption of passive SSD and passive radon piping is negligible. Sealing entry routes in both remediation and prevention in new construction has a positive impact through reduction of the leakage of cold air from the ground in low energy and passive houses. Replacing existing natural or mechanical exhaust ventilation with a new mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system with heat recovery typically reduces energy consumption. On the other hand, other methods increasing ventilation in living spaces reduce the radon concentration, but simultaneously increase energy consumption due to increased air exchange. Sealing the constructions of house foundations in contact with soil and the control of air flows in standard, low energy and passive construction have synergistic goals. Reduction of soil-air flows into the house reduces indoor radon concentrations and simultaneously also the energy consumption. (orig.)

  14. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  15. Optimization of coolant arrangement for fusion-fission hybrid reactor and analysis of ex-core nature circulation%聚变-裂变混合堆冷却剂布置优化及堆外自然循环分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻章程; 解衡

    2013-01-01

    The simulation and numerical computation with FLUENT code are conducted for the fuel zone of fusion-fission hybrid reactor.Two coolant flowing arrangement schemes,uniform flow,and proportional flow based on the gross heat of each fuel cell,are compared for optimization.The results of the numerical computation show that the heat conduction between adjacent fuel cells is weak and the heat is carried away by the coolant in the duct,and it is almost completely equal to the heat produced by corresponding fuel cell except the fuel cell 1.Then the value of heat structure of the coolant duct is the gross heat of each fuel cell that means there is no need to remodel the fuel zone with system analysis program.The fuel zone has lower maximum temperature and more even temperature distribution in the case of proportional flow compared with uniform flow,but the effect of flattening temperature is not obvious.The capacity of heat transfer of ex-core nature circulation in the imaginary LOCA is also evaluated.The results show that the reactor core will be melted within 520s after shut-down without the nature circulation and the maximum temperature in the fuel region will be only elevated to 584.4℃ within 1000s after shut-down if with the nature circulation.%根据聚变-裂变混合堆概念堆型的燃料区水冷设计,通过FLUENT建模和模拟计算,比较了均匀流量和按燃料单元发热量比例分配流量两种冷却剂布置方案.数值计算结果表明,这两种布置方案中燃料单元之间的导热很小,除燃料单元1中冷却管道外,其余的冷却管道带走的热量几乎等于相应燃料单元的发热量,在用系统分析程序等效建模时,不必重新确定冷却管道的热构件;对后一种布置方案燃料区的最高温度更低,温度分布更均匀,但温度展平效果并不明显.计算了堆外自然循环系统在假设的失水事故(LOCA)中的导热能力.结果表明,如果不采用自然循环系统,停堆后520s

  16. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  17. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. PMID:22898665

  18. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 102 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (∼3 × 103 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 105 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

  19. Current and Projected Changes in Permafrost and Societal Impacts of Permafrost Degradation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S. S.; Brubaker, M.

    2010-12-01

    Most of the permafrost observatories in Northern Hemisphere show substantial warming of permafrost during the last 20 to 30 years. The magnitude of warming has varied with location, but was typically from 0.5 to 2°C at the depth of zero annual amplitude. Permafrost is already thawing in specific landscape settings within the southern part of the permafrost domain. Formation of new closed taliks and an increase in depth of pre-existing taliks has been observed in this area during the last 20 to 30 years. In the past, the thawing of permafrost and talik development was observed in the sporadic and less frequently in the discontinuous permafrost zones. However, very recent observations documented propagation of this process into continuous permafrost zone, especially in the Russian European North and in West Siberia. Projections of future changes in permafrost suggest that by the end of the 21st century, late-Holocene permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere may be actively thawing within the wide area of the presently discontinuous and continuous permafrost domain and some Late Pleistocene permafrost could start to thaw as well at some locations. In Alaska, the mean annual ground temperatures at 2 m depth could be above 0°C everywhere southward of latitude 66o except for small patches at high altitude in the Alaska Range and Wrangell Mountains and within the patches of ecosystem-protected permafrost. By the end of the 21st century, permafrost in Russia may be actively thawing at most locations within the Pechora River basin and within continental West Siberia. Warming and thawing of permafrost will continue to adversely affect northern communities. The phenomena related to permafrost degradation is already widely observed, including increased rates of shore line and river bank erosion, thermal slumps, and drying of tundra lakes. Some northern communities are experiencing food insecurity from the thawing of traditional underground food cellars. Others have seen

  20. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  1. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    is just a set of foundations and a portal, considered national monuments. There, we enjoyed a delicious meal in the cellars of the Corralejo Hacienda before returning to Leon. The XIII MWPF was sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) through the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and individual research projects, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnológico del Estado de Guanajuato (CONCyTEG), Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla and Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. Also, we wish to thak to those who helped in the process of getting financial support for the meeting, specially Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo, President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and Dr José Luis Lucio Martínez, Rector of Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León. These proceedings have been published thanks to the support of PIFI 2011. This meeting was possible due to the commitment of the working groups and we wish to thank to their members for the decisive collaboration with the organizing committee. At the local level, we thank our graduate students: Carolina Luján, Vannia González, Selim Gomez and Carlos Alberto Vaquera for their invaluable contribution in the organization of the large amount of small but important things around the meeting. Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent talks which contributed to the success of the event. We are also grateful to all the participants for the nice academic and social atmosphere during the meeting and for providing their write-ups on time. The National organizing committee was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda (CINVESTAV-DF) Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV-Mérida) David Delepine (DF-UG) Axel de la Macorra (IAC/IF-UNAM) Lorenzo Díaz (BUAP

  2. 不同基因型烤烟成苗期植物学性状和生理特性差异%Comparison of botanical characters and physiological characteristics among different flue-cured tobacco genotypes in seedling transplanting period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武圣江; 典瑞丽; 韦克苏; 李德仑; 韩志康; 林叶春; 潘文杰; 谢已书

    2014-01-01

    Summary Guizhou is the second largest province for tobacco production and acts as a typical moderate-flavor tobacco planting area in China.According to the data from Guizhou Province Tobacco Monopoly Bureau (Company),the planting area of characteristic tobacco varieties bred in Guizhou such as“Nanjiang 3”“Bina 1”,etc.has increased significantly in these years,and accounted for more than 50% of the total tobacco growing area in Guizhou since 2012.Meanwhile,the well-cellar style transplanting technology invented in Guizhou has spread throughout our country,but there is a very common problem during the tobacco production that the transplanted seedlings showed a lower quality.Therefore,it is important and necessary to study the quality of different flue-cured tobacco genotypes,in order to cultivate high-quality seedlings and highlight the features of flue-cured tobacco varieties bred in Guizhou. In order to further improve the quality of seedling used for the well-cellar style transplanting in Guizhou,the biomass,root morphology, plastid pigments content, electrical conductivity, pH value and photosynthetic characteristics of different flue-cured tobacco genotypes (i.e.,“K326”“Nanjiang 3”“Bina 1”“Guiyan 2”“Jiucaiping 2”) were studied in seedling transplanting period. The results showed that the botanical characters of different flue-cured tobacco genotypes in seedling transplanting period were significantly different.“K326”had the best aboveground biomass (0.110 9 gram per plant)while“Guiyan 2”had the lowest aboveground biomass(0.092 5 gram per plant).As for root,“Guiyan 2”and“Bina 1”had a better root morphology,and their root dry mass were 0.042 4 gram per plant and 0.040 3 gram per plant,respectively.For the total biomass,“K326”and“Bina 1”had the largest dry mass,and their values were 0.149 3 gram per plant and 0.135 4 gram per plant,respectively.Physiological analysis illustrated that the difference in plastid

  3. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    parece afectar la vulnerabilidad a las termites del E. grandis cultivado en la región norte u oeste de Uruguay. Hasta el momento, los resultados de campo sugieren mejor desempeño para el sitio II que para el sitio I. Sin embargo, aún es muy pronto para extraer conclusiones válidas de los ensayos de doble capa o de estacas. La durabilidad natural podría estar relacionada con la densidad. Otros estudios son necesarios para extraer conclusiones certeras al respecto.AbstractOne of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of major economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanicalproperties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been reported. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Río Negro was evaluated. Two sixteen years old plantations, originated by seed of same source, were sampled. Natural durability of outer and inner heartwood was studied following EN 350-1 methods. Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 was tested as reference specie. EN 113 laboratory tests for fungal decay (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Serpula lacrymans and EN 118 for termites resistance (Reticulitermes spp. were performed. Field stakes, double layer and fungal cellar tests were established. They are still on course and partial results are reported below in this paper. Upon basic density radial profiles, it wasfound that outer heartwood was not mature wood, but can be assumed as transition wood. In general, E. grandis heartwood showed higher durability than Populus hybrid. E. grandis appeared moderately or seriously attacked by Reticulitermes spp. E. grandis juvenile wood can be classified according EN 350-1, as “Moderately Durable” against the brown rotter G. trabeum, whereas transition wood can be described as “Durable”.

  4. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  5. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  6. 多肽修饰载紫杉醇脂质体靶向A549肺癌干细胞的研究%Study on the ability of specific-binding peptide modified liposome loaded paclitaxel targeting A549 lung cancer stem cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华荣; 江跃全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prepare CD133 specific-binding peptide conjugated liposome loaded paclitaxel and evaluate the efficiency of cellular uptake and the ability of inhibiting A549 lung cancer stem cell.Methods Liposomes were prepared by film-ultrasonic method.The partical size,zeta-potential and entrapment efficiency of liposomes were evaluated.Cellular uptake effciency of A549 lung cancer stem cell for liposomes were explored.The anti-proliferation efficiency of TLP-PTX to A549 lung cancer stem cell was evaluated by MTT assay.Tumor spheroids were used to evaluate anti-tumor ability of TLP-PTX to A549 lung cancer stem cell. Results The particle diameter of TLP-PTX was (115.8 ±8.3)nm and the entrapment efficiency of PTX was 88.5%.CD133 specific-binding peptide could enhance the efficiency of cellar uptake.The uptaken efficiency of TLP by A549 lung cancer stem cell were 2.6 times higher than that of LP(P<0.05 ).The MTT Results showed that the toxicity of TLP-PTX on A549 lung cancer stem cell was significantly stronger than LP-PTX and paclitaxel solution(P<0.05 ).The tumor inhibition test results showed that TLP-PTX has good anti-tumor effect. Conclusion TLP-PTX can specifically recognize the surface marker CD133 of A549 lung cancer stem cell,facilitate liposomes into cells and inhibit A549 lung cancer stem cell proliferation.TLP-PTX is an effective drug delivery system targeting to A549 lung cancer stem cell.%目的:制备与肺癌干细胞标志物CD133具有高度亲和力的多肽修饰载紫杉醇脂质体(CD133 specific-binding peptide conjugated paclitaxel loaded liposome,TLP-PTX),考察TLP-PTX与A549肺癌干细胞的结合能力及其对A549肺癌干细胞和肺癌干细胞移植瘤的抑制作用。方法采用薄膜分散法制备TLP-PTX,观察其粒径,电位及紫杉醇的包封率等理化性质。采用细胞摄取实验和肿瘤球穿透实验考察TLP-PTX与A549肺癌干细胞的亲和力。通过MTT实验和肺癌干细胞肿瘤球抑制实

  7. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  8. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    been followed by a roughly 5°F increase since the 1980s. Many areas in the continuous permafrost zone have seen increases in temperature in the seasonally active layer and a decrease in re-freezing rates. Changes in the discontinuous permafrost zone are initially much more observable due to the resulting thermokarst terrain (land surface formed as ice rich permafrost thaws), most notable in boreal forested areas. Climate warming in Alaska has potentially broad implications for human health and food security, especially in rural areas, as well as increased risk for injury with changing winter ice conditions. Additionally, such warming poses the potential for increasing damage to existing water and sanitation facilities and challenges for development of new facilities, especially in areas underlain by permafrost. Non-infectious and infectious diseases also are becoming an increasing concern. For example, from 1999 to 2006 there was a statistically significant increase in medical claims for insectbite reactions in five of six regions of Alaska, with the largest percentage increase occurring in the most northern areas. The availability and quality of subsistence foods, normally considered to be very healthy, may change due to changing access, changing habitats, and spoilage of meat in food storage cellars. These and other trends and potential outcomes resulting from a changing climate are further described in this report. In addition, we describe new science leadership activities that have been initiated to address and provide guidance toward conducting research aimed at making available information for policy makers and land management agencies to better understand, address, and plan for changes to the local and regional environment. This report cites data in both metric and standard units due to the contributions by numerous authors and the direct reference of their data.