WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellars

  1. Learning Karaf Cellar

    Onofré, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    This book is a tutorial written with a step-by-step approach to help you implement an optimum clustering solution in Apache Karaf Cellar quickly and efficiently. If you are new to Karaf and want to install and manage multiple Karaf instances by farming or clustering, then this book is for you. If you are a Java developer or a system administrator with basic knowledge of Karaf, you can use this book as a guide. Some background knowledge of OSGi and/or Karaf would be preferred but is not mandatory.

  2. 222Rn in wine cellars in Hungary

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Szerbin, P.; Juhasz, L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured seasonal average 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary using Radamon type etched track radon detectors. The exposure period was 3 months, matching the seasons of 2003-2004. We also used an ionization chamber-type continuous 222 Rn-monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ222, Genitron Instruments, Germany) to study temporal variations of 222 Rn activity concentration in a selected wine cellar in the Tokajhegyalja wine region. This instruments also recorded temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity data. The etched track detector data revealed that the 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars spread over a wide range, from the ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bq.m -3 up to 6 kBq.m -3 characteristic of natural caves. The temporal variation of 222 Rn activity concentration in the air of the selected cellar varied inversely with the variation of the atmospheric pressure. Earlier we observed similar phenomena in natural karstic caves connected to the surface with vertical shafts only. This suggests that relatively large volume of pore space of the embedding rock communicates with the volume of the cellar induced by the variation of the atmospheric pressure

  3. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  4. Temperature Regimes in Traditional Iñupiat Ice Cellars in Barrow, Alaska

    Klene, A. E.; Yoshikawa, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Brown, J.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2011-12-01

    Historically ice cellars excavated in permafrost (perennially frozen ground) have been essential to Arctic residents and remain so today. These traditional facilities allow secure, year-round frozen storage of subsistence harvests over long periods. Iñupiat peoples in Barrow, Alaska, have many of these cellars, some of which were created more than a century ago. Others were established recently and continue to be enlarged. Temperatures within the cellars are critical because bacteria can damage meat even at temperatures below the freezing point. These cellars generally have temperatures close to those of surrounding permafrost. Climatic change has been suspected of compromising and causing damage to ice cellars in some northern communities, with thaw and spoilage of meat occurring in some cases. Beginning in 2005, local residents and the Native Village of Barrow organization provided access to their ice cellars and miniature temperature data loggers programmed to record at hourly intervals were installed. Cellars at a variety of depths, locations relative to the coast, and age were included in the survey. Analysis of the five years of record revealed seasonal variations within each cellar, temperature changes over time within some cellars, and temperature differences between the five cellars examined. Winter ventilation to artificially cool the cellars, local snow drifting, and proximity to brine-saturated sediments contribute to differences in ambient ground conditions. Long-term temperature measurements in these and other cellars are needed to better understand the observed changes.

  5. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension and...

  6. 27 CFR 18.63 - Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar.

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded wine cellar. 18.63 Section 18.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Records and Reports § 18.63 Record of transfer to a bonded wine cellar. A proprietor transferring concentrate, juice, or fruit mash to a bonded wine cellar shall prepare a record of transfer as required by...

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete

    Goodwin, Stephen; McCorison, Cassandra B.; Cavaletto, Jessica R.; Culley, David E.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-05-20

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelial growth in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds including alcohols, esters and formaldehyde is thought to improve air quality. It grows slowly but appears to outcompete ordinarily faster-growing species under anaerobic conditions.Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known.To fill this gap, its mitochondrial genome was assembled as part of a whole- genome shotgun-sequencing project.The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare, at only 23,743 bp, is the smallest yet reported for a filamentous fungus.It contains the complete set of 14 protein-coding genes seen typically in other filamentous fungi, along with genes for large and small ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 predicted tRNA genes capable of decoding all 20 amino acids, and a single open reading frame potentially coding for a protein of unknown function.The Z. cellare mitochondrial genome had genes encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. The high synteny among mitochondrial genomes of fungi in the Eurotiomycetes broke down almost completely in the Dothideomycetes.Only a low level of microsynteny was observed among protein-coding and tRNA genes in comparison with Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici), the only other fungus in the order Capnodiales with a sequenced mitochondrial genome, involving the three gene pairs atp8-atp9, nad2-nad3, and nad4L-nad5.However, even this low level of microsynteny did not extend to other fungi in the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated protein-coding genes confirmed the relationship between Z. cellare and M. graminicola in the Capnodiales, although conclusions were

  8. Radon dose in cellars during the war in Croatia

    Planinic, J.; Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Bauman, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the war in 1991 and 1992, because of artillery bombardment, the citizens of Croatia have been forced to live underground in shelters and cellars and therefore they have been exposed to an additional radon radiation. Rn concentration in shelters (cellars) and dwellings of Osijek and Zagreb were measured by means of a silicon detector (Radhome) and also, at several locations, by an LR-115 nuclear track detector. Estimated monthly radon exposures in dwellings and cellars of Osijek or Zagreb were (2.88±1.58)x10 4 Bq h m -3 and (6.62±3.17)x10 4 Bq h m -3 , respectively, or (1.94±0.72)x10 4 Bq h m -3 and (7.46±7.78)x10 4 Bq h m -3 . Inhabitants of Osijek and Zagreb have received, on the average, the effective dose equivalent of 4.1 and 2.6 mSv y -1 , respectively. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar may alternate the use of...

  10. Mapping the Distribution of Traditional Iñupiat Ice Cellars in Barrow, Alaska

    Klene, A. E.; Nyland, K.; Brown, J.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nelson, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, ice cellars excavated in permafrost have been essential to the Iñupiat residents of Barrow, Alaska, and remain so today. These traditional facilities, ranging in age from more than a century to newly excavated, allow secure, year-round frozen storage of subsistence harvests over long periods. Temperatures within the cellars are critical because bacteria can damage meat even at temperatures below the freezing point, and have traditionally been close to those of surrounding permafrost. Climatic change has been suspected of compromising and causing some ice cellars in Barrow to fill with water. Temperatures were monitored in five ice cellars, with little change observed over five years of observation, although sloughing was observed in one cellar. The lack of knowledge about the ice cellars as part of the local infrastructure led to a collaboration begun in 2012 with the North Slope Borough's Department of Planning and Community Services. Several meetings were held in August 2012 with local residents and stakeholders to assemble a GIS data layer of ice-cellar locations and conditions for use by researchers and by Borough representatives. Applications range from developing plans for snow plowing and construction to the protection of foodstuff quality and important cultural resources. Results from this collaboration will lead to improved understanding of the practical aspects of ice cellars use and maintenance in this urban Arctic environment.

  11. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  12. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  13. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  14. Seasonal analysis of the thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in Spain

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Traditional underground wine cellars are a good example of bioclimatic construction, providing optimum conditions for maturing wine with no energy consumption. This article studies the annual thermal behaviour of traditional underground wine cellars in one of the most well-known wine producing areas in Spain, the Ribera del Duero. For this we have applied a method based on multiple regression analysis using experimental data monitored for 1 year. The results show that the interior air temperature is fundamentally conditioned by the undisturbed temperature of the ground at the average depth of the wine cellar and by the temperature of the outside air (R{sup 2} varies between 0.937 and 0.974, with an average of 0.964 for the three wine cellars studied). However, the stability of the wine cellar during changes of outside temperature differs according to the time of year. In the spring and summer, the stability is excellent and the influence of the ground temperature is much greater than that of the outside air temperature (beta coefficient for the ground temperature is 0.85 compared to 0.17 for the outside air temperature). In the autumn and winter, the stability of the wine cellar is reduced by the increased ventilation, reducing the influence of the ground temperature ({beta} = 0.70) and increasing that of the outside air ({beta} = 0.42). (author)

  15. The Role of Cellars in Reducing Energy Consumption in the Residential Architecture of Iran

    Hossein Soltanzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to research, between 15 to 20 percent of the total energy consumption of every country is used for residential spaces. This amount is explanatory of the high cost and will follow the destruction of natural resources and environmental demolition. The aim of this research is to recognize earth thermal ability and its usage in public buildings and especially in private buildings in order to reduce energy consumption which can lead to huge savings in natural resources. It is intended to pay attention to the role of cellars as underground spaces in reducing energy consumption in residential spaces in this research. Cellars which are one of the climatic elements were very useful in residential spaces in the past and underground spaces in cities and public spaces are using in the contemporary era. Native Iranian architecture has exclusive features in residential spaces. One of the reducing energy consumption techniques is using ground depth and underground spaces in private and public buildings. Pit gardens, Shovadan, aqueducts, lavers, cellars with natural abilities in coldness, warmness and support are examples of underground space uses (providing cooling, heating and storing food and goods in Iranian cities. The Main questions of this research are: what the role of undergrounds or cellars was in native Iranian architecture and how impressionable it was in reducing energy consumption. The theoretical framework of this study indicates that several factors had positive impacts on reducing energy consumption in cellars. To do this research, descriptive-analytical methods were uses and were analyzed according to case studies in Qazvin houses. The results of this study reveal that cellars had a main role in human thermal comfort and they caused reducing energy consumption in residential and even public spaces. Also, several factors such as the cellar's depth, height and dimensions had impacts on the reduction amount of energy consumption and the

  16. 27 CFR 4.22 - Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type. 4.22 Section 4.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of...

  17. Observation and Detection of Underground Cellars in the Duero Basin By GNSS, Lidar and Ground Penetrating Radar Techniques

    Conejo Martin, Miguel Angel; Herrero Tejedor, Tomás Ramón; Pérez Martín, Enrique; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Otero García, Jaime; Prieto Morin, Juan Francisco; Velasco Gomez, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The underground cellars that appear in different parts of Spain are part of an agricultural landscape dispersed, sometimes damaged, others at risk of disappearing. This paper studies the measurement and display of a group of wineries located in Atauta (Soria), in the Duero River corridor. It is a unique architectural complex, facing rising, built on a smooth hillock as shown in Fig. 1. These constructions are excavated in the ground. The access to the cave or underground cellar has a shape of...

  18. [Respiratory manifestations after exposure to sulfurous anhydride in wine-cellar workers: 6 case reports].

    Testud, F; Matray, D; Lambert, R; Hillion, B; Blanchet, C; Teisseire, C; Thibaudier, J M; Raoux, C; Pacheco, Y

    2000-02-01

    Sulfite treatment of wine [a process exploiting the biocidal and anti-oxidant properties of sulfur dioxide (SO2)] involves the use of liquified gas, aqueous solutions or bisulfites, i.e. the salts of sulfurous acid which slowly release SO2. This procedure can result in repeated exposures of operators to significant amounts of SO2. However, risks associated with the use of SO2 are greatly under-estimated by wine producers and wine-cellar workers. We report on 6 cases of respiratory symptoms attributable to SO2 identified during a survey of wine-cellars in the French Beaujolais district. Their pathogenesis is discussed after an overview of the occupational toxicology of SO2.

  19. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  20. Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Xu, Zhancheng; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Menghua; Li, Daping; Li, Xiangzhen

    2014-04-01

    Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) accounts for more than 70% of all Chinese liquor production. Microbes in pit mud play key roles in the fermentation cellar for the CSFL production. However, microbial diversity, community structure, and cellar-age-related changes in pit mud are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic community structure and diversity in pit-mud samples with different cellar ages (1, 10, 25, and 50 years) using the pyrosequencing technique. Results indicated that prokaryotic diversity increased with cellar age until the age reached 25 years and that prokaryotic community structure changed significantly between three cellar ages (1, 10, and 25 years). Significant correlations between prokaryotic communities and environmental variables (pH, NH4(+), lactic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid) were observed. Overall, our study results suggested that the long-term brewing operation shapes unique prokaryotic community structure and diversity as well as pit-mud chemistry. We have proposed a three-phase model to characterize the changes of pit-mud prokaryotic communities. (i) Phase I is an initial domestication period. Pit mud is characterized by abundant Lactobacillus and high lactic acid and low pH levels. (ii) Phase II is a transition period. While Lactobacillus abundance decreases dramatically, that of Bacteroidetes and methanogens increases. (iii) Phase III is a relative mature period. The prokaryotic community shows the highest diversity and capability to produce more caproic acid as a precursor for synthesis of ethyl caproate, the main flavor component in CSFL. This research provides scientific evidence to support the practical experience that old fermentation cellars produce high-quality liquor.

  1. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste

    Gyorfi, Tamas, E-mail: gyorfi.tamas@ejf.hu [Eoetvoes Jozsef College (Hungary); Raics, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing {sup 137}Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster.

  2. Robert Lacoste's the darker side practical applications for electronic design concepts from circuit cellar

    Lacoste, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Robert Lacoste's The Darker Side column has quickly become a must read among Circuit Cellar devotees. His column provides readers with succinct theoretical concepts and practical applications on topics as far reaching as digital modulation to antenna basics. Difficult concepts are demystified as Robert shines a light on complex topics within electronic design.This book collects sixteen Darker Side articles that have been enriched with new, exclusive content from the author. An intro into The Darker Side will give examples of material that can enhance and optimize the way you design. A

  3. Investigation of environmental radioactivity of wine cellars, watercourse and industrial waste

    Gyorfi, Tamas; Raics, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to determine activity concentration of radioactive isotopes in soil samples collected from different provinces of Hungary. Earlier studies have proved that the 222 Rn activity concentration is higher than permitted in some wine cellars. To investigate the reason for this phenomenon, the activity concentration of soil samples was measured. Analyzing 137 Cs isotope activity in samples collected from the area of a watercourse it was possible to determine the silting-up rate. Activity concentrations were measured for red mud originating from an industrial disaster.

  4. Microbiota of an unpasteurised cellar-stored goat cheese from northern Sweden

    Klara Båth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study reports on lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and moulds isolated from three artisanal Swedish cellar-stored goat cheeses aged for 1, 3 and 5 months. Starter culture LAB dominated in the younger cheeses, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, common in raw goats’ milk, had persisted from the unpasteurised milk into all the cheeses. Non-starter LAB dominated in the 5 month cheese, in particular, Lactobacillus sakei, a meat-associated LAB not previously isolated from cheese. Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium and Mucor species were dominant among the yeasts and moulds, respectively. The cheese rind was not formed primarily from Penicillium species as in traditional cheeses such as Camembert – rather, mycelium from Mucor mucedo contributed to rind formation. Mould species known to produce sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins or ochratoxin A in cheese were not isolated in this study; growth of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli may have been inhibited by the cool conditions in the earth-cellar (4–6 °C.

  5. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  6. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Consent Agreement and Final Order

    Consent Agreement and Final Order (Proposed CA/FO), between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (EPA or Complainant), and Royal Wine Corporation, d/b/a Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars or Respondent). Docket Number CWA-09-2018-0004.

  7. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment

    Public Notice of Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment In the Matter of Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, California.

  8. The Integration of Geotechnologies in the Evaluation of a Wine Cellar Structure through the Finite Element Method

    Alberto Villarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multidisciplinary methodology to evaluate an underground wine cellar structure using non-invasive techniques. In particular, a historical subterranean wine cellar that presents a complex structure and whose physical properties are unknown is recorded and analyzed using geomatics and geophysics synergies. To this end, an approach that integrates terrestrial laser scanning and ground penetrating radar is used to properly define a finite element-based structural model, which is then used as a decision tool to plan architectural restoration actions. The combination of both techniques implies the registration of external and internal information that eases the construction of structural models. Structural simulation for both stresses and deformations through FEM allowed identifying critical structural elements under great stress or excessive deformations. In this investigation, the ultimate limit state of cracking was considered to determine allowable loads due to the brittle nature of the material. This allowed us to set limit values of loading on the cellar structure in order to minimize possible damage.

  9. Dynamics of Rn transport from the cellar to the living area in an unheated house

    Furrer, D.; Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental parameters such as temperature and wind, occupant activities, and house-specific parameters such as subsoil geology, leakiness of the substructure to soil gas, and air exchange rate are the main factors influencing Rn entry into a building and its subsequent indoor behavior. Experiments performed in an unheated, uninhabited house showed a reproducible diurnal fluctuation of the indoor concentration of Rn decay products. Strong, long-term correlations between temperature differences indoor-outdoor (indoor temperature minus outdoor temperature) and pressure differences outdoor-indoor (outdoor pressure minus indoor pressure) were found. At positive temperature differences inside-outside, an average airflow velocity of about 0.05 m s-1 between ground floor and first floor was detected. This air movement was able to vertically transport Rn at a rate of approximately 11 kBq h-1 in a volume of air of about 5.5 m3 through a cross-sectional area of only 0.03 m2. For this specific house, stack effects were identified as the main driving force for Rn migration from the cellular to higher floors. The diurnal fluctuation of Rn progeny concentrations in the living area can be explained by temporal variations in the amount of Rn-rich air transported vertically from the cellar into the building as a consequence of stack effects

  10. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of autochthonous cider yeasts in a cellar from Asturias.

    Pando Bedriñana, R; Querol Simón, A; Suárez Valles, B

    2010-06-01

    This paper analyses yeast diversity and dynamics during the production of Asturian cider. Yeasts were isolated from apple juice and at different stages of fermentation in a cellar in Villaviciosa during two Asturian cider-apple harvests. The species identified by ITS-RFLP corresponded to Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus/Saccharomyces pastorianus/Saccharomyces kudriavzevii/Saccharomyces mikatae. The species C. parapsilosis is reported here for the first time in cider. The analysis of Saccharomyces mtDNA patterns showed great diversity, sequential substitution and the presence of a small number of yeast patterns (up to 8), present in both harvests. Killer (patterns nos. 22' and 47), sensitive (patterns nos. 12, 15, 33 and 61) and neutral phenotypes were found among the S. cerevisiae isolates. The detection of beta-glucosidase activity, with arbutin as the sole carbon source, allowed two S. cerevisiae strains (patterns nos. 3' and 19') to be differentiated by means of this enzymatic activity. Yeast strains producing the killer toxin or with beta-glucosidase activity are reported for the first time in autochthonous cider yeasts. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SAFETY IN WINE CELLARS: THE SITUATION IN FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA, ITALY

    Rino Gubiani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to set up a method of analysis of the safety levels in the wine industry, using a check list to carry out a survey on 30 wineries located in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The checklist, based on previous studies, included more than 500 items, divided into 5 main areas: A Buildings and workplaces; B Machinery; C Logistics; D Boiler room, electricity plants and fire prevention systems; E Noise and vibrations. The classification of each of the items was based on risk frequency and seriousness of damage. In order to obtain a value as a whole, different points were assigned to each of them. The results of this work shows that workers are exposed to a variety of hazards and one of the highest scores is connected to machinery. Some of these accidents occur because machines are used for a purpose for which they are unsuitable; others because security systems have not been provided or have been taken off. Other risk areas are the fuel tank or the exhaust oil stocking room. Indoors, the most hazardous areas are the grape unloading and the workshop one. Another result was that the older wine cellars are the most dangerous. The check list can become an important instrument for prevention and a useful tool to test safety levels of the working environment.

  12. Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel.

    Andrew J Koh

    Full Text Available Scholars have for generations recognized the importance of wine production, distribution, and consumption in relation to second millennium BC palatial complexes in the Mediterranean and Near East. However, direct archaeological evidence has rarely been offered, despite the prominence of ancient viticulture in administrative clay tablets, visual media, and various forms of documentation. Tartaric and syringic acids, along with evidence for resination, have been identified in ancient ceramics, but until now the archaeological contexts behind these sporadic discoveries had been uneven and vague, precluding definitive conclusions about the nature of ancient viticulture. The situation has now changed. During the 2013 excavation season of the Kabri Archaeological Project, a rare opportunity materialized when forty large storage vessels were found in situ in an enclosed room located to the west of the central courtyard within the Middle Bronze Age Canaanite palace. A comprehensive program of organic residue analysis has now revealed that all of the relatively uniform jars contain evidence for wine. Furthermore, the enclosed context inherent to a singular intact wine cellar presented an unprecedented opportunity for a scientifically intensive study, allowing for the detection of subtle differences in the ingredients or additives within similar wine jars of apparently the same vintage. Additives seem to have included honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cedar oil, cyperus, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon, all or most of which are attested in the 18th century BC Mari texts from Mesopotamia and the 15th century BC Ebers Papyrus from Egypt. These additives suggest a sophisticated understanding of the botanical landscape and the pharmacopeic skills necessary to produce a complex beverage that balanced preservation, palatability, and psychoactivity. This new study has resulted in insights unachievable in the past, which contribute to a

  13. Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel.

    Koh, Andrew J; Yasur-Landau, Assaf; Cline, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have for generations recognized the importance of wine production, distribution, and consumption in relation to second millennium BC palatial complexes in the Mediterranean and Near East. However, direct archaeological evidence has rarely been offered, despite the prominence of ancient viticulture in administrative clay tablets, visual media, and various forms of documentation. Tartaric and syringic acids, along with evidence for resination, have been identified in ancient ceramics, but until now the archaeological contexts behind these sporadic discoveries had been uneven and vague, precluding definitive conclusions about the nature of ancient viticulture. The situation has now changed. During the 2013 excavation season of the Kabri Archaeological Project, a rare opportunity materialized when forty large storage vessels were found in situ in an enclosed room located to the west of the central courtyard within the Middle Bronze Age Canaanite palace. A comprehensive program of organic residue analysis has now revealed that all of the relatively uniform jars contain evidence for wine. Furthermore, the enclosed context inherent to a singular intact wine cellar presented an unprecedented opportunity for a scientifically intensive study, allowing for the detection of subtle differences in the ingredients or additives within similar wine jars of apparently the same vintage. Additives seem to have included honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cedar oil, cyperus, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon, all or most of which are attested in the 18th century BC Mari texts from Mesopotamia and the 15th century BC Ebers Papyrus from Egypt. These additives suggest a sophisticated understanding of the botanical landscape and the pharmacopeic skills necessary to produce a complex beverage that balanced preservation, palatability, and psychoactivity. This new study has resulted in insights unachievable in the past, which contribute to a greater understanding

  14. The role of ventilation in controlling the dispersion of radon gas from a cellar in a domestic house

    Ward, I.C.; Wang, F.; Sharples, S.; Pitts, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    In certain parts of the United Kingdom where radon gas seeps from the ground into the basement of domestic housing, normal methods of removing this gas by using under floor extract ventilation is not appropriate. In this situation the radon gas enters the basement through the side walls of the cellar and hence into the house. Using mechanical ventilation to either pressurise or de-pressurise the cellar may be an appropriate solution to this problem, however, before installing such a system in a house a ventilation strategy must be established. This paper sets out a ventilation strategy for minimising the ingress of radon into a domestic house, which has been established by simulating the air movement within a domestic house using Breeze Version 6 for a range of environmental conditions. The results of this analysis show that in winter when the emission of radon gas is most strong de-pressurisation of the basement can improve the ingress of the gas to the rest of the house. (author)

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Al Wickline

    2007-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: 19-99-01, Mud Spill 19-99-11, Mud Spill 20-09-09, Mud Spill 20-99-03, Mud Spill. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection

  17. Sokol Blosser Barrel Aging Cellar : green roofs and LEED{sup TM} buildings in the rural context

    Cravens, L.L. [Sera Architects Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An earth covered structure that stores 900 barrels of wine at the Sokol Blosser Winery located in Yamhill Valley, southeast of Portland, Oregon was presented. The owner's decision to build as sustainably as possible when constructing the barrel aging cellar was reinforced by their involvement in the Oregon Natural Step Network, a non-profit organization that promotes sustainability principles in any endeavor. The sustainable project design solution led by SERA Architects met the winery's requirements for an underground structure capable of storing 900 barrels of wine in three chambers; natural daylight throughout; control over the temperature and humidity; natural ventilation; the use of sustainable materials, and minimal materials; use of local products; preserving the maximum existing open area; and, minimizing construction demolition and waste. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria for the green building rating system was used to measure the green construction practices. The many benefits of burying the building were identified, namely the cooling system was eliminated, which reduced the cost of the mechanical system, reduced the major draw for energy, and eliminated any use of ozone depleting refrigerants. The roof's waterproofing system was provided by Tremco. Combined with a non-engineered earth cover the manufacturer provided a warranty of 20 years but predicted a 60 year life for the roof. The Roof sandwich structure from top down was described in detail and illustrations were presented. The final calculations indicate a $750 annual energy savings above a traditional space. 6 figs.

  18. Study of the thermal behaviour of traditional wine cellars: the case of the area of ''Tierras Sorianas del Cid'' (Spain)

    Guerrero, I.C.; Ocana, S.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Construccion y Vias Rurales

    2005-01-01

    This article studies the hygro-thermal behaviour of two traditional underground wine cellars from Morcuera (Soria, Spain). The differences between them are analyzed and our hypothesis is that one of these constructions is better than the other for the ageing of wines. The hypothesis takes into consideration the existence of a temperature difference of over 20{sup o}C between them as a basis for reaching the aforementioned conclusion. However, the relative humidity inside both of them is 100%, which could pose problems if the presence of mould is not controlled. This study is based on fieldwork for the inventory and cataloguing of traditional agrarian constructions in the ''Tierras Sorianas'' area. The objective of this investigation is to highlight some advantages of traditional building techniques over modern construction practices from the energy-saving viewpoint. (author)

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  1. Unrecognized potentials in the cellar; Unerkannte Potenziale im Keller

    Schulz, Manfred

    2013-06-15

    For years, it is known to the lobbyists of the decentralized technology that the time of the great dinosaurs under the power plants has expired. Small engines and turbines has long been existing in a manifold manner - but there is still a long way in order to use these small engines and turbines for reliable control energy.

  2. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE... changes and a new certification under § 27.140 is required, an importer is required to submit a new... under paragraph (b)(1) of this section available to the public on the TTB Internet Web site at www.ttb...

  3. Saved from the cellar Gerhard Gentzen’s shorthand notes on logic and foundations of mathematics

    von Plato, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen is best known for his development of the proof systems of natural deduction and sequent calculus, central in many areas of logic and computer science today. Another noteworthy achievement is his resolution of the embarrassing situation created by Gödel's incompleteness results, especially the second one about the unprovability of consistency of elementary arithmetic. After these successes, Gentzen dedicated the rest of his short life to the main problem of Hilbert's proof theory, the question of the consistency of analysis. He was arrested in the summer of 1945 with other professors of the German University of Prague and died soon afterward of starvation in a prison cell. Attempts at locating his lost manuscripts failed at the time, but several decades later, two slim folders of shorthand notes were found. In this volume, Jan von Plato gives an overview of Gentzen's life and scientific achievements, based on detailed archival and systematic studies, and essential for placing the translations ...

  4. Australian Wine Tourism: Establishing a Career Path at the Cellar Door

    Williams, Kim Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Wine tourism in Australia has grown substantially in recent years and contributes to employment opportunities in regional areas. To meet the requirements of this growing sector, workers need a considerable degree of skill-specific training; development of wine tourism personnel will be required. This article examines challenging human resource…

  5. Overcoming the glass ceiling: views from the cellar and the roof.

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Women's experiences as professionals and behavior therapists have changed considerably in the past 40 years. The author describes early challenges and experiences of discrimination as a young female professional. Although women's opportunities have improved considerably, women still experience unique career challenges and choices. The author provides some suggestions for women's career development.

  6. Principal Component Analysis of Microbial Community Data from an Accelerated Decay Cellar Test

    Grant T. Kirker; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microbial communities is a valuable tool for characterization and identification of microbes in a myriad of environments. We are currently using the molecular method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to characterize changes in bacterial and fungal communities on treated and untreated wood in soil. T-RFLP uses fluorescently...

  7. Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates

    Börlin, Marine; Venet, Pauline; Claisse, Olivier; Salin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted. IMPORTANCE High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted. PMID:26969698

  8. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of vegetation and report of mummified apple seeds found in the cellar of a first-century Roman villa on Elba Island.

    Milanesi, Claudio; Scali, Monica; Vignani, Rita; Cambi, Franco; Dugerdil, Lucas; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    In the late Roman Republic period (2nd-1st century BC), in the area of San Giovanni on Elba Island, previously subject to intense extraction of iron ore, a rustic villa was established by Marco Valerio Messalla, a supreme Roman magistrate. The foundations of the walls were discovered and excavated by an archaeological mission. Palaeobotanical analysis of a set of stratigraphic layers was performed. Palynological slides showed remains of palynomorphic and non-pollen objects, while data combined with anthracological investigations confirmed the hypothesis that in the 1st century AD the villa was destroyed by a fire that created a compact crust under which were discovered four broken Roman amphorae containing about five hundred apple seeds. Comparisons of archaeological and fresh seeds from reference collections showed discontinuous morphology except for one group of archaeological samples. DNA was isolated from seeds that had well-preserved embryos in all groups. DNA extracts from archaeological, wild and modern domestic seeds (controls) were amplified by PCR and tested with SSR molecular markers, followed by genome analysis. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Girl in the Cellar: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Investigation of Belief in Conspiracy Theories about the Kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    Stefan eStieger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011, participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277 completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion.

  10. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion. PMID:23745118

  11. Cellars, stone wine and oil presses in the territory of Kelin (5th-3rd centuries BC: the case of la Alcantarilla ravine (Requena, Valencia

    David Quixal Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological evidences date the expansion of grape vineyards in the territory of the Iberian Iron Age city of Kelin from the 5th to 3rd centuries BC; although the origins are documented in the 7th BC. One of the singularities of this territory is the existence of outdoors stone structures for the production of wine and oil. All are located in a specific area of the territory (la Alcantarilla and Los Morenos ravines (Requena, Valencia, and are associated with archaeological materials that allow date them as Iberian. In this paper we approach the rural settlement pattern in la Alcantarilla ravine and we present in detail the archaeological sites of Rambla de la Alcantarilla and Solana de Cantos 2.

  12. 27 CFR 24.109 - Data for application.

    2010-04-01

    ... establishing a bonded winery, bonded wine cellar, or taxpaid wine bottling house. Also, indicate whether a taxpaid wine premises is to be established if the application is for a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar...

  13. 27 CFR 70.414 - Preparation and filing of claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... Spirits, Wines, and Beer § 70.414 Preparation and filing of claims. (a) Distilled spirits at distilled.... (d) Wine spirits and wine at bonded wine cellar. Procedural instructions in respect of claims for: (1) Remission of tax on wine spirits lost on the premises of a bonded wine cellar or in transit thereto, (2...

  14. Factors Contributing to a Memorable Wine Route Experience ...

    Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting ...

  15. 27 CFR 28.133 - Disposition of forms.

    2010-04-01

    ..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.133 Disposition of forms. On receipt of the wines at the bonded wine cellar, the proprietor shall endorse, on each..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for...

  16. 27 CFR 28.220 - Notice of return.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.220 Notice of return. If an exporter desires to return wine to a bonded wine cellar or wholesale liquor... wine cellar from which withdrawn; (b) Date and serial number of the Form 1582-A (5120.24) on which the...

  17. Wine and Maths: Mathematical Solutions to Wine-Inspired Problems

    Cadeddu, L.; Cauli, A.

    2018-01-01

    We deal with an application of partial differential equations to the correct definition of a wine cellar. We present some historical details about this problem. We also discuss how to build or renew a wine cellar, creating ideal conditions for the ageing process and improving the quality of wines. Our goal is to calculate the optimal depth…

  18. As arquitecturas do vinho de um porto monofuncional

    Mariana Abrunhosa Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a study of the Gaia trading centre, based on the importance of the Port Wine cellars in shaping the urban zone of the riverside area. The research focuses on the different types of cellars and their potential use for other activities, thus maintaining the identity of the area. Cellars could and should continue as structures dedicated to wine, but with different functions, since they are a part of an centuries-old port that is no longer monofunctional nor can it be so in the future.

  19. Naval Readiness, Operational Training, and Environmental Protection: Achieving an Appropriate Balance between Competing National Interests

    1988-06-01

    Readiness: Operational Traininz; Polution 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This paper describes the...materials, radioactive materials, heat. wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste

  20. 27 CFR 18.2 - Applicability of law.

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate is transferred to a bonded wine cellar for use in the production of natural wine; and (c) The... the production, removal, sale, transportation, and use of concentrate, and of the mash or juice from...

  1. 27 CFR 24.100 - General.

    2010-04-01

    ... this part. After approval, the wine premises will be designated a bonded winery, bonded wine cellar or taxpaid wine bottling house. As provided in § 24.107, the designated bonded winery will be used if...

  2. 78 FR 37662 - Proposed Information Collections; Comment Request

    2013-06-21

    ... wine cellars. The bond may be secured through a surety company or it may be secured with collateral... on which excise tax has not been paid. Should the industry member fail to pay its tax liability...

  3. 75 FR 12329 - Proposed Information Collections; Comment Request

    2010-03-15

    ... adjacent wine cellars. The bond may be secured through a surety company or it may be secured with... spirits on which excise tax has not been paid. Should the industry member fail to pay its tax liability...

  4. Results of actions to reduce the amount of radon in the town of Jachymov. The nursery school building

    Domas, J.; Posmourny, K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon measurements in some buildings in the town of Jachymov indicated that the limiting volume activities were exceeded substantially. Remedial actions were made in the nursery school building. These included gravitational ventilation of the cellar, fitting of all doors and passages between the cellar and school rooms with packing, installation of overpressure ventilation with heat recuperation, and sealing of all window gaps. (J.B.). 2 refs

  5. Marketingová strategie vinného sklepu

    Habartová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis Marketing strategy of wine cellar will introduce strategic mareting and service marketing in theoretical part. Furthermore, in the theoretical part, I write about the segmentation, targeting and positioning. The practical part is devoted to the story of wine cellar, statistical data about wine and competition analysis. The most part of the practical part deals with questionnaire. The results of this investigation should be useful to the proper market segmentation, targeting and...

  6. Development and application of a model to calculate the distribution of radon in houses

    Haider, B.; Papamokos, E.; Ferron, G.; Peter, J.; Unverfaerth, L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to produce a radon profile of the examined houses, an electronic measuring process was used to determine the concentration of radon decomposition products. The measurements were made inside flats with the doors closed, in vertical air exchange between the cellars and the storeys of houses and in the cellar itself. The measured decomposition product and measured gas concentrations show that, apart from the cellar floor, part of the building material makes a considerable contribution to emanation of radon and thoron. It was found that a model for calculating the loading of the inhabitants of a house with radon is not yet available due to the complicated flat geometry and the activities of the inhabitants. (DG) [de

  7. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment and...

  8. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine to ...

  9. Essai d'une table non-vibrante par enregistrement du mouvement brownien d'un galvanomètre

    Rottier, P.B.; Jansen, M.T.

    1951-01-01

    Attempts to attain the natural limit of the sensitivity of a galvanometer, viz. the Brownian movement, have at first been unsuccessful in our institute. Neither a heavy slab of stone attached to an outer wall, nor a masonry of 1800 kg in the cellar embedded in a layer of sand 10 cm thick gave our

  10. Download this PDF file

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... tradition, the Sakha would only begin eating the “black” food in winter after butchering ... is better for the bad stomach to suffer. ... region, noted the great significance of the Yakut food, which has a positive effect on human health. ..... The whipping was done very fast, and it was usually performed in a cellar,.

  11. 40 CFR 21.2 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ..., wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste...; Provided, That it does not mean preparation or undertaking of: Plans to determine feasibility; engineering..., agricultural, forest practices, mining, construction; ground or surface water pollution from well, subsurface...

  12. 27 CFR 19.381 - Removals from processing.

    2010-04-01

    ... or further processing; (d) Spirits or wines for authorized voluntary destruction; or (e) Wines by transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar or to another distilled spirits plant. However, wine may not be removed from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant for consumption or sale as wine. Spirits may...

  13. 75 FR 38866 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    2010-07-06

    ... change of a currently approved collection. Title: Distilled Spirits Bond. Form: TTB F 5110.56. Abstract: TTB F 5110.56 is used by proprietors of Distilled Spirits Plants (DSPs) and Alcohol Fuel Plants to... coverage for adjacent wine cellars. The bond may be secured through a surety company or it may be secured...

  14. 27 CFR 24.125 - Change in proprietorship.

    2010-04-01

    ... provided in § 24.127, adopt the approved formulas of the outgoing proprietor. Wine, spirits, and winemaking... wine and spirits on hand, including use of any cellar treatment necessary to put the wine in merchantable condition, who does not intend to produce wine, or use spirits, or receive wine in bond may be...

  15. Decision support system for Wamakersvallei Winery

    Van Der Merwe, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to lend decision support to management a a wine cellar in three areas of expertise, with Wamakersvallei Winery serving as a special case study. This decision support system is to be delivered in the form of Excel spreadsheet...

  16. AUGUSTO'S SUNDIAL: IMAGE-BASED MODELING FOR REVERSE ENGENEERING PURPOSES

    V. Baiocchi

    2017-02-01

    The site is a portion of the dial plate of the “Horologium Augusti” inaugurated in 9 B.C.E. in the area of Campo Marzio and still present intact in the same position, in a cellar of a building in Rome, around 7 meter below the present ground level.

  17. Archeologický výzkum v Pietním území Ležáky (okr. Chrudim)

    Frolík, Jan; Musil, J.

    Suppl. 101, - (2016), s. 39-40 ISSN 1211-992X. [Archeologické výzkumy v Čechách 2015. Praha, 05.04.2016-06.04.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeology of modernity * mill * cellar Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Decision support for grape harvesting at a South African winery

    Van der Merwe, A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available to be taken routinely. In this paper, two nested scheduling problems are considered. The first, referred to as the active cellar scheduling problem, is concerned with making good scheduling decisions within a winery (i.e. optimal assignments of grape intake...

  19. 27 CFR 28.125 - Disposition of forms.

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.125 Disposition of forms. On removal of the wines from the premises of the bonded wine cellar, the proprietor shall forward one copy of TTB...

  20. 27 CFR 28.130 - General.

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone or to a Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.130 General. On...

  1. 27 CFR 28.126 - Proprietor's report.

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.126 Proprietor's report. The records of the proprietor of the bonded wine cellar shall reflect the quantity of wine removed without payment of...

  2. 40 CFR 230.3 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... mixing zone should be considered as a place where wastes and water mix and not as a place where effluents... spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes... equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt, and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water...

  3. 78 FR 12873 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., Harpercollins Publishers L.L.C...

    2013-02-25

    ... personal computers. Consumers reap a variety of benefits from e-books, including 24-hour access to product... determined to end the robust retail price competition in e-books that prevailed, to the benefit of consumers... Sargent and the CEOs of the other four large publishers at a dinner meeting in ``The Chef's Wine Cellar...

  4. 27 CFR 28.212 - Persons authorized.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.212... plants, bonded wine cellars, or taxpaid wine bottling houses, and persons who are wholesale liquor... accordance with part 31 of this chapter, are authorized to remove wines under the provisions of this subpart...

  5. 77 FR 24518 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C...

    2012-04-24

    ... variety of benefits from e-books, including 24-hour access to product with near-instant delivery, easier... in e-books that prevailed, to the benefit of consumers, under the wholesale model. They therefore... Sargent and the CEOs of the other four large publishers at a dinner meeting in ``The Chef's Wine Cellar...

  6. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    2010-04-01

    ... named winery: (A) Fermented not less than 75% of such wine at the stated address, or (B) Changed the.... (iv) Blended means that the named winery mixed the wine with other wines of the same class and type at the stated address. (v) Cellared, Vinted or Prepared means that the named winery, at the stated...

  7. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  8. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  9. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  10. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  11. THE LEAN SIX SIGMAAPPROACH FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN A HIGH QUALITY TUSCANY WINERY

    Riccardo Bettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of a Lean Six Sigma (LSS project to a winemaking process in a high-quality, Italian winery. LSS is used to focus on the problem through a quantitative analysis of waste and quality performances. The LSS basic algorithm (called “DMAIC” helps to detect and quantify critical aspects of the process for transferring liquid used in the cellar. The improvement solution is developed and applied through the modification of the cellar system and the process procedure. The results obtained with this solution are shown and discussed in this paper, so too the long term reliability of the improved process analyzed. The results obtained by this case study can help to understand the importance of the LSS method to drive the improvement of agricultural and agrofood productions also in terms of environmental impact which is strongly connected to waste reduction.

  12. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider.

    Suárez, Belén; Pando, Rosa; Fernández, Norman; Querol, Amparo; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by ...

  13. Consumption patterns and living conditions inside Het Steen, the late medieval prison of Malines (Mechelen, Belgium)

    Troubleyn, L.; Kinnaer, F.; Ervynck, A.; Beeckmans, L.; Caluwé, D.; Cooremans, B.; de Buyser, F.; Deforce, K.; Desender, K.; Lentacker, A.; Moens, J.; Van Bulck, G.; Van Dijck, M.; Van Neer, W.; Wouters, W.

    2009-01-01

    Excavations at the Main Square (Grote Markt) of Malines (Mechelen, Belgium) have unearthed the building remains of a tower, arguably identifiable as the former town prison: Het Steen. When this assumption is followed, the contents of the fills of two cesspits dug out in the cellars of the building illustrate aspects of daily life within the early 14th-century prison. An integrated approach of all find categories, together with the historical context available, illuminates aspects of the mater...

  14. Radioactivity of some specific underground workplaces in Hungary

    Szerbin, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, radon and radon daughter concentrations were measured in specific underground workplaces: in vine cellars, showcaves and caves for speleotherapeutic treatment of patients. These workplaces are considered to be affected by high radon concentrations, the workers in some cases can be exposed to radiation from radon and short-lived daughters at levels, comparable to those of other underground workplaces such as uranium mines. The aim of the study was to reveal the variation of the radon and radon progeny concentration, and to estimate the dose to the workers and visitors of these workplaces from the radon daughters. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations have been found in most of the caves investigated. The magnitude of the variation depends on the degree of isolation of the cave cavity from the outdoor atmosphere. The radon concentrations of the vine cellars were much lower than that of the caves. Because of the produced carbon dioxide gas in the process of sugar fermentation even the very old cellars are constructed well ventilated, consequently radon can not be accumulated in this underground cavities. From the measured radon and progeny concentrations cumulative potential alpha energy exposure, bronchial dose, and effective dose values were calculated for the staff, patients and visitors. The effective dose values for the cave personnel do not exceed the 10 mSv year -1 upper bound of the action level recommended for workplaces and even much lower for workers of cellars. The doses for visitors and patients were one or two magnitudes lower than that of the workers. (author)

  15. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  16. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  17. Correlation among the terrestrial gamma radiation, the indoor air 222Rn, and the tap water 222Rn in Switzerland

    Buchli, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The external gamma radiation and the indoor air Rn (222Rn) concentration were measured in 55 houses of the South East Grisons, the Urseren valley, and the Upper Rhine valley (crystalline subsoils) and in 39 houses of the Molasse basin and the Helvetic nappes (sedimentary subsoils). In homes located on a crystalline subsoil, a mean cellar gamma level of 1.40 mGy y-1 was measured, which is twice the mean gamma level of 0.70 mGy y-1 found in homes built on a sedimentary subsoil. The cellar 222Rn gas concentration is about six times higher in houses with a crystalline subsoil (1232 Bq m-3) than in houses with a sedimentary subsoil (201 Bq m-3). Although a weak correlation is observed between the mean gamma radiation levels and mean cellar 222Rn gas concentrations for the five subregions investigated, the gamma levels and the 222Rn gas concentrations do not correlate for single homes. For the population living on the ground floor of a house with a crystalline subsoil, the gamma radiation and the indoor air 222Rn lead to estimated mean exposures of 1.16 mSv and 9.44 mSv effective dose equivalent per year, respectively. In houses with a sedimentary subsoil, these mean exposures lead to 0.68 mSv y-1 and 3.22 mSv y-1, respectively. A mean tap water 222Rn content of 38.3 Bq L-1 and 10.4 Bq L-1 was measured in 31 villages with a crystalline subsoil and 73 villages with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively. Radon-222 degasing from the tap water into the indoor air leads to an additional exposure of about 0.11 mSv y-1 and 0.03 mSv y-1 in homes with a crystalline subsoil and homes with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively

  18. Survival of commercial yeasts in the winery environment and their prevalence during spontaneous fermentations.

    Blanco, P; Orriols, I; Losada, A

    2011-01-01

    Inoculation of active dry yeasts during the wine-making process has become a common practice in most wine-producing regions; this practice may affect the diversity of the indigenous population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the winery. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of commercial yeasts in the experimental winery of Estación de Viticultura e Enoloxía de Galicia (EVEGA) and their ability to lead spontaneous fermentations. To do this, 64 spontaneous fermentations were carried out in the experimental cellar of EVEGA over a period of 7 years. Samples were taken from must and at the beginning, vigorous and final stages of fermentation. A representative number of yeast colonies was isolated from each sample. S. cerevisiae strains were characterised by analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns. The results showed that although more than 40 different strains of S. cerevisiae were identified, only 10 were found as the dominant strain or in codominance with other strains in spontaneous fermentations. The genetic profiles (mtDNA-RFLPs) of eight of these strains were similar to those of different commercial yeasts that had been previously used in the EVEGA cellar. The remaining two strains were autochthonous ones that were able to reach implantation frequencies as high of those of commercial yeasts. These results clearly indicated that commercial wine yeasts were perfectly adapted to survive in EVEGA cellar conditions, and they successfully competed with the indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae, even during spontaneous fermentations. On the other hand, autochthonous dominant strains that presented desirable oenological traits could be of interest to preserve wine typicity.

  19. Expedition of 5 strontium-90 (90Sr) sources toward tobacco Honduran

    Roas Z, N.; Morales C, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the different activities that were carried out in relation to the identification of 5 strontium-90 sources and the technical consultantship in the related to the administration of the permission in the face of the regulatory authority of the country, for the transfer from the sources to the tobacco hondurena. The report covers the operation related to smear tests, identification and packing of the labeled sources of the container, that which took place in the cellar 19 located in the properties of the tobacco Nicaraguan (TANIC), in the period of February 21 at May 5 the 2000

  20. The concentration of radon in a town where radium-activated paints were used

    Lauffenburger, T.; Auf der Maur, A.

    1984-01-01

    In a particular town in the Swiss Jura, important for its watch industry, probably 20 workshops existed between 1920 and 1963, where dials and faces were painted with radium-activated paints. Some workshops produced even their own paints. After removal of the radium and complete decontamination of such workshops, which presents its own problems, one sometimes still finds a high radon concentration in the cellar of such a workshop. Similar high values are sometimes found also in adjacent houses. In that particular town, however, a larger area was concerned. (orig.)

  1. French contributions to electron microscopic radioautography

    Droz, B.

    1994-01-01

    The radio autographic contributions carried out by electron microscopists took a part to improve the methodology and to extend applications to major biological problems. As underlined by CP Leblonc radioautography has clarified the importance of renewing systems; one may truly say that radioautography has introduced the time dimension in histology. The sites of biosynthesis of different substances have been located on the sub cellar scale, and it is now possible to analyse the molecular migrations within cells. The development of in situ hybridization and of receptors binding sites at the ultrastructural level has enlarged the application field of electron microscope radioautography. 64 refs., 2 figs

  2. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  3. Protective measures during construction against radon exposure

    Horn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, thoron as well as their daughter products have an cancerogeneous effect on the human respiratory tracts. In this respect protective measures in the area of construction are of great importance. This article deals with constructional solutions which consist of different individual measures. Sources of radon are outside air, water, fuels, building materials as well as the building ground. Possible protective measures are divided into area-related (floor structure, intermediate floors, exterior walls of cellar, foundation slab, building ground), line-related (joints, cracks, wall ducts) as well as supplementary measures (tightly closing doors, arrangement of natural cross-ventilation and vertical ventilating shafts). (BWI) [de

  4. Post-mining in Walloon region

    Arnould, R.; Delbeuck, C.; Flamion, B.

    2003-01-01

    several studies are presently undertaken in the Walloon Region so as to assess the long term environmental impact caused by the shutting down of coal mines and their pumping operations. In many locations, new problems are encountered, such as sudden underground water appearance at hill slopes, coal heaps instability or flooding of underground cellars. Slope instability increase risks. The main goals of the presented studies are to suppress or at least to limit those risks and inconveniences and propose solutions to be implemented in the framework of the existing dewatering facilities built by the Walloon Region and local authorities in mines induced subsidence areas. (authors)

  5. Radon risk in the house

    Bressa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values [it

  6. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-01-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  7. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from musts and wines of three consecutive vintages of Ribeira Sacra.

    Mesas, J M; Rodríguez, M C; Alegre, M T

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to isolate and characterize the lactic acid microbiota of the musts and wines of a young denomination of origin area, Ribeira Sacra in north-west Spain. Over three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2009), we examined musts and wines from four cellars in different zones of the region. Through biochemical and genetic tests, 459 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified as the following species: Lactobacillus alvei (0·7%), Lactobacillus brevis (1·7%), Lactobacillus frumenti (0·9%), Lactobacillus kunkeei (12%), Lactobacillus plantarum (6·5%), Lactobacillus pentosus (0·9%), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (3%), Leuconostoc citreum (0·7%), Leuconostoc fructosum (synon. Lactobacillus fructosum) (3·7%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides (2·8%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (0·2%), Oenococcus oeni (59%), Pediococcus parvulus (7%) and Weisella paramesenteroides (synon. Leuconostoc paramesenteroides) (0·9%). Of these species, O. oeni was the main one responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in all cellars and years with the exception of Lact. plantarum, predominant in 2007, in one cellar, and Lact. brevis, Lact. frumenti and Ped. parvulus coexisting with O. oeni in one cellar in 2009. Different strains (84) of LAB species (14) were identified by biochemical techniques (API strips, the presence of plasmids, enzyme activities and MLF performance) and molecular techniques (PCR). All assays were carried out with every one of the 459 isolates. To select candidates for use as culture starters, we assessed malolactic, β-glucosidase and tannase activities, the presence of genes involved in biogenic amine production and plasmid content. A high diversity of LAB is present in the grape musts of Ribeira Sacra but few species are responsible for MLF; however, different strains of such species are involved in the process. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of Lact. frumenti thriving in wine. Information on LAB

  8. Simple but efficient. Passive-house nursery school building in wood construction; Schlicht aber effizient. Passivhaus-Kita in Holzbauweise

    Siegele, Klaus

    2011-07-15

    In the new children's home in the Bavarian town Olching (Federal Republic of Germany), children until school age realize every day the indoor climatic advantages of a passive house. The compact, two-story and building without cellar in timber frame construction honored its calculated annual heating demand of 15 kWh per square meter to the outstanding U-values of the airtight building envelope and benefits in primary energy value significantly from the 0.0-factor of the tapped district heating pipe.

  9. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  10. Detection of hazardous cavities with combined geophysical methods

    Hegymegi, Cs.; Nyari, Zs.; Pattantyus-Abraham, M.

    2003-04-01

    Unknown near-surface cavities often cause problems for municipal communities all over the world. This is the situation in Hungary in many towns and villages, too. Inhabitants and owners of real estates (houses, cottages, lands) are responsible for the safety and stability of their properties. The safety of public sites belongs to the local municipal community. Both (the owner and the community) are interested in preventing accidents. Near-surface cavities (unknown caves or earlier built and forgotten cellars) usually can be easily detected by surface geophysical methods. Traditional and recently developed measuring techniques in seismics, geoelectrics and georadar are suitable for economical investigation of hazardous, potentially collapsing cavities, prior to excavation and reinforcement. This poster will show some example for detection of cellars and caves being dangerous for civil population because of possible collapse under public sites (road, yard, playground, agricultural territory, etc.). The applied and presented methods are ground penetrating radar, seismic surface tomography and analysis of single traces, geoelectric 2D and 3D resistivity profiling. Technology and processing procedure will be presented.

  11. Possibilities of free cooling in prefabricated residential buildings; Moeglichkeiten der freien Kuehlung fuer Wohngebaeude in Fertigbauweise

    Truemper, H.; Hain, K.; Wirth, S. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1999-07-01

    Due to their efficient heat insulation, modern low-energy houses can develop disagreeably high room temperatures in the summer. Use of room cooling devices for cooling residential buildings in central Europe is not feasible for ecological as well as economic reasons. This paper presents the buried heat exchanger and the cellar wall exchanger as alternatives to the cooling of incoming air in ventilated low-energy residential buildings. Both are in principle cold storages with coiled pipes taking in air from outside. The buried heat exchanger is charged with cold during the heating period (seasonal storage), whereas the cellar wall exchanger accumulates and gives off cold daily. (orig.) [German] In modernen Niedrigenergiehaeusern koennen sich aufgrund einer verbesserten Waermedaemmung waehrend des Sommers Raumtemperaturen einstellen, die nicht als behaglich empfunden werden. Raumkuehlgeraete scheiden aus oekologischen und oekonomischen Gruenden fuer eine Kuehlung von Wohngebaeuden in Mitteleuropa aus. Als Alternativen zur Kuehlung der Zuluft bei Niedrigenergiehaeusern mit Wohnungslueftung werden der Erdwaermeaustauscher und der Kellerwandaustauscher vorgestellt. Hierbei handelt es sich um Kaeltespeicher, in welchen Rohrschlangen verlegt sind, ueber welche die Aussenluft angesaugt wird. Der Erdwaermeaustauscher wird als Kaeltespeicher waehrend der Heizperiode aufgeladen (saisonaler Speicher), wohingegen der Kellerwandaustauscher taeglich be- und entladen wird. (orig.)

  12. Investigation of the effectiveness of structural measures for reducing the radiation exposure of the population in aeras with enhanced natural radioactivity. A measuring campaign in existing buildings

    Leidner, L.; Urban, M.

    1986-01-01

    For this measuring campaign, buildings of different structural design located close to each other have been selected in an area with enhanced natural radioactivity in order to find out any differences in indoor radioactivity levels that can be attributed to structural design features. The measuring results show that the structural condition of the cellar is the decisive factor determining the radon concentration in a house for the case that the surrounding earth is the main radon source. In houses with an unimpaired concrete cellar flooring, radon concentrations in the ground floor have been found to be lower by a factor of 5-10 than in houses with a natural rock basement. Building materials have been found to have an effect at only comparably low radon concentrations. Expected impacts of structural measures, as e.g. thermal insulation windows, could not be proven (except for some half-timber buildings). The results of this measuring campaign that allow a direct house-to-house comparison do not confirm the relation between gamma dose rate and radon concentration postulated by results of a data collection campaign made in various administrative districts. The effectiveness of given structural variations cannot be proven by measurements in existing houses. This would rather require pin-pointed structural modifications for assessment, which can be done in a building chosen for this purpose. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The occurrence of fungi, yeasts and bacteria in the air of a Spanish winery during vintage.

    Garijo, Patrocinio; Santamaría, Pilar; López, Rosa; Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ana Rosa

    2008-07-15

    This research studies the presence of microorganisms of enological interest (yeasts, bacteria and molds) and their evolution in the air of a wine cellar. The samples were taken throughout the winemaking campaign (September-December) in a winery of the D.O.Ca. Rioja, Spain. They were collected using an airIDEAL atmosphere sampler from Biomerieux. For the isolation, specific selective media were used for each group of microorganisms. The results obtained indicate that the presence in the winery air of the various different microorganisms studied is directly related to the winemaking processes that are taking place in the winery. Thus, the number of molds present decreases once grapes have ceased to be brought into the winery. The maximum number of yeasts in the air is found when all the vats in the cellar are fermenting, while the lactic bacteria are not detected until the first malolactic fermentation begins. The species of yeasts and molds identified are also related to the winemaking processes. The coincidence of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae among those present in the vats during alcoholic fermentation and those isolated from the air, confirms the role of the latter as a transmitter of microorganisms.

  14. New cooling system of the FRG-1 two barrier system of the primary coolant cycle

    Knop, W.; Schreiner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The GKSS research center operates the swimming pool reactor FRG-1 with a thermal power of 5 MW as national neutron source for neutron scattering experiments and sample irradiation as well. Before changing the primary coolant cycle consisted of the reactor core and the closed piping including pumps, heat exchanger and delay tank. The closed cooling circuit was located underneath the reactor pool, in the so-called radioactive cellar. This piping system served secondary coolant system. Due to the location of the primary coolant cycle below the operation pool a postulated 2-F line break and simultaneous failure of the pool slide gate valve could lead to a falling dry of the total reactor core. the new primary coolant system was built in the beginning 2002 in a partitioned cell all within the radioactive cellar, so that the reactor core remains with water with the assumed incident. Due to the new two barrier-inclusion of the primary circuit only the melting of two fuel plates (from total 252 fuel plates) has to be taken into account. This measure and the core compactness in 2000 with a neutron flux gain of a factor of 2 makes the FRG-1 ready for the next 15 years of reactor operation. (author)

  15. Dependence of alpha radionuclide diffusion and deposition on relative air humidity

    Danis, A.; Ciubotariu, M.; Oncescu, M.; Mocsy, I.; Tomulescu, V.

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion and deposition of the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides/aerosols depend strongly on the relative air humidity. This dependence gets a great significance in the case of radon and their genetically related alpha radionuclides monitoring in the dwelling and working places for radioprotection purposes, particularly in establishing the equilibrium factor. For the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides genetically related, Rn-222 and its solid alpha descendants including their aerosols obtained by radionuclide attachments to different particles present in air, the vertical gradient of volume concentrations was experimentally determined. The experiments were performed in: an airtight tubular laboratory chamber, a house cellar (Cluj-Napoca) and the entrance gallery of an abandoned mine (Avram Iancu, Bihor), in which the relative humidity was ranging from 65% up to 96%. For the laboratory chamber, these radionuclides were generated by a calibrated Ra-226 source, prepared at the Radionuclide Production Centre, IPNE-HH, Bucharest. The source was included into an air tight device with a well known volume and it was used only after 40 days, when the Ra-226 and its alpha descendants were under radioactive equilibrium. For the diffusion/deposition studies, this source was coupled with the airtight laboratory chamber. In the mine gallery and house cellar, the radon and its descendants were naturally and continuously generated by radium sources in soil and building materials. The alpha volume concentration determinations required the use of a very accurate and sensitive alpha measurement method. These requirements were met by the alpha track method. This method was used by us in the following conditions: the CR-39 plastic track detector (Page, England) for the detection of the alpha particles and the optical microscopy for the study of alpha tracks (Wild stereomicroscope M7S and a Karl Zeiss Jena binocular microscope). The volume concentrations of radon and the

  16. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  17. EL COOPERATIVISMO VITIVINíCOLA EN LA UNIóN EUROPEA Y ESPAñA. UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO EN LA DENOMINACIóN DE ORIGEN DE ALICANTE/THE WINE GROWING COOPERATIVISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND SPAIN. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN THE ORIGIN DENOMINATION OF ALICANTE

    Amparo MELIÁN NAVARRO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El cooperativismo vitivinícola es una importante realidad en los países de la Unión Europea, sobre todo en Francia e Italia donde se ubican las principales bodegas cooperativas europeas. En este trabajo se efectúa una caracterización del cooperativismo vitivinícola en la Unión Europea y España, con especial interés en una zona geográfica determinada, la correspondiente a la Denominación de Origen (D.O. Alicante, donde se realiza un estudio exploratorio a nivel de significación y representatividad de las bodegas cooperativas frente al total de empresas vitivinícolas (S.A., S.L. y empresas particulares en las principales magnitudes de producción y comercialización. Por otra parte se presenta un estudio empírico, centrado en un análisis bivariante basado en una encuesta realizada a las bodegas de la D.O. Alicante durante el periodo de marzo a junio de 2007, con la finalidad de conocer el sector desde la perspectiva de la oferta./The wine growing cooperativism is an important fact in the European countries, overall in France and Italy where the main European cooperative wine cellars. In this study a portrayal of cooperativism in the European Union and Spain, with special interest in a concrete geographic area, the one referred to the Origin Denomination of Alicante where a exploratory study in a level of signification and representativeness in the cooperative wine cellars in opposition to the wine growing companies (S.A. and S.L. and private companies in the main magnitudes of production and marketing. On the other hand, an empiric study is presented, focused on a bivariant analysis based on a survey carried out in the wine cellars of the Origin Denomination of Alicante for a period from March to June of 2007, with the aim of knowing the sector from an offer perspective.

  18. Roof mounted solar collectors with reflectors. Evaluation; Takmonterade solfaangare med reflektorer i Markbacken. Utvaerdering

    Nilsson, Leif [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Maetcentralen; Perers, B. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-09-01

    A solar heating plant designed for preheating of domestic hot water was built during the spring of 1998 at Markbacken, Oerebro. The collector panels were built with a very low profile, less than 1 m high, but they were quite wide in the east-west direction (6.6 m). The roof-placed collectors, 210 m{sup 2} in all, were thus very discreet and can not be seen from the main facades of the three-storey building on which they are placed. Also, the slim design meant that the entire collector box could be manufactured in a one-step process, bottom and sides being pressed from a single sheet of aluminium. Each collector and its reflector, also of aluminium, shared the same frame. The frame was attached to heavy bars of concrete which was placed on the flat roof. No further anchoring was needed. The tubing from the collectors was drawn to the cellar of the building through an obsolete refuse chute. The circulation pumps, heat exchangers and accumulator were placed in a cellar room. The accumulator consists of three cylindrical tanks with a maximum allowed pressure of 3 bar and a volume of 11 m{sup 3}. Heat from the accumulator is heat-exchanged to the cold water supplied to the system for producing domestic hot water. If the resulting temperature is less required extra heat is added from the district heating net. The solar heating plant has operated very well and has even produced more energy than was calculated in the pre-study. At a system temperature of 40 deg C the specific energy production is about 600 kWh/m{sup 2},year. The typical production is 126 MWh per annum, corresponding to 35% of the hot water consumption. The final cost of the system was some 20% higher than calculated. Some unforeseen additional costs resulted from the need for cellar floor reinforcement and also some roof improvement measures. Too high flow through the solar collectors and through the loading circuit for the accumulator has a destructive action on the temperature stratification in the heat

  19. Adapting the wine producers' offers in Muntenia Oltenia to the new market trends

    Bărbulescu Oana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation that affects the world wine industry is also felt at the level of the Romanian market. The article aims to address two of the directions this market evolves in. The aim of the paper is to outline the extent to which wine cellars know and use the biodynamic cultivation and vinification techniques and to measure their willingness to practice enotourism as a wine promotion measure. After a short presentation of the general context of the Romanian wine industry and of the latest developments in this sector, the author analyzes of the results of a qualitative research carried out with seven wine producers in the Muntenia Ol tenia area. The results of the research allow sketching some proposals that are in line with the trends on the international wine market and that contribute to the increase of the sales of Romanian producers'.

  20. Recent investigations and conclusions on radiation exposure from radon and its daughters in rooms

    Willau, E.

    1984-04-01

    Radon and its daughters emanate from structural materials and are concentrated in closed rooms. Measurements were first made in Vienna in concrete and brick buildings. The difference between these two materials is explained by the effect of different window tightness this being lower in the older brick buildings. It is conjectured that plaster is more important than the bulk wall material. In order to test the influence of the geological ground these measurement in Vienna (rubble ground) were complemented by those in Wagrain (shale ground) and the difference again explained by different window tightness. With regard to height above the ground the radon and daughter concentration was found to 2-3 times higher in cellars and at ground flour than at higher levels. The variation of concentration during and after airing was also investigated. (G.Q.)

  1. A framework for the evaluation of winery servicescapes: A New Zealand case

    McDonnell, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market to attract visitors, wineries are often seeking new means to enhance the visitor experience. However, despite recognition of the importance in the wine tourism literature of the setting in which wine experiences occur there has been little adoption of the servicescape concept from the marketing literature and its adoption as a potential diagnostic tool. The paper utilizes the concept to develop a potential diagnostic tool that may be used by wineries and cellar door venues to evaluate their servicescape attributes. Preliminary results are provided which demonstrate the utility of the servicescape framework but further research is required to test the framework in different culture and design settings.

  2. Abstracts of oral and poster presentation given at the first COST Action FA 1303 workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases, Cognac, France, 23-24 June 2015

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The International COST Action FA1303 Workshop on “Sustainable control of Grapevine Trunk Diseases: current state and future prospects” was held in Cognac, France, on June 23-24 2015. The meeting was attended by 90 participants. Forty-eight oral and posterpapers were presented,in four sessions: Pathogen characterization, detection and epidemiology; Microbial ecology; Host-pathogen and fungus-fungus competitive interactions; and Disease management. A field trip to the nursery Mercier at Vix was undertaken on June the 22th and 25th, including a demonstration of the MYCORRAY detection tool in the nursery research lab. A second field trip was to the Hennessy cellar, on the  afternoon of June 23th.The workshop was organized by members of the COST Action FA1303 (www.managtd.eu, in collaboration with Hennessy.

  3. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    cellars are emptied regularly in a four weeks interval. Due to a high and variable carbon dioxide production in deep straw litter houses and houses with indoor storage of manure longer than four weeks, we do not recommend to calculate the ventilation flow based on the carbon dioxide concentration......This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o...

  5. La tracciabilità della filiera vitivinicola: dal sistema di cantina alla gestione completa dell’azienda vitivinicola con strumenti GIS-Oriented

    Luigi Rosadini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nell’ultimo decennio le aziende Agrarie e Vitivinicole in particolare hanno visto aumentare in maniera considerevole le difficoltà di mercato ed al contempo hanno registrato una maturità e sensibilità da parte del consumatore. Questo nuovo contesto ha fatto sì che le esigenze di automazione, informatizzazione e relativa tracciabilità di prodotto sifacessero più pressanti e dettagliate, tanto da richiedere lo sviluppo di veri e propri Sistemi Informativi di Cantina eGIS agrario-vitivinicoli anche partendo da una analisi e un relativo approccio geospaziale delle problematiche presenti.AbstractThe new context of agricultural and wine-devoted farm duringlast decades has brought to the needs of automation, computerizationand traceability of its product, requiring the developmentof real Information Systems as a GIS agrarian wine cellar,starting from an analysis and the approach to the geospatialissues. 

  6. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  7. Sunken garden: remarkable example of Iranian sustainable architecture

    Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: sargol2fun@gmail.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.

  8. Hotel na Vysočině

    Machatka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce s názvem Hotel na Vysočině řeší projektovou dokumentaci ve stupni pro provedení stavby. Hotel má tři nadzemní podlaží. Objekt je nepodsklepený. Zastřešení je provedeno plochou a šikmou střechou. Zdící systém POROTHERM s kontaktním zateplením expandovaným polystyrenem EPS -F. The master thesis named Hotel at Vysočina solves project documentation in the degree for building construction. The hotel has three floors. The object is without a cellar. As roofing is used a flat and ...

  9. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  10. The integrated quality assessment of Chinese commercial dry red wine based on a method of online HPLC-DAD-CL combined with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Yu, Hai-Xiang; Sun, Li-Qiong; Qi, Jin

    2014-07-01

    To apply an integrated quality assessment strategy to investigate the quality of multiple Chinese commercial dry red wine samples. A comprehensive method was developed by combining a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-chemiluminescence (HPLC-DAD-CL) online hyphenated system with an HPLC-ESI-MS technique. Chromatographic and H2O2-scavenging active fingerprints of thirteen batches of different, commercially available Chinese dry red wine samples were obtained and analyzed. Twenty-five compounds, including eighteen antioxidants were identified and evaluated. The dominant and characteristic antioxidants in the samples were identified. The relationships between antioxidant potency and the cultivated variety of grape, producing area, cellaring period, and trade mark are also discussed. The results provide the feasibility for an integrated quality assessment strategy to be efficiently and objectively used in quality (especially antioxidant activity) assessment and identification of dry red wine. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a multidimensional framework for wine tourist behavior: Evidence from Greece

    Maria Alebaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for a better empirical understanding of the multiple factors that drive the demand of wine tourism, this paper serves a twofold objective: first, to test the distinctiveness of motivations for visiting a wine region along with a winery; and secondly, to explore whether geographical distance between tourists׳ place of origin and the wine region can add to the ability of other wine consumer/tourist variables (product involvement; product knowledge; wine tourist identity; past experience to predict specific aspects of wine tourist behavior. In doing so, quantitative survey data were collected from 381 visitors of 12 wineries located in Northern Greece. Results from Principal Component and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analyses indicate that travel distance predicts wine purchasing at the cellar door as well as the motivational factors associated with ׳Socialization׳ and ׳Destination attractiveness׳. Further, the study proposes a conceptual framework for wine tourism motivation.

  12. Thoron measurements in Hungary

    Kovacs, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, several Hungarian dwellings and working places were surveyed using passive radon- and thoron-measuring devices (Radopot R and Raduet R from 2003 to 2008. The detectors were placed 15-30 cm from the wall throughout the 1-to 3-month period. In dwellings, the presence of thoron, ∼100 Bq m -3 , was detected almost in all cases; however, in the cellars of these buildings, a value ∼200 Bq m -3 was typical. In the cases of manganese and bauxite mines, the concentration of thoron was mainly 200 and 500 Bq m -3 , respectively. In caves, it was 1000 Bq m -3 , whereas in the radon bath it was ∼100 Bq m -3 . As in many cases, the ratio between thoron and radon concentrations was > 0.25 and the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny was not negligible. Therefore, further investigation on the thoron progeny will be necessary for an accurate dose estimation. (authors)

  13. Portable cosmic muon telescope for environmental applications

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hamar, Gergo [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Melegh, Hunor Gergely [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Olah, Laszlo [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Suranyi, Gergely [Geological, Geophysical and Space Science Research Group of the HAS, Eoetvoes University, 1/C Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, Dezso, E-mail: dezso.varga@cern.ch [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-10-11

    A portable, low power consumption cosmic muon tracking system based on Close Cathode MWPC technology is presented, which is designed for operation in highly humid environmental conditions such as underground caves, tunnels, or cellars. The system measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a tomographic mapping of the soil density above the detector unit. The size of the detector, 0.1 m{sup 2} of total sensitive surface, was designed to fulfill the requirement of transport through humanly passable natural cave tunnels. First results from the Ariadne Cave System in Pilis Mountains, Hungary are shown, which constrains the necessary data taking time for meaningful tomographic mapping. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cosmic muon tracking system for underground applications presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operation in highly humid environment of natural caves demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic mapping at 60 m depth was performed during 50 days in Pilis Mountains, Hungary.

  14. Determination of radon in housing rooms

    Steger, F.; Sorantin, H.; Kozuh-Schneeberger, J.; Lovranich, E.; Khademi, B.

    1988-03-01

    Radon concentration in 171 apartments with 503 rooms in and around Vienna was measured by a passive measuring system. Polycarbonate foils were exposed during 3 months; the nuclear tracks were visualized by electro-chemical method and evaluated. In housing- and sleeping rooms the mean concentration was 1,03 pCi/l, in cellars 2,15 pCi/l. The equivalent dosis, with 1,03 pCi/l was estimated to 90 mrem/a. At the same time the external radiation dose in the same rooms was measured by TL dosimeters and the dose estimated is again 90 mrem/a. 34 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs. (qui)

  15. Distributed Wireless Monitoring System for Ullage and Temperature in Wine Barrels

    Zhang, Wenqi; Skouroumounis, George K.; Monro, Tanya M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multipurpose and low cost sensor for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature and ullage of wine in barrels in two of the most important stages of winemaking, that being fermentation and maturation. The distributed sensor subsystem is imbedded within the bung of the barrel and runs on battery for a period of at least 12 months and costs around $27 AUD for all parts. In addition, software was designed which allows for the remote transmission and easy visual interpretation of the data for the winemaker. Early warning signals can be sent when the temperature or ullage deviates from a winemakers expectations so remedial action can be taken, such as when topping is required or the movement of the barrels to a cooler cellar location. Such knowledge of a wine’s properties or storage conditions allows for a more precise control of the final wine quality. PMID:26266410

  16. Tasting fees and the youth market

    Peter Treloar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Many wineries in Australia and New Zealand are seeking strategies to continue to develop in a highly competitive marketplace. One such strategy is via the development of wine tourism. Although there is a significant amount of literature of the relative advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism for small wineries, particularly with respect to its educational and market development function, there is very little research available on how wine tourism is perceived by the next generation of wine drinkers – the youth market. The purpose of this study is therefore to gain a better understanding of how the youth market perceives tasting fees at wineries and influences on purchasing and other wine behaviours. In late 2003, 599 surveys were distributed to ten universities throughout Australia and New Zealand, of which 448 were returned, representing a valid response rate of 74.8 percent. The results of the survey indicated that the majority of respondents who thought of wine tourism as an appealing activity, who had visited wineries previously, who normally consumed and purchased wine and who had some knowledge of wine all thought that a fee at the cellar door would impact on their decision to visit. Wineries need to maximise the return on their wine, however there also needs to be recognition of the potential trade-off between immediate returns from charging for tastings and cellar-door sales versus longer-term returns from direct and indirect sales. In some markets, and particularly the ‘Generation Y’ market, seeking short-term returns through charging may affect longer-term custom and loyalty. However, regardless of the strategy, it is important that it is effectively communicated to the market, particularly if individual wineries are interested in growing the market for the future.

  17. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in

  18. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    H. Kreibich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review – including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances – were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all – or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for

  19. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  20. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  1. Radon measurements in Austrian buildings and estimation of collective doses for the population

    Steger, F.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear track etch detectors were used for the determination of radon and radon daughter levels in Austrian dwelling houses. A diffusion chamber, developed at Karlsruhe, FRG, was used to construct a passive radon detector. It consists of a plastic beaker covered with a glass fibre filter. It is shielded by a cover which has openings on the side so that air can diffuse through and on the top there is a mounted thermoluminescent detector card. The TLD dosimeter was used to determine beta and gamma radiation levels. A polycarbonate foil was placed at the bottom of the diffusion chamber which served as a detector for the alphas emitted by radon daughters. The dosimeters were exposed for a period of three months. The mean concentration of radon in all rooms in dwelling houses in Austria were clearly higher in winter than in summer time. This was interpreted as the effect of reduced ventilation rates in winter time. This effect of ventilation on radon concentration is more significant in living and sleeping rooms than in the cellar. Compared to all rooms in a dwelling house the level of radon concentration was distinctly higher in the cellar. Higher values of radon concentration were found in famous radon spa of Gastein and in the Waldviertel and in a landscape near the Czechoslovakian border. In Vienna a mean value for radon concentration in the living and sleeping rooms was found to be 47 bq/m 3 which corresponds to an estimated effective dose equivalent to the lung of 10.7 mSv per annum. The whole body effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 1.27 mSv per annum. These estimations were based on the radon equilibrium factor of 0.5. The exposure to radon at such concentration is estimated to cause 3-4% incidence of excess lung cancer in Vienna within the next 20 years. The value of 47 bq/m 3 of radon in Vienna and its surrounding areas corresponds well with the mean values in Switzerland and Germany, but it is lower than those found in Great Britain, Canada, Sweden

  2. Measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco

    Hakam, O. K.; Lferde, M.

    1994-01-01

    The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters. Most of this exposure occurs inside homes, where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon are usually higher than outdoors. For measure these volumic activity, cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II already calibrated of volumic activity of radon are used. The measurements were performed in 30 dwellings and enclosed work areas in different regions of Morocco. The volumic mean activity obtained in dwellings is 64 +- 5 Bq/m sup 3 in Rabat, 59 +- 6 Bq/ m sup 3 in Kenitra, 124 +- 8 Bq/ m sup 3 in youssoufia and 136 +- 9 Bq/ m sup 3 in Khouribga. It was showed that the volumic activity of radon are more higher in two factory locals of moroccan ores treatment than in dwellings. The average volumic activity of radon in geophysical observatory cellar in Berchid was 1541 +- 64 Bq/ m sup 3. We also observed that the volumic activity of radon in indoor air is more higher in winter than in summer and it decrease with altitude and increase with depth. 4 tabs. 2 refs. (author)

  3. Iglesia de San Juan, en Munich

    Ruf, Sep

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available This church is built on a circular plan, and within its interior, excentrically located, a second circle, of 28 m diameter has been disposed. Between the two, there is a scythe shaped space which houses the baptistery, a chapel for confession boxes, a sacristy, an organ, and various annexes. In addition, the following features are also included in the total project: the parochial hall, the campanile, the building housing the priest's home, offices, a library, and rooms for juveniles. The heating installation for the whole project is located in the cellar.Tiene planta circular de 32 m de diámetro, y en su interior, y excéntricamente, se ha dispuesto un segundo círculo de 28 m de diámetro; entre ambos se crea un espacio, en forma de hoz, que aloja: el baptisterio, una capilla para confesionarios a cada lado, la sacristía, una serie de dependencias varias y el órgano. El complejo construido comprende, además: la sala parroquial, el campanario y el edificio que alberga la vivienda del párroco, oficinas, biblioteca, y salas para grupos juveniles; el sótano de este edificio aloja la instalación de calefacción para todo el complejo.

  4. Krasnoye Syundyukovo I Fortifi ed Settlement: Investigation in 2014

    Gismatulin Marat R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the results of new investigations of Krasnoye Syundyukovo I fortified settlement situated on the right bank of the Sviyaga river in the Ulyanovsk region. The site is one of the pre-Mongol towns of the Volga Bulgaria. A brick bath-house built in the 11th – 12th is its most well-known structure studied in 1991. Archaeological investigation of this site resumed in the summer of 2014. Two digs of 60 m2 (number VI and VII were organized on the territory of the settlement. Dig VII in the western part of the settlement yielded a household structure (cellar and numerous and various finds typical for the material culture of the population of a pre-Mongol Bulgar town: local ceramics, metal ware, as well as residues and slag, fragments of clothing and garnishment, etc. Dig VII had a significant number of artefacts associated with crafts and trade, which characterizes the activities of the population.

  5. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  6. The imagination of touch: surrealist tactility in the films of Jan Švankmajer

    Kristoffer Noheden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical examination of tactility in the Czech surrealist filmmaker Jan Švankmajer's film Down to the Cellar (1983. Švankmajer's deployment of tactile images in a surrealist context shows the need for a discussion of the imagination's role in the embodied film experience. Departing from Laura Marks's The Skin of the Film, this article seeks to explore the surrealist embodied imagination through surrealist poetics of analogy, as defined by André Breton, and the link between these and Walter Benjamin's writings on mimesis. Finally, the film is viewed from the perspective of Gaston Bachelard's ideas of “the imagination of matter,” where matter is seen as a highly potent stimulant for the imagination. Bachelard's notion of the imagination's multisensory properties further lends credence to Švankmajer's aims to liberate the imagination of the spectator through images that invoke touch. Kristoffer Noheden is a PhD candidate in cinema studies at the Department of Media Studies, Stockholm University. In his dissertation, he examines surrealism's attempts to create a new, re-enchanting myth with a focus on its expressions in surrealist cinema. He is the co-editor, with Daniel Brodén, of the anthology I gränslandet: Nya perspektiv på film och modernism (Gidlunds, 2013. He is also the translator into Swedish of books by William S. Burroughs, Leonora Carrington, Max Ernst, and others, and co-runs the surrealist-oriented publishing house Sphinx.

  7. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors.

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-10-06

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin.

  8. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  9. TERRESTRIAL AND AERIAL GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR IN USE FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCHES: ANCIENT 16TH CENTURY WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE AT THE MONASTERY OF EL ESCORIAL (MADRID, SPAIN

    P. Chias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques in Archaeology are increasingly essential components of the methodologies used in archaeological and architectural researches. They allow uncovering unique forgotten data which are unobtainable using traditional excavation techniques, mainly because their precise location is lost. These data are still important since they can help to prevent flood effects inside the ancient building cellars and basements, as it happened periodically in El Escorial. Wide ancient drainage galleries run more than one hundred feet downhill outside the building, ensuring that rainwater and springs were adequately drained. Nowadays their plans are lost, and the lack of documents related both to the ancient water supply and drainage systems become an impediment to solve the stains of damp on the stone masonry walls and vaults, and even other occasional flooding effects. In this case, nondestructive techniques were needed to find the ancient underground passages in order to preserve the integrity of the building and its current activities. At a first stage oblique aerial infrared images taken from a helium barrage balloon helped to find easily, quickly and cheaply the buried masonry structures. Secondly, radar pulses were particularly interesting to image the subsurface as they were valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of both soil water and buried structures. The combination of both techniques proved to be an accurate and low-cost way to find the ancient drainage systems. Finally, results were produced by means of open source software.

  10. Ecology of Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria along Different Winemaking Processes of Tempranillo Red Wine from La Rioja (Spain

    Lucía González-Arenzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB during alcoholic fermentation (AF and spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF of Tempranillo wines from four wineries of La Rioja has been studied analyzing the influence of the winemaking method, processing conditions, and geographical origin. Five different LAB species were isolated during AF, while, during MLF, only Oenococcus oeni was detected. Although the clonal diversity of O. oeni strains was moderate, mixed populations were observed, becoming at least one strain with distinct PFGE profile the main responsible for MLF. Neither the winemaking method nor the cellar situation was correlated with the LAB diversity. However, processing conditions influenced the total number of isolates and the percentage of each isolated species and strains. The winemaking method could cause that genotypes found in semicarbonic maceration did not appear in other wineries. Four genotypes of O. oeni were isolated in more than one of the rest wineries. These four together with other dominant strains might be included in a future selection process.

  11. Amino acids and volatile compounds in wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo varieties subjected to malolactic fermentation in barrels.

    Hernández-Orte, P; Peña, A; Pardo, I; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to compare the behaviour of industrial lactic bacteria and indigenous bacteria of the cellar when malolactic fermentation was carried out in barrels. The effects of these bacteria on the concentration of metabolised amino acids during malolactic fermentation and on the composition of volatile compounds both before and after malolactic fermentation are studied. The experiment was performed with wines of the Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. An analysis has been made of the easily extractable volatile compounds of the wood and the compounds from the grapes, and the action of the yeasts during the alcoholic fermentation. Acetoin and diacetyl decreased during the malolactic fermentation in barrels and the concentrations of furfural and its derivatives were up to 100 times higher in wines not subjected to malolactic fermentation. Most of the volatile phenols increased during the malolactic fermentation in wines of the Tempranillo variety, while only guaiacol (p < 0.05) and t-isoeugenol increased in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The decrease in amino acids during the malolactic fermentation depends much more on the variety than on the bacterial strain which carries out the malolactic fermentation.

  12. ENOTOURISM: A NICHE TENDENCY WITHIN THE TOURISM MARKET

    Sorin BIBICIOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at establishing the required actions to be taken so as to improve perception on Romanian wine and vine tourism. In the Romanian wine and vine field, the main changes over the last ten years have been the modernization of wineries by maintaining the valuable local grape varieties and replanting soil with resistant and productive varieties, introducing new technologies in wine production processes and local producers’ relocation on the market. Besides all these, technical and material facilities were developed by rehabilitating, modernizing and opening of numerous wine cellars, constructing modern accommodation units within or close to vine areas and implementing marketing programmes aimed at promoting vine areas. The tendencies of hospitality industry corroborated with the change of interest and the perceptions of the tourism products consumers make us reach the following conclusion: enotourism has to be adapted to the innovative market spirit, an efficacious brand strategy has to be defined for the final goal of attracting as many consumers as possible. Eenotourism is that form of tourism which offers great local development opportunities to vineyards areas. To conclude, the study will describe the market features and tendencies, based on a large range of resources and it will present ideas connected to the tourism management and economic policies that may positively or negatively influence this field.

  13. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  15. Influence of different yeasts on the amino acid pattern of rosé wine

    Mandl Karin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment with Rosé wine, 27 different commercial yeasts were tested for their influence on the amino acid pattern of the wine. Amino acids are precursors for aromatic substances; therefore a large variation of the amino acid values in the wine was expected. Blaufränkisch grapes with 20° KMW were matured in the cellar with 27 different commercial yeasts. The fermentation was carried out in 34l vessels. The wines were measured for amino acids using an HP 1200 liquid chromatograph and HP-FLD1100 according to Umagat. The wines showed 13.5% alcohol and little residual sugar. The measurement results of the amino acids of the different wines showed large variations. For example, the amount of the amino acid alanine in wine varied from 17 to 138 mg. In particular, the wines of the yeast Pino Type showed the highest amounts of alanine in comparison to the other fermented wines.

  16. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.

    2006-01-01

    structure in contact with soil, i.e. even under walls. Special attention should be devoted to the sealing of joints and pipe penetrations through the insulation. The high-quality insulation may be replaced by a common damp-proofing if some special conditions are met: the house is built with a cellar under the complete house area; no residential rooms are found in the cellar; all year reliable natural ventilation of the cellar is provided; the cellar entrance from the floors above is provided with an automatic closing door system and with door sealing. The above mentioned approach is considered to be sufficient even in cases when the building site is classified close to the lower limit of the high radon index (the radon concentration in soil does not exceed twice the concentration that separates the medium and high radon index). In all other cases, the radon-proof insulation in all structures in direct contact with soil must be completed with either a a sub-slab ventilation system or an air gap ventilation under the insulation. The sub-slab ventilation system should reduce the radon concentration under the foundation plate, or create negative pressure in subsoil compared to indoor air pressure. It is a system of perforated drainage pipes that are inserted into a gravel layer under the foundation plate. To ensure effective operation of sub-slab ventilation, it is recommended to extract the soil air from the sub-slab region by the vertical exhaust pipes. The ventilation system can operate in two ways: a passive ventilation, i.e. the ventilation system is controlled by temperature and pressure indoor/sub-floor differences, or an active one, using a fan. Because the fan is usually installed on the vertical exhaust pipes, each passive system may be easily transformed into an active one. A failure of preventive protective measures in a new-built family house will be described and analysed in the paper. Detailed measurements of sub-slab parameters, continual monitoring of indoor

  17. Amarone: a modern wine coming from an ancient production technology.

    Paronetto, Lanfranco; Dellaglio, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Amarone wine is a renowned dry red wine produced in Valpolicella (Verona, Northern Italy). It is made from local grapes varieties (Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara) that are slowly dried under natural conditions during the fall into winter. After the postharvest drying, carried out for several weeks in dedicated lofts called fruttaio, the grapes are vinified: crushed, given prefermentative cold maceration, undergo alcoholic fermentation on the skins, malolactic fermentation, and finally maturation. The partially dried grapes are traditionally crushed during the second half of January to February. Because cellar conditions are unfavorable for either alcohol or malolactic fermentation, selected microbial cultures (yeasts and malolactic bacteria) are often necessary to correctly manage fermentation. The progress of both fermentation processes needs constant surveillance. During maturation conducted in vessels or wooden containers (tonneau in durmast oak), clarification and stabilization lead to improvements in quality. Product specifications require that Amarone not be bottled before the wine has been aged for 2years (Anonymous (2010). Disciplinare di produzione dei vini a denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita "Amarone della Valpolicella". Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale n. 84. April 12). Amarone achieved its DOCG (Controlled and Guaranteed Denomination) status in 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. «Strange bread has more than bitter»...Letters from Archimandrite Theodosius (Melnik to Archimandrite Anthony (Sinkevich

    Kostriukov Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Archimandrite Theodosius (Melnik was the cellarer of Metropolitan Anthonii (Khrapovitskii who was the head of the Russian Church Abroad. Archimandrite Theodosius was with his spiritual father and his teacher, Metropolitan Anthonii and shared all the sorrows that have fallen in exile. They lived in Serbia. Then Sremski Karlovci was the center of life of the Russian Orthodox Church. Archimandrite Theodosius become a witness of the important events taking place in Russian Church Abroad and the Serbian Orthodox Church. Letters written by Archimandrite Theodosius in 1933 — 1938 years are published here. The last letter was written after the death of Metropolitan Anthonii. The letters contained information about the life of Metropolitan Anthonii. In his letters, Archimandrite Theodosius assess a personality — Metropolitan Anastasii (Gribanovskii, Metropolitan Nestor (Anisimov, Archpriest Michael Polsky, Yuriy Grabbe, Peter Lopuchin. The letters describe important events in the life of the Russian Orthodox Church, for example, in 1921 Karlovci Council; in 1936 the reconciliation of the Russian Church Abroad with Metropolitan Evlogii (Georgievskii and with Metropolitan Platon (Rozhdestvenskii; in 1938 the preparation of the Second Karlovci Council. All the letters are written to Archimandrite Anthonii (Sinkevich who served in the Russian Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem. In 1951 Archimandrite Anthony became Archbishop Los Angeles and West American. These letters are kept in the archives of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem (Moscow Patriarchate.

  19. AUGUSTO'S Sundial: Image-Based Modeling for Reverse Engeneering Purposes

    Baiocchi, V.; Barbarella, M.; Del Pizzo, S.; Giannone, F.; Troisi, S.; Piccaro, C.; Marcantonio, D.

    2017-02-01

    A photogrammetric survey of a unique archaeological site is reported in this paper. The survey was performed using both a panoramic image-based solution and by classical procedure. The panoramic image-based solution was carried out employing a commercial solution: the Trimble V10 Imaging Rover (IR). Such instrument is an integrated cameras system that captures 360 degrees digital panoramas, composed of 12 images, with a single push. The direct comparison of the point clouds obtained with traditional photogrammetric procedure and V10 stations, using the same GCP coordinates has been carried out in Cloud Compare, open source software that can provide the comparison between two point clouds supplied by all the main statistical data. The site is a portion of the dial plate of the "Horologium Augusti" inaugurated in 9 B.C.E. in the area of Campo Marzio and still present intact in the same position, in a cellar of a building in Rome, around 7 meter below the present ground level.

  20. “Temperate and Nearly Cloudless”: The 9/11 Commission Report as Postmodern Pastiche

    Alan Nadel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available “Tuesday, September 11, 2001 dawned temperate and nearly cloudless in the eastern United States”. Thus begins Chapter One of the 9/11 Commission Report, a chapter that bears the title, “‘We have Some Planes’”. As with all good pop fiction, the reader awaits to see what this quote means, although we know already that it will mark a crucial moment, one that renders the innocuous urgent, or gives meaning to a startling chaos of coincidence. Pop culture has taught us the formula well: Everything looks fine; high school kids sip pop and dance in front of the juke box; Ole Doc Jones is mowin’ the lawn while Mrs. Jones makes lemonade. BUT strange noises have been heard in the cellar; no one can find the cat; Mr. Grundy insists he saw flashing lights last night, but no one believes him because Mrs. Grundy says he’s been acting strange ever since she flushed his Viagra; mysteriously, all the clocks in Indianapolis have started running fast or slow by exactly 24 hours. Then we hear the message on the police radio: “we’ve got some planes…as large as football fields hovering over every Wall-Mart in the nation”. At last someone will believe the geeky newspaper boy and his big brother’s girlfriend, who knew all along he was on to something. Let’s hope it’s not too late.

  1. Variation of dissolved organic nitrogen concentration during the ultrasonic pretreatment to Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Cao, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Bi, Hongkai

    2016-03-01

    Algae cells were the main sources of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in raw water with plenty of algae, and ultrasonic pretreatment was one of the algae-controlling methods through the damage of algae cells. However, the variation of DON concentration during the ultrasonic treatment process was not confirmed. Variation of DON concentration during the processes of low frequency ultrasound treatment of Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated. In addition, the effect of sonication on the metabolite concentration, algae cellar activity and the subsequent coagulation performance were discussed. The results showed that after a long duration of ultrasonic (60 s), nearly 90% of the algal cells were damaged and the maximum concentration of DON attained more than 3 mg/L. In order to control the leakage extent of DON, the sonication time should be less than 30 s with power intensity of more than 1.0 W/cm(3). In the mean time, ultrasonic treatment could inhibit the reactivation and the proliferation of algal, keep the algae cell wall integrity and enhance coagulation effectively under the same condition. However, ultrasound frequency had little effect on DON at the frequency range used in this study (20-150 kHz). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review

    Sara Canas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size, the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level.

  3. The passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter for practical use

    Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    A passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter for practical use has been developed. The body of the practical R-T dosimeter is made of two hemispheric diffusion chambers of carbonized plastic whose diameters are 110 mm and 70 mm, respectively. These diameters are determined to improve the detection efficiency of radon as well as thoron and also the discrimination ratio of radon to thoron. Inner surface of the detector housing is smooth and free from electrified charge to assure the uniform deposition of radon and thoron progeny, because the detector housing is molded out of carbonized plastic as an anti-static material. In addition, structure of an air inlet has improved to contact more tightly with a glass fiber filter to prevent dust from entering the detector housing. The air inlet of the detector housing is also covered with a half-cutted hemispherical windbreak to protect the glass fiber filter from weathering and to stabilize the influence of convectional air flow on the radon and thoron entry rate into two hemispherical diffusion chambers of the dosimeter. The results of calibration exercises showed that the lower detection limit of radon and thoron concentrations were estimated to be 5.1 Bqm -3 and 7.9 Bqm -3 respectively in 2 months exposure. And an interim measurement in the concrete cellar proved that the practical R-T dosimeter has enough specifications to be used in the large-scale radon-thoron discriminative survey. (author)

  4. Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia

    Banda, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

  5. Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavour liquor by combined PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR assay.

    Liang, Huipeng; Li, Wenfang; Luo, Qingchun; Liu, Chaolan; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Wenxue

    2015-10-01

    The community structure of bacteria in aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristics, was analysed using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermentative Firmicutes was predominant in both types of pit mud in the PCR-DGGE analysis. Among Firmicutes, Clostridiales was dominant in aged pit mud while Bacillales and Lactobacillales were dominant in aging pit mud. The diversity of bacterial communities in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud. In the qPCR analysis the abundance of Clostridium IV in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud and there were significant differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV between aged and aging pit mud of the same cellar (P mud. The differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV might be involved in the distinction that the aged pit mud has a strong aroma while the aging pit mud does not. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider.

    Valles, Belén Suárez; Bedriñana, Rosa Pando; Tascón, Norman Fernández; Simón, Amparo Querol; Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by pneumatic pressing were dominated by non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora genus and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) whereas in the apple juices obtained by traditional pressing Saccharomyces together with non-Saccharomyces, were always present. The species Saccharomyces present were S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Apparently S. bayanus, was the predominant species at the beginning and the middle fermentation steps of the fermentation process, reaching a percentage of isolation between 33% and 41%, whereas S. cerevisiae took over the process in the final stages of fermentation. During the 2001 harvest, with independence of cider-making technology, the species Hanseniaspora valbyensis was always isolated at the end of fermentations.

  7. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-08

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  8. A research on the preferences of material and size in the Turkish kitchen furniture industry

    Tuncer Dilik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the interaction developing rapidly through the impact of globalization experienced in every field on the material and size preferences of the kitchen furniture sector. The results of the survey conducted on the Turkish kitchen furniture manufacturers were evaluated within the framework of the international kitchen trends. As a result it was seen that the most preferred kitchen area was between 8 and 11 m2 regarding the distribution of the kitchen areas in Turkey. A tendency of using MDF in the production of the kitchen cabinets was observed with 61.8% in relation with the body material preferred to be used in the kitchen furniture sector. The preferred body sizes of the kitchen cabinet was determined by considering the width and height preferences of both the upper and lower cabinets, the size of 61-90 cm seemed to be the most preferred sizes both for the upper and lower cabinets. According to the height, 72 cm size was found to be the most preferred size. While the most preferred size among the cellar cabinets was determined to be smaller than 60 cm, its height was revealed to be bigger than 200 cm. The most preferred kitchen furniture base was detected to be 12 cm.

  9. Extension of habitat of female blood-sucking mosquitoes in Solomenskiy district, Kiev

    N.P. Kilochytska

    2013-09-01

    2010 in Solomyanskyi district with measurement of temperature at the locations of collection. It turned out that the air temperature in the sheds was 2–4 °C lower than outside in the shade, in the basements lower by 4–11 °C, and in the cellars lower by 4–12 °C. Comparison of the temperature in the daytime habitats and number of mosquitoes found there showed a direct relation between the outdoor temperature and the number of mosquitoes in the daytime habitat on the premises. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the number of synanthropic blood-sucking mosquito species to increase owing to the occupation of domestic premises as a daytime habitat by those species of mosquitoes for which this phenomenon was not typical earlier. If global warming and the current trend to increase in summer temperatures persist, this can cause a deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the megalopolis.

  10. Less mining-induced damage through slowed-down working. Geringe Bergbauschaeden durch langsamen Abbau

    Kratzsch, H [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbauwissenschaften

    1994-10-01

    Today's widely spread view that rapid deformation will enhance damage to buildings was not underpinned by major reasons of soil mechanics and building physics. It is true that a shower rise in deformation will favour grain relocation in the foundation soil and, as a result, will diminish the soil pressure on cellar walls or on pipes embedded in the ground in the pressurized zone and will reduce the floor-level pressure peak in the bending zone by subsequent settling of foundation components. However, damage will not be found to differ in degree if deformation had lasted for 50 days ([nu][sub A]=8 m/d) or 200 days ([nu][sub A]=2 m/d). It may be assumed to be hardly relevant for the degree of damage sustained if bending, shifting (friction), tearing (shearing) or pressing of a building part (e.g. wall, ceiling, pillar), or of a building element (e.g. brick, mortar injoints) or of a building composed of all these parts rise to their final levels within a period of 50 or 200 days. (orig./MSK)

  11. Ultraviolet radiation

    Faber, M.

    1989-01-01

    Although UV radiation can arise from a large number of man-made sources, the sun is the main source and both the general public and people working out of doors will be exposed to it. This natural background radiation and the variations in its magnitude must be taken into account when exposure limits are discussed. The full extent to which UV affects human well-being is difficult to quantify. Artificially produced UV has, however, been used in mines and cellars and in far northern latitudes as a supplement to combat functional impairment among people. Many of the observed effects, such as a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases and in absenteeism, may be due to the bactericidal nature of the radiation. On the other hand, large doses of UV have an acute destructive effect on the skin and eye. Doses so low that they give rise only to normally acceptable or even desirable acute effects can, if repeated, induce changes resulting in late effects such as elastosis of the skin, keratosis and skin cancers. These effects will be of greater significance in people with lightly pigmented skin. 130 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  13. Selection of autochthonous Oenococcus oeni strains according to their oenological properties and vinification results.

    Ruiz, Patricia; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Seseña, Susana; Palop, María Llanos

    2010-02-28

    The goal of this study is to carry out a characterization of 84 Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Tempranillo wine samples taken at the cellars in Castilla-La Mancha, in order to select those showing the highest potential as oenological starter cultures. Various oenological properties were analyzed and the ability of some of these strains to grow and undergo MLF in simulated laboratory microvinifications was tested. Twenty-two strains were selected on the basis of fermentation assays and the eight that produced the best results in the chemical analysis of the wines were chosen for further assays. None of the eight strains was either able to produce biogenic amines or displayed tannase or anthocyanase activities. On the other hand all presented activity against p-NP-beta Glucopyranoside, p-NP-alpha Glucopyranoside and p-NP-beta xylopyranoside. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to determine the colonizing ability of the inoculated strains. C22L9 and D13L13 strains showed the highest implantation values. On the basis of this characterization, two strains have been selected which are suitable as starter cultures for MLF of Tempranillo wine. Use of these strains will ensure that MLF proceeds successfully and gives retention of the organoleptic characteristics of wines made in Castilla-La Mancha. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Indoor radon concentrations in kindergartens from different regions of Yugoslavia

    Vaupotic, J.; Krizman, M.; Sutej, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the winter period of 1990-1991 instantaneous radon concentrations in air were measured in around 450 kindergartens from different regions from Yugoslavia. Alpha scintillation counting was used as a screening method, and the measurements were carried out in rooms where the children spent the majority of their time. All of the air grab samples were taken under the same conditions which excluded ventilation of the interior 12 h prior to sampling. In addition to indoor radon concentrations, gamma dose rate was measured using portable equipment. The indoor radon concentrations were generally low, in the range from 10 to 180 Bq.m -3 of air, with an overall average of about 100 Bq.m -3 . There were a few exceptions where indoor radon levels exceeded 150 Bq.m -3 ; mainly in old buildings containing higher contents of natural radionuclides in the building materials, and in the cellars or basements of the buildings. In all rooms with a level exceeding 150 Bq of 222 Rn per m 3 , solid-state nuclear track detectors were applied for long-term measurements. In order to investigate the equilibrium between radon and its short-lived daughters, mainly with respect to their contribution to the effective dose, alpha spectrometry is also being introduced in selected kindergartens with elevated radon concentrations. (author)

  15. Vivienda residencial, México

    Artigas, Francisco

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available This building has two levels, and has the following internal distribution. Ground floor: garage, cellar, service quarters, ironing room, etc. Top floor: living room, dining room, main bedroom, a bedroom with two beds, kitchen, study, etc. Vegetation plays an important role in the aesthetic composition of the external design, as a highly integrated element in the general pattern. The materials employed by the architect are of very fine quality and beauty, and have been chosen with ability and sincerity of purpose.Este edificio, que está desarrollado en dos niveles, presenta la siguiente distribución: En la planta baja: el garaje, bodega, habitaciones del servicio, cuarto de plancha, etc. En la planta superior: la sala de estar, comedor, dormitorio principal, un dormitorio de dos camas, cocina, estudio, etc. En la composición estética de las fachadas juega un papel importante la vegetación, como elemento plenamente integrado en el conjunto. Los materiales empleados, nobles y de gran belleza, lo han sido con acierto y sinceridad notable.

  16. Diversity of Saccharomyces strains on grapes and winery surfaces: analysis of their contribution to fermentative flora of Malbec wine from Mendoza (Argentina) during two consecutive years.

    Mercado, L; Dalcero, A; Masuelli, R; Combina, M

    2007-06-01

    Spontaneous fermentations are still conducted by several wineries in different regions of Argentina as a common practice. Native Saccharomyces strains associated with winery equipment, grape and spontaneous fermentations of Malbec musts from "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" region (Argentina) were investigated during 2001 and 2002 in the same cellar. Low occurrence of Saccharomyces on grapes and their limited participation during fermentation were confirmed. Strain sequential substitution during fermentation was observed. Between 30% and 60% of yeast population at the end of fermentation was coming from yeasts already present in the winery. A stable and resident Saccharomyces micro-flora in the winery was confirmed. It exhibited a dynamic behaviour during season and between years. Commercial strains were found during fermentation in different percentages, but their presence on winery equipment was low. The present work represents a first approach to winery yeast and spontaneous fermentation Saccharomyces population dynamics in an important viticultural region from Argentina that has never been characterized before. The results obtained have an important significance for the local industry, showing for the first time the real situation of the microbial ecology of alcoholic fermentation in an industrial winery from Mendoza, Argentina.

  17. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F

    2017-01-01

    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pwinery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  19. Analysis of substrate degradation, metabolite formation and microbial community responses in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater: a comparative study.

    Welz, P J; Palmer, Z; Isaacs, S; Kirby, B; le Roes-Hill, M

    2014-12-01

    There is a global need for the implementation of more cost-effective green technologies for the treatment of effluent from wineries. However, systems reliant on microbial biodegradation may be adversely affected by the highly seasonal character of cellar waste. In this study, the biodegradation of two different formulations of winery effluent in sand bioreactors was compared. The degradation of organic substrates and formation of metabolites was monitored by physicochemical analyses of pore water and final effluent samples. Changes in the bacterial community structures were detected using molecular fingerprinting. In wastewater with an overall COD of 2027 mg/L, a formulation with a high concentration of acetate (800 mg COD/L) was more recalcitrant to degradation than a formulation with a high concentration of glucose (800 mg COD/L). Ethanol, glucose and phenolics were degraded preferentially in the deeper layers of the sand bioreactors (average Eh 25 mV) than in the superficial layers (average Eh 102 mV). The redox status also played a pivotal role on the bacterial community composition. The study yielded valuable insight that can be utilized in the design (configuration and operation) of full scale sand bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries

    2018-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit. Here we address the open question of whether D. melanogaster preferentially associates with distinct yeasts in different, closely-related environments. We characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of Drosophila-associated fungi in Northern California wineries that use organic grapes and natural fermentation using high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing. We found that there is nonrandom structure in the fungal communities that are vectored by flies both between and within vineyards. Within wineries, the fungal communities associated with flies in cellars, fermentation tanks, and pomace piles are distinguished by varying abundances of a small number of yeast species. To investigate the origins of this structure, we assayed Drosophila attraction to, oviposition on, larval development in, and longevity when consuming the yeasts that distinguish vineyard microhabitats from each other. We found that wild fly lines did not respond differentially to the yeast species that distinguish winery habitats in habitat specific manner. Instead, this subset of yeast shares traits that make them attractive to and ensure their close association with Drosophila. PMID:29768432

  1. Immanence: A life… Friedrich Nietzsche

    Arno Böhler

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand what is finally at stake for Nietzsche in the problem transcendence versus immanence, one therefore has to understand his new concept of the body. The body, not as a massive thing in itself, but a worldwide being, exposed to a multitude of forces, subconsciously operative in the cellar regions of a body as well as in the worldwide affections, a body is exposed to in its being-in-the-world. In the second part of my paper I will address the research-festival Philosophy on Stage#4, Nietzsche et cetera (Tanzquartier Wien 2015 as an example, in which philosophy is realized as an artistic research practice that gives back to philosophy its corporeality, materiality and fleshly sensibility by staging philosophy. A way of philosophising, which counters the classical ascetic image of thought and thus demands a new species of “artist-philosophers,” able and willing to demand, in line with Nietzsche’s Zarathustra, to “stay true to the earth”.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF WHITE WINES USING DIFFERENT FILTER AIDS

    Pietro Catania

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The global wine market, having recently entered into full crisis, is suffering some changes in its production and marketing. The reasons for these changes are mainly due to new trends in consumer demand for wine safety and quality standards at low cost. Social cellars, in order to be included in this new trend, should focus on the rationalization of the production techniques to reduce the costs and improve the quality of wine. In the case of winemaking for the production of a wine stored in a bag-in-box, filtration is a very important technique because it gives the finished product clearness and stability. The experimentation was based on the application of a low cost filtration technique on white wines in order to test the retention efficiency as a function of various filter aids used in the production of daily wines with an IGT (Typical Geographic Indication brand. The results show that wines obtained from the different tests had no changes in terms of colour and aromas, while remarkable differences were obtained with regards to turbidity.

  3. Develop of a model to minimize and to treat waste coming from the chemical laboratories

    Chacon Hernandez, M.

    2000-01-01

    They were investigated and proposed alternative of minimization and treatment of waste organic type coming from chemical laboratories, considering as alternative the disposition for the drainage, the chemical treatment of the waste, the disposition in sanitary fillers, the creation of a cellar to recycle material, the incineration, the distillation and the possibility to establish an agreement with the company Cements INCSA to discard the materials in the oven to cements of this enterprise. the methodology had as first stage the summary of information about the production of residuals for Investigation Center or Academic Unit. For this they were considered the laboratories of investigation of the CICA, CELEQ, CIPRONA, LAYAFA, and the laboratories of teaching of the sections of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemical, Pharmacognosy, Drugs Analysis, Physicopharmacy, Histology and Physiology. Additionally, you considers the office of purveyor of the Microbiology School. Subsequently one carries out an analysis of costs to determine which waste constituted most of the waste generated by the University, as for cost and volume. Then, they were carried out classifications of the materials according to chemical approaches, classification of the NFPA and for data of combustion heats. Once carried out this classification and established the current situation of the laboratories considered as for handling and treatment of waste, they proceeded to evaluate and select treatment options and disposition of waste considering advantages and disadvantages as for implementation possibility and cost stops this way a minimization model and treatment that it can be implemented in the University to settle down [es

  4. Superelastic Graphene Aerogel/Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene/MnO2 Composite as Compression-Tolerant Electrode for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Peng Lv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-compressible electrodes with high electrochemical performance, reversible compressibility and extreme durability are in high demand in compression-tolerant energy storage devices. Herein, an ultra-compressible ternary composite was synthesized by successively electrodepositing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT and MnO2 into the superelastic graphene aerogel (SEGA. In SEGA/PEDOT/MnO2 ternary composite, SEGA provides the compressible backbone and conductive network; MnO2 is mainly responsible for pseudo reactions; the middle PEDOT not only reduces the interface resistance between MnO2 and graphene, but also further reinforces the strength of graphene cellar walls. The synergistic effect of the three components in the ternary composite electrode leads to high electrochemical performances and good compression-tolerant ability. The gravimetric capacitance of the compressible ternary composite electrodes reaches 343 F g−1 and can retain 97% even at 95% compressive strain. And a volumetric capacitance of 147.4 F cm−3 is achieved, which is much higher than that of other graphene-based compressible electrodes. This value of volumetric capacitance can be preserved by 80% after 3500 charge/discharge cycles under various compression strains, indicating an extreme durability.

  5. Expression and function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp6-9 in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Königsmann, Tatiana; Turetzek, Natascha; Pechmann, Matthias; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2017-11-01

    Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation. Indeed, RNAi with Sp6-9 in P. tepidariorum leads not only to strong limb defects, but also to the loss of body segments and head defects in more strongly affected animals. Together with a new expression domain in the early embryo, these data suggest that Sp6-9 has a dual role P. tepidariorum. The early role in head and body segment formation is not known from other arthropods, but the role in limb formation is evolutionarily highly conserved.

  6. Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiders (order: Aranae are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20, which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders (n=3 with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders (n=19 Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders (n=12 Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider (n=10 have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders (n=6 is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5 with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.

  7. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  8. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  9. Biogas - a contribution to solving the energy supply problem of cheese factories. Biogas - ein Beitrag zur Loesung des Energieversorgungsproblems der gewerblichen Kaesereien

    Favre, R

    1984-01-01

    During a 2-years-monitoring period different types of biogas-plants installed in the cheese factories 'Giessen', 'Steinenbrugg', 'Niederstetten' and 'Bodmen' have been investigated. Piggeries with 400 to 700 finishing places were attached to these cheese factories. These four milk processing plants are representative of an average Swiss cheese factory processing 800,000 to 1,500,000 liters of milk a year. The investigations showed that the energy-demand of the cheese-factories is ideal for the use of biogas. The capacities of gas- and hot-water-storage can be planned with a minimum reserve because in most cases cheese fabrication takes place daily. Apart from the fabrication process, the residence of the cheese maker, the cheese cellar, the feed-preparation, the finishing building and the hot-water supply need heat. There are no longtime peak-demands. The swine manure, well qualified for biogas production, is digested during a retention time of 2 to 10 weeks. The plants are heated with biogas excepted the one installed in 'Bodmen'. The gas yield of the mesophilic working flow-plants reaches 0.4 (Nm/sup 3//kgOS), which means the double value of the psychrophilic working storage plant 'Bodmen'. The plants in 'Giessen' and 'Steinenbrugg' need 20 to 40 (%) of the gas-production for their reactor-heating. Therefore the net gas-production of all four plants remained nearly identic. In all cheese-factories the biogas is burned for the heat-supply. The biogas covered of the total energy demand in the average 40 (%) in 'Steinenbrugg', 60 (%) in 'Niederstetten' and 33 (%) in 'Bodmen'. In 'Giessen' the rate was lower due to biogas-tests. An imaginary cheese-factory in the size of 'Giessen' equipped with a total energy-modul (gas-motor, generator, heat-pump) was tested by ENSIM. The result proofed that an energy autarcy is possible due to an enormeous technical installation.

  10. Renewable energies dossier. The early beginnings of a change in the building trade. Outstanding evolutions presented at ISH 2001. A development still bounded by the economic sustain of the government. Something new under the sun. Looking for alternate solutions for air-conditioning. A photovoltaic project for developing countries. The solar absorption improves the Banyuls wine. A thermal solar collector for the production of sanitary hot water in Ile-de-France; Dossier energies renouvelables. Les premices d'un mouvement dans le batiment. Des evolutions marquantes presentees a ISH 2001. Un developpemnt encore lie au soutien economique de l'etat. Du nouveau sous le soleil. A la recherche de solutions alternatives pour la climatisation. Un projet photovoltaique pour les pays en voie de developpement. L'absorption solaire bonifie le banyuls. Un capteur solaire thermique pour l'ECS en Ile-de-France

    Sappa, F.; Grumel, N.; Haentjens, H.

    2001-07-01

    The fight against greenhouse gas emissions implies to favor the development and use of renewable energies and to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The professionals of the building trade are of course concerned by such actions but unfortunately only few space heating/cooling or air-conditioning installations use renewable energies. In France, only one solar absorption air-conditioning installation exists (at Banyuls, Pyrenees Orientales) and the Bordeaux airport is one of the only buildings supplied with a tri-generation unit. This dossier makes a prospective analysis of the existing techniques that would be used in tomorrow's air-conditioning. It comprises 8 articles dealing with: the early beginnings of the use of renewable energies in the building trade and the inventory of existing techniques: solar thermal, cogeneration, tri-generation (electricity, heat and coldness), fuel cells (electrochemical reaction); the outstanding products presented at Frankfurt during the 2001 edition of the ISH exhibition (absorption heat pumps, heat pump with zeolite and water as refrigerant, solar heaters, hybrid systems, condensation boilers, fuel cells..); the bad competitiveness of renewable energies and the necessary financial sustain of the government; the start-up of the 'sun plan' program by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) for the development of solar thermal energy in the residential sector; the 'know-how technical notes' edited by the scientific and technical committee of environment industries (Costic) for the development of low energy consumption air-conditioning processes (dry cooling, evaporation cooling, recovery of heat losses etc..); the project of development of photovoltaic cooling systems for developing countries (evaporative cooling or buried pipes); the unique French solar wine ageing cellar of Banyuls (3500 m{sup 2}, 15000 m{sup 3}, 3 levels); the thermal solar collector of the Quality Hotel of Rosny

  11. A performance measurement framework for the South African bulk export wine supply chain

    Johan B. Smit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many participants in the South African wine industry still exhibit low supply chain maturity in the management of their supply chains. This hampers export performance and ultimately client satisfaction. The development and tracking of appropriate metrics are key steps in improving supply chain performance. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a performance measurement framework for the South African wine industry, focussing on the bulk export segment. Method: The framework was developed using an emergent multi-phased exploratory approach. The approach was implemented in two distinct phases, namely qualitative research followed by quantitative research in each of three iterations to develop and refine the framework. In each iteration, the qualitative research phase consisted of a literature survey, semi-structured and unstructured interviews and case studies, while the quantitative research phase consisted of the development, distribution, completion and analysis of the framework questionnaire, each iteration building on the framework outputs from the previous iteration. Results: The research highlighted that the wine supply chain performance of bulk exports is hindered by the lack of a measurement culture, hampering the identification and prioritisation of interventions. The creation of a performance measurement framework in conjunction with industry, and informed by the Supply Chain Operations Reference framework, creates a platform for the industry to address these challenges. Conclusion: The implementation of this framework will provide performance visibility for cellars in the wine industry. This would enable them to improve their logistics processes and increase their supply chain maturity, ultimately enabling benchmarking against competing supply chains both within South Africa and abroad, such as in Australia, Argentina and Chile.

  12. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines.

  13. Port wine oxidation management: a multiparametric kinetic approach.

    Martins, Rui Costa; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António

    2013-06-05

    Port wine is a flagship fortified wine of Portugal, which undergoes a particularly long aging period, developing a dynamic sensory profile over time, responsible for several wine categories, which is dependent upon the type of aging (bottle or barrel). Therefore, the quality of the product is dependent upon the chemical mechanisms occurring during the aging process, such as oxidation or Maillard reactions. To attain the desired quality management, it is necessary to understand how technological parameters, such as temperature or oxygen exposure, affect the kinetics of the formation of key odorants, such as sotolon. There is a lack of information about the impact of the storage conditions (oxygen and temperature) on Port wine quality. In this study, the effect of these two parameters were investigated to increase the knowledge database concerning aging management of Port wines. It was found that sotolon formation is highly dependent upon oxygen and temperature. There is however a synergistic effect between these two parameters that could significantly increase the concentration. The kinetic parameters of oxygen, sotolon, and other compounds related to Port aging (cis- and trans-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan, 2-furfural, 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural, and 5-methyl-furfural) are also reported. Kinetic models with Monte Carlo simulations, where the oxygen permeability dispersion and temperature are the parameters under evaluation, were applied. On the basis of the modeling predictions, it would seem that the temperature of a cellar would have a more significant impact on the Port wines stored in containers where the oxygen intake is higher (barrels) when compared to containers with low oxygen permeability (bottles using cork stoppers).

  14. A critical test of organic P-N photovoltaic cells

    Bird, G.R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We present an urgent view of the field of organic solid state photovoltaic cells. This is a proper time to select the most promising materials from the Electrophotographic Industry, materials long tried in terms of stability, high quantum yield of charge carriers, but set apart by unusually high quantum yields at low applied fields. Our experience with the candidate dyes has covered new tests for identifiable impurities and removal of these impurities by verifiable methods. A new method of purification, reactive train sublimation, has been developed for DNT, one of the simplest of the outstanding perylene dyes, and the method seems applicable to some of the other promising perylene derivatives. It removes the offending impurity by converting it into the desired pure product. The role of water of hydration in the {open_quotes}wine cellar effect{close_quotes}, the slowly rising performance of newly made phthalocyanine containing cells has been analyzed. Under the concept of feasibility testing before a final refinement for practicality of materials and production methods, the hydration can be controlled for high level testing. At the same time, efforts go forward to eliminate the need. At least one of the best phthalocyanine components, X-H{sub 2}Pc, does not require water for peak performance. Finally, we have attacked BBIP (bis-benzimidazole perylene) one of the best and most enigmatic of the near infrared sensors. It has long been known and used as a mixture of synthetic isomers, and we hypothesize that either of these would be better than the uncontrolled mixture. A partial success in the form of isolating highly enriched crystals for an X-ray structure of the trans-molecule, is first presented here. A simple optical analysis method has been developed to follow enrichment procedures. For all of its difficult history, this material seems closest to a state of readiness for critical feasibility testing.

  15. Effect of certain clarification treatments on some components of red wine composition

    Maria José García

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have worked on wine clarification pointing out the advantages that it has to obtain limpid and bright wines as the consumer requires nowadays. In this work, we study the influence of the clarification done with different doses on the main polyphenols, organic acids and poliols of the Monastrell red wines made by the system of continuous vinification in the Monovar cooperative cellar from Denomination of Origin Alicante (Spain. After fermentation and after decanting, the wine was clarified in 100 litres tanks. Five different clarifiers have been used with three different doses in each one. Two days after the treatment, the wines were filtered on the earth and were then submitted to -5° for one week to eliminate the bitartrate. They were filtered over plates when the treatment was finished. Finally, before bottling they were subjected to a sterile filtration.The results show that the clarification lowers the coloring intensity up to 27 p. cent. The higher the dose, the higher the decrease. As for the shade, we noticed that there is a slight increase in each clarificated wine. The tannin content decreases up to 20 p. cent for high and average doses of casein. The treatments used lower the content in anthocyans from 5 p. cent (for lower doses of casein to 19 p. cent (for higher doses of bentonite. As for the acids, the tartaric acid decreases with the quantity of clarifiers, the malic acid hardly changes with the treatment, the same happens with the lactic acid. For the citric acid, there is a small decrease with the clarification. The contents of glycerol decrease in all the wines, whatever clarifier is used. The contents in 2,3- butanediol of the wines hardly change with the claritication.

  16. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    Vaupotic, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm -3 . Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm -3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  17. Not your ordinary yeast: non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered.

    Jolly, Neil P; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2014-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2 , temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MicroRNA expression analysis of feline and canine parvovirus infection in vivo (felis.

    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus or CPV-2b (new virus in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b, and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi. This study is the first attempt to use miRNA analysis to understand the molecular basis of FPV and CPV infection in cats. The miRNA expression profiles of the jejunums of cats infected with FPV and CPV were obtained, and a subset of miRNAs was validated by real-time qPCR. The results show that a variety of metabolism-related pathways, cytokine- and pathogen-host interaction-related pathways, and pathology- and cellar structure-related pathways, as well as others, were affected. Specifically, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is critical for cytokines and growth factors, was enriched. This description of the miRNAs involved in regulating FPV and CPV infection in vivo provides further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection and adaptation and might provide an alternative antiviral strategy for disease control and prevention.

  19. Design and evaluation of representative indoor radon surveys

    Csige, I.; Csegzi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a procedure to design and evaluate representative indoor radon surveys. The procedure is based on random sampling of a population of houses and careful statistical analysis of measured indoor radon concentrations. The method is designed to estimate the fraction of houses in which annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level. Measurements of annual average indoor 222 Rn activity concentration were done in sleeping rooms at pillow level using etched track type radon detectors. We applied the above procedure in an old fashioned village and in a fast developing small city in Transylvania, Romania. In the village almost all houses were single floor wooden made houses without cellar built with traditional technology on a geologically uniform area. The distribution of indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 115 houses can almost perfectly be fitted with log-normal probability density function. The correlation coefficient of linear fitting on linearized scales was k = -0.9980. The percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is less than 1 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be around 0.1 %. The small city, on the other hand lies on a geologically inhomogeneous area, and house construction technology has also changed dramatically in past decades. The resulting distribution of measured indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 116 houses cannot be fitted with any simple probability density function. Therefore the prediction of the fraction of houses in which the annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level could not be done adequately. With certain assumptions we estimated that the percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is between 3 and 7 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be between

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  1. Edificio de servicios múltiples Valladolid/España

    Méndez, Eduardo

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available From the modules of the Coordinating Committee of administrative buildings, established in accord with requirements of space of the different jobs, this building has been constructed to globalize the numerous dependencies of various Ministries and Institutes. In essence, the construction is composed of two cellar levels for parking and services; a lower floor for the cafeteria and meeting hall; two upper floors for offices, connected with the nucleous of vertical communications. For the structure, as likewise for the dimensioning of the jobs and the windows and even the paving of the false ceiling, the basic module was 1.25 x 1.25 metresA partir de los módulos de la Junta Coordinadora de edificios administrativos, establecidos en función de las necesidades de espacio de los distintos puestos de trabaja se ha realizado este edificio que engloba las numerosas dependencias de varios Ministerios e Institutos. En esencia la construcción se compone de dos niveles de sótano para aparcamiento y servicios; una planta baja destinada a cafetería y salón de actos; dos cuerpos elevados, destinados a oficinas, enlazados por el núcleo de comunicaciones verticales. Para la estructura, así como para el dimensionamiento de los puestos de trabajo y de los huecos de ventana, e inclusa del despiece del pavimento y del falso techo, se ha partido de un módulo base de 1,25 X 1,25 metros.

  2. Assessment of radioactive contaminations of the ground in Hanover-List with scales and methods of the German Federal Ordinance on Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites (BBodSchV). Pt. 2. Application of test thresholds and determination of need for actions

    Gellermann, Rainer; Guenther, Petra; Evers, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper test thresholds for radionuclides in soil have been derived on the basis of methods and scales of the German Ordinance on Soil Protection (BBodSchV). In this paper, these test thresholds are checked with regard to their plausibility. Materials, methods, results are described in Part 1 of this paper. This contribution demonstrates that the test thresholds derived in Part 1 are plausible and feasible according to the requirements of the established methods. The epidemiological basis for the treatment of ionizing radiation is well founded. Risks can be quantified via the knowledge of cancer risks due to radiation. As a reference value the overall fatal risk coefficient of 5 % per Sv recommended by ICRP is used. The test thresholds obtained are sufficiently far from background levels in soils of northern Germany. Consequently, the test thresholds are applicable without any background corrections. Exposures by external radiation outdoors and exposures by inhalation of radon in cellar rooms result in calculated test thresholds in the order of background levels. Nevertheless, feasible results are obtained because in the case of toxic substances without threshold levels the additional exposures are considered for determination of test thresholds. The approach of test thresholds for radioactive soil contamination presented in Part 1 of this paper complies with the criteria of the German methods for calculation of test thresholds in soil protection regarding plausibility and feasibility. It enables the soil protection authorities to assess radioactive contaminations of the ground according to the established rules in the field of soil protection and to make decisions according to Articles 9 and 10 of the German Soil Protection Act. Part 3 of this paper discusses the application of the test thresholds and the possibilities of determining the need for remediation actions. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of radiological effect of the indoor radon and its progeny

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subbaramu, M.C.; Mishra, U.C.

    1988-01-01

    Of all the sources of environmental radiation, radon and its progeny are considered to be responsible for a significant dose to man, especially when they are in enclosed areas like underground mines, caves, cellars, poorly designed and badly ventilated houses. Linear extrapolation from the dose response value of the uranium miners exposed to higher levels of radon and its daughters also suggest that the majority of the lung cancer incidence could be due to radon. Higher indoor radon levels and shift in the disequilibrium of the progeny concentration in dwellings caused by the lower ventilation rate leads to severalfold increase of lung cancer incidence from radon. The large risk which is anticipated calls for further studies in this field and may also lead to the conclusion that the slight, but much feared, burden due to man-made radioactivity could be more than compensated by controlling critical segments of the environmental radioactivity. In this report the study of risk due to breathing of indoor radon is briefly reviewed. Dose equivalent to the exposed tissue of the respiratory tract of the people living in dwellings are evaluated. Like most of the risk assessment of low level radiation, the effort to quantify the effect of radon in terms of death rate dose due to lung cancer attributable to radon levels indoors, has to rely on the extrapolation from the effects of the higher exposure rate. In situations where soil or building materials contain elevated radium levels, living in energy efficient houses may be as dangerous as heavy smoking. (author). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 41 refs

  4. Wine tourism in Italy

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  5. Quantifying the Benefits of Shallow Posthole Installation for the Future French Permanent Broadband Stations

    Vergne, J.; Charade, O.; Bonaime, S.; Louis-Xavier, T.; Arnold, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (réseau sismologique et géodésique français) infrastructure, more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations have to be deployed in metropolitan France within the forthcoming years. This requires a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost, especially for the 60 percent of stations that we expect to be settled in open environments. During the last two years we tested various types of sensor's hosting infrastructures with a strong focus on recently released posthole sensors that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes. Tests were performed at 3 different sites (two GEOSCOPE stations and a dedicated open-field prototype site) with geological conditions spanning from hard rocks to very soft soils. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed at different depths, from the surface to a maximum of 20m deep, and in different types of casing. Moreover, a reference sensor, either installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault, has been operated continuously. We present a comprehensive comparison of the seismic noise level measured in the different hosting infrastructures and for several frequency bands corresponding to various sources of noise. At high and low frequencies, seismic noise level in some boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. Between 0.005 and 0.05Hz, we observe a strong decrease of seismic noise level on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and is mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved clearly depends on the local geology. All these tests, together with estimated installation costs, point toward the deployment of sensors in shallow boreholes at the future French broadband stations located in open environments.

  6. Strain differences in the expression of an H-2K/sup k/ gene product by epidermal and spleen cells

    Hadley, G.A.; Steinmuller, D.

    1986-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against Epa-1, a non-H-2 alloantigen expressed by epidermal cells (EC) but no lymphoid cells, lyse EC of different H-2/sup k/, Epa-1 + strains at different levels. For example, the mean percent lysis values for EC of strains CBA, AKR, C58, and RF are 60, 46, 41, and 35 respectively. Since the CTL used to obtain these values recognize Epa-1 only in the context of H-2K/sup k/, the different levels of lysis could reflect differences in either Epa-1 or K/sup k/ antigens. The goal of this investigation was to test the second alternative. For this purpose, the authors obtained hybridoma 16-1-11N that secretes a K/sup k/-specific MoAb. They first demonstrated the capacity of MoAb 16-1-11N to block the lysis of CBA EC by Epa-1-specific CTL. They then utilized it as the probe in a cellar RIA, with 125 I-protein A as the second reagent, to quantitate the expression of K/sup k/ antigens on EC of strains CBA, AKR, C58, and RF. They found that C58 and RF EC bound significantly less of the K/sup k/ MoAb than CBA EC. Although AKR EC also bound less of the MoAb than CBA EC, the difference was not significant. Nonetheless, these data support the hypothesis that the differential susceptibility of the strains to lysis by Epa-1-specific CTL is due to differences in the expression of the H-2 restricting element. The authors also tested spleen cells (SC) of the four strains in the RIA described above and found that SC of RF, but not of C58 or AKR, express reduced levels of K/sup k/ antigens compared to CBA SC

  7. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of winery wastewater sludge and wine lees: An integrated approach for sustainable wine production.

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Pavan, P; Bolzonella, D

    2017-12-01

    In this work, winery wastes generated by a cellar producing approximately 300,000 hL of wine per year was monitored for a period of one year. On average, 196 L of wastewater, 0.1 kg of waste activated sludge (dry matter) and 1.6 kg of wine lees were produced per hectoliter of wine produced. Different winery wastes, deriving from different production steps, namely waste activated sludge from wastewater treatment and wine lees, were co-treated using an anaerobic digestion process. Testing was conducted on a pilot scale for both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The process was stable for a long period at 37 °C, with an average biogas production of 0.386 m 3 /kg COD fed . On the other hand, for thermophilic conditions, volatile fatty acids accumulated in the reactor and the process failed after one hydraulic retention time (23 days). In order to fix the biological process, trace elements (iron, cobalt and nickel) were added to the feed of the thermophilic reactor. Metals augmentation improved process stability and yields at 55 °C. The pH ranged between 7.8 and 8.0, and specific gas production was 0.450 m 3 /kg COD fed , which corresponded to dry matter and COD removals of 34% and 88%, respectively. Although the observed performances in terms of biogas production were good, the thermophilic process exhibited some limitations related to both the necessity of metals addition and the worse dewaterability properties. In fact, while the mesophilic digestates reached a good dewatering quality via the addition of 6.5 g of polymer per kg of dry matter, the required dosage for the thermophilic sludge was greater than 10 g/kg of dry matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. France uses the sun to cool its wine: the Banyuls winery solar cooling system

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The engineering consultancy Tecsol was asked to design a cooling system for a winery that would limit the variations in temperature during the year. Tecsol proposed a solar system. The total investment cost amounted to nearly two million French Francs (300,000 euros), almost double the cost of a conventional air-conditioning system. However, because the solar system reduced the conventional energy needs of the warehouse by about 40%, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) provided a 37% subsidy for its rational use of energy. The 'Solarclim' solar installation has three functions: it produces hot water via 693 vacuum tube collectors with a useful surface of 130 m{sup 2}. The collectors are fixed to the roof of the wine cellar, which has an angle of 15 deg. Heat from the collectors is transferred to a 1000-litre hot water storage tank; it produces chilled water using a lithium bromide absorption plant with a nominal cooling capacity of 52 kW. This is housed in the technical premises on the lowest level and is used in conjunction with a 180 kW open-circuit cooling tower on the north facade; and the third function combines air-conditioning and, when necessary, space heating. The installation has been operating for 12 years with no particular problems. The equipment is environmentally friendly. The solar heat source avoids CO{sub 2} emissions, the absorption machine does not use CFCs or HCFCs, and the system is totally silent. (UK)

  9. RARE TRIPLE ANATOMICAL VARIATION OF THE CEREBRAL ARTERIAL CIRCLE; Rara triple variación del círculo arterial cerebral.

    Joaquín García Pisón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la rara asociación de un aneurisma de arteria trigeminal persistente lateral derecha (Tipo II de Saltzman, aplasia del segmento pre-comunicante de ambas arterias cerebrales posteriores y la presencia de arterias cerebrales posteriores fetales en forma bilateral, en una mujer de 64 años que consultó de diplopía y parálisis del nervio abducens derecho, probablemente debida a compresión del nervio en el espacio latero-celar. Se realizó con éxito la embolización endovascular con coils, sin complicaciones inmediatas. Los hallazgos de CT, RM y angiografía son presentados. Aunque cada una de estas variaciones son infrecuentes en forma individual, la combinación de las mismas no ha sido reportada en la literatura hasta nuestro conocimiento, siendo de enorme importancia en el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico de pacientes con stroke de mecanismo embolico, así como para la planificación de procedimientos endovasculares diagnósticos y terapéuticos. We report the rare association of an aneurysm of a lateral right persistent trigeminal artery (Saltzman type II, bilateral aplasia of the pre-communicating segment of both posterior cerebral arteries and bilateral fetal posterior cerebral arteries, in a 64 years old woman who suffered from progressive diplopia and right abducens nerve palsy, most likely due to nerve compression in the latero-cellar space. Successful endovascular coils embolization of the aneurysm was performed, with no immediate complications. CT, MR and angiographic findings are presented. Although infrequent as single variations, the association of these three arterial variations has not been reported in literature to our knowledge, having special importance in the diagnostic workup and therapeutic procedures in a patient with an embolic stroke, as well as in the planification of intracranial endovascular diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  10. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  11. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  12. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  13. Edificios protoindustriales para la producción de vino en Sicilia. Los palmentosy las bodegas del Etna desde el s. XVII al XIX

    Cascone, G.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Etnian region, during XVII and XIX centuries wine production begins to be made in a proto-industrial way. Great industries for wine production are built in these dates with a great technological and architectural specialization. Many of these constructions are in use today with good conservation state, but others are abandoned or ruined. In this paper the main characteristics of the "palmenti" and wine cellars that yet exist are analyzed. Architectural aspects are related with simple functionality aspects devoting special attention to the press machinery. The present state of this architectural patrimony and reasons to preserve and reuse it are discussed. Several ways and proposals to achieve this are defined at the end.

    En la región del Etna, entre los siglos XVII y XIX, la producción del vino empieza a hacerse de un modo protoindustrial. En tales fechas se construyen numerosas infraestructuras de grandes dimensiones para producir vino, denotando una gran especialización tecnológica y arquitectónica. Muchas de estas construcciones se usan aún hoy, manteniéndose en buen estado; otras, sin embargo, avanzan hacia el abandono y el deterioro. En el presente estudio se analizan las características principales de las bodegas y de los "palmentos" que han llegado hasta nosotros. Se relacionan los aspectos arquitectónicos con los puramente funcionales y se dedica una atención especial a la maquinaria de prensado. Se detalla al final el estado actual en el que se encuentra este patrimonio arquitectónico y se discuten las razones que hoy día animan a conservarlo y a volver a ponerlo en funcionamiento. Por último, se definen rápidamente los modos concretos y las propuestas para llevarlo a cabo.

  14. Dos obras de Friedrich F. Haindl, Alemania Federal

    Editorial, Equipo

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asylum of Wasserburg. It is a brick construction, faced with pre-manufactured concrete pieces; its plan is rectangular and consists of: cellar (under ground, ground floor and six stories. Arrangement of cellar: kitchen with its accessory rooms, laundry, storing rooms, as well as lavatories and installations. The entry is on the ground floor, with a forged iron front door which communicates with the spacious interior hall. This floor includes: dinnig room, chapel, library and administrative rooms. The first floor is assigned to: personnel and the Sisters' rooms, including a refectory, and the appartment of the janitor. The following four floors contain the total of the residents' rooms, with a common hall on each floor. On the top floor, the centre for medical assistance with rooms of different capacities is installed. The whole is completed by a garage and a garden. The residence for old people of Berchting. It has been installed in an old convent of two floors, adding a new building which consists of: cellar, ground floor, and two and three storeys. Old and new part arc connected by means of a glass aisle. The old building contains: rooms for personnel, Sisters and nurses, the chaplain's appartments; the kitchen, dining-room, refectory and living-room; administrative rooms, lavatories and services, storing rooms and workshops. In the new building are installed the rooms for the old; the rooms for boiler, oil tanks for heating, storing rooms, workshops; dinnig-room and lobby near the connexion aisle; main kitchen and small kitchens on each floor; personnel diningroom, laundry, lavatories, living-rooms and common terrace, as well as the centre for medical assistance with 22 beds. Each bedroom has its washbasin and incorporated closet, and all the resident's rooms have individual balconies. The whole new construction has been buil with concrete, harmonizing with the large glass walls of the aisle, with the common rooms and the bed

  15. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  16. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  17. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  18. Thermographic mapping of a complex vernacular settlement: the case study of Casalnuovo District within the Sassi of Matera (Italy)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Balestra, Alessandro; Cardinale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Never as in the Sassi of Matera (Italy), the parties have a volumetric material identity and a special construction condition for which, first of all, you need to know the whole to which they give life, and then the individual components and their connections. The distribution of these building artifacts in symbiotic connection with the connective calcareous texture that hosts them, resulted in a spontaneously harmonious figurative balance that characterizes the constructive expedients employed and the distributive and morphological solutions. This is the reason why the Sassi, and the overlooking Park of Rupestrian Churches of Matera Murgia have been entered in 1993 in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Our research focuses on a largely abandoned area within the Casalnuovo District, situated in the extreme south of the city, probably the place of the future Demoethnoanthropological Museum. It is known today that the particular shape of the area is made up of settlements mainly in cave; during the time architectures above ground, in a very limited number, filled almost completely the limited building space. Here there are the most archaic types and forms of building and wine cellars within the Sassi, essentially derive from the natural cave only slightly structured by man. The exterior construction complete the elementary cave and it is called lamione. The complexity of a built space like this one determines the need for a non-traditional approach, so you have to combine last generation tools and canonical ones for survey and energy diagnosis within a dialectic between memory, tradition and innovation, in order to identify solutions for an environment friendly recover of a cultural heritage such this one. Since the evaluation of the historical buildings conservation state using destructive techniques should be avoided to prevent the integrity of the cultural heritage, the development of non-destructive and non-contact techniques is very important. For this reason, an

  19. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of two-storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not

  20. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  1. Arqueología, Arquitectura e Historia en el Archivo Histórico Provincial de Jaén

    Campos López, María Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From the necessity for restoration and the need to present a conservation proposal for one of the most symbolic buildings in Jaén, Andalucía, a discovery was made of what are, according to researchers, the last remains of the «ancient Arab palaces». Through a combined study of wall stratigraphy, archaeological intervention and the study of documentary sources, it has been possible to prove the historical sequence of the building which is the central office of the Provincial History Archive, located in one of the most historically relevant areas of the city. The building has been occupied since Roman times, later housing the Almohade Muslim dynasty, a royal palace, a convent, a university, a stronghold of resistance during the War of Independence, a men’s hospice and presently the History Archive. This is one example of how buildings stay alive in urban areas, adapting and transforming, and of the reading of these sequences and the mark that this constant state of development leaves on the facings, in the cellars.A partir de la necesidad de restaurar y presentar una propuesta de conservación para uno de los inmuebles más emblemáticos de la capital jiennense, se descubre lo que, a juicio de los investigadores, son los últimos restos de los «antiguos palacios árabes», y a través de un estudio combinado de estratigrafía muraria, intervención arqueológica y el estudio de las fuentes documentales, se ha podido constatar la secuencia histórica del edificio que es sede del Archivo Histórico Provincial, localizado en una de las zonas de más relevancia histórica de la ciudad. La ocupación documentada abarca desde niveles romanos, almohades, siendo más tarde palacio real, convento, universidad, plaza fuerte de la resistencia en la Guerra de la Independencia, hospicio de hombres y, finalmente, Archivo Histórico. Es un ejemplo de cómo los edificios se mantienen vivos dentro de la trama urbana, adaptándose, transformándose y de la

  2. Isotopes in environmental studies - Aquatic Forum 2004. Proceedings of an international conference. Unedited papers

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of key processes in the aquatic environment, responsible for its future development and its protection, were at the forefront of the IAEA's International Conference on Isotopes in Environmental Studies - AQUATIC FORUM 2004 convened in Monaco from 25 to 29 October 2004, which was the most important gathering of the year of isotope environmental scientists. Over 320 experts from 60 IAEA Member States and 6 international organizations delivered 185 oral presentations in 6 plenary and 31 parallel sessions and made 130 poster presentations. The conference reviewed the present state of the art isotopic methods for investigation of the aquatic environment. The main conference subjects considered were: (i) behaviour, transport and distribution of isotopes in the aquatic environment; (ii) climate change studies using isotopic records in the marine environment; (iii) groundwater dynamics, modelling and management of freshwater sources; (iv) important global projects, such as WOCE, WOMARS, SHOTS, GEOTRACES; (v) joint IAEA-UNESCO submarine groundwater investigations in the Mediterranean Sea, the Southwest Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; (vi) new trends in radioecological investigations, concentrating on the protection of marine biota against radioactive contamination; (vii) transfers in analytical technologies from bulk analyses to particle and compound specific analyses of environmental samples; (viii) development of new isotopic techniques, such as AMS and ICPMS, and their successful applications in environmental studies; and many other exciting topics which were presented and discussed during the Conference. Four workshops were held simultaneously: - ATOMS-Med Workshop - development of a project proposal for oceanographic investigations in the Eastern Mediterranean. - El Nino - Research Co-ordination Meeting of the new IAEA Coordinated Research Project investigating climate change using isotopic records in the marine environment. - CELLAR Workshop

  3. An integrated approach to elucidate the intra-viral and viral-cellular protein interaction networks of a gamma-herpesvirus.

    Shaoying Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screens were conducted to elucidate the molecular functions of open reading frames (ORFs encoded by murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68. A library of 84 MHV-68 genes and gene fragments was generated in a Gateway entry plasmid and transferred to Y2H vectors. All possible pair-wise interactions between viral proteins were tested in the Y2H assay, resulting in the identification of 23 intra-viral protein-protein interactions (PPIs. Seventy percent of the interactions between viral proteins were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To systematically investigate virus-cellular protein interactions, the MHV-68 Y2H constructs were screened against a cellular cDNA library, yielding 243 viral-cellular PPIs involving 197 distinct cellar proteins. Network analyses indicated that cellular proteins targeted by MHV-68 had more partners in the cellular PPI network and were located closer to each other than expected by chance. Taking advantage of this observation, we scored the cellular proteins based on their network distances from other MHV-68-interacting proteins and segregated them into high (Y2H-HP and low priority/not-scored (Y2H-LP/NS groups. Significantly more genes from Y2H-HP altered MHV-68 replication when their expression was inhibited with siRNAs (53% of genes from Y2H-HP, 21% of genes from Y2H-LP/NS, and 16% of genes randomly chosen from the human PPI network; p<0.05. Enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms in the Y2H-HP group included regulation of apoptosis, protein kinase cascade, post-translational protein modification, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, and IκB kinase/NFκB cascade. Functional validation assays indicated that PCBP1, which interacted with MHV-68 ORF34, may be involved in regulating late virus gene expression in a manner consistent with the effects of its viral interacting partner. Our study integrated Y2H screening with multiple functional validation approaches to create

  4. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  5. Yeast Starter as a Biotechnological Tool for Reducing Copper Content in Wine

    Angela Capece

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is widely used in agriculture as a traditional fungicide in organic farming to control downy mildew on grapes, consequently it is possible to find this metal during all stages of the vinification process. Low amounts of copper play a key role on the function of key cell enzymes, whereas excess quantities can exert amount-dependent cytotoxicity, resulting in general cellular damage. Nowadays the excessive copper ions in wines is removed by addition of adsorbents, but these additives can influence the sensory characteristics of wine, as well as detrimental to the health of consumers. It is well known that high concentrations of Cu2+ can be toxic to yeasts, inhibiting growth and activity, causing sluggish fermentation and reducing alcohol production. In this study, 47 S. cerevisiae strains were tested for copper tolerance by two different tests, growth on copper added medium and fermentative activity in copper added grape must. The results obtained by the two different tests were comparable and the high strain variability found was used to select four wild strains, possessing this characteristic at the highest (PP1-13 and A20 and the lowest level (MPR2-24 and A13. The selected strains were tested in synthetic and natural grape must fermentation for ability to reduce copper content in wine. The determination of copper content in wines and yeast cells revealed that at the lowest copper residual in wine corresponded the highest content in yeast cells, indicating a strong strain ability to reduce the copper content in wine. This effect was inversely correlated with strain copper resistance and the most powerful strain in copper reduction was the most sensitive strain, MPR2-24. This wild strain was finally tested as starter culture in cellar pilot scale fermentation in comparison to a commercial starter, confirming the behavior exhibited at lab scale. The use of this wild strain to complete the alcoholic fermentation and remove the copper from

  6. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    Papp, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222 Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3 . Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 212 Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212 Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0

  7. Interactive effects between total SO2 , ethanol and storage temperature against Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    Edwards, C G; Oswald, T A

    2018-01-01

    Although Brettanomyces bruxellensis continues to be a problem during red winemaking due to formation of off-odours and flavours, few interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic conditions that would limit spoilage have been identified. Using a commercially prepared Merlot wine, a 3 × 2 × 2 complete factorial design was implemented with total SO 2 (0, 60 or 100 mg l -1 ), ethanol (13% or 14·5% v v -1 ) and storage temperature (15° or 18°C) as variables. Populations of two strains of B. bruxellensis isolated from Washington wines (I1a and F3) were monitored for 100 days before concentrations of 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and volatile acidity were measured. In wines with 13% v v -1 ethanol and stored at 15°C, addition of 100 mg l -1 total SO 2 resulted in much longer lag phases (>40 days) compared with wines without sulphites. At 14·5% v v -1 ethanol, culturability did not recover from wines with 100 mg l -1 total SO 2 regardless of the storage temperature (15° or 18°C). A few significant interactions were noted between these parameters which also affected synthesis of metabolites. Thus, SO 2 , ethanol concentration and storage temperature should be together used as means to reduce infections by B. bruxellensis. The potential for utilizing SO 2 along with the ethanol and storage temperature was studied to inhibit the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, during cellar ageing of red wines. This report is the first to identify the existence of interactions between these parameters that affect growth and/or metabolism of the yeast (i.e., synthesis of 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and volatile acidity). Based on current and past findings, recommendations are presented related to the use of potential antimicrobial synergies between SO 2 , ethanol concentration and storage temperatures. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Book Reviews

    H.L. Peters

    1966-07-01

    Full Text Available - Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf, Matthias Hermanns, Die religiös-magische weltanschauung der Primitivstämme Indiens. Band I. Die Bhagoria Bhil. Franz Steiner Verlag. Wiesbaden 1964. 543 seiten, 10 Abb., 2 Karten, 26 tafeln. - S.J. Tambiah, S. Arasaratnam, Ceylon. The Modern Nations in Historical Perspective, Robin W. Winks (General Editor Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey 1964. 172 pages. - Mohan K. Gautam, L.P. Vidyarthi, The Maler. A study in nature-man-spirit complex of a hill tribe in Bihar. Foreword by Julian Steward. XVI and 261 pp., with 24 plates, 6 tables, 12 figures, 15 appendices with a glossary of local terms. Calcutta 1963. Bookland Private Ltd. - L. Sluimers, J.M. Halpern, Government, politics and social structure in Laos: A study of tradition and innovation. Wyoming enz., The Cellar Bookshop, 1964. VIII, 197 blz. Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University; Monograph Series No. 4. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, M.G. Swift, Malay peasant society in Jelebu. L.S.E. Monographs on Social Anthropology no. 29. The Athlone Press, London 1965. 178 pp. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, John M. Garvan, The Negritos of the Philippines. Edited by Hermann Hochegger. Wiener Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik, Band XIV. Verlag Ferdinand Berger, Horn-Wien 1963. 288 pgs., krt. - L.F.B. Dubbeldam, H.L. Peters, Enkele Hoofdstukken uit het sociaal-religieuze leven van een Dani-groep. Diss. 1965 Utrecht, printed by Dagblad voor Noord-Limburg N.V. Venlo. 184 pp., ills. - R. Roolvink, Hans Andreas Poetzelberger, Einführung in das Indonesische. Wiesbaden, 1965. 147 pages, 1 table, 1 map. - P. Voorhoeve, M.D. Wainwright, A guide to western manuscripts and documents in the British Isles relating to South and South East Asia. Compiled by M.D. Wainwright and N. Matthews under the general supervision of J.D. Pearson. London 1965. xix, 352 pp., N. Matthews (eds.

  9. BioChroma - A New and Patented Technology for Processing Radioactive Wastewater from Nuclear Medicine Therapy Facilities in Hospitals and Clinics.

    Rodríguez, José Canga

    2012-01-01

    After undergoing radionuclide therapy, patients generate wastewater with a considerable amount of radioactivity, which can reach levels of as much as 90% of the administered dose. Due to the risk of accumulation after discharge into the sewer, it is advisable to collect this effluent for its treatment prior to final discharge. Delay and decay (natural decomposition of the isotope) is the most commonly used technical method of abating radioactive iodine, but it is frequently criticized as being complex and very expensive. BioChroma is a technology that has been developed as an alternative to these complicated and expensive systems. This paper describes this new technology and presents, as an example, a system that was installed and successfully commissioned in the middle of 2008 in a nuclear medicine ward with 12 beds in Stuttgart (Germany). Based on existing legislation, the responsible authorities and the company that operated the hospital agreed on a maximum activity level of 5 Bq/l. If a typical delay and decay system would have been installed, the 180 m(3) treatment plant that was already available in the hospital cellar would have to be extended by additional 150 m(3). By implementing the patented BioChroma process, the space requirements were reduced by 75%. For instance, since the new system was integrated into the existing installation, tanks accounting for 120 m³ could be used as buffering volume in the new wastewater treatment plant. The operation of the referred plant is currently producing very good results with values below the specified limit of 5 Bq/l for the isotope (131)I. In addition, (90)Y has been reported to be eliminated at the same time. Over the past 2 years of operation, the wastewater treatment plant has been able to achieve a maximum processing capacity of more than 2,000 l/day, which equates to a nuclear medicine ward with approx. 20 beds. The highest level recorded during the test period (of 180 days after start-up) was a peak of

  10. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  11. BioChroma – A New and Patented Technology for Processing Radioactive Wastewater from Nuclear Medicine Therapy Facilities in Hospitals and Clinics

    Rodríguez, José Canga

    2012-01-01

    After undergoing radionuclide therapy, patients generate wastewater with a considerable amount of radioactivity, which can reach levels of as much as 90% of the administered dose. Due to the risk of accumulation after discharge into the sewer, it is advisable to collect this effluent for its treatment prior to final discharge. Delay and decay (natural decomposition of the isotope) is the most commonly used technical method of abating radioactive iodine, but it is frequently criticized as being complex and very expensive. BioChroma is a technology that has been developed as an alternative to these complicated and expensive systems. This paper describes this new technology and presents, as an example, a system that was installed and successfully commissioned in the middle of 2008 in a nuclear medicine ward with 12 beds in Stuttgart (Germany). Based on existing legislation, the responsible authorities and the company that operated the hospital agreed on a maximum activity level of 5 Bq/l. If a typical delay and decay system would have been installed, the 180 m 3 treatment plant that was already available in the hospital cellar would have to be extended by additional 150 m 3 . By implementing the patented BioChroma process, the space requirements were reduced by 75%. For instance, since the new system was integrated into the existing installation, tanks accounting for 120 m³ could be used as buffering volume in the new wastewater treatment plant. The operation of the referred plant is currently producing very good results with values below the specified limit of 5 Bq/l for the isotope 131 I. In addition, 90 Y has been reported to be eliminated at the same time. Over the past 2 years of operation, the wastewater treatment plant has been able to achieve a maximum processing capacity of more than 2,000 l/day, which equates to a nuclear medicine ward with approx. 20 beds. The highest level recorded during the test period (of 180 days after start-up) was a peak of nearly 2

  12. Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine.

    Lonvaud-Funel, A

    1999-01-01

    The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic acid bacteria species can be identified. They belong to the Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus genera. Throughout alcoholic fermentation, a natural selection occurs and finally the dominant species is O. oeni, due to interactions between yeasts and bacteria and between bacteria themselves. After bacterial growth, when the population is over 10(6) CFU/ml, malolactic transformation is the obvious change in wine composition. However, many other substrates can be metabolized. Some like remaining sugars and citric acid are always assimilated by lactic acid bacteria, thus providing them with energy and carbon. Other substrates such as some amino acids may be used following pathways restricted to strains carrying the adequate enzymes. Some strains can also produce exopolysaccharides. All these transformations greatly influence the sensory and hygienic quality of wine. Malic acid transformation is encouraged because it induces deacidification. Diacetyl produced from citric acid is also helpful to some extent. Sensory analyses show that many other reactions change the aromas and make malolactic fermentation beneficial, but they are as yet unknown. On the contrary, an excess of acetic acid, the synthesis of glucane, biogenic amines and precursors of ethylcarbamate are undesirable. Fortunately, lactic acid bacteria normally multiply in dry wines; moreover some of these activities are not widespread. Moreover, the most striking trait of wine lactic acid bacteria is their capacity to adapt to a hostile environment. The mechanisms for this are not yet completely elucidated

  13. São Gião de Nazaré (Portugal. Un tipo original de iglesia

    Caballero, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific importance of the Portuguese church of São Gião de Nazaré, considered one of the prototypes of 7th century Iberian Visigoth architecture, merited an archaeological analysis of its architecture in addition to the excavation of its cellars and prior to necessary restoration work on the building, which was on the brink of ruin. Readings discovered an original church with a nave with high rooms to the west and east, side rooms, iconostases and freestanding vaulted rectangular apse. The structure scarcely changed until its ruin and subsequent conversion into farm workers’ dwellings in the 18th century. The chronological ascription of the church, presently in doubt due to the problems concerning the architectural group traditionally called Visigoth, cannot be solved through the reading but can be enhanced by this as two different decorative groups are identified, one with reused pieces and the other with new sculptures. This deliberately sculpted decoration is now the chronological indicator to follow in dating the original church: for some, it is clearly Visigoth; for others, Asturian.La importancia científica de la iglesia portuguesa de São Gião de Nazaré, considerada como uno de los prototipos de la arquitectura visigoda peninsular del siglo VII, recomendaba un análisis arqueológico de su arquitectura complementario a la excavación del subsuelo y previo a los necesarios trabajos de restauración del edificio en amenaza de ruina. La lectura descubre una iglesia original de nave central con dos habitaciones altas a Oeste y Este, habitaciones laterales, iconostasis y ábside rectangular exento abovedado. Su estructura apenas varía hasta el momento de ruina y posterior transformación en casa labriega en el siglo XVIII. La adscripción cronológica de la iglesia, puesta en duda actualmente dentro de una problemática que afecta al conjunto de arquitectura tradicionalmente denominada visigoda, no se resuelve con la lectura

  14. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  15. Vivienda unifamiliar en Aravaca Madrid – España

    Martín-Artajo, Alberto

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available This construction, made up of three storeys and basement was situated in one of the corners of the plot and the rest of the area could thus be used for building the following: swimming pool; tennis court; a small vegetable garden with hothouse and a big garden. The basement comprises: a garage with three parking places; boiler room; and living quarters for the staff; further, gymnasium with dressing rooms and sauna; a bar room with wine cellar; and a chapel. On the ground floor are situated: drawing room, living room, dining room and library; kitchen; larder; laundry and ironing room; staff bedroom and a terrace-drying room. The first floor consists of: four bedrooms each of which has a dressing room and bath room; parents bedroom with dressing room and bath room. The top floor holds: a hall for trophies plus an office room; play room; a study. The building is a point structure with screen walls in the basement and is on the outside entirely covered with tiles. The chimneys, the marked wings, as well as the sloping walls form a harmonious unit with a strong personality.El edificio, de tres plantas y sótano, se situó en uno de los extremos del terreno, aprovechándose el resto de la parcela para distribuir: una piscina; una pista de tenis; una pequeña huerta con invernadero, y amplias zonas ajardinadas. El sótano alberga: el garaje de tres plazas; el cuarto de calderas, y una vivienda para el servicio. El resto de la planta la ocupan: un gimnasio con vestuarios y sauna; una pequeña taberna con bodega; una capilla; una cámara acorazada, y un trastero. En la planta baja se sitúan: la zona noble, compuesta por salón, estar, comedor y biblioteca; y la zona de servicio, con oficio, cocina, despensa, lavadero y cuarto de plancha, dormitorio de servicio, y una terraza-tendedero. La planta primera consta de: cuatro dormitorios, cada uno con vestidor y cuarto de baño completo; y el dormitorio de padres, con vestidor, cuarto de ba

  16. Yeast 2.0-connecting the dots in the construction of the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome.

    Pretorius, I S; Boeke, J D

    2018-06-01

    Historians of the future may well describe 2018 as the year that the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome became a reality. Without the benefit of hindsight, it might be hard to completely grasp the long-term significance of a breakthrough moment in the history of science like this. The role of synthetic biology in the imminent birth of a budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell carrying 16 man-made chromosomes causes the world of science to teeter on the threshold of a future-defining scientific frontier. The genome-engineering tools and technologies currently being developed to produce the ultimate yeast genome will irreversibly connect the dots between our improved understanding of the fundamentals of a complex cell containing its DNA in a specialised nucleus and the application of bioengineered eukaryotes designed for advanced biomanufacturing of beneficial products. By joining up the dots between the findings and learnings from the international Synthetic Yeast Genome project (known as the Yeast 2.0 or Sc2.0 project) and concurrent advancements in biodesign tools and smart data-intensive technologies, a future world powered by a thriving bioeconomy seems realistic. This global project demonstrates how a collaborative network of dot connectors-driven by a tinkerer's indomitable curiosity to understand how things work inside a eukaryotic cell-are using cutting-edge biodesign concepts and synthetic biology tools to advance science and to positively frame human futures (i.e. improved quality of life) in a planetary context (i.e. a sustainable environment). Explorations such as this have a rich history of resulting in unexpected discoveries and unanticipated applications for the benefit of people and planet. However, we must learn from past explorations into controversial futuristic sciences and ensure that researchers at the forefront of an emerging science such as synthetic biology remain connected to all stakeholders' concerns about the

  17. Caracterização do suco de amora-preta elaborado em extrator caseiro Characterisation of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição físico-química, aceitabilidade e efeito do armazenamento na qualidade do suco de amora-preta elaborado em um extrator caseiro. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química e separados de acordo com o teor de antocianinas em três grupos: acima de 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, de 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue e Comanche e abaixo de 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97 e Cherokee. Os sucos foram pasteurizados e analisados quanto aos teores de pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, carboidratos solúveis, extrato seco e antocianinas. A extração por 2 h apresentou rendimento de 84%. As antocianinas foram os compostos que sofreram alteração mais significativa na elaboração do suco, com redução média de 42%. O suco apresentou aceitabilidade superior a 85%. O armazenamento em adega ou sob refrigeração alterou de forma significativa apenas o teor de antocianinas dos sucos, cuja degradação foi menor nas amostras conservadas sob refrigeração.The aim of this study was the evaluation of physico-chemical composition, acceptability and storage effects on the quality of black-berry juice prepared in a domestic extractor. Fruits were analysed for their chemical properties and divided in three groups, according to anthocyanin content: above 160 mg/100 g (Guarani, 120-160 mg/100 g (Caingangue and Comanche and below 120 mg/100 g (Tupy, Seleção 97, Cherokee. The pasteurised juices were analysed for parameters related to quality, such as pH, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity, dry extract and anthocyanin content. Extraction for two hours resulted in a yield of 84%. Juice extraction reduced the anthocyanin content in average 42%. The acceptability was over 85%. Storage in wine cellar or refrigerator reduced the anthocyanin content of the juices, whose degradation was smaller in samples stored under refrigeration.

  18. La arquitectura geográfica manchega : recurso y compromiso educativo

    Óscar Jerez García

    2002-01-01

    Gigüela both overflowed forming an extensive one overflow, a temporary, spatial, formal, and cultural expression appears that is synthesis of a landscape, of a time and of a form life: the geographical architecture of La Mancha. This popular architecture, to a large extent deteriorated, forgot and abandoned, presente a great diversity morphological, as a consequence of the interaction of diverse factors, biotic and abiotic, as: the climate, the substrate, the available materials, the historie inheritance, the rural activities, the popular beliefs, etc. The confluence of these, originated diverse architectural models, result of which is an extensivo one typoligy that includes demonstrations as the farmhouse, the mili of water and of wind, the bass drum, the silo, the wine cellar, the settiement, etc. In this article, we present an approximation to geographical study of the popular architecture of La Mancha, an object that responds to a space, at the same time and to a form, so that from the knowledge of the influences of the middie on these constructions (space, of the historie track and the human activity (time, technical and function and of the ideas, beliefs and esthetic values (form, we present a typology that, even having lost to a large extent its original functional meaning, we believe that counts on a series of didactic and hereditary values whose broadcast intends to contribute to the contributing to the civic sensibility, to its knowledge, appraisal and conservation.

  19. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  20. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of a scalable modular geothermal heat storage system

    Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Storage of heat will play a significant role in the transition towards a reliable and renewable power supply, as it offers a way to store energy from fluctuating and weather dependent energy sources like solar or wind power and thus better meet consumer demands. The focus of this study is the simulation-based design of a heat storage system, featuring a scalable and modular setup that can be integrated with new as well as existing buildings. For this, the system can be either installed in a cellar or directly in the ground. Heat supply is by solar collectors, and heat storage is intended at temperatures up to about 90°C, which requires a verification of the methods used for numerical simulation of such systems. One module of the heat storage system consists of a helical heat exchanger in a fully water saturated, high porosity cement matrix, which represents the heat storage medium. A lab-scale storage prototype of 1 m3 volume was set up in a thermally insulated cylinder equipped with temperature and moisture sensors as well as flux meters and temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet pipes in order to experimentally analyze the performance of the storage system. Furthermore, the experimental data was used to validate an accurate and spatially detailed high-resolution 3D numerical model of heat and fluid flow, which was developed for system design optimization with respect to storage efficiency and environmental impacts. Three experiments conducted so far are reported and analyzed in this work. The first experiment, consisting of cooling of the fully loaded heat storage by heat loss across the insulation, is designed to determine the heat loss and the insulation parameters, i.e. heat conductivity and heat capacity of the insulation, via inverse modelling of the cooling period. The average cooling rate experimentally found is 1.2 °C per day. The second experiment consisted of six days of thermal loading up to a storage temperature of 60°C followed by four days

  2. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    Holmgren, O.; Arvela, H.

    2012-03-01

    ventilation in living spaces, in the cellar or in the crawl space, are less effective: the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 10 - 60%. The efficiencies of prevention techniques are analogous to those of remediation techniques. Active SSD is the most efficient prevention technique. The efficiency of passive SSD and passive radon piping is lower, typically 20 - 50%. However, widespread use of such systems can be recommended. Radon-proof membrane in the base floor reduces the radon concentration on average by 50%. The impact of remedial techniques and preventive techniques on energy consumption is significant for active SSD, mainly due to the power consumption of the electrical fan used and potentially also to a lesser degree due to cooling of the base floor. The impact on energy consumption of passive SSD and passive radon piping is negligible. Sealing entry routes in both remediation and prevention in new construction has a positive impact through reduction of the leakage of cold air from the ground in low energy and passive houses. Replacing existing natural or mechanical exhaust ventilation with a new mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system with heat recovery typically reduces energy consumption. On the other hand, other methods increasing ventilation in living spaces reduce the radon concentration, but simultaneously increase energy consumption due to increased air exchange. Sealing the constructions of house foundations in contact with soil and the control of air flows in standard, low energy and passive construction have synergistic goals. Reduction of soil-air flows into the house reduces indoor radon concentrations and simultaneously also the energy consumption. (orig.)

  3. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 60 kW{sub p} PV-system school centre Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergies in energetical retrofit of school building; 60-kW{sub p}-PV-Anlage Schulzentrum Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergien bei der energetischen Sanierung eines Schulgebaeudes

    Blumenscheit, R.; Hettwer, C. [Stadt Barsinghausen (Germany); Diestelmeier, C.; Wiegmann, A. [Raumplan, Hannover (Germany); Decker, B.; Hennig, C.; Mack, M. [Solar Engineering Decker and Mack GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The completely building-integrated PV plant with a nominal power of 60.54 kW{sub p} uses synergies with constructional and energetical retrofit of a school building. The PV plant is operated by the town of Barsinghausen (30 km southwest of Hannover). The federal state of Lower Saxony gave a grant of 36,61%, the Hannover region of 12,39% to the total investment of 824.190 Euro (incl. building construction). The PV plant is divided into five units. PV modules serve as the curtain wall of heat-insulated building core (blue PV cold facade: 12.67 kW{sub p}, grey PV breastwork: 8,38 kW{sub p}). Semitransparent PV modules substitute the insulating glass shed lights of a music room (4,28 kW{sub p}) and the glass roofing of an inner court (12,17 kW{sub p} - all modules: Solarnova) giving an optimum of sun-shading and daylighting. Thin-film PV modules on plastic foils (23,04 kW{sub p} - Alwitra EVALON Solar, Unisolar amorphous Si cells) are tested as flat roof standard retrofit. The PV system has 29 string inverters mostly of SMA Sunny Boy family mounted near to the PV modules in operational rooms or in crawling cellars. The PV operator gets a reimbursement of 0,481 Euro per kWh PV energy according to EEG. The PV system is monitored in detail within 'Solaroffensive' of Lower Saxony. Visualization tableaus inform the public about actual irradiance, actual power and annual energy. (orig.) [German] Schulgebaeude und insbesondere grosse Schulzentren aus den 70er Jahren haben geeignete Dachflaechen zur Errichtung von grossen PV-Anlagen (typisch >1.000 m{sup 2}). Zugleich sind Schulen ein idealer Ort, um vor breitem Publikum (Schueler, Lehrer, Eltern) Planung, Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Anlage zu demonstrieren. In Barsinghausen, am Fusse des Deisters etwa 30 km suedwestlich von Hannover, entstand zwischen August 2001 und Maerz 2003 eine innovative PV-Modellanlage am Schulzentrum 'Am Spalterhals', die verschiedene Arten der PV-Gebaeudeintegration erprobt

  5. The diffusion and deposition of the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides/aerosols in air

    Danis, A.; Ciubotariu, M.; Oncescu, M.; Mocsy, I.

    1999-01-01

    the diffusion and deposition device. The temperature and humidity were measured. Also, in the different indoor space such as dwelling rooms and cellars from Bucharest and Cluj-Napoca, or abandoned mine galleries, similar monitoring devices were fixed vertically at the same distance from the floor, as in the laboratory diffusion and deposition device. The duration of the experiment was established by the measurable track density in the track detectors. It was ranged from one week up to three months. In order to visualize the trails of alpha particles registered during the alpha exposures, the CR-39 track detectors were etched in NaOH - 30 per cent, for 7 hours at 70 deg. C. The alpha tracks were studied by optical microscopy using a binocular Zeiss Jena microscope. The described research are in progress. Some very interesting results regarding the alpha radionuclides and aerosols diffusion and deposition were already obtained both for the laboratory experiment and for the indoor dwelling experiments. (authors)

  6. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  7. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan

    Lind, O.C.; Stegnar, P.; Tolongutov, B.; Rosseland, B.O.; Strømman, G.; Uralbekov, B.; Usubalieva, A.; Solomatina, A.; Gwynn, J.P.; Lespukh, E.; Salbu, B.

    2013-01-01

    radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10 2 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (∼3 × 10 3 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226 Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10 5 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

  8. Radon, radionuclides and the Cretaceous Folkestone Sands - gamma spectroscopy and geochemical analysis of silver sands and associated deposits in the SE of England.

    Gillmore, Gavin; Al-Rafai, Yousef; Flowers, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentrations in a historic sand mine in Surrey, UK (Reigate Caves), have been measured by both real-time and time-averaged methods over a number of years. These mines are not identified as being in a 'Radon Affected Area' as defined by Public Health England, although concentrations show a summer level of 640 Bqm3 +-44 Bqm3. Average radon concentrations (September 2013 to January 2014) in Reigate caves were above the UK 200 Bqm3 domestic Action Level, above the UK domestic Target Level (of 100 Bqm3) but below the current workplace Action Level of 400 Bqm3. By way of a comparison radon has also been measured in nearby Dorking (South Street Caves). These enigmatic caves were not mined for sand for glass manufacture as Reigate Caves were and there is speculation on why the caves were created. Both are visited by tourists on a semi-regular basis. Dorking caves have a different morphology with radon concentrations in Autumn 2016 of up to 1940 +/- 230 Bqm3. The caves in Reigate are situated along Tunnel Road. These mines were also used as air raid shelters and wine stores. They consist of an East and West system and an older cave (Barons cave) which may have a medieval origin. As the Western Caves are now a shooting range our work has been carried out in the Eastern section at Reigate. Where Dorking is concerned the shops and houses in the town have extensive interconnected cellars and galleries cut into these sands. The caves probably date from the 17th century but were used quite extensively for wine storage in the 19th century due to their constant 140C air temperatures. Real-time measurements were taken with a Durridge Rad7 with time-averaged CR39 SSNTDs being placed throughout the cave systems to assess radon distribution and compare results with the real-time detector. Both caves contain marine shallow-water deposited locking (having tensile and compressive strength) silica sands of the Cretaceous Lower Greensand Group, Folkestone Formation, with little

  9. Air alpha monitoring device and system for the calibration of the track detectors

    Danis, A; Oncescu, M.; Ciubotariu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radon measurement plays a critical role: - in monitoring the human health and safety, due to radon destructive health effects. Sustained exposures of humans to high concentration of radon, in fact to high concentrations of its decay products, can produce lung cancer; - in a variety of geophysical, geochemical, hydrological and atmospheric investigations, such as exploring resources of uranium or hydrocarbons. The transport of radon within the earth, waters and atmosphere makes it a useful tracer in these purposes. in both cases, the reliable long-term measurements are required because usual short-term variations in concentration need to be averaged. These variations are caused by factors such as relative humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure and their seasonal variations, moisture content in the air, or ventilation in the dwelling or working places. The integrating measurement methods meet these requirements. Among them, the alpha track method is one of the adequate and useful method and it is used by authors in radon measurements in dwelling and working places including mines and house cellars. The best etched track alpha detector for radon measurements proved to be the detector CR-39 due to: - its sensitivity to alpha particles emitted by radon decay products; - its stability against various environmental factors; - its high degree of optical clarity, was used in a proper device for alpha monitoring in air. Its calibration for radon measurements was performed in the proper calibration system. The general descriptions and specifications were given previously. Only some characteristics of these devices are given here. For air alpha monitoring device: i) equipped with filter, during alpha exposure, the alpha particles of radon are registered in the etched track detector mounted inside (ρ Rn - track density); ii) without filter, the alpha particles emitted by radon + its alpha decay products/their aerosols are registered in the detector (ρ tot - track

  10. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    is just a set of foundations and a portal, considered national monuments. There, we enjoyed a delicious meal in the cellars of the Corralejo Hacienda before returning to Leon. The XIII MWPF was sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) through the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and individual research projects, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnológico del Estado de Guanajuato (CONCyTEG), Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla and Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. Also, we wish to thak to those who helped in the process of getting financial support for the meeting, specially Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo, President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and Dr José Luis Lucio Martínez, Rector of Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León. These proceedings have been published thanks to the support of PIFI 2011. This meeting was possible due to the commitment of the working groups and we wish to thank to their members for the decisive collaboration with the organizing committee. At the local level, we thank our graduate students: Carolina Luján, Vannia González, Selim Gomez and Carlos Alberto Vaquera for their invaluable contribution in the organization of the large amount of small but important things around the meeting. Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent talks which contributed to the success of the event. We are also grateful to all the participants for the nice academic and social atmosphere during the meeting and for providing their write-ups on time. The National organizing committee was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda (CINVESTAV-DF) Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV-Mérida) David Delepine (DF-UG) Axel de la Macorra (IAC/IF-UNAM) Lorenzo Díaz (BUAP

  11. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  12. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  13. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  14. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    parece afectar la vulnerabilidad a las termites del E. grandis cultivado en la región norte u oeste de Uruguay. Hasta el momento, los resultados de campo sugieren mejor desempeño para el sitio II que para el sitio I. Sin embargo, aún es muy pronto para extraer conclusiones válidas de los ensayos de doble capa o de estacas. La durabilidad natural podría estar relacionada con la densidad. Otros estudios son necesarios para extraer conclusiones certeras al respecto.AbstractOne of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of major economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanicalproperties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been reported. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Río Negro was evaluated. Two sixteen years old plantations, originated by seed of same source, were sampled. Natural durability of outer and inner heartwood was studied following EN 350-1 methods. Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 was tested as reference specie. EN 113 laboratory tests for fungal decay (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Serpula lacrymans and EN 118 for termites resistance (Reticulitermes spp. were performed. Field stakes, double layer and fungal cellar tests were established. They are still on course and partial results are reported below in this paper. Upon basic density radial profiles, it wasfound that outer heartwood was not mature wood, but can be assumed as transition wood. In general, E. grandis heartwood showed higher durability than Populus hybrid. E. grandis appeared moderately or seriously attacked by Reticulitermes spp. E. grandis juvenile wood can be classified according EN 350-1, as “Moderately Durable” against the brown rotter G. trabeum, whereas transition wood can be described as “Durable”.

  15. СТЕЛІАН ГРУЯ – ДОСЛІДНИК ТВОРЧОСТІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА / STELIAN HRUYA AS A RESEARCHER OF TARAS SHEVCHENKO'S CREATIONS

    Антоній МОЙСЕЙ

    2017-03-01

    considered Stelian Hruya. His works hane not only historical and educational value, but are also characterized by deep analitical approach, using new methods. Stelian Hruya was a professor of the Bucharest University and was teaching Ukrainian literature. He devoted his doctoral dissertation to the work of the Ukrainian poet «Taras Shevchenko – a romanticpoet» (1973 and the book «Prayer and curse : Critical research» (1995. These works, written in the conditions of the communistic dictationship,are remarked with brave interpretation of the «Кobzar». In the proposed article the analysis of the works «Gaydamakі», «Psalms of David», «Big cellar» are examined in details. Let`s point out that the suggestions of S. Hruya about the genre of ballads in the Kobzar work became innovate for the literaries. In the opinion of the scientist, that genre is presented not only by «Prychуnna», «Drown», «Poplar», «Lily», «Mermaid», but also by such works as «There laid an ax behind the God`s door», «Perebendya», «Ivan Pidkova», «Gamalia», «Taras’ night». A separate part of his work «Prayer and curses» S. Hruiya dedicates to the image of woman in the work of the poet. There are also lots of investigations to grotesque, irony and sarcasm in Kobzar poetry. Applying the comparative method of the literary, the Romanian researcher analyses Shevchenko`s poem «Dream» in the context of the other European authors – «Monument to Peter the Great» A. Mickiewicz and «The Bronze Horseman» by Alexander Pushkin. Thus, the suggestions of Hruya regarding the work of poet Taras Shevchenko represented the poet as European and intellectual, whose mental horizons cover different spheres and problems of life and culture, outline the scale context of the mental world. Key words: Shevchenko, Shevchenko studies, romanticism, historical poem, mystery.

  16. ДВОХСОТЛІТНІЙ ЕКСПРЕС: УКРАЇНСЬКА ЛІТЕРАТУРА ТА НЕЗМІННІСТЬ ПОВЕДІНКОВОЇ МОДЕЛІ ВЛАДИ / BICENTENARY EXPRESS: UKRAINIAN LITERATURE AND UNALTERABILITY OF BEHAVIORAL MODEL OF THE AUTHORITIES

    Ірина СКРИПНИК

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skrypnyk I. Bicentenary Express: Ukrainian literature and unalterability of behavioral model of the authorities. The great period in the history of Ukrainian literature and culture is analyzed in the article. During this period, first the imperial Tsarist authorities and later Soviet totalitarian regime condemned and killed Ukrainian elite and conscious patriots of the nation. An image of a sort of a train goes through the entire research, which like the mythological Charon transports prisoners to the east of Russia, so-called death camps. The author shows the basic behavioral archetypes of the authorities that sought to destroy intellectual code of the Ukrainian nation. All Ukrainian literature from the time of Shevchenko to this day diachronically is a "bloody" literature; it's a "bloody" cultural-historical process associated with the battling for Ukrainian independence with Russian imperial and later with totalitarian systems. Refuting phrase by Yuri Andrukhovych from the poem «The bad company» (collection "Songs for Mertvyi Piven", 2004, "Not enough suicides for a great literature", can form in a way an alternate answer, the artists simply do not survive to this point, they are murdered, destroyed at camps, tortured in the cellars of the NKVD, starved in the camps of the Gulag. Thousands of prominent Ukrainians, cultural and academic leaders, educators, clergymen, patriots, that despite all were not afraid to tell the truth, write the truth, speak out loud or whisper, declare Ukrainian ideas with their actions, were taken by the "Siberian Express". The author tries to be objective and to operate only with facts and memories of real people-witnesses, but when dealing with such a topic, you catch yourself thinking that one can not but be subjective here, therefore, if we grasp all these horrors, if we imagine a simulated "Siberian express", we can not avoid subjectivity. Moreover, the Russian authorities rhetoric and propaganda of today

  17. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    been followed by a roughly 5°F increase since the 1980s. Many areas in the continuous permafrost zone have seen increases in temperature in the seasonally active layer and a decrease in re-freezing rates. Changes in the discontinuous permafrost zone are initially much more observable due to the resulting thermokarst terrain (land surface formed as ice rich permafrost thaws), most notable in boreal forested areas. Climate warming in Alaska has potentially broad implications for human health and food security, especially in rural areas, as well as increased risk for injury with changing winter ice conditions. Additionally, such warming poses the potential for increasing damage to existing water and sanitation facilities and challenges for development of new facilities, especially in areas underlain by permafrost. Non-infectious and infectious diseases also are becoming an increasing concern. For example, from 1999 to 2006 there was a statistically significant increase in medical claims for insectbite reactions in five of six regions of Alaska, with the largest percentage increase occurring in the most northern areas. The availability and quality of subsistence foods, normally considered to be very healthy, may change due to changing access, changing habitats, and spoilage of meat in food storage cellars. These and other trends and potential outcomes resulting from a changing climate are further described in this report. In addition, we describe new science leadership activities that have been initiated to address and provide guidance toward conducting research aimed at making available information for policy makers and land management agencies to better understand, address, and plan for changes to the local and regional environment. This report cites data in both metric and standard units due to the contributions by numerous authors and the direct reference of their data.