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Sample records for cell-implanted failing rat

  1. A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquin, Philippe; Gondran, Chantal; Giroud, Fabien; Mazabrard, Simon; Pellissier, Aymeric; Boucher, François; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Gorgy, Karine; Lenouvel, François; Mathé, Stéphane; Porcu, Paolo; Cosnier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators. However, GBFCs cannot be implanted in animals, mainly because the enzymes they rely on either require low pH or are inhibited by chloride or urate anions, present in the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF). Here we present the first functional implantable GBFC, working in the retroperitoneal space of freely moving rats. The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction. Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and quinone at the cathode. PPO reduces dioxygen into water, at pH 7 and in the presence of chloride ions and urates at physiological concentrations. This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1), which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications. PMID:20454563

  2. A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cinquin

    Full Text Available Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs, are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators. However, GBFCs cannot be implanted in animals, mainly because the enzymes they rely on either require low pH or are inhibited by chloride or urate anions, present in the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF. Here we present the first functional implantable GBFC, working in the retroperitoneal space of freely moving rats. The breakthrough relies on the design of a new family of GBFCs, characterized by an innovative and simple mechanical confinement of various enzymes and redox mediators: enzymes are no longer covalently bound to the surface of the electron collectors, which enables use of a wide variety of enzymes and redox mediators, augments the quantity of active enzymes, and simplifies GBFC construction. Our most efficient GBFC was based on composite graphite discs containing glucose oxidase and ubiquinone at the anode, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and quinone at the cathode. PPO reduces dioxygen into water, at pH 7 and in the presence of chloride ions and urates at physiological concentrations. This GBFC, with electrodes of 0.133 mL, produced a peak specific power of 24.4 microW mL(-1, which is better than pacemakers' requirements and paves the way for the development of a new generation of implantable artificial organs, covering a wide range of medical applications.

  3. Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebda, A.; Cosnier, S.; Alcaraz, J.-P.; Holzinger, M.; Le Goff, A.; Gondran, C.; Boucher, F.; Giroud, F.; Gorgy, K.; Lamraoui, H.; Cinquin, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal's body fluids to act as the sole power source for electronic devices. This GBFC is based on carbon nanotube/enzyme electrodes, which utilize glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation and laccase for dioxygen reduction. The GBFC, implanted in the abdominal cavity of a rat, produces an average open-circuit voltage of 0.57 V. This implanted GBFC delivered a power output of 38.7 μW, which corresponded to a power density of 193.5 μW cm−2 and a volumetric power of 161 μW mL−1. We demonstrate that one single implanted enzymatic GBFC can power a light-emitting diode (LED), or a digital thermometer. In addition, no signs of rejection or inflammation were observed after 110 days implantation in the rat. PMID:23519113

  4. Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zebda, A.; Cosnier, S.; J.-P. Alcaraz; Holzinger, M.; A. Le Goff; Gondran, C.; Boucher, F.; Giroud, F.; Gorgy, K.; Lamraoui, H.; Cinquin, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal's body fluids to act as the sole power source for electronic devices. This GBFC is based on carbon nanotube/enzyme electrodes, which utilize glucose oxidase for glucose oxidation and laccase for dioxygen reduction. The GBFC, implanted in the abdominal cavity of a rat, produces an average open-circuit voltage of 0.57 V. This implanted GBFC delivered a power output of 38.7 μW...

  5. Analgesia Induced by Isolated Bovine Chromaffin Cells Implanted in Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagen, Jacqueline; Pappas, George D.; Pollard, Harvey B.

    1986-10-01

    Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. Bovine chromaffin cells were implanted into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spinal region in adult rats. Pain sensitivity and response to nicotine stimulation was determined at various intervals following cell implantation. Low doses of nicotine were able to induce potent analgesia in implanted animals as early as one day following their introduction into the host spinal cord. This response could be elicited at least through the 4 months the animals were tested. The induction of analgesia by nicotine in implanted animals was dose related. This analgesia was blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone and partially attenuated by the adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. These results suggest that the analgesia is due to the stimulated release of opioid peptides and catecholamines from the implanted bovine chromaffin cells and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the relief of pain.

  6. A new rat model of bone cancer pain produced by rat breast cancer cells implantation of the shaft of femur at the third trochanter level

    OpenAIRE

    GUI, QI; Chengcheng XU; Liang ZHUANG; Xia, Shu; Chen, Yu; Peng, Ping; Shiying YU

    2013-01-01

    Bone cancer pain remains one of the most challenging cancer pains to fully control. In order to clarify bone cancer pain mechanisms and examine treatments, animal models mimicking the human condition are required. In our model of Walker 256 tumor cells implantation of the shaft of femur at the third trochanter level, the anatomical structure is relatively simple and the drilled hole is vertical and in the cortical bone only 1–2 mm in depth without injury of the distal femur. Pain behaviors an...

  7. A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cinquin, Philippe; Gondran, Chantal; Giroud, Fabien; Mazabrard, Simon; Pellissier, Aymeric; Boucher, François; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Gorgy, Karine; Lenouvel, François; Mathé, Stéphane; Porcu, Paolo; Cosnier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful o...

  8. Insular Cortex Lesions Fail to Block Flavor and Taste Preference Learning in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Touzani, Khalid; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The role of the insular cortex (IC) in learning to associate orosensory cues with the oral and post-oral properties of carbohydrate was examined. Rats with either small (gustatory region) or large (gustatory and visceral regions) ibotenic acid lesions of the IC learned to prefer flavors (Experiments 1 & 3) and taste mixtures (Experiments 2 & 4) paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of maltodextrin. The rats with large IC lesions also learned a preference for a flavor cue paired with the swe...

  9. Chronic lithium treatment with or without haloperidol fails to affect the morphology of the rat cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, R W; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Smith, D; Braendgaard, H

    2003-01-01

    We used unbiased stereological principles to determine whether long-term administration of lithium at human therapeutic levels, with or without haloperidol, affects the number or sizes of cerebellar Purkinje cells or the volume of histological layers in the rat cerebellum. Twenty-eight rats were...... randomly divided into three groups, receiving either no treatment, lithium, or lithium combined with haloperidol. The serum lithium levels ranged from 0.50 to 0.77 mmol/l. Haloperidol was given at a daily dose of 1 mg/kg. After 30 weeks of treatment, the animals were killed and the cerebelli were...

  10. Lymphoscintigraphy and autologous stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoscintigraphy is the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Advances of the application of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in ischemic disorders of lower limbs have increased the attention of researchers in this field. Aim: To determine the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy for the assessment the efficacy of autologous stem cell implantation in patients with chronic lymphedema of the upper and lower limbs. Methods: Sixty-five patients were included. Clinical evaluation and lymphoscintigraphy were performed before and six months after stem cells implantation. The stem cells implantations were carried out by multiple superficial and deep injections in the trajectory of the lymphatic vessels and also in the inguinal region. A volume of 0.75 to 1.00 mL of cell suspension (1.0-2.2 x 109 stem cells) was administered in each injection site. Lymphoscintigraphy: Whole-body scans were acquired at 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after administration of 185 to 259 MBq (5–7mCi) of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloids in the interdigital space of both limbs. The anatomy and function of the lymphatic system were evaluated. Results: Functional assessment before implantation of stem cells showed that 69.2% of the patients had severe lymphatic insufficiency. The 61.5% of patients showed clinical improvement, confirmed by the results of the lymphoscintigraphy. The 46.1% of the cases evaluated showed a clear improvement. The study showed that the isotopic lymphography can evaluate the therapeutic response and its intensity. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation and monitoring of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic lymphedema. (author)

  11. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    from inaction. Often, the media are blamed. Politicians complain about the media when they interfere (the CNN effect), and when they do not. This article looks at how the media do cover failing states. Sierra Leone and Congo are used as examples. The analysis shows that there is little independent...

  12. Serotonin antagonists fail to alter MDMA self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Susan; Foote, Jason; Aronsen, Dane; Bukholt, Natasha; Highgate, Quenten; Van de Wetering, Ross; Webster, Jeremy

    2016-09-01

    Acute exposure to ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) preferentially increases release of serotonin (5-HT), and a role of 5-HT in many of the behavioral effects of acute exposure to MDMA has been demonstrated. A role of 5-HT in MDMA self-administration in rats has not, however, been adequately determined. Therefore, the present study measured the effect of pharmacological manipulation of some 5-HT receptor subtypes on self-administration of MDMA. Rats received extensive experience with self-administered MDMA prior to tests with 5-HT ligands. Doses of the 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.1-1.0mg/kg), 5-HT1B antagonist, GR 127935 (1.0-3.0mg/kg), and the 5-HT2A antagonist, ketanserin (1.0-3.0mg/kg) that have previously been shown to decrease self-administration of other psychostimulants and that decreased MDMA-produced hyperactivity in the present study did not alter MDMA self-administration. Experimenter-administered injections of MDMA (10.0mg/kg, ip) reinstated extinguished drug-taking behavior, but this also was not decreased by any of the antagonists. In contrast, both WAY 100635 and ketanserin, but not GR 127935, decreased cocaine-produced drug seeking in rats that had been trained to self-administered cocaine. The 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.1-1.0mg/kg), but not the 5-HT1B/1A agonist, RU 24969 (0.3-3.0mg/kg), decreased drug-seeking produced by the reintroduction of a light stimulus that had been paired with self-administered MDMA infusions. These findings suggest a limited role of activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms in MDMA self-administration or in MDMA-produced drug-seeking following extinction. The data suggest, however, that 5-HT1A agonists inhibit cue-induced drug-seeking following extinction of MDMA self-administration and might, therefore, be useful adjuncts to therapies to limit relapse to MDMA use. PMID:27264435

  13. Minocycline fails to exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat status epilepticus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmann, Vera; Goc, Joanna; Boes, Katharina; Ongerth, Tanja; Salvamoser, Josephine D; Siegl, Claudia; Potschka, Heidrun

    2016-01-15

    The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline can exert strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. There is cumulating evidence that epileptogenic brain insults trigger neuroinflammation and anti-inflammatory concepts can modulate the process of epileptogenesis. Based on the mechanisms of action discussed for minocycline, the compound is of interest for intervention studies as it can prevent the polarization of microglia into a pro-inflammatory state. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sub-chronic minocycline administration initiated immediately following an electrically-induced status epilepticus in rats. The treatment did not affect the development of spontaneous seizures. However, minocycline attenuated behavioral long-term consequences of status epilepticus with a reduction in hyperactivity and hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, the compound limited the spatial learning deficits observed in the post-status epilepticus model. The typical status epilepticus-induced neuronal cell loss was evident in the hippocampus and the piriform cortex. Minocycline exposure selectively protected neurons in the piriform cortex and the hilus, but not in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. In conclusion, the data argue against an antiepileptogenic effect of minocycline in adult rats. However, the findings suggest a disease-modifying impact of the tetracycline affecting the development of behavioral co-morbidities, as well as long-term consequences on spatial learning. In addition, minocycline administration resulted in a selective neuroprotective effect. Although strong anti-inflammatory effects have been proposed for minocycline, we could not verify these effects in our experimental model. Considering the multitude of mechanisms claimed to contribute to minocycline's effects, it is of interest to further explore the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in future studies. PMID:26681545

  14. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...... also propelled by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations.......Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...

  15. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann Alan C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics of acute and chronic MDMA administration in rats and to determine whether MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization and whether it cross-sensitizes with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three MDMA dosage groups (2.5 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 10.0 mg/kg and a saline control group (N = 9/group. All three MDMA groups were treated for six consecutive days, followed by a 5-day washout, and subsequently re-challenged with their respective doses of MDMA (day 13. Rats were then given an additional 25-day washout period, and re-challenged (day 38 with similar MDMA doses as before followed by either 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine or 2.5 mg/kg methylphenidate on the next day (day 39. Open-field locomotor activity was recorded using a computerized automated activity monitoring system. Results Acute injection of 2.5 mg/kg MDMA showed no significant difference in locomotor activity from rats given saline (control group, while animals receiving acute 5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg MDMA showed significant increases in locomotor activity. Rats treated chronically with 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg MDMA doses exhibited an augmented response, i.e., behavioral sensitization, on experimental day 13 in at least one locomotor index. On experimental day 38, all three MDMA groups demonstrated sensitization to MDMA in at least one locomotor index. Amphetamine and methylphenidate administration to MDMA-sensitized animals did not elicit any significant change

  16. Gene targeting of the transcription factor Mohawk in rats causes heterotopic ossification of Achilles tendon via failed tenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidetsugu; Ito, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Masahiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kishida, Akio; Oyaizu, Takuya; Kayama, Tomohiro; Nakamichi, Ryo; Koda, Naoki; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Lotz, Martin K; Okawa, Atsushi; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2016-07-12

    Cell-based or pharmacological approaches for promoting tendon repair are currently not available because the molecular mechanisms of tendon development and healing are not well understood. Although analysis of knockout mice provides many critical insights, small animals such as mice have some limitations. In particular, precise physiological examination for mechanical load and the ability to obtain a sufficient number of primary tendon cells for molecular biology studies are challenging using mice. Here, we generated Mohawk (Mkx)(-/-) rats by using CRISPR/Cas9, which showed not only systemic hypoplasia of tendons similar to Mkx(-/-) mice, but also earlier heterotopic ossification of the Achilles tendon compared with Mkx(-/-) mice. Analysis of tendon-derived cells (TDCs) revealed that Mkx deficiency accelerated chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, whereas Mkx overexpression suppressed chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical stretch stimulation of Mkx(-/-) TDCs led to chondrogenic differentiation, whereas the same stimulation in Mkx(+/+) TDCs led to formation of tenocytes. ChIP-seq of Mkx overexpressing TDCs revealed significant peaks in tenogenic-related genes, such as collagen type (Col)1a1 and Col3a1, and chondrogenic differentiation-related genes, such as SRY-box (Sox)5, Sox6, and Sox9 Our results demonstrate that Mkx has a dual role, including accelerating tendon differentiation and preventing chondrogenic/osteogenic differentiation. This molecular network of Mkx provides a basis for tendon physiology and tissue engineering. PMID:27370800

  17. Effect of Exercise Training and L-arginine on Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Function in the Post-ischemic Failing Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Nazem, Farzad; Nazari, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (ET) and L-arginine on oxidative stress and ventricular function in rat with myocardial infarction (MI). Four weeks after the surgical procedures, 40 Wistar male rats were randomized to the following groups: MI-sedentary (Sed); MI-exercise (Ex); MI-sedentary + L-arginine (Sed + LA); and MI-exercise + L-arginine (Ex + LA); the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % L-arginine. Before and after the training program, all subjects underwent resting echocardiography. Catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening in Ex and Ex + LA groups significantly increased in comparison with the Sed group. Cardiac systolic function indices in Ex + LA group were significantly greater than Ex group. Also, GPx activity and MDA, respectively, increased and decreased in response to ET, but no change was observed in MPO and CAT. These results suggest that ET increased LV function by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense system in rats with MI. In addition in response to training, L-arginine appears to have additive effect on cardiac function, but have no effect on oxidative stress indices. PMID:25762197

  18. Selling Failed Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru

    2014-01-01

    We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...

  19. THE IMPROVEMENT OF INFARCTED MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILE FORCE AFTER AUTOLOGOUS SKELETAL MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL IMPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竑; 朱洪生; 张臻

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the improvement of infarcted myocardial contractile force after autologous skeletal muscle satellite cell implantation via intracoronary arterial perfusion. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were harvested from gluteus max of adult mongrel dogs and the cells were cultured and expanded before being labeled with DAPI (4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone). The labeled cells were then implanted into the acute myocardial infarct site via the ligated left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Specimens were taken at 2nd, 4th, 8th week after myoblast implantation for histologic and contractile force evaluation, respectively. Results The satellite cells with fluorescence had been observed in the infarct site and also in papi-llary muscle with consistent oriented direction of host myocardium. A portion of the implanted cells had differen-tiated into muscle fibers. Two weeks after implantation, the myocardial contractile force showed no significant difference between the cell implant group and control group. At 4 and 8 week, the contractile force in the cell implant group was better than that in control group. Conclusion The skeletal muscle satellite cells, implanted into infarct myocardium by intracoronary arterial perfusion, could disseminate through the entire infarcted zone with myocardial regeneration and improve the contractile function of the infarcted myocardium.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 derived peptide, EEIIMD, diminishes cortical infarct but fails to improve neurological function in aged rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Zhenjun; Li, Xinlan; Kelly, Kimberly A.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Age is a primary risk factor in stroke that is often overlooked in animal studies. We contend that using aged animals yields insight into aspects of stroke injury and recovery that are masked, or not elicited, in younger animals. In this study, we examined effects of co-administration of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 derived peptide, EEIIMD, with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on infarct volume and functional outcome in aged rats following a transient middle cerebral artery occ...

  1. 骨髓间充质干细胞对大鼠梗死心肌胶原重构的双重调节作用%Dural modulation effects of mesenchymal stem cells implantation on myocardial collagen remodeling in a rat model of myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜优优; 姚瑞; 胡信群; 陈庆华; 周滔; 刘启明; 周胜华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the modulation effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)implantation on the collagen remodeling in myocardial infarction. Methods Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in SD rats by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and the animals were assigned randomly into the Sham group, M1 + PBS group and MI + MSCs group. Echocardiography and hemodynamic examinations were performed to evaluate the cardiac function. HE staining and Masson trichrome staining were used to evaluate the myocardial infarction size. Infarcted area and infarcted expansion index were calculated. The expression of collagens in infarcted hearts was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. Results ( 1 ) Infarct area was significantly reduced post MSCs transplantation [MI+MSCs vs. MI+PBS: (38.27 ±2.70)% vs. (46.20±3. 17)%, P<0.001].(2) Cardiac function was significantly improved post MSCs transplantation [MI + MSCs vs. MI + PBS: FS (%): 29.98±4.50vs. 23.43 ±3.34, P=0.005; LVSP(mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa): 113.63±10.81vs. 99.25±16.76, P<0.05; LVEDP(mm Hg): 12.10±4.28 vs. 20.08 ±4.26, P<0.05;+ dp/dtmax ( mm Hg/s) : 4616.63 ± 363.34 vs. 3912.75 ± 248. 79, P < 0. 05 ; - dp/dtmax ( mm Hg/s) :4254.63 ±324. 34 vs. 3530. 88 ±309.71, P < 0. 05]. (3) Collagen synthesis was enhanced in infarcted area and decreased in non-infarcted area post MSCs transplantation ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions MSCs transplantation could enhance the collagen synthesis in infarcted area while decrease the deposition of collagen in non-infarcted area in this MI model. This may be one of the mechanisms by which ventricular remodeling is attenuated post MSCs transplantation.%目的 探讨骨髓间充质干细胞(MSC)对梗死心肌胶原重构的调节作用。方法 采用结扎冠状动脉前降支的方法复制大鼠心肌梗死(MI)模型,随机分为假手术组(仅穿线不结扎冠状动脉,n=8)、MI+ PBS组(结扎冠状

  2. Failed endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhol Islami V

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of failed intubation is higher in obstetric than other surgical patients. Failed intubation was the 2nd commonest cause of mortality during anesthesia. Bearing in mind that failre to intubate may be unavoidable in certain circumstances, it is worth reviewing. The factors, which may contribute to a disastrous out come. Priorities of subsequent management must include maintaining oxygenation and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. Fiber optic intubation is now the technique of choice with a high success rate and with least trauma to the patient.

  3. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  4. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  5. Failed fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failed fuel degradation is the term used to describe the post-defect deterioration of a fuel rod which can occur under continued operation in certain circumstances. Two mechanisms are generally postulated for failed fuel degradation in light water reactors. The first of these attributes degradation susceptibility (axial split formation) to the inherently low fracture toughness of the zircaloy cladding exacerbated by hydrogen embrittlement. The second mechanism attributes the degradation to the reduced relative corrosion resistance of the zirconium liner present in barrier fuel. This leads to a greater fuel rod internal inventory of embrittling hydrogen in conjunction with increased cladding stresses caused by closure of the pellet-cladding gap due to liner corrosion. Key observations relating to these mechanisms are reviewed and the development of mitigating actions to address them described. Commercial irradiation experience gained with subsequently improved fuel designs is discussed. (5 figures; 7 references) (UK)

  6. I Failed Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友连

    2009-01-01

    Yesterday afternoon I participated in an interview for an English debate contest, and failed, completely1. To make the contest fair, everyone is2 supposed to draw a lot to decide his/her topic. The one I got was "Women should be allowed to sell their eggs." The rest got "Whether military training should be compulsary."3 "Whether compulsary education should be extended to 12 years.", and the like. And I was the third to give my speech. Bad luck!

  7. Analgesia induced by isolated bovine chromaffin cells implanted in rat spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Sagen, J.; Pappas, G. D.; Pollard, H B

    1986-01-01

    Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. Bovine chromaffi...

  8. Influence of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on remnant myocyte volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竑; 朱洪生; 卫洪超; 张臻

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on the volume of remnant myocytes.Methods Thirty-six adult mongrel canines were divided randomly into implantation group and control group. In the implantation group, skeletal muscle satellite cells taken from the gluteus maximus muscles of the dogs were cultured, proliferated and labeled with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (DAPI) in vitro. In both groups, a model of acute myocardial infarction was established in every dog. In the implantation group, each dog was injected with M199 solution containing autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs in the control group received M199 solution without skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs of both groups were killed 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation (six dogs in a separate group each time). Both infarcted myocardium and normal myocytes distal from the infracted regions isolated were observed under optical and fluorescent microscope. Their volumes were determined using a confocal microscopy image analysis system and analyzed using SAS. A P<0.05 was considered significant.Results A portion of the implanted cells differentiated into muscle fiber with striations and were connected with intercalated discs. Cross-sectional area and cell volume were increased in normal myocardium. Hypertrophy of remnant myocytes in the infarcted site after skeletal muscle cell implantation was much more evident than in the control group. Cross-sectional area, cell area and cell volume differed significantly from those of the control group (P< 0.05). Hypertrophy of the cells occurred predominantly in terms of width and thickness, whereas cell length remained unchanged. Conclusion Skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarct myocardium, could induce the hypertrophy of remnant myocyte cells in the infarcted site and could also aid in the recovery of the contractile force of the infarcted myocardium.

  9. Therapeutic effects of NogoA vaccine and olfactory ensheathing glial cell implantation on acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2013-10-01

    group, and a combined treatment group. Animal behavior, histopathology, and axonal regeneration were compared between the four treatment groups. Results: The antibody against the polypeptide was detected in rat serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was not found in the immunized rats. Three months after injury, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scores and nerve fiber counts in biotinylated dextran amine nerve tracing studies were significantly better in the combined treatment group than in the other groups. Conclusion: The polypeptide NogoA vaccine can stimulate the humoral immune system to produce antibodies against the NogoA polypeptide. The binding reaction between the antibody and antigen was shown in ex vivo experiments. No evidence was found to suggest a relationship between NogoA vaccination and increased risk of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The combined strategy of olfactory ensheathing glial cell implantation and NogoA vaccination may promote regeneration of axons and functional recovery in the spinal cord contusion injury model. This study may provide a new strategy for combining modalities to enhance axonal regeneration and a better balance of the CNS microenvironment after SCI. Keywords: spinal cord injury, immunotherapy, cell transplantation, olfactory ensheathing glial cells, NogoA, vaccine

  10. When physical intuition fails

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the problem solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A non-intuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. While professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a systematic approach, e.g., visualizing the problem, considering various conservation laws, and examining limiting cases. After finding that familiar techniques were not fruitful, they made incorrect predictions based on one of two equally important factors. By contrast, other more familiar problems that require the consideration of two important principles (e.g., conservation of both energy and momentum for a ballistic pendulum) are quickly solved by the same professors. The responses of students who were given the same problem...

  11. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  12. To fail or not to fail : clinical trials in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during dru

  13. To fail or not to fail: clinical trials in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during drug development. This thesis focuses on three important aspects of clinical trials in depression: clinical endpoints, data analysis and trial design-related factors.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phedy, P.; Kholinne, E.; Djaja, Y. P.; Kusnadi, Y.; Merlina, M.; Yulisa, N. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the therapeutic potential of combining bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules to treat nonunion of the long bone. Methods Ten patients with an atrophic nonunion of a long bone fracture were selectively divided into two groups. Five subjects in the treatment group were treated with the combination of 15 million autologous BM-MSCs, 5g/cm3 (HA) granules and internal fixation. Control subjects were treated with iliac crest autograft, 5g/cm3 HA granules and internal fixation. The outcomes measured were post-operative pain (visual analogue scale), level of functionality (LEFS and DASH), and radiograph assessment. Results Post-operative pain evaluation showed no significant differences between the two groups. The treatment group demonstrated faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. Statistically significant differences in functional scores were present during the first (p = 0.002), second (p = 0.005) and third (p = 0.01) month. Both groups achieved similar outcomes by the end of one-year follow-up. No immunologic or neoplastic side effects were reported. Conclusions All cases of nonunion of a long bone presented in this study were successfully treated using autologous BM-MSCs. The combination of autologous BM-MSCs and HA granules is a safe method for treating nonunion. Patients treated with BM-MSCs had faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. By the end of 12 months, both groups had similar outcomes. Cite this article: H.D. Ismail, P. Phedy, E. Kholinne, Y. P. Djaja, Y. Kusnadi, M. Merlina, N. D. Yulisa. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones: A translational study. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:287–293. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.2000587. PMID:27412657

  15. Tractor succeeds where submarine fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When reactor 4 at Canada's Bruce A nuclear power station was shut down because of a coolant blockage in one of the fuel channels, a special ''submarine'' was developed but failed to remove the obstruction. So a tractor was tried instead and proved to be more successful. The problem and eventual solution is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. MR imaging features of gadofluorine-labeled matrix-associated stem cell implants in cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nejadnik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to assess the chondrogenic potential and the MR signal effects of GadofluorineM-Cy labeled matrix associated stem cell implants (MASI in pig knee specimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs were labeled with the micelle-based contrast agent GadofluorineM-Cy. Ferucarbotran-labeled hMSCs, non-labeled hMSCs and scaffold only served as controls. Chondrogenic differentiation was induced and gene expression and histologic evaluation were performed. The proportions of spindle-shaped vs. round cells of chondrogenic pellets were compared between experimental groups using the Fisher's exact test. Labeled and unlabeled hMSCs and chondrocytes in scaffolds were implanted into cartilage defects of porcine femoral condyles and underwent MR imaging with T1- and T2-weighted SE and GE sequences. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR between implants and adjacent cartilage were determined and analyzed for significant differences between different experimental groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Significance was assigned for p0.017. However, hMSC differentiation into chondrocytes was superior for unlabeled and GadofluorineM-Cy-labeled cells compared with Ferucarbotran-labeled cells, as evidenced by a significantly higher proportion of spindle cells in chondrogenic pellets (p<0.05. GadofluorineM-Cy-labeled hMSCs and chondrocytes showed a positive signal effect on T1-weighted images and a negative signal effect on T2-weighted images while Ferucarbotran-labeled cells provided a negative signal effect on all sequences. CNR data for both GadofluorineM-Cy-labeled and Ferucarbotran-labeled hMSCs were significantly different compared to unlabeled control cells on T1-weighted SE and T2*-weighted MR images (p<0.017. CONCLUSION: hMSCs can be labeled by simple incubation with GadofluorineM-Cy. The labeled cells provide significant MR signal effects and less impaired chondrogenesis compared to Ferucarbotran-labeled h

  17. Why cogeneration development projects fail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper cogeneration projects that are organized by developers fail to reach fruition for reasons other than the basic economical or technical soundness of the opportunity. Cogeneration development projects fail because of misunderstanding by the host or other participants of their obligations, inadequate management support by the host organization, regulatory changes, environmental difficulties, overly high expectations of profit, changes in fuel economics, utility policy changes, changing financial markets, and a variety of other issues. Each of these potential problem areas will be discussed briefly, examples will be given, and remedies will be suggested. Most of these potential problems then can be either avoided or attenuated by advanced provisions so that they will not become fatal flaws to project completion

  18. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  19. Diggers failing to become diggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Mining has in recent years emerged as a national discourse in Australia as the combined result of the mining boom and national anxieties over the GFC featured prominently in references to Australia as a failed competitive state (the folding of manufacturing, where the closure of car factories plays...... could be told: The SBS three part documentary series, Dirty Business (2013), and Robert Knox’s Boom: The Underground History of Australia, from Gold Rush to GFC (2013). My paper seeks to look at how these narratives project mining’s importance for the national imaginary, and how this projection may be...

  20. Functional effect of mouse embryonic stem cell implantation after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We transplanted mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to improve functional loss in a rat model of clip-compression spinal cord injury (SCI). The mouse embryonic stem cells were transplanted to injured cord 7 days after injury. We include minimizing the progression of secondary injury, manipulating the neuroinhibitory environment of the spinal cord, replacing lost tissue with transplanted cells and substantial improvement of motor. A number of potential approaches optimize functional recovery af...

  1. Apparatus for inspecting failed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide electrode rods on an inner surface of a shipper cap and pressure detectors in the form of microswitches on four sides of the outer surface thereof to positively set the shipper cap to the channel and to positively separate reactor water within the channel from ambient reactor water. Structure: When the shipper cap is set on the channel, the four sides of the cap come into contact with a grid plate to upwardly move each rod against a return spring, and each microswitch is actuated through contact to light the indicating lamp, after which air is fed into the shipper cap to move a water level of reactor water within the channel from the electrode, thus separating from the ambient reactor water for subsequent operation for inspecting failed fuel. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. ALA-PDT of glioma cell micro-clusters in BD-IX rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Carper, Stephen W.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2006-02-01

    A significant contributory factor to the poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is the inability of conventional treatments to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells. A syngeneic rat brain tumor model is used to investigate the effects of aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on small clusters of tumor cells sequestered in normal brain. The intrinsic sensitivity of rat glioma cells to PDT was investigated by exposing ALA-incubated cells to a range of radiant exposures and irradiances using 635 nm light. Biodistribution studies were undertaken on tumor-bearing animals in order to determine the tumor selectivity of the photosensitizer following systemic administration (i.p.) of ALA. Effects of ALA-PDT on normal brain and gross tumor were evaluated using histopathology. Effects of PDT on isolated glioma cells in normal brain were investigated by treating animals 48 h after tumor cell implantation: a time when the micro-clusters of cells are protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Rat glioma cells in monolayer are susceptible to ALA-PDT - lower irradiances are more effective than higher ones. Fluorescence microscopy of frozen tissue sections showed that photosensitizer is produced with better than 200:1 tumor-to-normal tissue selectivity following i.p. ALA administration. ALA-PDT resulted in significant damage to both gross tumor and normal brain, however, the treatment failed to prolong survival of animals with newly implanted glioma cells compared to non-treated controls if the drug was delivered either i.p. or directly into the brain. In contrast, animals inoculated with tumor cells pre-incubated in vitro with ALA showed a significant survival advantage in response to PDT.

  3. IGF-1,bFGF EXPRESSION AND VASCULAR REGENERATION IN ACUTE INFARCTED CANINE MYOCARDIUM AFTER AUTOLOGUS SKELETAL MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL IMPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪生; 钟竑; 张臻

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the cell growth factor secretion and vascular regeneration in acute infarcted myocardium after autologous skeletal muscle satellite cell implantation.MethodsAutologous skeletal muscle satellite cells from adult mongrel canine were implanted into the acute myocardial infarct site via the ligated left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Specimens were harvested at 2, 4, 8 weeks after implantation for the expression of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (Bfgf) and the vascular density.ResultsThe expression of IGF-1, Bfgf and the vascular density in skeletal muscle satellite cell implant group were higher than that in the control group.ConclusionThe skeletal muscle satellite cells, after being implanted into the acute myocardial infarction, not only showed myocardial regeneration, but also showed the ability to secrete the cell factors, hence representing a positive effect on the regeneration of the infarcted myocardium.

  4. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  5. Clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head after autologous bone marrow stem cell implantation: a meta-analysis of seven case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-feng Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head after autologous bone marrow stem cell implantation. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases and included all case-control trials that reported on the clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis progression, incidence of total hip arthroplasty and improvement in Harris hip scores. Overall, seven case-control trials were included. Compared with the controls, patients treated with the bone marrow stem cells implantation treatment showed improved clinical outcomes with delayed osteonecrosis progression (odds ratio = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.32; p<0.001, a lower total hip arthroplasty incidence (odds ratio = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12 - 0.72; p<0.01 and increased Harris hip scores (mean difference = 4.76, 95% CI: 1.24 - 8.28; p<0.01. The heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses showed no statistical difference significant differences between studies. Thus, our study suggests that autologous bone marrow stem cells implantation has a good therapeutic effect on osteonecrosis of the femoral, resulting in beneficial clinical outcomes. However, trials with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head after autologous bone marrow stem cell implantation: a meta-analysis of seven case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heng-Feng; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Chang-An; Yan, Zuo-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head after autologous bone marrow stem cell implantation. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases and included all case-control trials that reported on the clinical outcomes of osteonecrosis progression, incidence of total hip arthroplasty and improvement in Harris hip scores. Overall, seven case-control trials were included. Compared with the controls, patients treated with the bone marrow stem cells implantation treatment showed improved clinical outcomes with delayed osteonecrosis progression (odds ratio = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.32; p <0.001), a lower total hip arthroplasty incidence (odds ratio = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12 - 0.72; p <0.01) and increased Harris hip scores (mean difference = 4.76, 95% CI: 1.24 - 8.28; p<0.01). The heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses showed no statistical difference significant differences between studies. Thus, our study suggests that autologous bone marrow stem cells implantation has a good therapeutic effect on osteonecrosis of the femoral, resulting in beneficial clinical outcomes. However, trials with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26934241

  7. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  8. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  9. Failed delivery and daily Treasury bill returns

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon P. DeGennaro; James T. Moser

    1990-01-01

    If the seller of a Treasury bill does not provide timely and correct delivery instructions to the clearing bank, the bank does not deliver the security. Further, the seller is not paid until this "failed delivery" is rectified. Since the purchase price is not changed, these "fails" generate interest-free loans from the seller to the buyer. ; This paper studies the effect of failed delivery on Treasury-bill prices. We find that investors bid prices to a premium to reflect the possibility of ob...

  10. B Vitamins Fail to Prevent Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ARTICLES CLICK HERE B Vitamins Fail to Prevent Alzheimer’s Many people take B vitamins in the hopes ... Finder See All articles W e can end Alzheimer's Support the pioneering research of Nobel Laureate Dr. ...

  11. Thick Film Fail-Safe Resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicka, D. L.; St. Nowak

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of low resistance thick film fail-safe resistors are presented. Particularly the shape of a resistive path; the temperature of the central part of the resistor while increasing the power up to 4 Watts; the kind of composition material for the resistive path vs. extensometer effect, and the stability of the resistor are discussed.

  12. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  13. Failed Citizenship, Civic Engagement, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. The author conceptualizes this process as "failed citizenship,"…

  14. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  15. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  16. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  17. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  18. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  19. Rehabilitate Failing Park Sewage System Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) proposes to rehabilitate the failing sewage system within Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. The rehabilitation would provide a safe, healthy, and functional environment, and maintain public health and future service for park visitors and staff. Portions of the sanitary sewage collection system were originally constructed in 1958 of clay pipe and currently service the lodge, staff housing, and visitor center before feeding into sewage treatment lagoons. Secti...

  20. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    OpenAIRE

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specific...

  1. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  2. Fuglede's conjecture fails in dimension 4

    OpenAIRE

    Matolcsi, Mate

    2006-01-01

    In this note we give an example of a set $\\W\\subset \\R^4$ such that $L^2(\\W)$ admits an orthonormal basis of exponentials $\\{\\frac{1}{|\\W |^{1/2}}e^{2\\pi i x, \\xi}\\}_{\\xi\\in\\L}$ for some set $\\L\\subset\\R^4$, but which does not tile $\\R^4$ by translations. This improves Tao's recent 5-dimensional example, and shows that one direction of Fuglede's conjecture fails already in dimension 4. Some common properties of translational tiles and spectral sets are also proved.

  3. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  4. SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronomers have proposed a number of mechanisms to produce supernova explosions. Although many of these mechanisms are now not considered primary engines behind supernovae (SNe), they do produce transients that will be observed by upcoming ground-based surveys and NASA satellites. Here, we present the first radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the spectra and light curves from three of these 'failed' SNe: SNe with considerable fallback, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs, and energetic helium flashes (also known as type Ia SNe).

  5. Source memory in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they ha...

  6. How to help a failing student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Different aspects of family and school life, as well as individual characteristics of the student are related to academic failure in various degrees. Once it has become evident that a student is failing in study and learning, and the causes of the failure have been identified, the question arises of how to help him/her to overcome the existing difficulties. Although there are some authors who hold that the intervention in the domain of failure is inconsistent an unconvincing for a number of reasons, in this paper we shall suggest some solutions and recommendations which have been empirically tested. The first part of the paper discusses the advantages and drawbacks of grouping students according to their abilities as one of the strategies of helping unsuccessful students. In the second part we offer some recommendations for work with unsuccessful students based on their preferred learning styles. The third part focuses on examining the effects of counseling on solving the problem of academic failure. Finally, some general suggestions are offered to students, teachers and parents which might prove useful in enhancing academic attainment of failing students.

  7. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and...... system performance measures with respect to the mean rate of failure and the mean duration of repair of each component. These expressions provide a convenient framework for identifying important components within the system and for decisionmaking aimed at upgrading the system availability or reliability...... repair durations are assumed to be exponentially distributed. The results are expressed in terms of the mean rates of failure and mean durations of repair of the individual components. These expressions also allow derivation of closedform expressions for the rates of change of the various probabilistic...

  8. 78 FR 4349 - Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 360 RIN 3064-AD99 Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions AGENCY: Federal... retention of records of a failed insured depository institution. The proposed rule incorporates the.... Background When acting as receiver of a failed insured depository institution, the FDIC succeeds to the...

  9. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  10. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  11. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  12. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Service International Research Unit, Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  13. The Born rule fails in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule fails and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure problem in cosmology. A particular volume-averaged form is proposed

  14. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  15. Acute effects of sildenafil and dobutamine in the hypertrophic and failing right heart in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger; Nielsen, Jan M; Rasalingam, Sivagowry; Sloth, Erik; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute intravenous administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose improves the in vivo function of the hypertrophic and failing right ventricle (RV). Wistar rats ([Formula......]). Invasive RV pressures were recorded continuously, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 70, and 90 minutes after injecting the bolus. Cardiac function was compared to baseline measurements to evaluate the in vivo effects of each specific treatment. The PTB procedure caused...... significant hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and reduction in RV function evaluated by echocardiography (TAPSE) and invasive pressure measurements. Sildenafil did not improve the function of the hypertrophic failing right heart in vivo, measured by TAPSE, RV systolic pressure (RVsP), and dp/dtmax. Dobutamine...

  16. Sediments fail to record geomagnetic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Meynadier, Laure; Bassinot, Franck; Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We have studied four records of the last Matuyama-Brunhes reversal from sediment cores from the equatorial Indian Ocean, west equatorial Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with deposition rates of 4cm/ka and 2cm/ka for one equatorial core. All measurements were performed using 8cc cubic samples. In three records the demagnetization diagrams of the transitional samples are of bad quality. In the best samples the characteristic component of magnetization is defined with a large error that is reflected by an increase of the MAD value by at least a factor 10 with respect to non-transitional samples. Although not being frequently reported in papers which tend to exhibit the best demagnetization diagrams, this behavior is actually typical of most transitions studied in sedimentary sequences and somehow questions the reliability of the records. It is frequently considered that failure to isolate the initial magnetization component is due to weakly magnetized transitional samples with magnetization about ten times lower than outside the reversal. However, the magnetization intensity of transitional samples is much stronger in two of the present cores than the non-transitional samples of the other cores. The VGP paths that were tentatively derived from these transitions are quite complex and very different from each other. After rescaling all results to the same resolution the length of the transitional intervals remains different between each core suggesting that different magnetization processes were at work and yielded different records of the rapid field changes during the transition. Because similar magnetic grains recorded different directions, demagnetization fails to isolate a characteristic component. The sediment from west equatorial Pacific is an interesting exception with nice univectorial transitional diagrams decreasing towards the origin. The inclination remains close to zero, while the declination rotates smoothly between the two polarities. As a

  17. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  18. Search of problems for improving the failed fuel location system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification criteria of the failed fuel was reviewed to solve the problems of failed fuel location system in Wolsong Unit-2 reactors. As a result of the review, it was confirmed that the existing discrimination ratio of identifying the failed fuels could not be applied directly to analyze the data acquired from delayed neutron measurement because of the flow rate differences among the sampling lines. Therefore, correction factors to compensate the differences will be employed in analyzing the data

  19. Innovative Drugs to Treat Depression: Did Animal Models Fail to Be Predictive or Did Clinical Trials Fail to Detect Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A care...

  20. Several insulin-like growth factor-I analogues and complexes of insulin-like growth factors-I and -II with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 fail to mimic the effect of growth hormone upon lactation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, D J; Tonner, E; Beattie, J; Gardner, M

    1994-02-01

    Lactation was suppressed in rats using a combined treatment of bromocriptine (to reduce prolactin concentrations) and a specific antiserum to rat GH administered twice daily for 2 days. When milk production had ceased, as determined by litter weight loss and the absence of milk in the stomachs of pups, attempts were made to reinitiate lactation using prolactin, GH, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) precomplexed to recombinant human IGF-binding protein-3 (hIGFBP-3) or IGF-I plus IGF-II precomplexed to hIGFBP-3. Despite the fact that all treatments except prolactin led to increases in serum IGFs and IGFBP-3, only prolactin and GH provoked the reinitiation of milk production as determined by increased litter weight gain, milk in the stomach of pups and a significant increase in the weight of the mammary glands. Since the mammary gland has been shown to produce IGFBPs which may inhibit IGF action we also tested three IGF-I analogues, R3-IGF-I, Long-IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I. R3-IGF-I has a single amino acid substitution (Glu to Arg) at position 3 whereas Long-IGF-I has a 13 amino acid N-terminal extension. These modifications dramatically reduce the ability of these analogues to bind to IGFBPs although they remain active at the IGF-I receptor. Such IGF analogues would therefore be expected to be active irrespective of the production of inhibitory IGFBPs. However, none was effective in reinitiating lactation, even at doses which have been shown to be biologically effective in terms of nitrogen retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7513341

  1. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  2. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevented planted and failed acreage. 718.103 Section... APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.103 Prevented planted and failed acreage. (a) Prevented planting is the inability to plant an eligible crop with proper...

  3. Acute effects of sildenafil and dobutamine in the hypertrophic and failing right heart in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Asger; Nielsen, Jan M; Rasalingam, Sivagowry; Sloth, Erik; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute intravenous administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose improves the in vivo function of the hypertrophic and failing right ventricle (RV). Wistar rats ([Formula: see text]) were subjected to pulmonary trunk banding (PTB) causing RV hypertrophy and failure. Four weeks after surgery, they were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus dose of sildenafil (1 mg/kg; [Formula: see text]), vehicle ([Formula: see text]), or dobutamine (10 μg/kg; [Formula: see text]). Invasive RV pressures were recorded continuously, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 70, and 90 minutes after injecting the bolus. Cardiac function was compared to baseline measurements to evaluate the in vivo effects of each specific treatment. The PTB procedure caused significant hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and reduction in RV function evaluated by echocardiography (TAPSE) and invasive pressure measurements. Sildenafil did not improve the function of the hypertrophic failing right heart in vivo, measured by TAPSE, RV systolic pressure (RVsP), and dp/dtmax. Dobutamine improved RV function 1 minute after injection measured by TAPSE ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] cm; [Formula: see text]), RVsP ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg; [Formula: see text]), and dp/dtmax ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg/s; [Formula: see text]). Acute administration of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose did not modulate the in vivo function of the hypertrophic failing right heart of the rat measured by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. In the same model, dobutamine acutely improved RV function. PMID:24618544

  4. Glutamine alone or combined with short-chain fatty acids fails to enhance gut adaptation after massive enterectomy in rats Glutamina pura ou combinada com ácidos graxos de cadeia curta não melhora a capacidade adaptativa do intestino após enterectomia extensa em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Souza Neves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of oral glutamine alone or combined with short chain fatty acids (SCFA in the intestinal adaptation of rats submitted to an massive enterectomy. METHODS: After receiving 70% small bowel resection, 30 Wistar rats were randomized to received either standard rat chow (control group, n=10 or the same diet supplemented with 3,05% of glutamine alone (glutamine group, n=10 or combined with a solution containing SCFA (glutamine+SCFA group, n=10. Animals were killed on the 14th postoperative day. Mucosal weight, crypt depth, villus height, wall width, and the mucosal content of DNA, were assessed in basal conditions (resected gut specimen and compared to the small bowel specimen collected on the postoperative day 14, at both jejunum and ileum sites. RESULTS: All groups presented similar pattern in weight evolution. In all groups, both the morphological findings and the DNA content were significantly higher at the end of the experiment than in basal conditions, at both the jejunum and ileum. Except for the jejunum wall width that was higher in control group (808±95 µ than in the other two groups (glutamine = 649±88 µ and glutamine+SCFA = 656±92; pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da glutamina oral isolada ou associada a ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (SCFA na adaptação intestinal de ratos submetidos a resseção extensa. MÉTODOS: Após ressecção de 70% do intestino delgado, 30 ratos Wistar foram randomizados para receber uma dieta padrão (grupo controle, n=10 ou a mesma dieta suplementada com 3,05% de glutamina (grupo glutamina, n=10 ou combinada com SCFA (grupo glutamina+SCFA, n=10. Os animais foram sacrificados no 14º dia de PO. Foram estudados: peso da mucosa, profundidade da cripta, altura do vilo, espessura da parede e conteúdo de DNA no jejuno e no íleo, em condição basal e no dia do sacrifício. RESULTADOS: O peso evoluiu da mesma forma nos 3 grupos. No final do experimento todos os parâmetros morfol

  5. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  6. Council tax precept failed to cover cost of NLW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Charging residents extra council tax to help pay for social care is insufficient to cover current funding gaps and has failed to cover the cost of the national living wage (NLW), a report warns. PMID:27573947

  7. Failing The Final Exam In Equal Employment And Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Tower

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anglo-American educational global leaders are failing the final exam for overall transparency of EEO activities with over 90% non-disclosure.  Australian entities should be modeled as important communication exemplars.

  8. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...... perform on each item of the test. Results: Using the contrasting-groups method we found a standard that would fail all novices and pass all consultants. A clear pass related to prior experience of 75 procedures. The consequences of using the extended Angoff method were also acceptable: all trainees who...... had performed less than 50 bronchoscopies failed the test and all consultants passed. A clear pass related to 80 procedures. Conclusions: Our proposed pass/fail scores for these two methods seem appropriate in terms of consequences. Prior experience with the performance of 75 and 80 bronchoscopies...

  9. The ugly twins: failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total cost analysis. Research method: Secondary data analysis. Research findings: 1) Each failed global sourcing project had an “ugly twin”, i.e. the material which was not delivered by the new supplier...

  10. On the Merit of the Legacy of Failed Olympic Bid

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic legacy has become a dominant theme within the Olympic Movement. For decades, legacy concerns were confined to the hosting of the Olympic Games. However, these concerns have been recently extended to the bidding process itself. Cities bidding for the Olympic Games are now required to identify their legacy regardless of the outcome of their bids. This paper explores the merits of extending legacy discourse in case bids failed. It contends that the extension of legacy discourse into fail...

  11. What if the Doha Round Fails? Implications for Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, Michael N.; McCalla, Alex F.; Karl D. Meilke

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators assume that the WTO Doha Round negotiations have already failed and that this failure will not matter for Canadian agriculture. Neither view is correct. Most countries appear willing to make the effort needed to bring the negotiations to a make or break point in early 2008. If the Doha Round does eventually fail, an important opportunity to make the agricultural trading system significantly less distorted, more open and fair will have been lost. For Canadian agriculture, the...

  12. Fabrication of Confinement Facility of Failed Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement facility of failed fuel elements is provide for isolating the elements so that their fission product could not contaminate reactor pool. Since RSG-GAS does not have such facility yet, the fabrication of the confinement is compulsory needed. The fabrication of confinement was initialized by providing technical drawing, materials procurement, fabricating and testing, each confinement capacity is 2 elements. The test result showed that the facility can be used to store the two failed fuel elements safely. (author)

  13. Pictorial essay: Role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    USG has been used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Scarring and incomplete decompression are the main causes for persistence or recurrence of symptoms. We performed a retrospective study to assess the role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression. Of 422 USG studies of the wrist performed at our center over the last 5 years, 14 were for failed carpal tunnel decompression. Scarring was noted in three patients, incomplete decompression in two patients, synovitis in one pa...

  14. The Failed State and the State of Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hitchcock

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available What does Marx have to say about the “failed state”? Less than one might think. Peter Hitchcock seizes on the problem of the organic composition of capital to bring theories of state sovereignty and its dissolution into chiastic relation with Marxist political economy. This flexibly-bound double of Marxism and failed-state theory then offers a new perspective on our current moment and its possible futures.

  15. The Failed State and the State of Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Hitchcock

    2008-01-01

    What does Marx have to say about the “failed state”? Less than one might think. Peter Hitchcock seizes on the problem of the organic composition of capital to bring theories of state sovereignty and its dissolution into chiastic relation with Marxist political economy. This flexibly-bound double of Marxism and failed-state theory then offers a new perspective on our current moment and its possible futures.

  16. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  17. PIE of a failed rod from IFA 597.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rods in IFA 597.2 were refabricated from fuel rod 33-25065 irradiated in Ringhals 1. The irradiation of the father rod in Ringhals was prolonged to 'two lives' to reach high burnup. The objective of the test at Halden was to study the thermal behaviour and the fission gas release of high burnup commercial BWR-LWR fuel. The rods in the test were instrumented with fuel centreline thermocouples and bellows pressure transducers. Fuel rod 5 in IFA 597.2 failed during the test at Halden. The failed rod was transported to Studsvik for post irradiation examination. The main purpose of the examination was a study of the failure. The examination of the failed rod, described in this paper, was financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (author) (ml)

  18. Assessing the potential cost of a failed Doha round

    OpenAIRE

    Bouet, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    This study offers new conclusions on the economic cost of a failed Doha Development Agenda (DDA). We assess potential outcome of the Doha Round as well as four protectionist scenarios using the MIRAGE Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. In a scenario where applied tariffs of World Trade Organization (WTO) economies would go up to currently bound tariff rates, world trade would decrease by 7.7 % and world welfare by US$353 billion. The economic cost of a failed DDA is here evaluated by...

  19. Sipping tests on a failed irradiated MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131I and 133I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137Cs. The nuclear fuels U3O8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137Cs. (authors)

  20. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131I and 133I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137Cs. The nuclear fuels U3O8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137Cs

  1. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria reveals a metabolic switch from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis in the failing heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work characterizes the mitochondrial proteomic profile in the failing heart and elucidates the molecular basis of mitochondria in heart failure. Heart failure was induced in rats by myocardial infarction, and mitochondria were isolated from hearts by differential centrifugation. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, a system biology approach was employed to investigate differences in mitochondrial proteins between normal and failing hearts. Mass spectrometry identified 27 proteins differentially expressed that involved in energy metabolism. Among those, the up-regulated proteins included tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex subunits while the down-regulated proteins were involved in fatty acid oxidation and the OXPHOS complex. These results suggest a substantial metabolic switch from free fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis in heart failure and provide molecular evidence for alterations in the structural and functional parameters of mitochondria that may contribute to cardiac dysfunction during ischemic injury.

  2. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  3. The ugly twins: failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total

  4. 78 FR 54373 - Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... below. \\4\\ 78 FR 4349 (January 22, 2013). II. Explanation of the Final Rule Under the final rule... burden on the public or on the banking industry. The final rule consists of internal guidelines and... coordinate on actions with the appropriate Federal banking agency. Once an insured institution fails,...

  5. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  6. Hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Carmelo; Perugia, Dario; Carcangiu, Alessandro; Monaco, Edoardo; Speranza, Attilio; Ferretti, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture typically leads to profound functional disability and pain. Salvage treatment with hip arthroplasty may be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of hip arthroplasty performed as a salvage procedure after the failed treatment of an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Twenty-one patients were treated in our hospital with hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of intertrochanteric hip fracture. There were sixteen women and five men with a mean age of 75.8 years (range 61-85 years). Fourteen patients had failure of a previous nail fixation procedure, five had failure of a plate fixation, one of hip screws fixation and one of Ender nail fixation. In 19 out of 21 patients we performed a total hip arthroplasty-14 cases used modular implants with long-stems and five cases used a standard straight stem. In 2 of 21 cases we used a bipolar hemiarthroplasty. A statistically significant improvement was found comparing pre and postoperative conditions (p < 0.05). Our experience confirms that total hip arthroplasty is a satisfactory salvage procedure after failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients with few serious orthopaedic complications and acceptable clinical outcomes. PMID:19572131

  7. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... 881, which generally require gross-basis taxation of foreign persons not otherwise subject to U.S. net.... source income of foreign persons that is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or... qualified fails charge is generally determined by reference to the residence of the taxpayer that is...

  8. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken t

  9. Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain…

  10. Why Young People Fail To Get and Hold Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…

  11. Management of adults with prior failed hypospadias surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James R; Wallis, Chad; Brant, William O; Hotaling, James M; Myers, Jeremy B

    2014-06-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most prevalent anomalies of the male genitalia. Contemporary hypospadias repair is very successful, but patients that have the surgery fail often require multiple surgeries throughout their life. Complications from failed hypospadias repairs have a significant impact on patients both psychologically and physically. Failed hypospadias repair encompasses a spectrum of problems that include hypospadias recurrence with an ectopic meatus, urethral fistula, urethral stricture, and ventral penile curvature. Repairs of hypospadias complications can be challenging due to the poor quality of surrounding tissue from disruption of normal vasculature in the re-operative field associated with the underlying disorder. One of the most challenging issues is dealing with urethral strictures. There have been multiple methods described at repairs of these in both a single stage and multiple staged procedures. Particular attention has been directed towards applications of grafts due to worse outcomes with flaps. Buccal mucosa has emerged as the leading graft material in staged repairs. When counseling patients with failed hypospadias it is important to discuss the expected outcome as repairs directed towards a terminally positioned meatus with a straight phallus may require multiple surgeries due to post-operative complications as well as the necessity of proceeding in a staged approach. PMID:26816767

  12. Recovery of failed solid-state anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the performance of three methods for recovering failed solid-state anaerobic digesters. The 9-L digesters, which were fed with corn stover, failed at a feedstock/inoculum (F/I) ratio of 10 with negligible methane yields. To recover the systems, inoculum was added to bring the F/I ratio to 4. Inoculum was either added to the top of a failed digester, injected into it, or well-mixed with the existing feedstock. Digesters using top-addition and injection methods quickly resumed and achieved peak yields in 10days, while digesters using well-mixed method recovered slowly but showed 50% higher peak yields. Overall, these methods recovered 30-40% methane from failed digesters. The well-mixed method showed the highest methane yield, followed by the injection and top-addition methods. Recovered digesters outperformed digesters had a constant F/I ratio of 4. Slow mass transfer and slow growth of microbes were believed to be the major limiting factors for recovery. PMID:27155759

  13. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-3 by levosimendan is sufficient to account for its inotropic effect in failing human heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørstavik, Ø; Ata, S H; Riise, J; Dahl, C P; Andersen, G Ø; Levy, F O; Skomedal, T; Osnes, J-B; Qvigstad, E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Levosimendan is known as a calcium sensitizer, although it is also known to inhibit PDE3. We aimed to isolate each component and estimate their contribution to the increased cardiac contractility induced by levosimendan. Experimental Approach Contractile force was measured in electrically stimulated ventricular strips from explanted failing human hearts and left ventricular strips from normal male Wistar rats. PDE activity was measured in a two-step PDE activity assay on failing human ventricle. Key Results Levosimendan exerted a positive inotropic effect (PIE) reaching maximum at 10−5 M in ventricular strips from failing human hearts. In the presence of the selective PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide, the PIE of levosimendan was abolished. During treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor and a supra-threshold concentration of isoprenaline, levosimendan generated an amplified inotropic response. This effect was reversed by β-adrenoceptor blockade and undetectable in strips pretreated with cilostamide. Levosimendan (10−6 M) increased the potency of β-adrenoceptor agonists by 0.5 log units in failing human myocardium, but not in the presence of cilostamide. Every inotropic response to levosimendan was associated with a lusitropic response. Levosimendan did not affect the concentration–response curve to calcium in rat ventricular strips, in contrast to the effects of a known calcium sensitizer, EMD57033 [5-(1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one]. PDE activity assays confirmed that levosimendan inhibited PDE3 as effectively as cilostamide. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicate that the PDE3-inhibitory property of levosimendan was enough to account for its inotropic effect, leaving a minor, if any, effect to a calcium-sensitizing component. PMID:24547784

  14. The Case for Khadr: Why Failed Repatriation Means Failed Leadership for Stephen Harper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Hamilton

    2011-10-01

    conclude that Harper has failed to demonstrate responsible leadership or to promote stewardship in the case of Omar Khadr.

  15. A New Animal Model for Investigation of Mechanical Unloading in Hypertrophic and Failing Hearts: Combination of Transverse Aortic Constriction and Heterotopic Heart Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaefer

    Full Text Available Previous small animal models for simulation of mechanical unloading are solely performed in healthy or infarcted hearts, not representing the pathophysiology of hypertrophic and dilated hearts emerging in heart failure patients. In this article, we present a new and economic small animal model to investigate mechanical unloading in hypertrophic and failing hearts: the combination of transverse aortic constriction (TAC and heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTx in rats.To induce cardiac hypertrophy and failure in rat hearts, three-week old rats underwent TAC procedure. Three and six weeks after TAC, hHTx with hypertrophic and failing hearts in Lewis rats was performed to induce mechanical unloading. After 14 days of mechanical unloading animals were euthanatized and grafts were explanted for further investigations.50 TAC procedures were performed with a survival of 92% (46/50. When compared to healthy rats left ventricular surface decreased to 5.8±1.0 mm² (vs. 9.6± 2.4 mm² (p = 0.001 after three weeks with a fractional shortening (FS of 23.7± 4.3% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.01. Six weeks later, systolic function decreased to 17.1± 3.2% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.0001 and left ventricular inner surface increased to 19.9±1.1 mm² (p = 0.0001. Intraoperative graft survival during hHTx was 80% with 46 performed procedures (37/46. All transplanted organs survived two weeks of mechanical unloading.Combination of TAC and hHTx in rats offers an economic and reproducible small animal model enabling serial examination of mechanical unloading in a truly hypertrophic and failing heart, representing the typical pressure overloaded and dilated LV, occurring in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

  16. Did clinical trials in which erythropoietin failed to reduce acute myocardial infarct size miss a narrow therapeutic window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I Talan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To test a hypothesis that in negative clinical trials of erythropoietin in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI the erythropoietin (rhEPO could be administered outside narrow therapeutic window. Despite overwhelming evidence of cardioprotective properties of rhEPO in animal studies, the outcomes of recently concluded phase II clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of rhEPO in patients with acute MI. However, the time between symptoms onset and rhEPO administration in negative clinical trials was much longer that in successful animal experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MI was induced in rats either by a permanent ligation of a descending coronary artery or by a 2-hr occlusion followed by a reperfusion. rhEPO, 3000 IU/kg, was administered intraperitoneally at the time of reperfusion, 4 hrs after beginning of reperfusion, or 6 hrs after permanent occlusion. MI size was measured histologically 24 hrs after coronary occlusion. The area of myocardium at risk was similar among groups. The MI size in untreated rats averaged ~42% of area at risk, or ~24% of left ventricle, and was reduced by more than 50% (p<0.001 in rats treated with rhEPO at the time of reperfusion. The MI size was not affected by treatment administered 4 hrs after reperfusion or 6 hrs after permanent coronary occlusion. Therefore, our study in a rat experimental model of MI demonstrates that rhEPO administered within 2 hrs of a coronary occlusion effectively reduces MI size, but when rhEPO was administered following a delay similar to that encountered in clinical trials, it had no effect on MI size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The clinical trials that failed to demonstrate rhEPO efficacy in patients with MI may have missed a narrow therapeutic window defined in animal experiments.

  17. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations to...... identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient, the...... tooth, the restorative materials, and the techniques. Two-hundred and sixty questionnaires were collected from 171 practitioners over a 3-year period. Functioning time until failure varied between 3 months and 38 years. Mean survival time until failure was 11 years. Of the failed restorations, 61% had...

  18. Assessment and accountability: part 2 - managing failing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-06-01

    Assessment in clinical practice is a complex role undertaken by mentors and practice teachers. This article is the second of three articles about assessment in practice. Part one examined the importance of assessment and identified various assessment methods used in clinical practice. This article considers two main themes in the assessment of practice. First, it outlines the importance of providing feedback, and explores preparation for regular feedback and the documentation used to help mentors and practice teachers undertake this activity. Second, it discusses management of failing students, and reviews the literature relating to the 'failure to fail' phenomenon. This article relates to the third domain and outcomes of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on assessment and accountability. PMID:27286625

  19. Neuromodulation for Refractory Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Morozov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the capabilities of spinal cord stimulation, and compare it with conventional nonsurgical treatment in failed back syndrome. Materials and Methods. The study involved the patients with at least one anatomically successful lumber disc hernia excision, post-traumatic spinal deformity in their past history, the patients keeping suffering from neuropathic pain. Group 1 patients (n=45 in addition to traditional therapy underwent spinal cord stimulation. Group 2 control patients (n=35 were given medicines, therapeutic blocks, physiotherapy, and psychotherapy. Results. Epidural spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain syndrome treatment enables to improve significantly the patients' condition: it lowers pain level, increases the functionality and improves the quality of life. Conclusion. Being minimally invasive and highly safe, neuromodulation enables to achieve good treatment results in failed back syndrome.

  20. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis. The...... male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis....

  1. Performance of refurbished failed fuel detection systems in Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirus, a 40 MW(th) research reactor fuelled by natural Uranium and cooled by de-mineralized water, has been in operation since 1960. During refurbishing of Cirus reactor, Gaseous Fission Product based Failed Fuel Detection and Location system was replaced by a gamma based system and scintillator based triplicated bulk coolant gamma monitoring system was converted to an ion chamber based system. The simplicity and ruggedness in the design of these systems has resulted in prompt detection and location of the failed fuel and its subsequent removal from core. Performance of the new systems, along with data and trends during normal operation as well as during fuel clad failure and their agreement with radiation fields measured at suitable locations are discussed in this paper. The engineering solutions provided to improve the overall detection capability of the systems are also covered. (author)

  2. Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae I. Explosion Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Plewa, T

    2006-01-01

    We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions which are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msun of silicon group elements, 0.9-1.2 Msun of ...

  3. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baljit Nagra; Ito Peng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they a...

  4. Turkey's Kurdish Opening: Long Awaited Achievements and Failed Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pusane, Özlem Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Turkish state actors have used mainly military means to first suppress the Kurdish rebellions and then to end the PKK violence from 1984 onwards. However, after the AKP came to office in 2002, the government challenged the hardline state policy and initiated a Kurdish opening. This policy has the ultimate goal of disarming the PKK and resolving the Kurdish question. However, the Kurdish opening so far has failed to bring about the desired policy outcomes because the parties to the Kurdish que...

  5. Why the Balanced Scorecard Fails in SMEs: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nopadol Rompho

    2011-01-01

    Though studies abound for large organizations where use of the Balance Scorecard is quite common, literature focusedon the uses and limitations of the Balanced Scorecard in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is difficult to find. To help fill the gap, this study was conducted using one SME that failed in its attempt to implement the Balanced Scorecard with the goal of ascertaining the cause of the failure of the Balanced Scorecard. Data was collected for this study via interviews and r...

  6. Fail Operational Controls for an Independent Metering Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Rannow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As intelligent hydraulic systems with embedded sensors become more ubiquitous, the real or perceived reliability challenge associated with sensors must be addressed to encourage their adoption. In this paper, a fault-tolerant control strategy for an intelligent independent metering valve that allows continued operation if a sensor fails is described. The twin-spool valve example utilizes position sensors to stabilize the spool positions and eliminate hysteresis, and pressure sensors to provid...

  7. Old Sins Cast Long Shadows : Failed democratisation in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, Eritrea achieved de jure independence and was perceived by the international community and the Eritrean population as Africa’s new hope as the leadership projected a rhetoric of multi-party elections, socio-economic development and human rights. Today, the country is one of the worst human rights violators, there is only one party allowed, and dissenters are thrown into prison and tortured without due process. The thesis attempts to answer the research question: why has Eritrea faile...

  8. The process of failing occupational therapy students: a staff perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ilott, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Assigning a fail grade, particularly when it results in the termination of a career goal, is a taboo and taken-for-granted aspect of an assessor's role. Hermeneutics provided the main framework for interpreting the subjective and objective experiences of both academic and fieldwork supervisors during this process. An incremental research design, using a principal and two supplementary methods was used to investigate the minutiae of assessing whether a student has achieved the required st...

  9. Modeling Crystallization Dynamics when the Avrami Model Fails

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Gough; Reinhard Illner

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments on the formation of crystalline CO2 from a newly discovered binary phase consisting of CO2 and C2H2 at 90° K fail to be adequately simulated by Avrami equations. The purpose of this note is to develop an alternative to the Avrami model which can make accurate predictions for these experiments. The new model uses empirical approximations to the distribution densities of the volumes of three-dimensional Voronoi cells defined by Poisson-generated crystallization...

  10. Neuromodulation for Refractory Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients

    OpenAIRE

    I.N. Morozov; А.I. Ushakov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the capabilities of spinal cord stimulation, and compare it with conventional nonsurgical treatment in failed back syndrome. Materials and Methods. The study involved the patients with at least one anatomically successful lumber disc hernia excision, post-traumatic spinal deformity in their past history, the patients keeping suffering from neuropathic pain. Group 1 patients (n=45) in addition to traditional therapy underwent spinal cord stimu...

  11. Circuit resistance modeling in failing heart rotary pump support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Jan; Pražák, Josef; Leitermann, D.

    Vol. 1. Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2001 - (Poživilová, A.; Masák, J.), s. 150 KB ISBN 80-85918-64-1. [National Conference with International Participation Engineering Mechanics 2001. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2001-17.05.2001] Grant ostatní: ÚT AV ČR(XC) PP50258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : failing heart * mechanical support * resistance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. The potential cost of a Failed Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Bouet, Antoine; Laborde, David

    2009-01-01

    "In times of economic turmoil, countries might decide to increase current tariff rates to protect domestic industries or raise revenues in order to finance domestic programs. Using the highest applied or bound rate imposed by countries from 1995 to 2008 as an indicator, this study presents several scenarios regarding the economic costs of a failed Doha Round and a subsequent rush into protectionism. For example, in a scenario where the applied tariffs of major economies would go all the way u...

  13. Piracy in Somalia as consequence of failed state

    OpenAIRE

    Mikýsek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the influence of state failure on the genesis of piracy in Somalia. This bachelor thesis is focused on description of situation in the failed state of Somalia and connecting this situation with rise of piracy in the region. Task is to show the connection between piracy and harsh economic conditions, ineffective and corrupted government institutions and humanitarian crisis, caused by natural disasters and long-lasting civil war. Results obtained from analysi...

  14. Organization Theory: Bright Prospects for a Permanently Failing Field

    OpenAIRE

    Heugens, Pursey

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOrganization theory is a paradoxical field of scientific inquiry. It has struggled for more than fifty years to develop a unified theory of organizational effectiveness under girded by a coherent set of assumptions, and it has thus far failed to produce one. Yet, by other standards it is simultaneously a tremendously successful field. It has great intellectual mobilizing powers and its publications - journals as well as books - are highly esteemed. In this address I attempt to unr...

  15. Failed migrants in Bamako: The mental pressure of return

    OpenAIRE

    Dünnwald, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Migration from sub-Saharan Africa to European shores became increasingly difficult and dangerous. Maghreb transit countries return migrants to their southern borders, and member states of the Europe enforced its expulsion policy. In Mali this leads to the frequent arrival of failed migrants, too ashamed to return to their families. Often, these returnees are in need of medical care. Cut off from traditional social networks, they gather in the city. Since 2005, returnees increasingly engage...

  16. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FAILED ENDONASAL DCR OPERATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naveed; Muneeruddin Ahmed; Mahendra Kumar; Ramakrishna; Siva Prasad; Boddikuri

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic Intra nasal approach to by-pass the obstruction of lacrimal apparatus is a simple and commonly practiced surgery among the ENT Surgeons. Various modifications in the form of usage of micro drill, application of Mitomycin C and preserving the nasal flap to line the opening in the sac to name a few are being used. Recurrence of epiphora and closure of the neo opening is described and observed are labeled as failed endonasal DCR. This study makes an a...

  17. Failed back surgery syndrome – definition, epidemiology and demographics

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome is an unhelpful term that hides the true issues concerning the mechanism of pain and subsequent therapies that patients with chronic radicular neuropathic pain are exposed to. Patients with chronic radicular neuropathic pain who have had previous spinal surgery are numerous and comparable in prevalence and incidence to other pain associated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis but with higher annual costs. Better recognition of this patient group with the effecti...

  18. WHY DO INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES FAIL? A STRATEGIC MISMATCH EXPLANATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Bo B.

    2002-01-01

    Why do so many international joint ventures fail? This paper aims at answering this question and contribute to the research concerning alliance dynamics by combining ele-ments from research considering alliance formation and alliance outcomes. This paper draws on the widely accepted exploitation/exploration dichotomy, suggesting the exis-tence of a continuum of choices related to strategic motivation for alliance formation. However, by integrating the exploitation/exploration arguments into a...

  19. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  20. Organizational crisis management - crisis communication when IT fails

    OpenAIRE

    Glad, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ABSTRACT International Business, Master’s Thesis Jutta Glad 08.05.2009 ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT – CRISIS COMMUNICATION WHEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FAILS Objectives of the thesis The objective of this study is to find out what different factors an organization should consider when responding to an organizational crisis that has been caused by an information technology failure. The study also tries to find out whether crisis communicat...

  1. Management of failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Justin W.; D’Apuzzo, Michele; Browne, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical advantages of metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been recently balanced by concerns regarding adverse local and systemic effects. Higher than anticipated early revision rates have been reported by several joint registries. Failed MOM hips present with a spectrum of symptoms and findings and traditional methods of failure must be considered in addition to the failure modes that appear to be unique to the MOM bearing couple. Metal hypersens...

  2. Assessing professional behaviour: Overcoming teachers’ reluctance to fail students

    OpenAIRE

    Mak–van der Vossen, Marianne; Peerdeman, Saskia; van Mook, Walther; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing professional behaviour is an important goal of medical education in which teachers play a significant part. Many teachers can be reluctant to fail students demonstrating unprofessional behaviour. We hypothesize that supporting teachers in teaching and assessing professional behaviour and involving them in remediation will reduce this reluctance. Findings In 2010, VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam introduced an educational theme on professional behaviour for the b...

  3. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  4. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient's sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients' sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients' education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. [Full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, J; Hulkko, S

    1986-01-01

    This study introduces a case of an 18 year old student who developed a full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion. The abortion was performed during the 7th week of pregnancy by dilating the cervix and suctioning with the tip of a number 8 aspirator. A regular amount of pregnancy material was obtained, and the uterus was checked with a normal curette. After 3 months, when the patient's period did not recommence, a diagnosis of normal pregnancy was made. Delivery was performed by section after 2 inductions because of weak contractions, maternal exhaustion and threatening fetal asphyxia. The baby was normal and satisfactorily developed on follow-up. In conclusion, it is rare for pregnancy to continue after an abortion by aspiration. In a previous study by Fielding (1978), only 3 cases similar to this were followed. 2 of them miscarried and 1 delivered a defective baby. Among the causes of failed abortion are severely retrograded uterus, growth and developmental problems of the uterus and defective cervix. The risks are greater in the earlier weeks of pregnancy. Inexperience and technical difficulties are also reported as factors in failed abortion, as well as aspiration on only 1 fetus in cases of twin pregnancy. The authors recommend consideration of the mentioned risk factors, using sonography in suspicious cases, examining the amount of pregnancy material an always performing a follow-up examination. PMID:3757838

  6. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure.Methods: A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.Results: There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001. The overall success rate was 92%.Conclusion: Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery.Keywords: bleb, failure, 5-FU, needling, gonioscopy

  7. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  8. Native magnetic resonance imaging of morris hepatoma in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of the study presented was to establish an oncological animal model for implantable and differentiated hepatoma in the rat and to evaluate imaging of the tumor induced using MRI. Material and Methods: 20 male buffalo rats under-went tumor cell implantation of 150 000 MH7777-A cells via laparotomy. After 12 days MRI was performed T1w SE, T2w TSE fs, TIRM for tumor detection and measurement of size. Immediately there after all rats were killed and macroscopic and histological examination performed. Pathological findings were correlated with MRI. Results: In 5 out of 20 animals no tumor was found. Mean size of the hepatomas in 15 animals was 3.1 mm (± 1.7 mm; 1 - 7 mm). On MRI 14 out of 15 tumors were detectable. Mean diameter in MRI was 2.7 mm (± 1.5 mm; 1 - 5 mm). T2w TSE was superior for tumor detection compared with the TIRM, while the best anatomic depiction was offered by T1w SE. Conclusions: The MH7777-A tumor model presents with a rate of 75% even with the small tumor cell amount of 150 000 cells. With MRI using T2 weighted sequences with fat saturation a detection of tumors with diameters of 1 mm is reliably possible in 93% of the cases. (orig.)

  9. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  10. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  11. A Perplexed Economist Confronts 'too Big to Fail'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines premises and data underlying the assertion that some financial institutions in the U.S. economy were "too big to fail" and hence warranted government bailout. It traces the merger histories enhancing the dominance of six leading firms in the U. S. banking industry and he sharp increases in the concentration of financial institution assets accompanying that merger wave. Financial institution profits are found to have soared in tandem with rising concentration. The paper advances hypotheses why these phenomena might be related and surveys relevant empirical literature on the relationships between market concentration, interest rates received and charged by banks, and economies of scale in banking.

  12. Fracture Surface Analysis of Clinically Failed Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Taskonak, B.; Mecholsky, J.J.; Anusavice, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Ceramic systems have limited long-term fracture resistance, especially when they are used in posterior areas or for fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study was to determine the site of crack initiation and the causes of fracture of clinically failed ceramic fixed partial dentures. Six Empress 2® lithia-disilicate (Li2O·2SiO2)-based veneered bridges and 7 experimental lithia-disilicate-based non-veneered ceramic bridges were retrieved and analyzed. Fractography and fracture mechani...

  13. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  14. Surgical management of vestibular schwannomas after failed radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Watanabe, Kentaro; Friedman, Allan H; Cunningham, Calhoun D; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2016-04-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) have been treated with focused-beam stereotactic radiation treatment (SRT) including Gamma knife, CyberKnife, X-knife, Novalis, or proton beam therapy. The purpose of this study was to document the incidence of tumor regrowth or symptoms that worsened or first developed following SRT and to discuss surgical strategies for patients who have failed SRT for VS. A consecutive series of 39 patients with SRT failed VS were surgically treated. Clinical symptoms, tumor regrowth at follow-up, intraoperative findings, and surgical outcome were evaluated. There were 15 males and 24 females with a mean age of 51.8 years. Thirty-six patients (92.3 %) demonstrated steady tumor growth after SRT. Two (5.1 %) patients with slight increase of the mass underwent surgical resection because of development of unbearable facial pain. Symptoms that worsened or newly developed following SRT in this series were deafness (41 %), dizziness (35.9 %), facial numbness (25.6 %), tinnitus (20.5 %), facial nerve palsy (7.7 %), and facial pain (7.7 %). Intraoperative findings demonstrated fibrous changes of the tumor mass, cyst formation, and brownish-yellow or purple discoloration of the tumor capsule. Severe adhesions between the tumor capsule and cranial nerves, vessels, and the brainstem were observed in 69.2 %. Additionally, the facial nerve was more fragile and irritable in all cases. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 33.3 % of patients, near-total resection (NTR) in 35.9 %, and subtotal resection (STR) in 30.8 % of patients. New facial nerve palsy was seen in seven patients (19.4 %) postoperatively. Our findings suggest that patients with VS who fail SRT with either tumor progression or worsening of clinical symptoms will have an increased rate of adhesions to the neurovascular structures and may have radiation-influenced neuromalacia. Salvage surgery of radiation-failed tumors is more difficult and will

  15. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U3 O8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (author)

  16. Progress with failed fuel monitoring on the CAGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various monitoring techniques are available to provide information on the presence of fuel failures in CAGRs and to assess their radiological significance. As well as the burst can detection system, measurements are made of the caesium release from each fuel stringer and of the daily iodine level in the coolant. On-line γ-spectrometry of the coolant has been developed and is used to estimate the available iodine contained within failed fuel. Results from all these methods demonstrate the good radiological performance of the initial fuel charge in the Hinkely Point B AGRs. (author)

  17. Google+ is Google's Facebook killer doomed to fail?

    CERN Document Server

    Dino, G

    2012-01-01

    Do you have a Facebook profile? How about a Google+ page? Which do you prefer: Facebook or Google+? You may have both, but not use one as often as the other. You may have just one while waiting for the right time to join the other. The question is: When is the right time? Are you waiting to see which one is the better product? This issue has been the talk of the cybersphere since Google+ was released - will it be the Facebook killer that a number of other social media sites in the past have failed to become?

  18. Fail-safe sensor for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Annelene F.; Li, Henry C. H.; Davis, Claire E.; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2008-04-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a fail-safe sensor to monitor the structural health of a composite repair. The low-cost fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system consists of a light source, two specially designed fiber Bragg gratings and a photodiode detector. This system is applied to a typical bonded composite scarf joint often employed in aerospace structures. A finite element model is developed to assess the change in strain distribution as the result of a structural debond. The proposed monitoring system will be validated through an experimental investigation.

  19. Fired worker fails to meet ADA's 'regarded as' test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    [Name removed], a waiter at a Long Island [name removed], claimed that he was fired based on the misconception that because he was gay, he was HIV-positive. [Name removed] sued under the Federal Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, because there is not a law in NY that protects people from discrimination based on sexual orientation. The court rejected his claim by saying that he failed to provide a factual basis for his allegations. The employers stated that they fired [name removed] for using profanity toward a coworker, while on the job. PMID:11365669

  20. Re-enactment of power economy legislation failed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comment on the failed vote in the German Federal Parliament about the re-enactment of power economy legislation. The amendments were mainly intended to translate into national law the EU Single Market Directive of June 22, 1998 about common regulations of the gas market. The legislative process had included a mediation procedure between the two chambers of parliament, i.e. the Bundestag and the Bundesrat, had been rejected once more by the Bundesrat, and was to have been adopted by an absolute majority vote of the Bundestag, the so-called Chancellor's majority, still in this parliamentary term. (orig.)

  1. Untrained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii fail to imitate novel actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning. METHODS: Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context has been conducted--with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study. Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy--and he did so across several contexts. CONCLUSION: Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.

  2. The cost of operating with failed fuel at Virginia power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virginia Power has completed a study of the costs incurred due to fuel failures in its pressurized water reactors. This study was prompted by histories of high primary coolant activity and subsequent fuel inspections at the North Anna and Surry power stations. The study included an evaluation of the total costs of fuel failures as well as an evaluation of the economics of postirradiation fuel inspections. The major costs of fuel failures included personnel radiation exposure, permanently discharged failed fuel, radwaste generation, increased labor requirements, containment entry delays due to airborne radioactivity, and ramp rate restrictions. Although fuel failures affect a utility in several other areas, the items evaluated in the study were thought to be the most significant of the costs. The study indicated that performing a postirradiation failed fuel examination can be economically justified at tramp-corrected 131I levels of > 0.015 μCi/g. The savings to the utility can be on the order of several million dollars. Additionally, the cost penalty of performing a fuel inspection at lower iodine levels is generally in the range of $200,000. This economic penalty is expected to be outweighed by the intangible benefits of operating with a defect-free core

  3. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  4. HYPERON MATTER AND BLACK HOLE FORMATION IN FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the emergence of hyperons in black-hole-forming failed supernovae, which are caused by the dynamical collapse of nonrotating massive stars. We perform neutrino-radiation hydrodynamical simulations in general relativity, adopting realistic hyperonic equation of state. Attractive and repulsive cases are examined for the potential of Σ hyperons. Since hyperons soften the EOS, they shorten the time interval from bounce to black hole formation, which corresponds to the duration of neutrino emission. This effect is more pronounced in the attractive case than in the repulsive case because Σ hyperons appear more easily. In addition, we investigate the impacts of pions to find that they also promote recollapse toward black hole formation.

  5. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?' PMID:24620489

  6. Detecting, locating and identifying failed fuel in Canadian power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes how defected fuel elements are detected, located and identified in Canadian CANDU power reactors. Fuel defects are detected by monitoring the primary coolant for gaseous fission products and radioiodines, while location in core is usually performed on-power by delayed neutron monitoring of coolant samples from individual fuel channels or off-power by gamma-ray monitoring of the channel feeder pipes. The systems and techniques used to detect and locate defected fuel in both Ontario Hydro and CANDU 6 power stations are described, along with examples provided by station experience. The ability to detect and locate defected fuel in power stations was greatly enhanced by a fundamental R and D program, which provided an understanding and models of fission-product release and transport, and the post-defect deterioration of failed fuel. Techniques and equipment used to identify and store defected fuel after it has been discharged from the reactor are briefly reviewed

  7. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    CERN Document Server

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  8. Why the Balanced Scorecard Fails in SMEs: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopadol Rompho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Though studies abound for large organizations where use of the Balance Scorecard is quite common, literature focusedon the uses and limitations of the Balanced Scorecard in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs is difficult to find. To help fill the gap, this study was conducted using one SME that failed in its attempt to implement the Balanced Scorecard with the goal of ascertaining the cause of the failure of the Balanced Scorecard. Data was collected for this study via interviews and researcher observations. Two in-depth interviews were conducted, one with the manager-owner and one with the employee who is directly responsible for the design and implementation of the Balanced Scorecard. The researcher also observed and facilitated the design and implementation of the Balanced Scorecard in the company over the same period. The results reveal that frequent change in strategy was a major factor leading to the failure of the Balanced Scorecard in SMEs.

  9. Surgical treatment after a failed trapeziectomy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorens, C K; Van Schaik, D E C; Goubau, J F

    2015-09-01

    Several treatment options exist to surgically treat end-stage trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. Trapeziectomy is recognized as leading to a mostly acceptable functional outcome. Although rarely encountered, persisting failure of the trapeziectomy is difficult to address. We present a case where several procedures were subsequently performed to treat a failed trapeziectomy condition. First, a trapeziometacarpal prosthesis (Arpe(®), Biomet(®)) was inserted with the two components reversed: the cup in the first metacarpal and the stem in the scaphoid. This prevented normal mobility and resulted in a non-functional, chronically painful joint. Revision arthroplasty was performed with a dual-mobility component (Ebony(®), Stryker(®)), replacing the trapezium to articulate with the first metacarpal and the scaphoid. This restored the first column's length but led to prosthesis instability only 4 months after implantation. Finally, first column arthrodesis with iliac bone graft interposed between the first metacarpal and scaphoid achieved an acceptable outcome. PMID:26204826

  10. Where will Einstein fail? Lessons for gravity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Afshordi, Niayesh

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's theory of General Relativity is the benchmark example for empirical success and mathematical elegance in theoretical physics. However, in spite of being the most successfully tested theory in physics, there are strong theoretical and observational arguments for why General Relativity should fail. It is not a question of if, but rather a question of where and when! I start by recounting the tremendous success in observational cosmology over the past three decades, that has led to the era of precision cosmology. I will then summarize the pathologies in Einstein's theory of gravity, as the cornerstone of standard cosmological model. Attempts to address these pathologies are either inspired by mathematical elegance, or empirical falsifiability. Here, I provide different arguments for why a falsifiable solution should violate Lorentz symmetry, or revive "gravitational aether". Deviations from Einstein's gravity are then expected in: 1) cosmological matter-radiation transition, 2) neutron stars, 3) gravi...

  11. Outcomes of Open Subacromial Decompression after Failed Arthroscopic Acromioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anand; Eranki, Vivek; Malal, Joby; Nimon, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To prospectively assess the effectiveness of revision with open subacromial decompression in patients who had a previous unsatisfactory outcome with the arthroscopic procedure. Methods. 11 patients were identified for the study, who did not demonstrate expected improvement in symptoms after arthroscopic acromioplasty. All patients underwent structured rehabilitation. Functional evaluation was conducted using the Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, shoulder rating questionnaire. Results. M : F was 7 : 4. The mean age was 57 years. The average shoulder score improved from 49.6 preoperatively to 56 postoperatively at an average followup of 16 months. Two patients showed deterioration in their shoulder scores after revision while the rest showed only marginal improvement. All except one patient stated that they would opt for surgery again if given a second chance. Conclusion. In the group of patients that fail to benefit from the arthroscopic decompression, only a marginal improvement was noted after revision with open decompression. PMID:22649740

  12. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  13. Has interregionalism failed? The EU-ASEAN negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Meissner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses why the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN began negotiations on free interregional trade in 2007 and why, and to what extent, they had failed just two years later. The author’s study is based on document analysis and semi-structured interviews with senior officials in the EU and the ASEAN member states and takes a classical realist approach which maintains that the EU was attempting to ensure its economic and regulatory power in the region. Interregionalism seemed, initially, to be the most logical path, with the EU seeing ASEAN as a cohesive bloc. Nevertheless, the EU came up against the manifest heterogeneity of the ASEAN states. The failure of the interregional strategy is the result of a delicate balance in the EU between political and economic interests in Southeast Asia, a balance that it pursues through specific commercial activities.

  14. 'Fail-to-safety' methane drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Queensland-based Capricorn Coal Management and SMC Pneumatics (Australia) have developed a new methane drainage system incorporating a pneumatically controlled 'automatic shut down system' (ASDS) that, in an emergency situation, automatically terminates the flow of gas at the source with automatic shut-off valves. The air supply unit incorporates two air compressors operating in a rotating cycle to ensure continuous supply with pressure and flow measurement sensors and solenoid valves configured to 'fail-to-safety' in the event of power failure. The SMC-Capcoal system has been operating successfully for two years at Capcoal's Central colliery, Queensland's first longwall mine. It can shut off methane flows within 90 seconds. 3 photos.

  15. Failed rapid sequence induction in an achondroplastic dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia, a common cause of short limbed type of dwarfism is due to quantitative decrease in rate of endochondral ossification. This abnormal bone growth leads to disproportionate body and head structure, thus placing them under high risk for anaesthetic management. There is paucity in literatures, regarding appropriate drug dosage selection in these patients. Use of drugs as per standard dosage recommendations based on body weight or body surface area, may not be adequate in these patients owing to discrepancies in overall body weight and lean body weight, especially during rapid sequence induction. Here, we report a case of failed rapid sequence induction due to abnormal response to administered drugs in an adult achondroplastic dwarf. Standard doses of thiopentone and rocuronium had to be repeated thrice to achieve adequate conditions for intubation.

  16. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  17. A fail-safe computer-based reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to bestow fail-safe properties upon any data handling system by specifying that the output shall be dynamic (i.e. shall cyclically alternate between two or more static states) and that all internal states shall also be dynamic. The choice of cyclic sequence of static states must ensure that every part of the system (each bit) is regularly exercised at a rate determined by the maximum MTTR (mean time to repair) of the system which in turn must be short compared with the MTBF (mean time between failures). Although the examples given are of very simple computer tasks which basically replace conventional trip unit and safety circuit logic hardware, the principles could be extrapolated to more complex data processing tasks. (orig.)

  18. Reified unit resolution and the failed literal rule

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleux, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Unit resolution can simplify a CNF formula or detect an inconsistency by repeatedly assign the variables occurring in unit clauses. Given any CNF formula sigma, we show that there exists a satisfiable CNF formula psi with size polynomially related to the size of sigma such that applying unit resolution to psi simulates all the effects of applying it to sigma. The formula psi is said to be the reified counterpart of sigma. This approach can be used to prove that the failed literal rule, which is an inference rule used by some SAT solvers, can be entirely simulated by unit resolution. More generally, it sheds new light on the expressive power of unit resolution.

  19. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  20. Alone in the Crowd: I Failed the ABGC Certification Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certification examination (often referred to as "the board exam") has become a milestone within the field of genetic counseling. For many, it is the final standardized test taken and indicates the examinee has met "the standards of minimal competence to practice as a genetic counselor" (Bulletin 2015). Although voluntary, certification is strongly encouraged, and in some employment situations, required. Although recent statistics indicate the majority of those who take the test pass, each year there are those who sit for the test unsuccessfully. Despite this fact, exam failure and tools for dealing with this experience are not often broached in the literature. This essay recalls my experiences with a failed exam attempt and the subsequent emotional turmoil. It also aims to start the conversation regarding the difficulty of coping with the "secret" shame of public, professional failure, and suggests there is room for further discussion and resource development in this area. PMID:26687134

  1. Microbial diversity in failed endodontic root-filled teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen; HOU Ben-xiang; ZHAO Huan-ying; SUN Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent/secondary infections of human root canals play an important role in the failure of endodontic treatment.This study used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess microbial diversity in root-filled teeth associated with failed endodontic treatment.Methods DNA was extracted from 15 teeth with persistent intraradicular infections,and the 16S rRNA of all present bacteria were amplified by PCR,followed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA amplicons.Results All sample extracts were positive for PCR amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers.Negative control reactions yielded no amplicons.Sixty-five phylotypes belonging to seven phyla were identified from 760 clones; a mean of 9.4 phylotypes were detected in each sample (range 3-15).Twenty-eight phylotypes were detected in more than one sample,revealing a high inter-sample variability.Parvimonas micra (60%,9/15),Solobacterium moore (47%,7/15),Dialister invisus (33%,5/15),Enterococcus faecalis (33%,5/15),Filifactor alocis (27%,4/15),and Fusobacterium nucleatum (27%,4/15) were the prevalent species.Nineteen as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes were identified,comprising a substantial proportion of the bacteria in many cases.Conclusions Persistent intraradicular infections were present in all root-filled teeth associated with failed endodontic treatment.The current observations reveal new candidate endodontic pathogens,including as-yet-uncultivated bacteria and phylotypes that may participate in the mixed infections associated with post-treatment apical periodontitis.

  2. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  3. Functional overload attenuates plantaris atrophy in tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late stage cancer malignancies may result in severe skeletal muscle wasting, fatigue and reduced quality of life. Resistance training may attenuate these derangements in cancer patients, but how this hypertrophic response relates to normal muscle adaptations in healthy subjects is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance training on muscle mass and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition in plantaris muscles from tumor-bearing (TB) rats. Age- and gender-matched Buffalo rats were used for all studies (n = 6/group). Suspensions of Morris Hepatoma MH7777 cells or normal saline were injected subcutaneously into the dorsum. Six weeks after cell implantation, muscles from TB rats were harvested, weighed and processed for ATP-independent proteasome activity assays. Once tumor-induced atrophy had been established, subgroups of TB rats underwent unilateral, functional overload (FO). Healthy, sham-operated rats served as controls. After six weeks, the extent of plantaris hypertrophy was calculated and MHC isoform compositions were determined by gel electrophoresis. Six weeks of tumor growth reduced body mass and the relative masses of gastrocnemius, plantaris, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscles (p ≤ 0.05). Percent reductions in body mass had a strong, negative correlation to final tumor size (r = -0.78). ATP-independent proteasome activity was increased in plantaris muscles from TB rats (p ≤ 0.05). In healthy rats, functional overload (FO) increased plantaris mass ~44% compared to the contralateral control muscle, and increased the relative percentage of MHC type I and decreased the relative percentage of MHC type IIb compared to the sham-operated controls (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, plantaris mass was increased ~24% in TB-FO rats and adaptations to MHC isoform composition were consistent with normal, resistance-trained muscles. Despite significant skeletal muscle derangements due to cancer, muscle retains the capacity to

  4. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing or failing under SEA. 205.171... Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle... equal to the number in Column A, the sample passes. (c) Pass or failure of a SEA takes place when...

  5. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing or failing under SEA. 205.160... failing under SEA. (a) A failing vehicle is one whose measured noise level is in excess of the applicable... vehicles is less than or equal to the number in Column A, the sample passes. (c) Pass or failure of an...

  6. 40 CFR 1068.430 - What happens if a family fails an SEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a family fails an SEA....430 What happens if a family fails an SEA? (a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for a family if it fails the SEA under § 1068.420. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing...

  7. 40 CFR 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA? 1068.420 Section 1068.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Auditing § 1068.420 How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA? (a) A failed engine or piece...

  8. BLACK HOLE FORMATION IN FAILING CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of a systematic study of failing core-collapse supernovae and the formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). Using our open-source general-relativistic 1.5D code GR1D equipped with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and over 100 presupernova models, we study the effects of the choice of nuclear equation of state (EOS), zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, rotation, and mass-loss prescription on BH formation. We find that the outcome, for a given EOS, can be estimated, to first order, by a single parameter, the compactness of the stellar core at bounce. By comparing protoneutron star (PNS) structure at the onset of gravitational instability with solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof equations, we find that thermal pressure support in the outer PNS core is responsible for raising the maximum PNS mass by up to 25% above the cold NS value. By artificially increasing neutrino heating, we find the critical neutrino heating efficiency required for exploding a given progenitor structure and connect these findings with ZAMS conditions, establishing, albeit approximately, for the first time based on actual collapse simulations, the mapping between ZAMS parameters and the outcome of core collapse. We also study the effect of progenitor rotation and find that the dimensionless spin of nascent BHs may be robustly limited below a* = Jc/GM2 = 1 by the appearance of nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities.

  9. Funny or Aggressive? Failed Humour in Internet Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisi Laineste

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jokes, ethnic slurs and parodies often occur in Internet comments, as the general feeling of anonymity allows for and even favours balancing on the verge of the acceptable and the unacceptable. Thus, a humorously intended comment can be perceived as aggressive by other Internet users. This possibility is further enhanced by the fact that the electronic media in general and computer mediated communication (CMC in particular lacks non-verbal conversational cues that would signal the intentions of the communicator with greater, though not absolute, accuracy. The interrelations between online humour and aggression have so far escaped the attention of researchers, although scholarly discussions concerning these two phenomena in face-to-face interaction have been frequent. This paper analyses comment sequences in the Delfi news portal (www.delfi.ee from 2000 to 2007. Delfi is an Estonian online news website known for its liberal attitude towards commenting. The aim of the article is to describe the boundaries between humour and verbal aggressiveness and address the notion of failed humour through its occurrence in online communication. In addition to presenting the patterns of humorous and aggressive modalities in comment sequences, some cases in which humour changes into aggressiveness are analysed.

  10. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  11. Method and apparatus for detecting failed fuels in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable safety and automatic sampling for sample water in failed fuel detection. Constitution: A cap containing inner caps by the number of fuel assemblies inserted into each grid of a nuclear reactor is mounted to the upper end of the fuel assemblies. After the mounting, it is confirmed if the mounting is collectly made by the mounting state detection device utilizing the change in the pressure within the tube communicating to a water seal pipe. Then, air at a predetermined pressure introduced from an air supply tube opening into the cap is introduced into the cap to replace the coolants in the cap with the air. The pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the cap is detected and, if it shows a set value, it is confirmed that the cooling water level is independent for every fuel assembly. Then, sample water is sampled by the sampling tube within the guide cap provided to the upper end of the inner cap. (Furukawa, Y.)

  12. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  13. The density matrix - The story of a failed transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the positron in 1933, Paul Dirac (along with most other physicists) was forced to really take seriously his earlier suggestion that in the world as we know it all negative energy states are occupied and we are thus surrounded by an infinite sea of electrons. What was needed was a way to treat this large number of electrons in a manageable fashion. Dirac resorted to the use of the density matrix, a technique he had earlier used to describe the large number of electrons in complex atoms. Initially, this transfer from atomic physics to what we would nowadays call particle physics was quite successful, and for a few years the density matrix was the state of the art in describing the Dirac electron sea, but then rapidly fell out of favor. I investigate the causes of this ultimately failed transfer and how it relates to changes in the physical notion of the vacuum, changes which eventually eliminated the analogy on which the transfer had been based in the first place.

  14. Why Buildings Fail: Are We Learning From Our Mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kevin Parfitt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most building professionals have investigated or performed remedial designs for at least one architectural or engineering system failure during their careers. Other practitioners, especially those who work for forensic consultants or firms specializing in disaster response and repair, are more familiar with the variety and extent of building failures as they assist their clients in restoring damaged or deficient buildings. The advent of social medial and twenty-four-hour news channels along with the general ease of finding more examples of failures in the Internet have made us realize that building failures in the broad sense are much more common than we may have realized.Relatively recent events leading to building failures such as the Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes, the roof/parking deck of the Algo Centre mall in the northern Ontario, Canada city of Elliot Lake and the Indiana State Fairground stage collapse in the US are just a few reminders that much more work needs to be done on a variety of fronts to prevent building failures from a life safety standpoint. The need is compounded by economic concerns from what would be considered more mundane or common failures. Inspections by the author after Hurricane Katrina revealed a huge number of failures associated rain water alone as roofs, windows, flashing, mechanical penetrations etc. failed leading to interior water penetration often resulting in more damage from damp conditions and mold propagation than outright structural collapses.

  15. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FAILED ENDONASAL DCR OPERATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naveed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic Intra nasal approach to by-pass the obstruction of lacrimal apparatus is a simple and commonly practiced surgery among the ENT Surgeons. Various modifications in the form of usage of micro drill, application of Mitomycin C and preserving the nasal flap to line the opening in the sac to name a few are being used. Recurrence of epiphora and closure of the neo opening is described and observed are labeled as failed endonasal DCR. This study makes an attempt to review retrospectively and prospectively to evaluate the degree of recurrence and causes of failure. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: This study also attempts to determine the causes of failure of endonasal DCR and its subsequent management. Thus this study precludes the role of revision DCR. Materials and Methods: 50 patients who underwent endonasal DCR surgery at GGH Kurnool and reported with symptoms of returning of epiphora, purulent discharge from the eye were included. A detailed history taking and endoscopic examination done to find the cause of failure. An attempt is made to classify the causes and find suitable remedy.RESULTS:36% of the patients showed tendency to form synaechiae, 18.6% of patients presented with thick lacrimal crest, 9% of them showed formation of a thin veil like membrane over the neo-ostium. All the patients were subjected to revision surgery and subjective improvement in 92% of the patients reported at the time of reporting of the study.

  16. Analysis of surge line MBLOCA sequences with HPSI failed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project is to analyze thermal-hydraulic issues relevant to light water reactors (LWR) safety by using Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) . As a part of this project ROSA-2 test1 has been performed in LSTF during 2009. This test consists of a double ended guillotine break in the surge line, surge line loss-of-coolant accident (SL-LOCA), with high pressure safety injection, (HPSI) failed and reactor coolant pumps trip simultaneously to reactor scram. As part of the participation of Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) group in OECD/NEA ROSA-2 and Code Applications and Maintenance Program (CAMP) projects two tasks related with this test have been performed. In the first task the simulation of ROSA-2 test1 has been performed with TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) code. Furthermore, an analysis of similar sequences in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been carried out; within this analysis a wide range of break area size has been analyzed: from 0.0254 m to 0.2794 m (1 to 11 inches), and a sensitivity analysis of delay time in the beginning of manual depressurization in the secondary side has been performed. The results show that the sequences with intermediate break sizes, from 0.0508 m to 0.1016 m (2 to 4 inches) have worse consequences in this kind of sequences. (author)

  17. Feasibility study of a fail-safe through bulkhead initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design status of a through bulkhead initiator (TBI) is presented. The TBI design consists of a high explosive donor which when detonated transmits a shock wave through a metal bulkhead to initiate an acceptor explosive without destroying the integrity of the bulkhead. There are at least two potential applications for such a device. The combined requirements of the two applications are severe in several aspects, namely: fail-safe, small size, and controlled function time. The PETN donor output was characterized by velocity interferometer techniques. Two methods of controlling the output were demonstrated: (1) controlling the density of the donor and (2) controlling the length of the donor column (in relationship to the bulkhead thickness). The Type 304L stainless steel bulkhead was designed using a combination of experimental and analytical techniques to assure both function and integrity. The Type 304L provides a single shock rather than a multiple wave structure and exhibits high ductility. The PETN selected for the acceptor was chosen on the basis of shock sensitivity testing in which the morphology of the explosive and the wave shape of the stimulus entering the explosive played key roles. When tested with a short pulse (40 ns, rectangular), the small particle size PETN initiated at a lower pressure than did the large particle size PETN; when tested with a long pulse (280 ns, triangular), the large particle size PETN initiated at a lower pressure than did the small particle size PETN

  18. Comprehensive Assessment of the Too-Big-to-Fail Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Fangzhou

    2015-01-01

    We use a semi-analytical model for the substructure of dark matter haloes to assess the too-big-to-fail (TBTF) problem. The model accurately reproduces the average subhalo mass and velocity functions, as well as their halo-to-halo variance, in N-body simulations. We construct thousands of realizations of Milky Way (MW) size host haloes, allowing us to investigate the TBTF problem with unprecedented statistical power. We examine the dependence on host halo mass and cosmology, and explicitly demonstrate that a reliable assessment of TBTF requires large samples of hundreds of host haloes. We argue that previous statistics used to address TBTF suffer from the look-elsewhere effect and/or disregard certain aspects of the data on the MW satellite population. We devise a new statistic that is not hampered by these shortcomings, and, using only data on the 9 known MW satellite galaxies with $V_{\\rm max}>15{\\rm kms}^{-1}$, demonstrate that $1.4^{+3.3}_{-1.1}\\%$ of MW-size host haloes have a subhalo population in stati...

  19. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle un......, especially for well experienced drivers. The other study based on Gap Acceptance shows that the car driver acceptance of gaps towards cyclists depends on whether or not another car is present. Hypotheses for driver perception and for accident countermeasures are discussed.......Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... until immediately before the collision even though the bicycle must have been clearly visible.Similar types of accidents have been the subject of studies elsewhere. In literature they are labelled "looked-but-failed-to-see", because it seems clear that in many cases the car drivers have actually been...

  20. Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.

    1985-11-01

    Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

  1. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head and neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head and neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  2. Experience with failed or damaged spent fuel and its impacts on handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel management planning needs to include consideration of failed or damaged spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. Described in this paper, which was prepared under the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program that is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are the following: the importance of fuel integrity and the behavior of failed fuel, the quantity and burnup of failed or damaged fuel in storage, types of defects, difficulties in evaluating data on failed or damaged fuel, experience with wet storage, experience with dry storage, handling of failed or damaged fuel, transporting of fuel, experience with higher burnup fuel, and conclusions. 15 refs

  3. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria reveals a metabolic switch from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis in the failing heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WANG TingZhong; LIU Ping; FAN FenLing; GUAN YouFei; MA AiQun; BAI Ling; LI Jing; SUN ChaoFeng; ZHAO Jin; CUI ChangCong; HAN Ke; LIU Yu; ZHUO XiaoZhen

    2009-01-01

    This work characterizes the mitochondrial proteomic profile in the failing heart and elucidates the molecular basis of mitochondria in heart failure.Heart failure was induced in rats by myocardial infarction,and mitochondria were isolated from hearts by differential centrifugation.Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry,a system biology approach was employed to investigate differences in mitochondrial proteins between normal and failing hearts.Mass spectrometry identified 27 proteins differentially expressed that involved in energy metabolism.Among those,the up-regulated proteins included tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex subunita while the down-regulated proteins were involved in fatty acid oxidation and the OXPHOS complex.These results suggest a substantial metabolic switch from free fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis in heart failure and provide molecular evidence for alterations in the structural and functional parameters of mitochondria that may contribute to cardiac dysfunction during ischemic injury.

  4. Space Plasma Shown to Make Satellite Solar Arrays Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, scientists and engineers of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Maxwell Technologies, and Space Systems/Loral discovered a new failure mechanism for solar arrays on communications satellites in orbit. Sustained electrical arcs, initiated by the space plasma and powered by the solar arrays themselves, were found to have destroyed solar array substrates on some Space Systems/Loral satellites, leading to array failure. The mechanism was tested at Lewis, and mitigation strategies were developed to prevent such disastrous occurrences on-orbit in the future. Deep Space 1 is a solar-electric-powered space mission to a comet, launched on October 24, 1998. Early in 1998, scientists at Lewis and Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) realized that some aspects of the Deep Space 1 solar arrays were nearly identical to those that had led to the failure of solar arrays on Space Systems/Loral satellites. They decided to modify the Deep Space 1 arrays to prevent catastrophic failure in space. The arrays were suitably modified and are now performing optimally in outer space. Finally, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM1, scheduled for launch in mid-1999, is a NASA mission managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Realizing the importance of Lewis testing on the Loral arrays, EOS-AM1 management asked Lewis scientists to test their solar arrays to show that they would not fail in the same way. The first phase of plasma testing showed that sustained arcing would occur on the unmodified EOS-AM1 arrays, so the arrays were removed from the spacecraft and fixed. Now, Lewis scientists have finished plasma testing of the modified array configuration to ensure that EOS-AM1 will have no sustained arcing problems on-orbit.

  5. Efficient summary statistical representation when change localization fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-10-01

    People are sensitive to the summary statistics of the visual world (e.g., average orientation/speed/facial expression). We readily derive this information from complex scenes, often without explicit awareness. Given the fundamental and ubiquitous nature of summary statistical representation, we tested whether this kind of information is subject to the attentional constraints imposed by change blindness. We show that information regarding the summary statistics of a scene is available despite limited conscious access. In a novel experiment, we found that while observers can suffer from change blindness (i.e., not localize where change occurred between two views of the same scene), observers could nevertheless accurately report changes in the summary statistics (or "gist") about the very same scene. In the experiment, observers saw two successively presented sets of 16 faces that varied in expression. Four of the faces in the first set changed from one emotional extreme (e.g., happy) to another (e.g., sad) in the second set. Observers performed poorly when asked to locate any of the faces that changed (change blindness). However, when asked about the ensemble (which set was happier, on average), observer performance remained high. Observers were sensitive to the average expression even when they failed to localize any specific object change. That is, even when observers could not locate the very faces driving the change in average expression between the two sets, they nonetheless derived a precise ensemble representation. Thus, the visual system may be optimized to process summary statistics in an efficient manner, allowing it to operate despite minimal conscious access to the information presented. PMID:21748419

  6. Results of reconstruction for failed total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgie, M P; Inglis, A E; Mow, C S; Wolfe, S W; Sculco, T P; Figgie, H E

    1990-04-01

    Failure of total elbow arthroplasty leads to difficult and complicated surgical reconstruction. This study evaluates the results of reconstruction after implant removal with respect to pain, motion, and functional ability. Between 1978 and 1985, 11 patients required implant removal. Indications for removal were infection for seven, implant fracture for three, and recurrent dislocation for one. The original diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis in six elbows and traumatic arthritis in five. The average length of the follow-up period was 5.5 years after implant removal (minimum, two years). Treatment consisted of implant removal and soft-tissue arthroplasty combined with external fixation in ten patients, and attempted arthrodesis with external fixation in one. There were four good, one fair, two poor, and four failed results. Satisfactory results were obtained in seven of the eight elbows in which an anatomic arthroplasty was achieved. This consisted of containment of the ulna by the humeral epicondylar remnants. All eight elbows were pain-free with an average arc of motion of 85 degrees (range, 55 degrees to 120 degrees). They had excellent elbow flexion power; however, triceps strength was often compromised. In the three elbows in which anatomic arthroplasty could not be achieved, one was flail, one was later converted to an arthrodesis with a customized plate, and the third required an immediate arthrodesis. All three were rated as failures. Fractures occurred in five of the 11 elbows. One occurred preoperatively, three occurred intraoperatively, and one occurred postoperatively. All healed satisfactorily during the course of immobilization. The importance of an anatomic arthroplasty when removing a total arthroplasty cannot be overemphasized. Retaining the epicondylar segments is important because satisfactory results were obtained in patients in whom entrapment of the olecranon within the epicondylar ridges was obtained. Such patients can achieve a satisfactory

  7. Heart failure: when form fails to follow function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Arnold M; Rolett, Ellis L

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac performance is normally determined by architectural, cellular, and molecular structures that determine the heart's form, and by physiological and biochemical mechanisms that regulate the function of these structures. Impaired adaptation of form to function in failing hearts contributes to two syndromes initially called systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF). In SHF, characterized by high end-diastolic volume (EDV), the left ventricle (LV) cannot eject a normal stroke volume (SV); in DHF, with normal or low EDV, the LV cannot accept a normal venous return. These syndromes are now generally defined in terms of ejection fraction (EF): SHF became 'heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' (HFrEF) while DHF became 'heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction' (HFnEF or HFpEF). However, EF is a chimeric index because it is the ratio between SV - which measures function, and EDV - which measures form. In SHF the LV dilates when sarcomere addition in series increases cardiac myocyte length, whereas sarcomere addition in parallel can cause concentric hypertrophy in DHF by increasing myocyte thickness. Although dilatation in SHF allows the LV to accept a greater venous return, it increases the energy cost of ejection and initiates a vicious cycle that contributes to progressive dilatation. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy in DHF facilitates ejection but impairs filling and can cause heart muscle to deteriorate. Differences in the molecular signals that initiate dilatation and concentric hypertrophy can explain why many drugs that improve prognosis in SHF have little if any benefit in DHF. PMID:26497163

  8. Forces in Erupting Flux Ropes: CMEs and Failed Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2016-05-01

    A range of dynamical behaviors that can be exhibited by a quasi-statically evolving flux rope is studied. Starting with a CME-like flux rope in equilibrium balanced by the ambient coronal pressure (non-force-free) and an overlying coronal magnetic field (Bc), the poloidal flux is slowly increased, on a timescale much longer than the eruptive timescale of several to tens of minutes. In this configuration, the overlying field Bc provides an external downward restraining force, constituting an effective potential barrier. Slowly increasing poloidal flux causes the flux rope to gradually rise, following a sequence of quasi-static equilibria. As the apex of the flux rope rises past a critical height Z*, slightly higher than the peak of the potential barrier Bc(Z), it expands on a faster, dynamical (Alfvenic) timescale determined by the magnetic field and geometry of the flux rope. The expanding flux rope may reach a new equilibrium at height Z1. Observationally, this behavior would be recognized as a ``failed eruption.'' The new equilibrium flux rope is established if the magnetic tension force due to the toroidal magnetic field component Bt can balance the outward hoop force due to the poloidal component Bp. The flux rope may also expand without reaching a new equilibrium, provided a sufficiennt amount of poloidal flux is injected on a dynamical timescale so that the tension force cannot balance the hoop force. This scenario would result in a CME eruption. The influence of the poloidal flux injection, the Bc(Z) profile, and boundary conditions on the quantitative balance of the forces in an expanding flux rope is elucidated. Potentially observable consequences of the difference scenarios/models are discussed.Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Research Program

  9. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  10. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic–organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure–property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully

  11. The food-conditioned place preference task in adolescent, adult and aged rats of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Hagerbaumer, Diana A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    The rat basolateral amygdala shows neuroanatomical sex differences, continuing development after puberty and aging-related alterations. Implications for amygdala-dependent memory processes were explored here by testing male and female hooded rats in adolescence, adulthood and old age on the food-conditioned place preference task. While aged rats were unimpaired, adolescents failed to learn the task. This finding may be related to ongoing development of the basolateral amygdala and related mem...

  12. In-core sipping method for the identification of failed fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failed fuel assembly identification system is an important safety system which ensures safe operations of reactor and immediate treatment of failed fuel rod cladding. The system uses an internationally recognized method to identify failed fuel assemblies in a reactor with fuel element cases. The in-core sipping method is customary used to identify failed fuel assemblies during refueling or after fuel rod cladding failure accidents. The test is usually performed after reactor shutdown by taking samples from each fuel element case while the cases are still in their original core positions. The sample activity is then measured to identify failed fuel assemblies. A failed fuel assembly identification system was designed for the NHR-200 based on the properties of the NHR-200 and national requirements. the design provides an internationally recognized level of safety to ensure the safety of NHR-200

  13. Design and qualification of I and C of failed fuel location module for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical integrity of the fuel in fast reactor is of utmost concern for the healthiness of the reactor and operating people. Hence details of the failed fuel location in the core is determined at the earliest, to minimize reactor down time and radiation exposure. In the present reactor under construction, i.e. 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a system for failed fuel identification, was proposed. The system follows a novel scheme to locate the failed fuel using failed fuel location module along with necessary instrumentation and control. This paper details out various aspects such as design, qualification and testing. (author)

  14. CT findings in ten patients with failed renal allografts: comparison with findings in functional grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim is to report the computed tomography (CT) features of the long-term failed renal allograft. Ten patients with failed renal transplants in whom the graft was left in situ underwent CT for various unrelated indications. The majority of the failed grafts showed marked shrinkage and coarse punctate diffuse parenchymal calcifications. Small cysts were seen in four grafts. A long-term failed renal transplant appeared on CT as a small rounded soft tissue mass. The graft was almost always heavily calcified. Lack of awareness of the nature of such a mass may mislead the radiologist in interpreting it as a space-occupying lesion

  15. Disks around Failed Stars - a Question of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    First Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Observations of Brown Dwarfs [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] have observed eight Brown Dwarfs, i.e., small and faint objects also known as "failed stars", with the TIMMI2 infrared sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. From two of these, mid-infrared radiation is detected - for the first time ever from such objects with a ground-based telescope . While the younger Brown Dwarf, aged a few million years, is found to be surrounded by a dusty disk, no warm dust is present around the older ones. The new observations support the following formation hypothesis for Brown Dwarfs: they are born in the same way as "real" stars, by contraction in interstellar clouds of gas and dust . During the later stages of this process, the infalling material is transferred onto the star via a gas and dust disk . This disk - in which planets may possibly form - then disperses with time. PR Photo 17a/02 : Image of Brown Dwarf LP 944-20 PR Photo 17b/02 : Models of the disk around Brown Dwarf Cha HA 2 Brown Dwarfs are faint and cool objects Astronomical objects known as "Brown Dwarfs" are "failed stars" . Their comparatively small mass, less than about 7% of that of our Sun (or about 75 times the mass of planet Jupiter), is too small to achieve sufficiently high pressure and temperature at their centre to ignite energy-producing nuclear processes. Some astronomers also refer to Brown Dwarfs as a "missing link" between planets and stars, being neither one nor the other, yet with similarities to both. They do not burn hydrogen to helium as "real" stars do, but continue to emit faint light as they slowly contract and cool during millions of years. They end their inglorious life with a whimper and finally fade into eternal insignificance. Although Brown Dwarfs were theoretically predicted already in 1963, astronomers had to wait until 1995 for the first one to be discovered. This was mainly due to their extreme faintness as

  16. Neonatal human retinal pigment epithelial cells secrete limited trophic factors in vitro and in vivo following striatal implantation in parkinsonian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russ, Kaspar; Flores, Joseph; Brudek, Tomasz; Doudet, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cell implants into the striatum have been investigated as a potential cell-based treatment for Parkinson's disease in a Phase II clinical trial that recently failed. We hypothesize that the trophic factor potential of the hRPE cells could potentially...... influence the function and/or survival of the implants and may be involved in an alternative mechanism of action. However, it is unclear if hRPE cells secreted trophic factors when handled in the manner used in the clinical Phase II trial. To address these questions, we investigated two neonatal hRPE cell...... lots, cultured in a similar manner to hRPE cells used in a Phase II clinical study, and longitudinally determined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and pigment epithelium-derived factor concentrations in vitro and following striatal implantation into 6...

  17. A Study of low achievement on Third Grade primary School Failed Students in Minoufiya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elwan1, Nagwa Mohamed2 & Mohamed Shebl3

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 374 students who constituted about one fourth of third grade primary school failed students in whole Minoufiya governorate & 100 never failed students from the same classes as a control group. Semi structured psychiatric interview and thorough, neurological examination, beside sociodemographic data sheet & psychometric assessment using children depressive inventory children's phobia scale and

  18. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  19. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  20. More than 100 Colleges Fail Education Department's Test of Financial Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    A newly compiled analysis by the U.S. Department of Education and obtained by "The Chronicle" shows that 114 private nonprofit degree-granting colleges were in such fragile financial condition at the end of their last fiscal year that they failed the department's financial-responsibility test. Colleges that fail the test are subject to extra…

  1. 75 FR 81457 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Register on Wednesday, December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76262)providing guidance about the treatment of fails... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges... and is in need of clarification. List of Subject in 26 CFR Part 1 Income taxes, Reporting...

  2. Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy of the Transverse-Axial Tubule System in Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Failing and Non-Failing Human Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ohler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The transverse-axial tubule system (TATS of cardiomyocytes allows a spatially coordinated conversion of electrical excitation into an intracellular Ca2+ signal and consequently contraction. Previous reports have indicated alterations of structure and/or volume of the TATS in cardiac hypertrophy and failure, suggesting a contribution to the impairment of excitation contraction coupling. To test whether structural alterations are present in human heart failure, the TATS was visualized in myocytes from failing and non-failing human hearts. Methods and Results. In freshly isolated myocytes, the plasmalemmal membranes were labeled with Di-8-ANEPPS and imaged using two-photon excitation at 780 nm. Optical sections were taken every 300 nm through the cells. After deconvolution, the TATS was determined within the 3D data sets, revealing no significant difference in normalized surface area or volume. To rule out possible inhomogeneity in the arrangement of the TATS, Euclidian distance maps were plotted for every section, allowing to measure the closest distance between any cytosolic and any membrane point. There was a trend towards greater spacing in cells from failing hearts, without statistical significance. Conclusion. Only small changes, but no significant changes in the geometrical dimensions of the TATS were observed in cardiomyocytes from failing compared to non-failing human myocardium.

  3. Development of failed fuel detection and location system in sodium-cooled large reactor. Sampling method of failed fuels under the slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design study of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is in progress as an issue of the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project in Japan. JSFR adopts a Selector-Valve mechanism for the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system. The Selector-Valve FFDL system identifies failed fuel subassemblies by sampling sodium from each fuel subassembly outlet and detecting fission product. One of the JSFR design features is employing an upper internal structure (UIS) with a radial slit, in which an arm of fuel handling machine can move and access the fuel assemblies under the UIS. Thus, JSFR cannot place sampling nozzles right above the fuel subassemblies located under the slit. In this study, the sampling method for indentifying under-slit failed fuel subassemblies has been demonstrated by water experiments. (author)

  4. Naloxone reduces diuretic responses induced by water, alcohol or congenital lack of vasopressin in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Guiol, C.; Montastruc, J L; Montastruc, P

    1984-01-01

    The effects of naloxone (2 and 10 mg kg-1 s.c.) were compared in several kinds of experimental polyuria: alcohol- or water-loaded rats and Brattleboro rats (i.e. animals with congenital lack of vasopressin). In normal rats, both water and alcohol increased urine flow and decreased urinary osmolality. Alcohol induced a more marked diuretic response than water. In normally hydrated rats, naloxone (2 and 10 mg kg-1 s.c.) failed to modify urine flow, urinary osmolality, Na+ and K+ urinary excreti...

  5. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rat...

  6. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, Melissa L.; van Vonderen, Jeroen J.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first 48 hours after birth. Methods Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7) weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4) weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT) of expiratory holds (EHs), peak inspi...

  7. Failed resuscitation in acute severe asthma: a medical indication for emergency thoracotomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Diament, R H; Sloan, J P

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported in which a 32-year-old man who had a cardiac arrest secondary to acute severe asthma was successfully resuscitated following an emergency thoracotomy when conventional external measures failed.

  8. Comment Fail-Stop Blind Signature Scheme Design Based on Pairings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoming; HUANG Shangteng

    2006-01-01

    Fail-stop signature schemes provide security for a signer against forgeries of an enemy with unlimited computational power by enabling the signer to provide a proof of forgery when a forgery happens. Chang et al proposed a robust fail-stop blind signature scheme based on bilinear pairings. However, in this paper, it will be found that there are several mistakes in Chang et al' fail-stop blind signature scheme. Moreover, it will be pointed out that this scheme doesn' meet the property of a fail-stop signature: unconditionally secure for a signer. In Chang et al' scheme, a forger can forge a valid signature that can' be proved by a signer using the "proof of forgery". The scheme also doesn' possess the unlinkability property of a blind signature.

  9. Modifying the Victor® Easy Set® Rat Trap to Improve the Animal Welfare of Stoats and Ship Rats Trapped in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Morriss, Grant A.; Warburton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Stoats (Mustela erminea) and ship rats (Rattus rattus) in New Zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. Internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by New Zealand legislation under the Animal Welfare Act 1999. The Victor® Easy Set® rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in Canada but failed for stoats when tested in New Zealand in 200...

  10. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy) elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Swann Alan C; Yang Pamela B; Modi Gunjan M; Dafny Nachum

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics o...

  11. Leptin fails to blunt the lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Basharat, S.; Parker, JA; Murphy, KG; Bloom, SR; Buckingham, JC; John, CD

    2014-01-01

    Copyright @ 2013 The authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Obesity is a risk factor for sepsis morbidity and mortality, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a protective role in the body's defence against sepsis. Sepsis induces a profound systemic immune response and cytokines serve as excellent markers for sepsis as they act as mediators of the immune response. Evidence suggests that the adipokine leptin may play a...

  12. Electrophysiology of Heart Failure Using a Rabbit Model: From the Failing Myocyte to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Klug, William S.; Garfinkel, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling. At the tissue level, we modeled the increased gap junction lateralization and lower conduction velocity due to downregulation of Connexin 43. At the biventricular level, we reduced the apex-to-base and transmural gradients of action potential duration (APD). The failing cell model was first validated by reproducing the longer action potential, slower and lower calcium transient, and earlier alternans characteristic of heart failure EP. Subsequently, we compared the electrical wave propagation in one dimensional cables of healthy and failing cells. The validated cell model was then used to simulate the EP of heart failure in an anatomically accurate biventricular rabbit model. As pacing cycle length decreases, both the normal and failing heart develop T-wave alternans, but only the failing heart shows QRS alternans (although moderate) at rapid pacing. Moreover, T-wave alternans is significantly more pronounced in the failing heart. At rapid pacing, APD maps show areas of conduction block in the failing heart. Finally, accelerated pacing initiated wave reentry and breakup in the failing heart. Further, the onset of VF was not observed with an upregulation of SERCA, a potential drug therapy, using the same protocol. The changes introduced at the cell and tissue level have increased the failing heart’s susceptibility to dynamic instabilities and arrhythmias under rapid pacing. However, the observed increase in arrhythmogenic potential is

  13. Leadership and the Failed State Status of Nigeria (2010 -2012). An Enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Jide Ibietan; Joshua Segun

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of leadership in redressing the failed state status of Nigeria with a focus on the present administration (between 2010 and 2012). For the past three years, Nigeria has been keeping the ugly company and ranking consistently as the fourteenth on the list of failed states, but the governing elites have been making spirited campaigns and slow haste in explaining away this situation. Through heavy reliance on secondary sources of data, th...

  14. Septic failure is not a septic loosening: A case report of a failed shoulder prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yde Engelsma; Pieter Buma; Pieter C Geervliet; Arthur Van Noort

    2012-01-01

    Septic failure of a shoulder arthroplasty due to a low-grade infection is generally called septic loosening. However, it is often not investigated if a prosthesis is genuinely loose. We present a case of a failed resurfacing prosthesis in a 70-year-old woman. This prosthesis failed due to a low-grade infection and a revision procedure was mandatory. All intraoperative cultures were positive and revealed a combination of bacteria. Nevertheless, histology revealed a macroscopic and a microscopi...

  15. "To big to fail"-doktrinen står for fald?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Hvis præsident Barack Obama får sin vilje, skal den klassiske "too big to fail"-bankdoktrin afløses af en "small enough to fail"-doktrin. Det fremgår af præsidentens planer om at opdele storbankerne i mindre enheder og forbyde bankernes handelsaktiviteter for egen regning. Hvis Barack Obama får...

  16. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-service Teaching Practicum

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia J. Danyluk; Florence Luhanga; Yovita N. Gwekwerere

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher (Siebert, Clark, Kilbridge, & Peterson, 2006) and the wide variety of situations that can result in failure (Sudzina & Knowles, 1992). This study examines ...

  17. Communication fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  18. Clinical observation of treating 62 patients with severe aplastic anemia failing in immunosuppressive therapy by integrative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏尔云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore treatment methods for patients with severe aplastic anemia(SAA) failing in immunosuppressive therapy(IST). Methods Totally 62 SAA patients failing in IST were treated by integrative medicine(IM).

  19. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-service Teaching Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Danyluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher (Siebert, Clark, Kilbridge, & Peterson, 2006 and the wide variety of situations that can result in failure (Sudzina & Knowles, 1992. This study examines whether the issue of failure to fail in final pre-service practica exist and, if so, why? Twelve interviews were conducted at a mid-sized Canadian university in Ontario with university supervisors and associate teachers on the topic of teacher candidate failure during the final teaching practicum. All participants had experience with teacher candidates struggling during practicum. Faculty commented on their supervision of student teachers in Ontario, other provinces in Canada, and the United States. Results indicate that both university supervisors and associate teachers find the decision to fail a student teacher difficult, taking an emotional toll on both the supervisor and the student. University faculty report the decision to fail results in additional work for the faculty responsible; however, failure to fail an underperforming student teacher could diminish the reputation of professional programs. Associate teachers feel a sense of betrayal when their recommendations to fail an under-performing student are not followed by the university. These findings have implications for improving the quality of field experiences and support for students, associate teachers, and faculty in Bachelor of Education programs.

  20. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Belkacemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation prevents diabetes mellitus in the Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) at doses of 2200 rads or greater prevented diabetes in susceptible BB/W rats. Two of 29 (7%) treated rats became diabetic compared with 23 of 39 (59%) controls. TLI did not, however, prevent insulitis or thyroiditis in nondiabetic rats, nor did it restore the depressed concanavalin-A responsiveness of BB rat lymphocytes. T-lymphocyte subset proportions were the same in both groups. TLI was associated with significant radiation-related mortality, and nondiabetic TLI-treated rats weighed significantly less than controls. It was concluded that TLI is effective in the prevention of BB rat diabetes. However, TLI fails to correct the subclinical immunologic abnormalities of the model and is associated with significant morbidity

  2. Experimental and analytical study of failed fuel detection and location system in JSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design study of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is in progress in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project in Japan. JSFR adopts a Selector-Valve mechanism for the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system. The Selector-Valve FFDL system identifies failed fuel subassemblies by sampling sodium from each fuel subassembly outlet and detecting fission product or delayed neutron. One of the JSFR design features is employing an upper internal structure (UIS) with a radial slit, in which an arm of fuel handling machine can move and access the fuel assemblies under the UIS. Thus, JSFR cannot place sampling nozzles right above the fuel subassemblies located under the slit. To overcome above difficulties, we have developed the sampling method for indentifying the failed fuel subassemblies located under the slit by numerical simulations and water experiments. From numerical results and experimental results, underslit failed fuel subassembly could be detected by the sampling nozzles located the BP2 and FHM plug. And, identification of under-slit failed fuel subassembly is thought to be capable by comparing concentrations at sampling positions. (author)

  3. A dynamic magnetic tension force as the cause of failed solar eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton E; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Fox, William; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Savcheva, Antonia; DeLuca, Edward E

    2015-12-24

    Coronal mass ejections are solar eruptions driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun's corona. In many cases, this magnetic energy is stored in long-lived, arched structures called magnetic flux ropes. When a flux rope destabilizes, it can either erupt and produce a coronal mass ejection or fail and collapse back towards the Sun. The prevailing belief is that the outcome of a given event is determined by a magnetohydrodynamic force imbalance called the torus instability. This belief is challenged, however, by observations indicating that torus-unstable flux ropes sometimes fail to erupt. This contradiction has not yet been resolved because of a lack of coronal magnetic field measurements and the limitations of idealized numerical modelling. Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment that reveal a previously unknown eruption criterion below which torus-unstable flux ropes fail to erupt. We find that such 'failed torus' events occur when the guide magnetic field (that is, the ambient field that runs toroidally along the flux rope) is strong enough to prevent the flux rope from kinking. Under these conditions, the guide field interacts with electric currents in the flux rope to produce a dynamic toroidal field tension force that halts the eruption. This magnetic tension force is missing from existing eruption models, which is why such models cannot explain or predict failed torus events. PMID:26701052

  4. Response characteristics of base-isolated structure with hardening-stopper type fail-safe devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a fail-safe mechanism for backing up the reliability of an isolator device is being developed predicated on the application of a base isolation system to nuclear fuel facilities. 'Fail-safe' is often understood to mean that when a device loses its function, a separate mechanism will work in order that there will be no trouble with regard to safety. However, since it may be considered extremely difficult to support loads without any trouble when the base isolation device itself loses its function, the term will be used here to mean that the base isolation device is supported so that it will not lose its function. The two points below will be made the objectives of design as workings of the fail-safe system in this study. 1) Response Displacement Control: Suppresses excessive deformation of the base isolation device even in case of input of an earthquake greater than the design seismic force to prevent destruction of the base isolation device, superstructure, and connected piping. 2) Response Acceleration Control: Reduces acceleration transmitted to the superstructure insofar as possible by action of the fail-safe mechanism. Characteristics tests and analyses, and earthquake observations using reduced-scale model have now been carried out to grasp the response characteristics of a base isolation combining high-damping rubber bearings and hardening-stopper type fail-safe mechanisms, and the results will be reported below. (author)

  5. Re-assessing causal accounts of learnt behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K V; Dwyer, D M; Honey, R C

    2012-04-01

    Rats received either a common-cause (i.e., A→B, A→food) or a causal-chain training scenario (i.e., B→A, A→food) before their tendency to approach the food magazine during the presentation of B was assessed as a function of whether it was preceded by a potential alternative cause. Causal model theory predicts that the influence of an alternative cause should be restricted to the common-cause scenario. In Experiment 1, responding to B was reduced when it occurred after pressing a novel lever during the test phase. This effect was not influenced by the type of training scenario. In Experiment 2, rats were familiarized with the lever prior to test by training it as a potential cause of B. After this treatment, the lever now failed to influence test responding to B. In Experiment 3, rats given common-cause training responded more to B when it followed a cue that had previously been trained as a predictor of B, than when it followed another stimulus. This effect was not apparent in rats that received causal-chain training. This pattern of results is the opposite of that predicted by causal model theory. Thus, in three experiments, the presence of an alternative cause failed to influence test responding in manner consistent with causal model theory. These results undermine the application of causal model theory to rats, but are consistent with associative analyses. PMID:22486754

  6. Bayesian method for system reliability assessment of overlapping pass/fail data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng Hao; Shengkui Zeng; Jianbin Guo

    2015-01-01

    For high reliability and long life systems, system pass/fail data are often rare. Integrating lower-level data, such as data drawn from the subsystem or component pass/fail testing, the Bayesian analysis can improve the precision of the system reli-ability assessment. If the multi-level pass/fail data are overlapping, one chal enging problem for the Bayesian analysis is to develop a likelihood function. Since the computation burden of the existing methods makes them infeasible for multi-component systems, this paper proposes an improved Bayesian approach for the system reliability assessment in light of overlapping data. This approach includes three steps: fristly searching for feasible paths based on the binary decision diagram, then screening feasible points based on space partition and constraint decomposition, and final y sim-plifying the likelihood function. An example of a satel ite rol ing control system demonstrates the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  7. A dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 30 years AEA Technology has carried out research and development in the field of nuclear instrumentation and protection systems. Throughout the course of this extensive period of research and development the dominant theme has been the achievement of fully fail-safe designs. These are defined as designs in which the failure of any single component will result in the unit output reverting to a demand for trip action status. At an early stage it was recognized that the use of dynamic rather than static logic could ease the difficulties inherent in achieving a fail-safe design. The first dynamic logic systems coupled logic elements magnetically. The paper outlines the evolution from these early concepts of a dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems. Details are given of collaboration between AEA Technology and Duke Power Co. to mount an ISATTM demonstration at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Power Station

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid can be used for HIV genotyping when it fails in blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Rotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood plasma specimens are the clinical standard for HIV-1 pol gene genotyping from viral populations; however, it is not always successful, often from low viral loads or the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors. Objective To describe the successful of HIV-1 genotyping in two samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, after genotype procedures failed from blood. Method Two HIV-infected patients enrolled in a neurocognitive research study were evaluated when standard HIV-1 genotyping failed from blood plasma samples. Genotyping was performed using the commercial system TRUGENE® HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA. Results CSF genotyping was performed via the same commercial platform and was successful in both cases. Conclusion This report demonstrates that CSF could be used as an alternate clinical specimen for HIV-1 genotyping when it fails from blood.

  9. Avoidance Expression in Rats as a Function of Signal-Shock Interval: Strain and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats express inhibited temperament, increased sensitivity to stress, and exaggerated expressions of avoidance. A long-standing observation for lever press escape/avoidance learning in rats is the duration of the warning signal (WS determines whether avoidance is expressed over escape. Outbred female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats trained with a 10-s WS efficiently escaped, but failed to exhibit avoidance; avoidance was exhibited to a high degree with WSs longer than 20-s. We examined this longstanding WS duration function and extended it to male SD and male and female WKY rats. A cross-over design with two WS durations (10 s or 60 s was employed. Rats were trained (20 trials/session in four phases: acquisition (10 sessions, extinction (10 sessions, re-acquisition (8 sessions and re-extinction (8 sessions. Consistent with the literature, female and male SD rats failed to express avoidance to an appreciable degree with a 10-s WS. When these rats were switched to a 60-s WS, performance levels in the initial session of training resembled the peak performance of rats trained with a 60-s WS. Therefore, the avoidance relationship was acquired, but not expressed at 10-s WS. Further, poor avoidance at 10-s does not adversely affect expression at 60-s. Failure to express avoidance with a 10-s WS likely reflects contrasting reinforcement value of avoidance, not a reduction in the amount of time available to respond or competing responses. In contrast, WKY rats exhibited robust avoidance with a 10-s WS, which was most apparent in female WKY rats. Exaggerated expression of avoidances by WKY rats, especially female rats, further confirms this inbred strain as a model of anxiety vulnerability.

  10. Considerations for handling failed fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of failed fuel receipt on reprocessing operations is qualitatively described. It appears that extended storage of fuel, particularly with advanced storage techniques, will increase the quantity of failed fuel, the nature and possibly the configuration of the fuel. The receipt of failed fuel at the BNFP increases handling problems, waste volumes, and operator exposure. If it is necessary to impose special operating precautions to minimize this impact, a loss in plant throughput will result. Hence, ideally, the reprocessing plant operator would take every reasonable precaution so that no failed fuel is received. An alternative policy would be to require that failed fuel be placed in a sealed canister. In the latter case the canister must be compatible with the shipping cask and suitable for in-plant storage. A required inspection of bare fuel would be made at the reactor prior to shipping off-site. This would verify fuel integrity. These requirements are obviously idealistic. Due to the current uncertain status of reprocessing and the need to keep reactors operating, business or governmental policy may be enacted resulting in the receipt of a negotiated quantity of non-standard fuel (including failed fuel). In this situation, BNFP fuel receiving policy based soley on fuel cladding integrity would be difficult to enforce. There are certain areas where process incompatibility does exist and where a compromise would be virtually impossible, e.g., canned fuel for which material or dimensional conflicts exist. This fuel would have to be refused or the fuel would require recanning prior to shipment. In other cases, knowledge of the type and nature of the failure may be acceptable to the operator. A physical inspection of the fuel either before shipment or after the cask unloading operation would be warranted. In this manner, concerns with pool contamination can be identified and the assembly canned if deemed necessary

  11. Fail Save Shut Off Valve for Filtering Systems Employing Candle Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  12. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  13. Challenges and achievements of instrumentation for failed fuel identification in PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failed fuel identification system is provided to locate and remove the failed fuel sub assembly. It comprises of selector valve mechanism to sample the flow from each assembly and associated instrumentation to detect the activity in the sample, indicating the clad failure of the respective subassembly. The development includes sampling pump, its power supply, motor to rotate the selector valve, encoder, brake, gear box, neutron detectors and Instrumentation and Control for all these with interlocks and related logic. These systems are expected to work under many physical constraints and in harsh environmental conditions, such as high temperature. This paper discusses the various challenges and achievements towards this system design. (author)

  14. Principles: when there should be no difference--how to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Michael J

    2006-05-01

    It is common to perform experiments in which a 'success' is claimed when the null hypothesis is discarded. However, there is a category of experiment that has become important in which a success is when the null hypothesis is not rejected. Failing to discard the null hypothesis is different from proving it to be valid, a distinction that is particularly important in experiments in which any inadequacy of experimental design or implementation enhances the likelihood of a success. The appropriate analysis of such experiments tests for evidence of the validity of the null hypothesis rather than simply failing to find evidence against it. PMID:16595154

  15. Reduction of the consequences of accidents whereby the emergency shutdown system in modern reactors fails (ATWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a nuclear reactor can not be shutdown by pulling out the control rods, an emergency shutdown system must be used. The events, when such a system fails, have been calculated. Also attention is paid to the chance that both systems fail and the possibility of using an extra independent shutdown system, realized in pressurized water reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Finally a General Electric developed safety method and an alternative method regarding the failure of an emergency shutdown system are described. The results of this investigation, which were also based on a literature study, can be applied in formulating specifications of new nuclear power plants

  16. Failed Induction in Second Trimester Due to Pregnancy in an Uncommunicated Rudimentary Horn: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of uterus is rare. Uterine rupture is a rare obstetrical catastrophe that occurs before 20 weeks’ gestation in 70% of unicornate uterus cases. A 24-year-old primigravida woman was referred to our hospital due to failed induction-in-17th-weeks-of-her-pregnancy. Fetal-death was confirmed on abdominal ultrasound. Examination under-anaesthesia revealed -pregnancy-in thetrudimentary-horn.-It is concluded that careful-evaluation of probable-mullerian-anomaly-should-be-considered in every failed-induction.

  17. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  18. New Developments in FPGA: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  19. Is the Pass/Fail System Applicable to a Medical School in Korea?

    OpenAIRE

    Mee Young Kim

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent ...

  20. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis: Confidence Intervals for Rosenthal's Fail-Safe Number

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C.; Tsagris, Michail; Christos C. Frangos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the efficacy of confidence intervals for Rosenthal’s fail-safe number. Although Rosenthal’s estimator is highly used by researchers, its statistical properties are largely unexplored. First of all, we developed statistical theory which allowed us to produce confidence intervals for Rosenthal’s fail-safe number.This was produced by discerning whether the number of studies analysed in a meta-analysis is fixed or random. Each case produces d...

  1. Enkephalin: radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay in morphine dependent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for enkephalins is described which discriminates between leucine-enkephalin and methionine-enkephalin. Total opioid peptide activity was assayed by the ability of brain extracts to compete for opiate receptor binding. In rats treated with morphine and/or naloxone, opiates were separated from opioid peptides by Dowex AG-50W column chromatography prior to radioreceptor assay. Chronic administration of morphine failed to alter immunoreactive enkephalin levels or total opioid activity in radioreceptor assays

  2. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-07-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat.

  3. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat

  4. Leadership Effectiveness and Instructional Supervision: The Case of the Failing Twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Collette Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines the leadership practices of an effective versus an ineffective elementary school principal. The background of this case involves two fourth grade teachers, each teaching one of a set of identical twins. Discrepancies in teaching and grading practices result in one twin failing. The decision-making choices of the principal…

  5. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P implant stability. The mean PTVs increased in the negative control group compared to baseline (P implants were significantly lower than control group at 3 and 6 months after implant placement (P implantation of failed implants in Jack Russell Terrier dogs after CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability. PMID:27126410

  6. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  7. Optimal and Nonoptimal Computer-Based Test Designs for Making Pass-Fail Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Xing, Dehui

    2006-01-01

    Now that many credentialing exams are being routinely administered by computer, new computer-based test designs, along with item response theory models, are being aggressively researched to identify specific designs that can increase the decision consistency and accuracy of pass-fail decisions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  8. After Years of Scrutiny, Hundreds of Teams Still Fail to Make the NCAA's Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Despite years of prodding from officials at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to bolster athletes' performance in the classroom, nearly 10 percent of all athletics teams in the NCAA's top division failed to meet the association's annual benchmark for academic progress, new data show. Of the 6,300 or so teams in Division I, the…

  9. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against

  10. Leadership and the Failed State Status of Nigeria (2010 -2012. An Enquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Ibietan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of leadership in redressing the failed state status of Nigeria with a focus on the present administration (between 2010 and 2012. For the past three years, Nigeria has been keeping the ugly company and ranking consistently as the fourteenth on the list of failed states, but the governing elites have been making spirited campaigns and slow haste in explaining away this situation. Through heavy reliance on secondary sources of data, the utilization of elite theory as framework, backed by the analytical approach to the issues raised/discussed, the paper observed that the ranking of Nigeria on the failed state index ignores some historical facts and current situational realities which make the failed criteria suspect and questionable. There is therefore the need to rethink and tinker with some of these criteria to reflect socio-economic and political performance in realistic terms. Purposeful and people –centered approach to governance capable of redressing the dysfunctions of the Nigerian state is also canvassed.

  11. Persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation: value of pelvic embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Dref, Olivier le [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier; Barranger, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris (France); Gayat, Etienne; Mebazaa, Alexandre [Hopital Lariboisiere AP-HP, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the role and efficacy of pelvic embolisation in the treatment of persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation and to identify the complications of this procedure in this specific population. The clinical files and angiographic examinations of 12 consecutive women (mean age 32 years) who were treated with pelvic embolisation because of persistent, severe postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation were reviewed. Angiography revealed that persistent bleeding was due to incomplete arterial ligation (n = 4) or the presence of newly developed anastomotic routes (n = 8). In 11 women, pelvic embolisation stopped the bleeding. Hysterectomy was needed in one woman with retained placenta. Two complications due to pelvic embolisation, including leg ischaemia and transient sciatic nerve ischaemia, were identified, both after internal iliac artery ligation. In women with persistent postpartum haemorrhage after failed arterial ligation, pelvic embolisation is an effective treatment in most cases. However, embolisation of the anastomotic routes that contribute to persistent bleeding may result in ischaemic complications. These potential complications reaffirm that arterial ligation should not be the favoured option for postpartum haemorrhage and that special care must be given during pelvic embolisation after failed arterial ligation. (orig.)

  12. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  13. Survey of Accepted Practice following Failed Intubation for Emergency Caesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soltanifar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is no consensus on the optimum management of failed tracheal intubation in emergency cesarean delivery performed for fetal compromise. The decision making process on whether to wake the patient or continue anesthesia with a supraglottic airway device is an underexplored area. This survey explores perceptions and experiences of obstetric anesthetists managing failed intubation. Methods. Anesthetists attending the Group of Obstetric Anaesthetists London (GOAL Meeting in April 2014 were surveyed. Results. Ninety-three percent of anesthetists surveyed would not always wake the patient in the event of failed intubation for emergency cesarean delivery performed for fetal compromise. The median (interquartile range of perceived acceptability of continuing anesthesia with a well-fitting supraglottic airway device, assessed using a visual analogue scale (0–100; 0 completely unacceptable; 100 completely acceptable, was 90 [22.5]. Preoperative patient consent regarding the use of a supraglottic airway device for surgery in the event of failed intubation would affect the decision making of 40% of anaesthetists surveyed. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that a significant body of anesthetists with a subspecialty interest in obstetric anesthesia in the UK would not always wake up the patient and would continue with anesthesia and surgery with a supraglottic airway device in this setting.

  14. What Is Learned when Concept Learning Fails?--A Theory of Restricted-Domain Relational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A.; Lickteig, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Two matching-to-sample (MTS) and four same/different (S/D) experiments employed tests to distinguish between item-specific learning and relational learning. One MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when concept learning failed (i.e., no novel-stimulus transfer). Another MTS experiment showed item-specific learning when pigeons'…

  15. Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Peskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil’s EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil’s DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer’s victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.

  16. Effects of failed commissuration on the septum pellucidum and fornix: implications for fetal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, C Floor, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan A.J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Reeves, Michael J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In the previous article, we considered the normal appearances of the midline stuctures of the brain as they appear on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we discuss the effects of failed commissuration on the midline structures. We highlight some of the misconceptions of this process that may lead to misdiagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in utero. (orig.)

  17. Successful Medical Management of a Left Ventricular Thrombus and Aneurysm Following Failed Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Christopher Lee; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Ajegbomogun, Olabanji J; Adeseye A Akintunde

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with an extensive anterior myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular apical thrombus and an apical left ventricular aneurysm following failed thrombolysis. We obtained serial two-dimensional echocardiograms at short intervals in the acute phase and also during the months of recovery and follow up. The patient was successfully and exclusively medically managed.

  18. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2. The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect.

  19. Greek Technical-Vocational Education (1870-1940): Intentions and Failed Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis

    2013-01-01

    From 1870 until the outbreak of the Second World War there were various attempts at educational reform in Greece, one of the most significant being the intention to establish a national technical-vocational education. The aim of this study is to examine why such a reform was deemed necessary and yet failed to be implemented. The first part…

  20. Power in Dreams? The Spatial Effects of Chicago's Failed Olympic Bid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Terry van; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Plans change the world in subtle ways, through persuasive power with reframing effects, that precede their actual execution. We empirically tested this persuasive power, taking a failed Olympic bid as a case. Bidding entails making very detailed plans for sites and infrastructure that are n

  1. DOES GARP REALLY FAIL MISERABLY? A RESPONSE TO STOCKMAN ET AL. (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman et al. (2006) found that ecological niche models built using DesktopGARP 'failed miserably' to predict trapdoor spider (genus Promyrmekiaphila) distributions in California. This apparent failure of GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production) was actually a failure ...

  2. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Selig, Robert Simon; Kragh, Eva K.

    2016-01-01

    At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m3 vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank “took off” like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure...

  3. When goal pursuit fails: The functions of counterfactual thought in intention formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Roese, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this view

  4. A Case Study of a Failed Organization Development Intervention Rooted in the Employee Survey Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Richard A.; Zuber, John A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a case study that illustrates problems of employee surveys as part of the organization development process and makes recommendations to practitioners for effectively managing a sound approach to performance improvement. Provides a look at an inexperienced consultant and the distractions that resulted in a failed organization…

  5. Using Student Ability and Item Difficulty for Making Defensible Pass/Fail Decisions for Borderline Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Phil; Turner, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Pass/Fail decisions over Borderline grades, (i.e., grades which do not clearly distinguish between the competent and incompetent examinees) has been an ongoing challenge for academic institutions. This study utilises the Objective Borderline Method (OBM) to determine examinee ability and item difficulty, and from that…

  6. Performance confirmation of Monju failed fuel detection and location system (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monju has failed fuel detection (FFD) systems consisting of the delayed neutron (DN) monitoring system, the cover gas (CG) monitoring system, and the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system based on the tagging gas analysis. The FFDL system collects the tagging gas that migrates into the reactor cover gas from a failed pin. The tagging gas is made of stable isotopes of Kr and Xe. 270 types of isotopic composition are available using 15 types for Kr and 9 types for Xe. Thus, the isotopic composition of the tagging gas can be made specific to each assembly. The assembly containing a failed fuel pin can be identified by analyzing the isotopic composition. The FFDL system is comprised of two tagging gas concentration devices. The devices collect and concentrate the tagging gas by adjusting temperature of activated carbon from about 110 K to 430 K. The concentration rate is designed to be higher than 200. Past examinations demonstrated that the concentration rate met the requirement with a noble gas concentration of 1ppm. However, the actual noble gas concentration emitted from a failed fuel is assumed to be much lower. In the present study, the performance of FFDL system was investigated by measuring low concentration gas of the actual fuel failure level. The sample gas of concentrations ranging 0.1 ppb to 10 ppb was used. As a result, the concentration rate was confirmed to be more than tens of thousands, which sufficiently satisfies the design demand. Moreover, it was confirmed that the concentration dependence of noble gas was small. (author)

  7. Frequency and causes of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals for liquid phase clouds over global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoun-Myoung; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Lebsock, Matthew; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Di Girolamo, Larry; -Labonnote, Laurent C.; Cornet, Céline; Riedi, Jerome; Holz, Robert E.

    2015-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieves cloud droplet effective radius (r_e) and optical thickness (τ) by projecting observed cloud reflectances onto a precomputed look-up table (LUT). When observations fall outside of the LUT, the retrieval is considered "failed" because no combination of τ and r_e within the LUT can explain the observed cloud reflectances. In this study, the frequency and potential causes of failed MODIS retrievals for marine liquid phase (MLP) clouds are analyzed based on 1 year of Aqua MODIS Collection 6 products and collocated CALIOP and CloudSat observations. The retrieval based on the 0.86 μm and 2.1 μm MODIS channel combination has an overall failure rate of about 16% (10% for the 0.86 μm and 3.7 μm combination). The failure rates are lower over stratocumulus regimes and higher over the broken trade wind cumulus regimes. The leading type of failure is the "r_e too large" failure accounting for 60%-85% of all failed retrievals. The rest is mostly due to the "r_e too small" or τ retrieval failures. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MLP cloud pixels are partially cloudy or have high subpixel inhomogeneity, are located at special Sun-satellite viewing geometries such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angles, or cloudbow and glory angles, or are subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping, and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. The majority (more than 84%) of failed retrievals along the CALIPSO track can be attributed to at least one or more of these potential reasons. The collocated CloudSat radar reflectivity observations reveal that the remaining failed retrievals are often precipitating. It remains an open question whether the extremely large r_e values observed in these clouds are the consequence of true cloud microphysics or still due to artifacts not included in this study.

  8. Arrhythmogenic Remodeling of β2 versus β1 Adrenergic Signaling in the Human Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Di; Holzem, Katherine; Kang, Chaoyi; Xiao, Mengqian; Hwang, Hye Jin; Ewald, Gregory A.; Yamada, Kathryn A.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arrhythmia is the major cause of death in patients with heart failure, for which β-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockers are a mainstay therapy. But the role of β-adrenergic signaling in electrophysiology and arrhythmias has never been studied in human ventricles. Methods and Results We used optical imaging of action potentials (AP) and [Ca2+]i transients (CaT) to compare the β1- and β2-adrenergic responses in left ventricular wedge preparations of human donor and failing hearts. β1-stimulation significantly increased conduction velocity (CV), shortened AP duration (APD), CaT duration (CaD) in donor but not failing hearts, due to desensitization of β1-AR in heart failure. In contrast, β2-stimulation increased CV in both donor and failing hearts but shortened APD only in failing hearts. β2-stimulation also affected transmural heterogeneity in APD but not in CaD. Both β1- and β2-stimulation augmented the vulnerability and frequency of ectopic activity and enhanced substrates for ventricular tachycardia in failing, but not donor, hearts. Both β1- and β2-stimulation enhanced Purkinje fiber automaticity, while only β2-stimulation promoted Ca-mediated premature ventricular contractions in heart failure. Conclusions During end-stage heart failure, β2-stimulation creates arrhythmogenic substrates via CV regulation and transmurally heterogeneous repolarization. β2-stimulation is, therefore, more arrhythmogenic than β1-stimulation. In particular, β2-stimulation increases the transmural difference between CaD and APD, which facilitates the formation of delayed afterdepolarizations. PMID:25673629

  9. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4-45 years. Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1, and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2. The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4-13 cm. The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10-58 months, and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%, including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2 and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2. The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient′s age.

  10. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Facilitates Re-Extinction of Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reduced infralimbic (IL) cortical activity contributes to impairments of fear extinction. We therefore explored whether pharmacological activation of the IL would facilitate extinction under conditions it normally fails (i.e., immediate extinction). Rats received auditory fear conditioning 1 h before extinction training.…

  11. CENTRAL AMYGDALA LESIONS AFFECT BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE DURING STRESS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a bilateral electrolytical lesion of the CEA on the behavioral and sympathetically induced cardiac response in the shock-probe/defensive-burying test have been analyzed in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA failed to affect defensive burying and accompanying tachycardiac response as

  12. Association of annexin A5 with Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and caveolin-3 in non-failing and failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camors, Emmanuel; Charue, Dominique; Trouvé, Pascal; Monceau, Virginie; Loyer, Xavier; Russo-Marie, Françoise; Charlemagne, Danièle

    2006-01-01

    Annexin A5 is a Ca2+ dependent phosphatidylserine binding protein mainly located in the T-tubules and sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. Our objectives were to determine whether annexin A5 was associated with various protein(s) and whether such an association was modified in failing (F) hearts. The association between annexin A5 and the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) was demonstrated by immunohistofluorescence, annexin A5-biotin overlay and co-immunoprecipitations (IPs) performed with microsomal preparations (MPs) from non-failing (NF) (n = 8) and F (dilated cardiomyopathy, n = 7) human hearts. We moreover found caveolin-3 in the immunoprecipitates, indicating the presence of multimolecular subsarcolemmal complexes. Surface plasmon resonance assays in NF MPs allowed us to demonstrate direct interaction between the NCX and caveolin-3 and immobilized annexin A5. Interaction was Ca2+-dependent and inhibited by the specific antibody. In addition, dissociation by zwittergent 3-14 (ZW 3-14) of the complexes from MPs increased specific interactions. In F hearts, specific interactions were blunted in native MPs but were fully recovered after treatment with ZW 3-14. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a direct interaction between annexin A5 and the cardiac NCX occurs in complexes including caveolin-3. In F hearts, despite the increase in the exchanger level, almost all of the NCX was involved in complexes. These interactions probably occurred in the intracytoplasmic regulatory loop of the exchanger, suggesting a different regulation of the exchanger in heart failure, consistent with a role in altered Ca2+ handling. PMID:16330044

  13. When the back office moved to the front burner: settlement fails in the treasury market after 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Michael J.; Kenneth D. Garbade

    2002-01-01

    Settlement fails, which occur when securities are not delivered and paid for on the date scheduled by the buyer and seller, can expose market participants to the risk of loss due to counterparty insolvency. This article examines the institutional and economic setting of the fails problem that affected the Treasury market following September 11 and describes how the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Treasury responded. The authors explain that fails rose initially because of the physical destructio...

  14. 31P-NMR analysis of congestive heart failure in the SHHF/Mcc-facp rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael O'Donnell, J; Narayan, P; Bailey, M Q; Abduljalil, A M; Altschuld, R A; McCune, S A; Robitaille, P M

    1998-02-01

    31P-NMR was used to monitor myocardial bioenergetics in compensated and failing SHHF/MCC-fa(cp) (SHF) rat hearts. The SHHF/Mcc-fa(cp) (spontaneous hypertension and heart failure) rat is a relatively new genetic model in which all individuals spontaneously develop congestive heart failure, most during the second year of life. Failing SHF rat hearts displayed a pronounced decrease in resting PCr:ATP ratios (Ppressure products (RRP, mmHg X beats/min) from 44.5+/-1.4 to 66.6+/-3. 4 K with dobutamine infusion, whereas hearts in end-stage failure were able to increase their RPP from baseline values of 27+/-4 K to only 37+/-7 K. The data indicate that a pronounced decline in PCr and total creatine signals the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to decompensation and failure in the SHF rat model of hypertensive cardiomyopathy. PMID:9515000

  15. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul; Raybould, Helen E; Ney, Denise M

    2006-01-01

    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with...... of bioactive GLP-2 resulting from resection in orally fed rats. Ablation of spinal/splanchnic innervation by ganglionectomy failed to attenuate resection-induced adaptive growth. In TPN rats, capsaicin did not attenuate resection-induced mucosal growth. We conclude that vagal afferents are not...... essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal growth. Rats received systemic or perivagal capsaicin or ganglionectomy before 70% midjejunoileal resection or transection and were fed orally or by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 7 days after surgery. Growth of residual bowel was assessed by changes...

  16. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. PMID:26905801

  17. Critical Appraisal of the Milwaukee Protocol for Rabies: This Failed Approach Should Be Abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Jackson, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    The Milwaukee protocol has been attributed to survival in rabies encephalitis despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting its therapeutic measures. We have reviewed the literature with reference to specific treatment recommendations made within the protocol. Current literature fails to support an important role for excitotoxicity and cerebral vasospasm in rabies encephalitis. Therapies suggested in the Milwaukee protocol include therapeutic coma, ketamine infusion, amantadine, and the screening/prophylaxis/management of cerebral vasospasm. None of these therapies can be substantiated in rabies or other forms of acute viral encephalitis. Serious concerns over the current protocol recommendations are warranted. The recommendations made by the Milwaukee protocol warrant serious reconsideration before any future use of this failed protocol. PMID:26639059

  18. Value of the Gd-DTPA contrast enhanced MR in patients with failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gd-DTPA contrast - enhanced MR enables differentiation between postoperative scar and recurrent prolapse of nucleus pulposus (RPNP). Pre- and post-contrast MR studies in 40 patients with failed back surgery syndrome, previously treated surgically on 54 intervertebral levels, were evaluated. Presence of RPNP was confirmed on 4, postoperative scars on 35 and both condition on 15 invertebral levels. Correct interpretation of pathologic changes on 15 invertebral levels (28%) was only possible after contrast enhancement. Contrast enhancement of scar excluded the diagnosis of coexistence of RPNP and scar, based on pre-contrast MR studies. MR with Gd-DTPA contrast enhancement is the best diagnostic method in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (author)

  19. A fail-safe magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetorheological (MR) energy absorbers (EAs) are an effective adaptive EA technology with which to maximize shock and vibration isolation. However, to realize maximum performance of the semi-active control system, the off-state (i.e., field off) stroking load of the MREA must be minimized at all speeds, and the dynamic range of the MREA must be maximized at high speed. This study presents a fail-safe MREA (MREA-FS) concept that, can produce a greater dynamic range at all piston speeds. A bias damping force is generated in the MREA-FS using permanent magnetic fields, which enables fail-safe behavior in the case of power failure. To investigate the feasibility and capability of the MREA-FS in the context of the semi-active control systems, a single-degree-of-freedom base excited rigid payload is mathematically constructed and simulated with skyhook control

  20. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR [light-water reactor] fuel currently in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs

  1. A method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B V; Cabrera-Sharp, V; Firth, M J; Barrelet, F E; Bate, S; Cameron, I J; Crabtree, J R; Crowhurst, J; McGladdery, A J; Neal, H; Pynn, J; Pynn, O D; Smith, C; Wise, Z; Verheyen, K L P; Wathes, D C; de Mestre, A M

    2016-02-01

    Early pregnancy loss occurs in 6-10% of equine pregnancies making it the main cause of reproductive wastage. Despite this, reasons for the losses are known in only 16% of cases. Lack of viable conceptus material has inhibited investigations of many potential genetic and pathological causes. We present a method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies. Trophoblast cells from 18/30 (60%) failed equine pregnancies of gestational ages 14-65 days were successfully cultured in three different media, with the greatest growth achieved for cells cultured in AmnioChrome™ Plus. Genomic DNA of a suitable quality for molecular assays was also isolated from 29/30 of these cases. This method will enable future investigations determining pathologies causing EPL. PMID:26907389

  2. Failed fuel diagnosis during WWER reactor operation using the RTOP-CA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanistic code RTOP-CA is developed for objectives of failed fuel diagnosis during WWER reactor operation. The RTOP-CA code enables to solve a direct problem: modelling the failed fuel behavior and prediction of primary coolant activity if characteristics of failures in the reactor core are known. Results of verification of the RTOP-CA code are presented. Separate physical models were verified on small-scale in-pile and out-of-pile experiments. Integral verification cases included data obtained at research reactors and at nuclear power plants. The RTOP-CA code is used for development of a neural-network approach to the inverse problem: detection of failure characteristics on the base of data on primary coolant activity during reactor operation. Preliminary results of application of the neural-network approach for evaluation of fuel failure characteristics are presented. (authors)

  3. Kappa and delta opioid receptor signaling is augmented in the failing heart

    OpenAIRE

    Bolte, Craig; Newman, Gilbert; Schultz, Jo El J.

    2009-01-01

    The opioidergic system, an endogenous stress pathway, modulates cardiac function. Furthermore, opioid peptide and receptor expression is altered in a number of cardiac pathologies. However, whether the response of myocardial opioid receptor signaling is altered in heart failure progression is currently unknown. Elucidating possible alterations in and effects of opioidergic signaling in the failing myocardium is of critical importance as opioids are commonly used for pain management, including...

  4. "Waiting for the Next Crash: The Minskyan Lessons We Failed to Learn"

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, L. Randall

    2011-01-01

    Senior Scholar L. Randall Wray lays out the numerous and critical ways in which we have failed to learn from the latest global financial crisis, and identifies the underlying trends and structural vulnerabilities that make it likely a new crisis is right around the corner. Wray also suggests some policy changes that would shore up the financial system while reinvigorating the real economy, including the clear separation of commercial and investment banking, and a universal job guarantee.

  5. Bacterial Biofilm Morphology on a Failing Implant with an Oxidized Surface: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, Massimo; Kim, David M; Pieroni, Stefano; Nevins, Myron; Cassinelli, Clara

    2016-01-01

    This case report provided a unique opportunity to investigate the extent of microbiota infiltration on the oxidized implant surface that has been compromised by peri-implantitis. Scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the etiologic role of the bacteria on the loss of supporting structure and the difficulty in complete removal of bacterial infiltration on the implant surface. This case report emphasizes the need to perform definitive surface decontamination on failing dental implants prior to a regeneration procedure. PMID:27333005

  6. Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome under local Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Anthony; Gore, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common causes of failed back surgery are residual or recurrent herniation, foraminal fibrosis and foraminal stenosis that is ignored, untreated, or undertreated. Residual back ache may also be from facetal causes or denervation and scarring of the paraspinal muscles. 1–6 The original surgeon may advise his patient that nothing more can be done on the basis of his opinion that the nerve was visually decompressed by the original surgery, supported by improved post-op imaging...

  7. An extra high dose of erythropoietin fails to support the proliferation of erythropoietin dependent cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    ABE, Satoshi; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Masuda, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin is responsible for the red blood cell formation by stimulating the proliferation and the differentiation of erythroid precursor cells. Erythropoietin triggers the conformational change in its receptor thereby induces the phosphorylation of JAK2. In this study, we show that an extra high dose of erythropoietin, however, fails to activate the erythropoietin receptor, to stimulate the phosphorylation of JAK2 and to support the cell proliferation of Ep-FDC-P2 cell. Moreover, high d...

  8. Investigation of Occupational Asthma: Do Clinicians Fail to Identify rRelevant Occupational Exposures?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo de Olim; Denis Bégin; Louis-Philippe Boulet; André Cartier; Michel Gérin; Catherine Lemière

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC) enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA). A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies.OBJECTIVE: The broad aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of an expert assessment perform...

  9. The Search for Failed Supernovae with The Large Binocular Telescope: First Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Gerke, J R; Stanek, K Z

    2014-01-01

    We are monitoring 27 galaxies within 10 Mpc using the Large Binocular Telescope to search for failed supernovae (SNe), massive stars that collapse to form a black hole without a SN explosion. This sample yielded 3 successful SNe during the 4 year survey period. We search for stars that have "vanished" over the course of our survey, by examining all stars showing a decrease in luminosity of $\\Delta \

  10. Benefits of Extra Begging Fail to Compensate for Immunological Costs in Southern Shrike (Lanius meridionalis) Nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Moreno-Rueda; Tomás Redondo

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models aimed at explaining the evolution of honest, informative begging signals employed by nestling birds to solicit food from their parents, require that dishonest signalers incur a net viability cost in order to prevent runaway escalation of signal intensity over evolutionary time. Previous attempts to determine such a cost empirically have identified two candidate physiological costs associated with exaggerated begging: a growth and an immunological cost. However, they failed ...

  11. Mental health of failed asylum seekers as compared with pending and temporarily accepted asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, J; Schmidt, M.; Staeheli, A; Maier, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers (AS) and refugees often suffer from severe psychopathology in the form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD impacts memory functions, and as asylum applications rely on personal accounts, AS with PTSD are at more risk of being rejected than refugees. METHODS: We studied the mental health of failed asylum seekers (FAS, N = 40) and a matched sample of AS (N = 40). Participants were administered structured interviews on sociodemographics, flight, exile and...

  12. A Strategy for Complex Dimer Formation When Biomimicry Fails: Total Synthesis of Ten Coccinellid Alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Trevor C.; Trotta, Adam H.; Snyder, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature’s presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strat...

  13. Incompatible strategies in international mergers: the failed merger between Telia and Telenor

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Benedichte Meyer; Ellen Altenborg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the problems of incompatible strategies in international mergers. Studying a failed merger between the two state-owned Scandinavian telecom corporations, we examine how the parties' strategies were incompatible. We find that the parties' strategies were incompatible in three distinctive areas, and study how the companies tried to resolve these incompatibilities. Owing to national governance structures established to protect national interests, the parties w...

  14. Online failed fuel identification using delayed neutron detector signals in pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In todays world, nuclear reactors are at the forefront of modern day innovation and reactor designs are increasingly incorporating cutting edge technology. It is of utmost importance to detect failure or defects in any part of a nuclear reactor for healthy operation of reactor as well as the safety aspects of the environment. Despite careful fabrication and manufacturing of fuel pins, there is a chance of clad failure. After fuel pin clad rupture takes place, it allows fission products to enter in to sodium pool. There are some potential consequences due to this such as Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) of coolant and primary component contamination. At present, the failed fuel detection techniques such as cover gas monitoring (alarming the operator), delayed neutron detection (DND-automatic trip) and standalone failed fuel localization module (FFLM) are exercised in various reactors. The first technique is a quantitative measurement of increase in the cover gas activity background whereas DND system causes automatic trip on detecting certain level of activity during clad wet rupture. FFLM is subsequently used to identify the failed fuel subassembly. The later although accurate, but mainly suffers from downtime and reduction in power during identification process. The proposed scheme, reported in this paper, reduces the operation of FFLM by predicting the faulty sector and therefore reducing reactor down time and thermal shocks. The neutron evolution pattern gets modulated because fission products are the delay neutron precursors. When they travel along with coolant to Intermediate heat Exchangers, experienced three effects i.e. delay; decay and dilution which make the neutron pulse frequency vary depending on the location of failed fuel sub assembly. This paper discusses the method that is followed to study the frequency domain properties, so that it is possible to detect exact fuel subassembly failure online, before the reactor automatically trips. (author)

  15. Development of failed fuel detection and location technique using resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of experiments on justification of the procedure for failed element detection and localization using resonance ionization mass spectroscopy of Xe and Kr isotopes in gas probes at the JOYO fast research reactor and MONJU prototype unit (Japan) is presented. Selectivity and range of applicability of the resonance ionization mass spectroscopy and gas label methods were studied. Agreement between experimental values of the Kr and Xe isotopes abundance and known data is proof that the method is fitness for work

  16. Lower limb deformity due to failed trauma treatment corrected with the Ilizarov technique

    OpenAIRE

    Oostenbroek, Hubert J; Brand, Ronald; van Roermund, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Failed treatment of fractures may be corrected by the Ilizarov technique but complications are common. In 52 patients with compromised healing of femoral and tibial fractures, the results of secondary reconstruction with Ilizarov treatment were investigated retrospectively in order to identify the factors that contribute to the risk of complications. Methods 52 consecutive patients was analyzed. The median interval between injury and secondary reconstruction was 3 (0.1–...

  17. Treatment of failing vein grafts in patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Keun-Myoung; Park, Yang Jin; Yang, Shin-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We attempted to determine risk factors for the development of failing vein graft and optimal treatment in patients with infrainguinal vein grafts. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass using autogenous vein grafts due to chronic atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease of lower extremity (LE) at a single institute between September 2003 and December 2011. After reviewing demographic, clinical, and angiographic features of the p...

  18. Failed spinal anesthesia in addicts: Is it an incidence or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M.I. Youssef

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of failure of the intrathecal anesthesia seemed to be higher in the addict than in non-addict patients. Redo intrathecal injection with a top up 1/2 of the initial dose resulted in success of the block in all failed cases. There was a slower onset and decreased duration of both sensory and motor blocks, with higher incidence of hypotension and nausea more in the addict patients than in non-addicts.

  19. Dynamic analysis of a high-speed train operating on a curved track with failed fasteners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHOU; Zhi-yun SHEN

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed train-track coupling dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of a high-speed train operating on a curved track with failed fasteners.The model considers a high-speed train consisting of eight vehicles coupled with a ballasted track.The vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system,and the rail is modeled with a Timoshenko beam resting on the discrete sleepers.The vehicle model considers the effect of the end connections of the neighboring vehicles on the dynamic behavior.The track model takes into account the lateral,vertical,and torsional deformations of the rails and the effect of the discrete sleeper support on the coupling dynamics of the vehicles and the track.The sleepers are assumed to move backward at a constant speed to simulate the vehicle running along the track at the same speed.The train model couples with the track model by using a Hertzian contact model for the wheel/rail normal force calculation,and the nonlinear creep theory by Shen et al.(1984) is used for wheel/rail tangent force calculation.In the analysis,a curved track of 7000-m radius with failed fasteners is selected,and the effects of train operational speed and the number of failed fasteners on the dynamic behaviors of the train and the track are investigated in detail.Furthermore,the wheel/rail forces and derailment coefficient and the wheelset loading reduction are analyzed when the high-speed train passes over the curved track with the different number of continuously failed fasteners at different operational speeds.Through the detailed numerical analysis,it is found that the high-speed train can operate normally on the curved track of 7000-m radius at the speeds of 200 km/h to 350 km/h.

  20. Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peskin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fis...

  1. Functional remodeling of Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in pacing induced canine failing heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li; Kejuan Ma; Siyong Teng; Jonathan C.Makielski; Jielin Pu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Ca2+ activated Cl- current(Icl(Ca)) contributes to the functional remodeling of the failing heart.Methods Whole cell patch-clamp recording technique was employed to record the Icl(Ca) in cardiac myocytes enzymatically isolatedfrom rapidly pacing induced canine failing hearts at room temperature and compared that of the normal hearts (Nor).Results Thecurrent density of DIDS(200M)sensitive Icl(Ca) induced by intracellular Ca2+ release trigged by L-type Ca2+ current(Ica,L)wassignificantly decreased in heart failare(HE)cells compared to Nor cells.At membrane voltage of 20mV,the Icl(Ca) density was 3.02±0.54 pA/pF in Nor(n=6)vs.1.31±0.25 pA/pF in HF(n=8)cells,(P<0.01),while the averaged Ica,L density did not show differencebetween two groups.The time constant of current decay of Icl(Ca) was similar in both types of cells.On the other hand,in intra cellularCa2+ clamped mode,where the[Ca2+];was maintained at 100nmol/L,Icl(Ca) density be increased significantly in HF cells when themembrane voltage at+30mV or higher.Conclusions Our results suggest that Icl(Ca) density was decreased in pacing induced failingheart but the channel function be enhanced.Impaired Ca2+ handing in HF cells rather than reduced,Icl(Ca) channel function itself may havecaused this abnormality.The Icl(Ca) density reduction might contribute to the prolongation of action potential in failing heart.The Icl(Ca)channel function up-rugulation is likely to cause cardiac arrhythmia by inducing a delayed after depolarization,when Ca2+ overloadoccurred in diastolic failing heart cells.

  2. Vaccine strategy when the smallpox model fails: 1. immune cognition, Malaria and the Fulani

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick; Wallace, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    We begin to examine the implications of IR Cohen's work on immune cognition [1-3] for vaccine strategies when simple elicitation of sterilizing immunity fails, as is the case for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. Cohen's approach takes on a special importance in the context of recent work by Nisbett et al. [4] showing clearly that central nervous system (CNS) cognition is not universal, but rather differs fundamentally for populations having different cultural systems. A growing body o...

  3. FAIL-MPI: How fault-tolerant is fault-tolerant MPI ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hérault, Thomas; Hoarau, William; Lemarinier, Pierre; Rodriguez, Eric; Tixeuil, Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    One of the topics of paramount importance in the development of Cluster and Grid middleware is the impact of faults since their occurrence probability in a Grid infrastructure and in large-scale distributed system is actually very high. MPI (Message Passing Interface) is a popular abstraction for programming distributed computation applications. FAIL is an abstract language for fault occurrence description capable of expressing complex and realistic fault scenarios. In this paper, we investig...

  4. Surgical Reimplantation for the Correction of Vesicoureteral Reflux following Failed Endoscopic Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Sarel Halachmi; Ofer Nativ; Sagiv Aharon; Ksenia Prosolovich; Boris Chertin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. In recent years, endoscopic injection became the procedure of choice for the correction of vesicoureteral reflux in the majority of the centers. Unfortunately, endoscopic treatment is not always successful and sometimes requires more than one trial to achieve similar results to that of an open reimplantation surgery. Our aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and success rate of open ureteral reimplantation following failed endoscopic procedure. Patients and Methods. During...

  5. Subconjunctival bevacizumab to augment trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the management of failed glaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed AM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Saeed, Tarek Tawfeek AboulNasrOphthalmology Department, Benha University, Egypt Purpose: To provide a feasible solution to the problem of failed glaucoma surgery. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the additional effects of a combined surgical approach. This approach augments the application of trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC by adding subconjunctival bevacizumab injection. The results were compared with those of trabeculectomy with only adjunctive MMC. Methods: A randomized controlled prospective clinical trial included 28 eyes diagnosed with failed scarred bleb of a previous trabeculectomy. The eyes were divided into two equal groups: combined group A, “trabeculectomy with adjunctive MMC and subconjunctival bevacizumab,” and control group B, “trabeculectomy with adjunctive MMC only.” The main outcome results included the cumulative probability of surgical success, intraocular pressure (IOP values, and number of IOP-lowering medications needed to achieve the target IOP.Results: Group A achieved a cumulative probability of complete success of 0.769 and of qualified success of 0.231 at the end of the 24 month study period; group B achieved cumulative probabilities of 0.538 and 0.308, respectively. Group A achieved a lower mean IOP value than group B, with fewer antiglaucoma drugs at all postoperative visits, but this lower value did not reach a statistically significant level (P>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding best corrected visual acuity, visual field parameters, operative and/or postoperative complications, and additional interventions. No significant adverse effects were caused by this combined approach.Conclusion: Bevacizumab was not found to add much to the favorable long-term outcome of conventional trabeculectomy with MMC as a solution to the problem of scarred failed bleb. Keywords: glaucoma, bevacizumab, mitomycin C, failed trabeculectomy

  6. Perceived adherence barriers among patients failing second-line antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    W Barnett; G Patten; Kerschberger, B; K Conradie; D B Garone; G van Cutsem; C KJ Colvin

    2013-01-01

    Background. The recent scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in resource-limited settings has greatly improved access to treatment. However, increasing numbers of patients are failing first- and second-line ART.Objective. To examine factors affecting adherence to second-line ART from the perspective of clinic staff and patients, assessing both individual and structural perceived barriers.Methods. Research was conducted at a large primary care tuberculosis (TB)/HIV clinic in Khayel...

  7. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakrishnan, K; Koshy, Aby K; Raju, R

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. AIMS: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscop...

  8. Four ways in which data-free papers on animal personality fail to be impactful

    OpenAIRE

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The literature on animal personality is dominated by papers lacking any data. These papers, which we will call “data-free” papers, are cited and recognized twice as much as comparable empirical studies. In this data-free paper, we highlight 4 common data-free contributions that often fail to have an impact on the topic: (a) novel conceptual frameworks suggesting novel avenues of research or hypotheses, (b) papers prescribing novel terminologies, (c) syntheses revisiting older theories, and (d...

  9. Resolution of Failed Banks by Deposit Insurers : Cross-Country Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten; Laeven, Luc

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide cross-country variation in the institutional structure of bank failure resolution, including the role of the deposit insurer. The authors use quantitative analysis for 57 countries and discuss specific country cases to illustrate this variation. Using data for over 1,700 banks across 57 countries, they show that banks in countries where the deposit insurer has the responsibility of intervening failed banks and the power to revoke membership in the deposit insurance scheme are ...

  10. The implementation of fail-operative functions in integrated digital avionics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoer, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    System architectures which incorporate fail operative flight guidance functions within a total integrated avionics complex are described. It is shown that the mixture of flight critical and nonflight critical functions within a common computer complex is an efficient solution to the integration of navigation, guidance, flight control, display, and flight management. Interfacing subsystems retain autonomous capability to avoid vulnerability to total avionics system shutdown as a result of only a few failures.

  11. Successfully Climbing the “STAIRs”: Surmounting Failed Translation of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Michael P.; Bix, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) provided initial (in 1999) and updated (in 2009) recommendations with the goal of improving preclinical stroke therapy assessment and to increase the translational potential of experimental stroke treatments. It is important for preclinical stroke researchers to frequently consider and revisit these concepts, especially since promising experimental stroke treatments continue to fail in human clinical trials. Therefore, this paper will fo...

  12. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  13. Oksimoron "Failed State" Absennya Negara dan BAngkitnya Gerakan Masyarakat Sipil Menyelamatkan Ruang Publik Pasca Erupsi Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Widyanta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidates on strength of social capital in civil society with respect to effort to preserve public space for natural disaster refugees in light of the deterioration of the ability of the state to accomplish civil rights obligation. The analysis began with a study on the characteristics of a failed state. The state can be categorized as failed state if it fulfills three characteristics which are: 1 the negligence in fulfilling civil rights obligations; 2 the disposition of aggressive behaviors; and 3 the intensification of democracy deficit. On the basis of the failed state paradigm, this o the study subsequently moved toward to the focal point, which was that was divided into three parts. The first part examined the paradigm of basic essence in the national constitution and legislation on disasters, relating to public welfare. The second parts discussed the phenomenon of Mt. Merapi's eruption including the chronology of event which in part was responsible for the large number of refugees. The third pat elaborated on the best practice, which where adopted by Posko Mandiri Kadiosoka, as a forum that was established to deal with relief and assistance and service originally intended to fulfill basic rights of refugees. The erosion of social capital capacity in the long term, coupled with and decline in the role of the state as the basic rights handling disasters has seriously limited the independence of civil society in Posko Mandiri Kadiosoko.

  14. Transportation of failed or damaged foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since initiating the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program in 1996, the Program has had to deal with difficult issues associated with the transportation of failed or damaged spent fuel. In several instances, problems with failed or damaged fuel have prevented the acceptance of the fuel at considerable cost to both the Department of Energy and research reactor operators. In response to the problems faced by the Acceptance Program, DOE has undertaken significant steps to better define the spent fuel acceptance criteria. DOE has worked closely with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address failed or damaged research reactor spent fuel causing a degradation of the fuel assembly exposing fuel meat and to identify cask certificate issues which must be resolved by cask owners and foreign regulatory authorities. The specific issues and implementation challenges associated with the transport of MTR type FRR SNF will be discussed. The information presented will include U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory issues, cask certificate issues, technical constraints, implementation status, and lessons learned. Specific information will also be provided on the latest efforts to revise DOE's Appendix B, Transport Package (Cask) Acceptance Criteria. The information presented in this paper will be of interest to foreign research reactor operators, shippers, and cask vendors in evaluating the condition of their fuel to ensure it can be transported in accordance with appropriate cask certificate requirements. (author)

  15. Implications of Fail-forward in an Online Environment under Alternative Grading Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fail-forward can be used as a teaching technique to motivate students to learn from their mistakes. For example, when students are allowed to re-work incorrect responses on a test for a partial grade they are failing-forward. In this paper we look at the effects of failing-forward on student effort in online learning environments. We consider two alternative grading schemes with different levels of penalties for failure. Under the first grading scheme students are allowed to submit their work up to three times without being penalized. Under the alternative grading scheme students are penalized every time that they answer questions incorrectly. We find that instructors may be able to use the “average of all scores” grading scheme to increase the level of preparation of students even with differences in students’ innate ability. However, the benefits are less pronounced in fully online classes where there is no face-to-face instruction time.

  16. MR findings in lumbar spine of patients with failed chemonucleolysis therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemonucleolysis involving of chemopapain into the intervertebral disk is a widely used treatment for symptomatic hernia that seldom fails. Our objective is to assess the changes in the MR findings in patients in whom chemonucleolysis has failed, correlating the changes observed between pretreatment and pos treatment MR studies with the chemopapain dose and the time interval between chemonucleolysis and the MR study. A retrospective analysis was done of 205 patients treated with chemonucleolysis who had undergone MR prior and after therapy. The changes in the following parameters were recorded: T2-weighted height and signal in the disk; size and signal of the disk herniation: changes in edema, fat or adjacent joint plates, and the presence of associated soft tissue tumefaction. Upon intravenous administration of the contrast material, the uptake in the disk and adjacent structures was assessed. The statistical significance of the findings was analyzed by Fisher's exact test for the comparison of qualitative proportions. All but one of the treated discal spaces showed changes in the disco-vertebral joints in at least one of the imaging parameters analyzed. No statistically significant relationship was observed between these parameters and the time elapsed between treatment and MR and the dose of chemopapain. Chemonucleolysis induces changes in the MR images of patients in whom this therapy fails

  17. Neutrinos from failed supernovae at future water and liquid argon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Keehn, James G

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the diffuse flux of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos from cosmological failed supernovae, stars that collapse directly into a black hole, with no explosion. This flux has a hotter energy spectrum compared to regular, neutron-star forming collapses, and therefore it dominates the total diffuse flux from core collapses above 20-45 MeV of neutrino energy. Reflecting the features of the originally emitted neutrinos, the flux of nu_e and anti-nu_e at Earth is larger for larger survival probability of these species, and for stiffer equations of state of nuclear matter. In the energy window 19-29 MeV, the flux from failed supernovae is susbtantial, ranging from 7% to a dominant fraction of the total flux from all core collapses. It can be as large as phi = 0.38 s^{-1} cm^{-2} for anti-nu_e (phi = 0.28 s^{-1} cm^{-2} for nue), normalized to a local rate of core collapses of R_{cc}(0)=10^{-4} yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3}. In 5 years, a 0.45 Mt water Cherenkov detector should see 5-65 events from failed supernovae, ...

  18. An experience of bronchotomy and resectional procedures after failed bronchoscopic foerign body retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign body bronchus is a surgical emergency and is associated with a high mortality if neglected or complicated. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome of bronchotomy and resectional procedures after failed bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. Methods: This study of 24 cases of bronchotomy and resectional procedures after failed bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval was done from June 2008 to June 2009 and March 2010 to Sep 2013. Patients after failed retrieval of foreign body by bronchoscopy either by ENT specialists or thoracic surgeons underwent bronchotomy or resectional procedures were included in the study. We used the posterolateral thoracotomy approach for the surgical procedures. Results: Bronchotomy and resectional procedures were done in 24 cases. Age of patients ranged from 2 years to 51 years. Most patients were children and right side was mostly involved. Bronchotomy procedures were 10 (41%) and resectional surgeries were 13 (58%). Emergency lobectomies were 3 out of 13 resectional surgeries. Right intermedius bronchus was opened up and incision was extended in the direction of foreign body in 6 cases and left bronchus intermedius was opened in 4 cases. Haemoptysis was the main symptom in late presenters. Range of objects retrieved in our study was from pins, needles to whistles. Conclusion: Retention causes endobronchial obstruction with stasis leading to irreversible damaged parenchyma. Foreign body with structural changes require resection, others can be offered bronchotomy which is a safe procedure for retained non retrievable foreign bodies. (author)

  19. Lesion patterns in successful and failed thrombolysis in middle cerebral artery stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombolysis has been shown to improve neurological recovery in acute stroke. But the response to thrombolysis is variable across patients. We sought to investigate this variability by analyzing the lesion patterns following systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and tirofiban in middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. One hundred three consecutive stroke patients (67 ± 14 years) were grouped according to the site of MCA occlusion and successful or failed recanalization as assessed with magnetic resonance angiography. Infarct lesions were analyzed in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images after 10 days. Patients recovered markedly upon successful recanalization following thrombolysis (p < 0.05) but remained severely impaired when there was no recanalization within 24 h. Infarct lesions were smaller after successful than after failed recanalization (p < 0.005). They occurred throughout the cerebral cortex on the cerebral convexity in distal MCA occlusions with large individual heterogeneity. In contrast, there was a large lesion overlap in insular cortex, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and paraventricular white matter in proximal MCA occlusions. Systemic thrombolysis with rtPA and tirofiban of MCA occlusions resulted in early neurological recovery and preferentially peri-insular infarcts. In failed recanalization of the MCA stem there was a large lesion overlap in the hemispheric white matter and a lack of recovery. (orig.)

  20. Transportation of failed or damaged foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, C.E. [U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site (United States); Mustin, T.P. [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Massey, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratorier (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Since resuming the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program in 1996, the Program has had to deal with difficult issues associated with the transportation of failed or damaged spent fuel. In several instances, problems with failed or damaged fuel have prevented the acceptance of the fuel at considerable cost to both the Department of Energy (DOE) and research reactor operators. In response to the problems faced by the Acceptance Program, DOE has undertaken significant steps to better define the spent fuel acceptance criteria. DOE has worked closely with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address failed or damaged research reactor spent fuel and to identify cask certificate issues which must be resolved by cask owners and foreign regulatory authorities. The specific issues associated with the transport of Materials Testing Reactor (MTR)-type FRR SNF will be discussed. The information presented will include U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory issues, cask certificate issues, technical constraints, and lessons learned. Specific information will also be provided on the latest efforts to revise DOE's Appendix B, Transport Package (Cask) Acceptance Criteria. The information presented in this paper will be important to foreign research reactor operators, shippers, and cask vendors, so that appropriate amendments to the Certificate of Compliance for spent fuel casks can be submitted in a timely manner to facilitate the safe and scheduled transport of FRR SNF.

  1. Testosterone replacement attenuates cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived lean rats, but not in obese rats, by mitigating brain oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Testosterone replacement improves metabolic parameters and cognitive function in hypogonadism. However, the effects of testosterone therapy on cognition in obese condition with testosterone deprivation have not been investigated. We hypothesized that testosterone replacement improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats had either a bilateral orchiectomy (ORX: O, n = 24) or a sham operation (S, n = 6). ORX rats were further divided into two groups fed with either a normal diet (NDO) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) and were given either castor oil or testosterone (2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 4 weeks. At the end of this protocol, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and brain mitochondrial function were determined. We found that testosterone replacement increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, and attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production in HFO rats. However, testosterone failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in HFO rats. In contrast, in NDO rats, testosterone decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production, and restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function. These findings suggest that testosterone replacement improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and decreased oxidative stress levels, but failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats. However, it provided beneficial effects in reversing cognitive impairment in testosterone-deprived non-obese rats. PMID:26277724

  2. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1-14C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  3. Moderate physical activity from childhood contributes to metabolic health and reduces hepatic fat accumulation in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Sponton, Amanda Christine da Silva; de Araújo, Michel Barbosa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; PAULI, JOSÉ RODRIGO; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate physical training performed from childhood to adulthood on liver fat metabolism in rats. Methods Twenty rats that were 28 days old were divided...

  4. Connexin mimetic peptides fail to inhibit vascular conducted calcium responses in renal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Salomonsson, Max; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig;

    2008-01-01

    mimetic peptides directed against one or more connexins. Preglomerular resistance vessels were microdissected from kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats and loaded with fura 2. The vessels were stimulated locally by applying electrical current through a micropipette, and the conducted calcium response was...

  5. mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: a population-based simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walmsley

    Full Text Available Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the information contained in mRNA measurements can be used to predict cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in heart failure using computational modeling. Using mRNA data recently obtained from failing and non-failing human hearts, we construct failing and non-failing cell populations incorporating natural variability and up/down regulation of channel conductivities. Six biomarkers are calculated for each cell in each population, at cycle lengths between 1500 ms and 300 ms. Regression analysis is performed to determine which ion channels drive biomarker variability in failing versus non-failing cardiomyocytes. Our models suggest that reported mRNA expression changes are consistent with AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, increased CaT duration, decreased CaT triangulation and amplitude, and increased delay between AP and CaT upstrokes in the failing population. Regression analysis reveals that changes in AP biomarkers are driven primarily by reduction in I[Formula: see text], and changes in CaT biomarkers are driven predominantly by reduction in I(Kr and SERCA. In particular, the role of I(CaL is pacing rate dependent. Additionally, alternans developed at fast pacing rates for both failing and non-failing cardiomyocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are different in control and heart failure.

  6. The use of low-dose protracted oral clofarabine in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome after failing 5-azacitidine

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ustwani, Omar; Greene, Jessica D.; Wetzler, Meir

    2013-01-01

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome who fail hypomethylating agents have a very short median survival and about 25% risk of disease transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We report our experience with low-dose protracted oral clofarabine in one patient who achieved stable disease for more than two years after failing 5-azacitidine.

  7. The Role of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Therapeutic Resection for Medically Failed Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yau-Lin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Cheng, Lili; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ho; Lu, Chung-Lan; Yen, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports regarding video-assisted thoracoscopic therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We reviewed our surgical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) therapeutic resection for pulmonary TB with medical failure, and its correlation with image characteristics on chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Between January 2007 and December 2012, among the 203 patients who had surgery for TB, the medical records of 89 patients undergoing therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary TB were reviewed. Clinical information and the image characteristics of CT scan were investigated and analyzed. Forty-six of the 89 patients undergoing successful VATS therapeutic resection had significantly lower grading in pleural thickening (P the 38 patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDRTB) who successfully underwent VATS had significantly lower grading in pleural thickening (P = 0.001), peribronchial lymph node calcification (P = 0.019), and cavity (P = 0.017). They were preoperatively medicated for a shorter period of time (221.6 ± 90.8 vs 596.1 ± 432.5 days; P = 0.001), and had more sublobar resection (44.4% vs 10%), less blood loss (165.3 ± 148.3 vs 468.0 ± 439.9 mL; P = 0.009), and shorter hospital stay (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 11.8 ± 6.9 days; P = 0.001). Without multiple cavities, peribronchial lymph node calcification, and extensive pleural thickening, VATS therapeutic resection could be safely performed in selected patients with medically failed pulmonary TB as an effective adjunct with satisfactory results. PMID:27149451

  8. ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jennifer C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo. Since overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to the progression of heart failure, this investigation assessed changes in gene expression of ACE2, ACE, AT1 receptor and renin in the human failing heart. Methods The sensitive technique of quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the level of mRNA expression of ACE and ACE2 in human ventricular myocardium from donors with non-diseased hearts (n = 9, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC, n = 11 and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, n = 12. Following logarithmic transformation of the data, a one-way analysis of variance was performed for each target gene followed by a Dunnett's test to compare the two disease groups IDC and ICM versus control. Results As anticipated, ACE mRNA was found to be significantly increased in the failing heart with a 3.1 and 2.4-fold up-regulation found in IDC and ICM relative to non-diseased myocardium. Expression of ACE2 mRNA was also significantly up-regulated in IDC (2.4-fold increase and ICM (1.8-fold increase versus non-diseased myocardium. No change in angiotensin AT1 receptor mRNA expression was found in failing myocardium and renin mRNA was not detected. Conclusions These data suggest that ACE2 is up-regulated in human IDC and ICM and are consistent with the hypothesis that differential regulation of this enzyme may have important functional consequences in heart failure. This strengthens the hypothesis that ACE2 may be a relevant target for the treatment of heart failure and will hopefully spur further studies to clarify the functional effects in human myocardium of ACE2 derived peptides.

  9. Quantification of carbonic anhydrase gene expression in ventricle of hypertrophic and failing human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Bernardo V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase enzymes (CA catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate in mammalian cells. Trans-membrane transport of CA-produced bicarbonate contributes significantly to cellular pH regulation. A body of evidence implicates pH-regulatory processes in the hypertrophic growth pathway characteristic of hearts as they fail. In particular, Na+/H+ exchange (NHE activation is pro-hypertrophic and CA activity activates NHE. Recently Cardrase (6-ethoxyzolamide, a CA inhibitor, was found to prevent and revert agonist-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy (CH in cultured cardiomyocytes. Our goal thus was to determine whether hypertrophied human hearts have altered expression of CA isoforms. Methods We measured CA expression in hypertrophied human hearts to begin to examine the role of carbonic anhydrase in progression of human heart failure. Ventricular biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery (CS, n = 14, or heart transplantation (HT, n = 13. CS patients presented mild/moderate concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and normal right ventricles, with preserved ventricular function; ejection fractions were ~60%. Conversely, HT patients with failing hearts presented CH or ventricular dilation accompanied by ventricular dysfunction and EF values of 20%. Non-hypertrophic, non-dilated ventricular samples served as controls. Results Expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP were markers of CH. Hypertrophic ventricles presented increased expression of CAII, CAIV, ANP, and BNP, mRNA levels, which increased in failing hearts, measured by quantitative real-time PCR. CAII, CAIV, and ANP protein expression also increased approximately two-fold in hypertrophic/dilated ventricles. Conclusions These results, combined with in vitro data that CA inhibition prevents and reverts CH, suggest that increased carbonic anhydrase expression is a prognostic molecular marker of cardiac

  10. Effect of mesenchymal stem cell implantation in post infarctioned swine myocardium on repolarization of cardiomyocytes in left ventricle%幼猪心肌梗死后植入骨髓间充质干细胞对心室肌细胞复极活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星; 陈月云; 王德国; 邢文; 李祥东; 汪源经; 王安才

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cell implantation in post infarctioned swine myocardium on repolarization of cardiomyocytes in left ventricle. Methods Ten swines were used as normal controls ( control group) , 23 swines with acute myocar-dial infarction ( AMI) received intracoronary infusion of either MSC solution( MSC group, re = 13 ) or 0. 9% sodium chloride solution ( MI group, re = 10). 6 weeks later, monophasic action potentials ( MAPs) were recorded from left ventricular endocardium for the analyses of action potential duration of 90% repolarization (APD90) , repolarization time ( RT) , dispersion of APD and RT (APDd and TRd) , slope of APD reconstitution curve and critical cycle of APD alternans. Results (1) The values of APD90 , APDd, RT and RTd in the MI and MSC groups markedly increased compared with Control group (all P 1(异常),但前者斜率明显小于后者;(3) MSCs诱发APD交替的阈值周长虽高于Control组(P<0.01),却低于MI组(P<0.05).结论 MI后心室复极离散度增大,MSCs可以减轻MI引起的复极紊乱,提示MSCs移植有助于降低MI后室性心律失常的风险.

  11. A Tale of Two Projects: why IT projects fail (and why they sometimes actually succeed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilton

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This Case describes two similar outsourced IS projects that took place in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ during the period 1992-99, with emphasis on the reasons why one project failed (the prime contractor repudiated the contract and the project was abandoned and why the other succeeded. The same prime contractor was used for both projects and there were a number of other similarities, yet the outcomes were totally different. The Case provides lessons in some of the fundamental aspects of IS/IT project management, including scope, time, risk, human resources, procurement and quality management.

  12. Interposed Abdominal Compression CPR for an Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Victim Failing Traditional CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. McClung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interposed abdominal compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (IAC-CPR is an alternative technique to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR that can improve perfusion and lead to restoration of circulation in patients with chest wall deformity either acquired through vigorous CPR or co-morbidity such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We report a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest where IAC-CPR allowed for restoration of spontaneous circulation and eventual full neurologic recovery when traditional CPR was failing to generate adequate pulses with chest compression alone.

  13. Revisiting the triangulation method for pointing to supernova and failed supernova with neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlbeier, T.; Nunokawa, H.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2013-01-01

    In view of the advent of large-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube, the future Hyper-Kamiokande and the ones proposed for the Laguna project in Europe, we re-examine the determination of the directional position of a Galactic supernova by means of its neutrinos using the triangulation method. We study the dependence of the pointing accuracy on the arrival time resolution of supernova neutrinos at different detectors. For a failed supernova, we expect better results due to the abrupt term...

  14. Ultrasound fails to induce proliferation of human brain and mouse endothelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ultrasound (US) is capable of inducing angiogenesis. There is no information, however, on whether ultrasound can induce proliferation of brain endothelial cells. We therefore explored the angiogenic potential of ultrasound on a novel immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) and on mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEND3). Ultrasound failed to enhance cell proliferation in both cell lines at all acoustic pressures studied. Endothelial cell damage occurred at 0.24 MPa with significantly slower proliferation. Cells growing in Opticell{trade mark, serif} dishes did not show damage or reduced proliferation at these pressures.

  15. Characteristics of orphan drug applications that fail to achieve marketing approval in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Harald E; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Rodgers, R P Channing; Xu, Kui; Voordouw, Bettie C G; Braun, M Miles

    2011-01-01

    The US Orphan Drug Act has fostered the development of drugs for patients with rare diseases by granting 'orphan designations', although several orphan drugs for which a marketing application has been submitted to the FDA have failed to obtain approval. This study identified the clinical trial design, the level of experience of the sponsor and the level of interaction with the FDA to be associated with non-approval. Sponsors, therefore, should engage in dialogue with the FDA and thoughtfully design pivotal clinical trials in accordance with FDA guidance documents. PMID:21094692

  16. Local radiotherapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma patients who failed with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of local radiotherapy (RT) as a salvage treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who failed with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods and Materials: Patients with unresectable HCC who had been treated with and eventually failed with TACE were eligible. The judgment of TACE failure was based on incomplete tumor filling of lipiodol-adriamycin mixture on either angiography or computed tomography (CT) scan. From January 1993 to December 1997, 27 patients were entered into this study. They had UICC Stage III (17) or IVA (10) disease, with a mean tumor size of 7.2 ± 2.9 cm. Local RT was done, with a mean tumor dose of 51.8 ± 7.9 Gy, in daily 1.8-Gy fractions using a 10- or 6-MV linear accelerator. Survival was calculated from both the diagnosis and the start of RT using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: An objective response was observed in 16 of 24 patients (66.7%) including 1 CR. Intrahepatic metastasis was noted outside the RT field in 10 patients (37.0%). Extrahepatic distant metastasis occurred in 4 patients. Survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 85.2%, 58.1%, and 33.2%, respectively, from the diagnosis and 55.9%, 35.7%, and 21.4%, respectively, from the start of RT. The median survivals were 26 months from the diagnosis and 14 months from the start of RT. Acute toxicity involved alteration in liver function test (13 patients) and thrombocytopenia (2 patients). Subacute and chronic toxicity involved gastroduodenal ulcer (3 patients) and duodenitis (2 patients). There was no treatment-related death. Conclusion: In unresectable HCC patients who failed with TACE, local RT induced a substantial tumor response of 66.7%, with a 3-year survival rate of 21.4% and a median survival time of 14 months. Toxicity was significant but manageable. Although we do not know if there is survival benefit through this treatment, local RT in these patients seems to be

  17. The Airtraq as a rescue airway device following failed direct laryngoscopy: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2007-06-01

    We report the successful use of the Airtraq as a rescue device following failed direct laryngoscopy, in patients deemed at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation. In a series of seven patients, repeated attempts at direct laryngoscopy with the Macintosh blade, and the use of manoeuvres to aid intubation, such as the gum elastic bougie placement, were unsuccessful. In contrast, with the Airtraq device, each patient\\'s trachea was successfully intubated on the first attempt. This report underlines the utility of the Airtraq device in these patients.

  18. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action. PMID:27131132

  19. The cost of banking panics in an age before 'too big to fail'

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    How costly were the banking panics of the National Banking Era (1861-1913)? I combine two hand-collected data sets - the weekly statements of the New York Clearing House banks and the monthly holding period return of every stock listed on the NYSE - to estimate the cost of banking panics in an era before “too big to fail.” The bank statements allow me to construct a hypothetical insurance contract which would have allowed investors to insure against sudden deposit withdrawals and the cross-se...

  20. Pivmecillinam in complicated urinary infections failing to respond to conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, W; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1982-01-01

    Forty-three patients with a history of recurrent urinary infections, many of whom had renal involvement and had recently failed treatment, were then treated with pivmecillinam (400 mg 8-hourly for seven days). One week after the end of treatment the bacteriological cure rate was 72.1%. During the following four weeks, however, several of the cured patients relapsed, so that the cure rate five weeks after the end of treatment was only 46%. Thus, it is recommended that such patients should begin prophylactic treatment if found to be abacteriuric after the one week follow-up. Pivmecillinam was extremely well tolerated. PMID:6286501

  1. An end to too big to let fail? The Dodd-Frank Act's orderly liquidation authority

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Fitzpatrick; Thomson, James B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the changes introduced by the sweeping new financial market legislation of the Dodd–Frank Act is the provision of a formal process for liquidating large financial firms—something that would have been useful in 2008, when troubles at Lehman Brothers, AIG, and Merrill Lynch threatened to damage the entire U.S. financial system. While it may not be the end of the too-big-to-fail problem, the orderly liquidation authority is an important new tool in the regulatory toolkit. It will enable r...

  2. Too Big to Fail: A Misguided Policy in Times of Financial Turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde Goodlet

    2010-01-01

    The bailouts carried out by governments for large banks and other financial entities in the recent financial turbulence are often characterized as a Too-Big-To-Fail (TBTF) policy. Proponents of such a policy argue that preventing the failure of large banks (and possibly other financial and non-financial entities) is necessary to limit the impact that such a failure might have on other institutions or on the real economy. Opponents argue that while such a policy might seem attractive in the sh...

  3. Nrf2 Gene Deletion Fails to Alter Psychostimulant-induced Behavior or Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Pacchioni, Alejandra M.; Vallone, Joseph; Melendez, Roberto I.; Shih, Andy; Murphy, Timothy H.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) regulates the induction of phase 2 detoxifying enzymes by oxidative stress, including synthesis of the catalytic subunit (xCT) of the heterodimeric cystine-glutamate exchanger (system xc-). Repeated cocaine treatment in rats causes persistent neuroadaptations in glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens that result, in part, from reduced activity of system xc-. Since in vitro under- or over-expression of Nrf2 regulates system xc-...

  4. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  5. Pneumocystis carinii causes a distinctive interstitial pneumonia in immunocompetent laboratory rats that had been attributed to "rat respiratory virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, K S; Dole, V; Parker, N J; Momtsios, P; Banu, L; Brouillette, R; Simon, M A; Albers, T M; Pritchett-Corning, K R; Clifford, C B; Shek, W R

    2012-05-01

    A prevalent and distinctive infectious interstitial pneumonia (IIP) of immunocompetent laboratory rats was suspected to be caused by a putative virus, termed rat respiratory virus, but this was never substantiated. To study this disease, 2 isolators were independently populated with rats from colonies with endemic disease, which was perpetuated by the regular addition of naive rats. After Pneumocystis was demonstrated by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the lungs of rats from both isolators and an earlier bedding transmission study, the relationship between Pneumocystis and IIP was explored further by analyzing specimens from 3 contact transmission experiments, diagnostic submissions, and barrier room breeding colonies, including 1 with and 49 without IIP. Quantitative (q) PCR and immunofluorescence assay only detected Pneumocystis infection and serum antibodies in rats from experiments or colonies in which IIP was diagnosed by histopathology. In immunocompetent hosts, the Pneumocystis concentration in lungs corresponded to the severity and prevalence of IIP; seroconversion occurred when IIP developed and was followed by the concurrent clearance of Pneumocystis from lungs and resolution of disease. Experimentally infected immunodeficient RNU rats, by contrast, did not seroconvert to Pneumocystis or recover from infection. qPCR found Pneumocystis at significantly higher concentrations and much more often in lungs than in bronchial and nasal washes and failed to detect Pneumocystis in oral swabs. The sequences of a mitochondrial ribosomal large-subunit gene region for Pneumocystis from 11 distinct IIP sources were all identical to that of P. carinii. These data provide substantial evidence that P. carinii causes IIP in immunocompetent rats. PMID:22308234

  6. Impaired growth hormone secretion in neonatal hypothyroid rats: hypothalamic versus pituitary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, V; Cella, S G; Bassetti, M; Rizzi, R; Cocchi, D; Muller, E E

    1988-01-01

    In 10-day-old rats made hypothyroid by giving dams propylthiouracil (PTU) in the drinking water since the day of parturition, simultaneous radioimmunoassay (RIA) determinations of basal and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion, hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-like immunoreactivity (LI) content, immunocytochemical localization of somatotrophs, and hypothalamic GHRH-LI-positive structures were performed. The frequency of somatotrophs was also determined. One-day-old hypothyroid rats, whose mothers had been given PTU since the 14th day of pregnancy, were also used for comparison. In 10-day-old hypothyroid rats, pituitary and plasma GH levels and the number of somatotrophs were considerably lower and plasma TSH levels were significantly higher than those in age-matched control rats; however, GHRH-LI titers in the mediobasal hypothalamus and the morphology of GHRH-LI-positive structures were unaltered. In 1-day-old rats the only alteration present, in addition to elevated plasma TSH levels, was a clear-cut decrease in plasma GH levels. An acute challenge with GHRH (20 ng/100 g body wt, sc) or clonidine (15 micrograms/100 g body wt, sc) induced a clear-cut rise in plasma GH levels 15 min postinjection in 10-day-old control rats but failed to do so in age-matched hypothyroid rats. Both compounds failed to rise plasma GH in both hypothyroid and control 1-day-old rats. Taken together these data indicate that in neonatal and infant rats deprivation of thyroid hormones acts primarily to depress pituitary somatotroph function and that possible changes in GHRH-secreting structures represent a later postnatal event. PMID:3124121

  7. MRI as a problem-solving tool in unexplained failed total hip replacement following conventional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate MRI as a problem-solving tool for patients with an unexplained failed total hip replacement following conventional radiological assessment. Patients' informed consent was obtained in all cases. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Twenty-eight patients with unexplained failed total hip replacements following conventional radiological assessment underwent additional MR imaging with an optimised turbo-spin echo sequence. Images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists by consensus and compared with findings at surgery, or following response to image-guided intervention or clinical follow-up. Of the 28 patients, MRI revealed an unsuspected diagnosis explaining the cause of prosthesis failure in 15 patients. In eight of 15 patients in this group, subsequent minimally invasive image-guided intervention obviated the need for revision total hip replacement. No cause for prosthesis failure was identified in 13 patients. MRI may be successfully undertaken in patients following total hip replacement, and, when performed, it frequently leads to an unsuspected diagnosis, allowing informed patient treatment. In this study it allowed the identification of an unsuspected diagnosis in over 50% of cases. (orig.)

  8. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with depression fail to respond to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Few studies have attempted to define these patients from a biological perspective. Studies suggest that overall patients with depression show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients who were SSRI resistant. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and sIL-6R were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in DSM-1V major depressives who were SSRI resistant, in formerly SSRI resistant patients currently euthymic and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with SSRI-resistant depression had significantly higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-alpha (p=0.004) compared to normal controls. Euthymic patients who were formerly SSRI resistant had proinflammatory cytokine levels which were similar to the healthy subject group. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels did not differ across the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines does not occur in depressed patients who fail to respond to SSRIs and is necessary for clinical recovery.

  9. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao Itoi; Fumihide Itokawa; Atsushi Sofuni; Toshio Kurihara; Takayoshi Tsuchiya; Kentaro Ishii; Shujiro Tsuji; Nobuhito Ikeuchi; Fuminori Moriyasu

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided biliary drainage was performed for treatment of patients who have obstructive jaundice in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In the present study, we introduced the feasibility and outcome of EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy in four patients who failed in ERCP. We performed the procedure in 2 papilla of Vater, including one resectable case, and 2 cases of cancer of the head of pancreas. Using a curved linear array echoendoscope, a 19 G needle or a needle knife was punctured transduodenally into the bile duct under EUS visualization. Using a biliary catheter for dilation, or papillary balloon dilator, a 7-Fr plastic stent was inserted through the choledochoduodenostomy site into the extrahepatic bile duct. In 3 (75%) of 4 cases, an indwelling plastic stent was placed, and in one case in which the stent could not be advanced into the bile duct, a naso-biliary drainage tube was placed instead. In all cases, the obstructive jaundice rapidly improved after the procedure. Focal peritonitis and bleeding not requiring blood transfusion was seen in one case. In this case, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and the surgical findings revealed severe adhesion around the choledochoduodenostomy site. Although further studies and development of devices are mandatory, EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy appears to be an effective alternative to ERCP in selected cases.

  11. The search for failed supernovae with the Large Binocular Telescope: confirmation of a disappearing star

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, S M; Gerke, J R; Stanek, K Z; Dai, X

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging confirming the optical disappearance of the failed supernova candidate identified by Gerke et al. (2015). This $\\sim 25~M_{\\odot}$ red supergiant experienced a weak $\\sim 10^{6}~L_{\\odot}$ optical outburst in 2009 and is now at least 5 magnitudes fainter than the progenitor in the optical. The mid-IR flux has slowly decreased to the lowest levels since the first measurements in 2004. There is faint ($2000-3000~L_{\\odot}$) near-IR emission likely associated with the source. We find the late-time evolution of the source to be inconsistent with obscuration from an ejected, dusty shell. Models of the spectral energy distribution indicate that the remaining bolometric luminosity is $>6$ times fainter than that of the progenitor and is decreasing as $\\sim t^{-4/3}$. We conclude that the transient is unlikely to be a SN impostor or stellar merger. The event is consistent with the ejection of the envelope of a red supergiant in a failed supernova and the late-time emission co...

  12. Benefits of extra begging fail to compensate for immunological costs in southern shrike (Lanius meridionalis nestlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

    Full Text Available Theoretical models aimed at explaining the evolution of honest, informative begging signals employed by nestling birds to solicit food from their parents, require that dishonest signalers incur a net viability cost in order to prevent runaway escalation of signal intensity over evolutionary time. Previous attempts to determine such a cost empirically have identified two candidate physiological costs associated with exaggerated begging: a growth and an immunological cost. However, they failed to take into account the fact that those costs are potentially offset by the fact that nestlings that invest more in begging are also likely to obtain more food. In this study, we test experimentally whether a 25% increase in ingested food compensates for growth and immunological costs of extra begging in southern shrike (Lanius meridionalis nestlings. Three nestmates matched by size were given three treatments: low begging, high begging-same food intake, and high begging-extra food intake. We found that, while a higher food intake did effectively compensate for the growth cost, it failed to compensate for the immunological cost, measured as T-cell mediated immune response against an innocuous mitogen. Thus, we show for the first time that escalated begging has an associated physiological net cost likely to affect nestling survival negatively.

  13. Why did the storm ex-Gaston (2010) fail to redevelop during the PREDICT experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freismuth, Thomas M.; Rutherford, Blake; Boothe, Mark A.; Montgomery, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    An analysis is presented of the failed re-development of ex-Gaston during the 2010 PREDICT field campaign based on the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analyses. We analyze the dynamics and kinematics of ex-Gaston to investigate the role of dry, environmental air in the failed redevelopment. The flow topology defined by the calculation of particle trajectories shows that ex-Gaston's pouch was vulnerable to dry, environmental air on all days of observations. As early as 12:00 UTC 2 September 2010, a dry layer at and above 600 hPa results in a decrease in the vertical mass flux and vertical relative vorticity. These findings support the hypothesis that entrained, dry air near 600 hPa thwarted convective updraughts and vertical mass flux, which in turn led to a reduction in vorticity and a compromised pouch at these middle levels. A compromised pouch allows further intrusion of dry air and quenching of subsequent convection, therefore hindering vorticity amplification through vortex tube stretching. This study supports recent work investigating the role of dry air in moist convection during tropical cyclogenesis.

  14. Failed biliary cannulation: Clinical and technical outcomes after tertiary referral endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael P Swan; Michael J Bourke; Stephen J Williams; Sina Alexander; Alan Moss; Rick Hope; David Ruppin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Prospective evaluation of repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for failed Schutz grade 1 biliary cannulation in a high-volume center.METHODS: Prospective intention-to-treat analysis of patients referred for biliary cannulation following recent unsuccessful ERCP.RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (35 female; mean age: 62.5 years; age range: 40-87 years) with previous failed biliary cannulation were referred for repeat ERCP. The indication for ERCP was primarily choledocholithiasis (45%) or pancreatic malignancy (18%). Successful biliary cannulation was 100%. The precut needle knife sphincterotomy (NKS) rate was 27.4%. Complications occurred in 3.9% (post-ERCP pancreatitis). An identifiable reason for initial unsuccessful biliary cannulation was present in 55% of cases. Compared to a cohort of 940 na?ve papilla patients (female 61%; mean age: 59.9 years; age range: 18-94 years) who required sphincterotomy over the same time period, there was no statistical difference in the cannulation success rate (100% vs 98%) or post-ERCP pancreatitis (3.1% vs 3.9%). Precut NKS use was more frequent (27.4% vs 12.7%) (P = 0.017).CONCLUSION: Referral to a high-volume center following unsuccessful ERCP is associated with high technical success, with a favorable complication rate, compared to routine ERCP procedures.

  15. Sensitivity study to improve the expert-system method for failed fuel characterization in nuclear powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU-type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation experience ascertained the fact that the fuel failure rate is very small. Still, the evolution of the fuel failure state remains an actual problem with direct implications in the safe operation of the plant. There are two special investigation methods to monitor fuel failures in NPPs, namely, the Gamma Monitoring and Delayed Neutron Method. In addition, the INR (ICN) developed and applied the expert-system method as a complementary means for fuel failure analysis. It consists of the determination, at a certain moment, of the number of failures at the core level, making use of data from the evaluation of coolant activity for fission gases (Xe and Kr) or iodine isotopes. The method is based on the results of tests conducted at CRNL on failed fuel, based on the CANDU plants' operation experience and theoretical studies related to the simulation of failed fuel behaviour as well as on the experience acquired by the authors in approaching these topics. The experience entailed by the application of this method at the Cernavoda NPP leads to the conclusion that there are certain characteristic values as well as certain parameters with an important influence on the final results. The present paper advances a sensitivity study of the expert-system method for upgrading its performance. (authors)

  16. Acceptance of failed SNF [spent nuclear fuel] assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high level waste will be accepted in the following categories: failed fuel; consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; non-fuel-assembly hardware; fuel in metal storage casks; fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; inspection and testing requirements for wastes; canister criteria; spent fuel selection for delivery; and defense and commercial high-level waste packages. This document discusses acceptance of failed spent fuel assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System. 18 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs

  17. Late Prosthetic Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty after Failed Management of Complex Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panagopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with shoulder hemiarthroplasty in the context of old trauma. Methods. 33 patients with failed treatment for a complex proximal humeral fracture underwent prosthetic hemiarthroplasty. There were 15 men and 18 women with a mean age of 58.1 years. The average period from initial treatment was 14.9 months. Sequelae included 11 malunions, 4 nonunions, 15 cases with avascular necrosis (AVN and 3 neglected posterior locked dislocations. Follow up investigation included radiological assessment and clinical evaluation using the Constant score and a visual analogue pain scale. Results. After a mean follow up of 82.5 months the median Constant score was 75.7 points, improved by 60% in comparison to preoperative values. Greater tuberosity displacement, large cuff tears and severe malunion were the factors most affected outcome. No cases of stem loosening or severe migration were noted. 60% of the patients were able to do activities up to shoulder level compared with 24% before reconstruction. Conclusions. Late shoulder hemiarthroplasty is technically difficult and the results are inferior to those reported for acute humeral head replacement, nonetheless remains a satisfactory reconstructive option when primary treatment fails.

  18. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A.; Sprenger, Simone A.; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory) shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation. PMID:25309492

  19. Failed Replication of Oxytocin Effects on Trust: The Envelope Task Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lane

    Full Text Available The neurohormone Oxytocin (OT has been one of the most studied peptides in behavioral sciences over the past two decades. Many studies have suggested that OT could increase trusting behaviors. A previous study, based on the "Envelope Task" paradigm, where trust is assessed by the degree of openness of an envelope containing participant's confidential information, showed that OT increases trusting behavior and reported one of the most powerful effects of OT on a behavioral variable. In this paper we present two failed replications of this effect, despite sufficient power to replicate the original large effect. The non-significant results of these two failed replications clearly exclude a large effect of OT on trust in this paradigm but are compatible with either a null effect of OT on trust, or a small effect, undetectable with small sample size (N = 95 and 61 in Study 1 and 2, respectively. Taken together, our results question the purported size of OT's effect on trust and emphasize the need for replications.

  20. Resveratrol Fails to Extend Life Span in the Mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adiv A; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol present in grape skins, has been theorized to account for the "French Paradox" by explaining how red wine may decrease the health risks associated with unhealthy diets. Resveratrol has been reported to extend life span in several different species. Other studies, however, have failed to find a resveratrol-induced life span effect. A recent meta-study analyzing previously published survival data concluded that, although resveratrol reliably and reproducibly extends life span in some species, its life span effects show diminished reliability in other organisms. The data are mixed, and it remains unclear how evolutionarily conserved resveratrol's effects on life span are. To gain further insight into this controversy, we studied the effects of various concentrations (200 μM, 100 μM, 50 μM, or 0 μM) of orally fed resveratrol on the life span of the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, an important vector of human malaria, under two different feeding treatments--sugar-fed only or sugar-fed with intermittent blood meals. Each treatment was repeated three times and both survivorship and mortality rates were analyzed for each replicate. For the majority of experiments, resveratrol failed to mediate a statistically significant effect on life span. Although there was one instance where resveratrol significantly increased life span, there were five other instances where resveratrol significantly decreased life span. We conclude from these data that, under normal conditions, resveratrol does not extend life span in A. stephensi. PMID:25848933

  1. Failed Gamma-Ray Bursts: Thermal UV/Soft X-ray Emission Accompanied by Peculiar Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, M; Huang, Y -F; Lee, S -H

    2011-01-01

    We show that the photospheres of "failed" Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), whose bulk Lorentz factors are much lower than 100, can be outside of internal shocks. The resulting radiation from the photospheres is thermal and bright in UV/Soft X-ray band. The photospheric emission lasts for about one thousand seconds with luminosity about several times 10^46 erg/s. These events can be observed by current and future satellites. It is also shown that the afterglows of failed GRBs are peculiar at the early stage, which makes it possible to distinguish failed GRBs from ordinary GRBs and beaming-induced orphan afterglows.

  2. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition. PMID:25156806

  3. 椭圆曲线离散对数问题上的Fail-stop数字签名方案%Fail-stop digital signatures on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云超; 辛小龙

    2011-01-01

    A new Fail-stop signature program based on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem is proposed. It can protect the security of the signer. The new protocol presents a one-time signature scheme.A multiple messages signature scheme is given. Both the two schemes have the property of Fail-stop.%提出了一种基于椭圆曲线离散对数问题的Fail-stop签案,保证了签名者的安全性.提出了一次性签名方案,给出了多重消息签名方案,并且这两种方案都具有Fail-stop的性质.

  4. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  5. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  6. Operation and fuel design strategies to minimise degradation of failed BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of failed fuel may result in forced shutdown of the reactor to extract the failed fuel. If this occurs during a time when the price of electricity is high, the cost for this forced shutdown may be very costly. The objective of this paper is to point out the impact of fuel design and also operation strategy on the tendency of failed fuel degradation. The following number of items are discussed in the paper: Failure causes: The dominating causes are debris fretting, PCI and crud/water chemistry related defects. It is recommended to adopt the goal, maximum one defect per year per million rods in the core and to achieve the zero-failure goal for PCI. Models for secondary failure development: Two different secondary degradation scenarios can develop, circumferential cracks or breaks and axial cracks. Models for describing the propagation of secondary defects are given and discussed. The secondary degradation tendency can be delayed and minimized by using fuel cladding with improved corrosion resistance such as cladding with large secondary phase particles and high iron content in the liner layer. Also, the spacer design has a large impact on the tendency for transversal break formation. A spacer that catches the debris at the lower part of the fuel assembly will reduce the risk of getting transversal breaks. On the other hand a spacer that catches the debris in the upper part of the fuel assembly will result in a significant risk of developing transversal breaks in low and intermediate burnup fuel. A new model for data analyses - BwrFuelRelease: A new model, BwrFuelRelease, is presented. This model is an efficient tool for analyses of measured off-gas and reactor water data. The model can replace all currently used methods for analyses of fuel failures. By this model it is possible to detect very small defects, to quantify with high precision the amount of Fissile materials on the core surfaces during operation both with non-defected core and during

  7. Fails-to-Deliver Data under 10,000 Shares between September 16, 2008 and July 1, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — This file contains the date, CUSIP numbers, ticker symbols, issuer name, price, and total number of fails-to-deliver (i.e., the balance level outstanding) recorded...

  8. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  9. To leave or not to leave?: a regression discontinuity analysis of the impact of failing high school exit exam

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Dongshu

    2009-01-01

    The high school exit exam (HSEE) is rapidly becoming a standardized assessment procedure for educational accountability in the United States. I use a unique state-specific dataset to identify the effect of failing the HSEE on the likelihood that a student drops out early based on a Regression Discontinuity design. It shows that students who barely fail the exam are more likely to exit than those who barely pass despite being offered retest opportunities. The discontinuity amounts to a large p...

  10. mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: a population-based simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Walmsley, J.; Rodriguez, JF; Mirams, GR; Burrage, K; Efimov, IR; Rodriguez, B.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP) prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT) magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the inf...

  11. Effectiveness of MR Urography in the Evaluation of Kidney which Failed to Opacify during Excretory Urography: Comparison with Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sung-Il; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Ah Young; Cho, Jung Yun; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of MR urography (MRU) with that of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of urinary tract when this failed to opacify during excretory urography (EXU). Materials and Methods Twelve urinary tracts in 11 patients were studied. In each case, during EXU, the urinary system failed to opacify within one hour of the injection of contrast media, and US revealed dilatation of the pelvocalyceal system. Patients underwent MRU, using a...

  12. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty as a salvage procedure for failed infected internal fixation of hip fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhranshu S Mohanty; Agashe, Mandar V.; Sheth, Binoti A; Kumar K. Dash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Failed infected internal fixation produces significant pain and functional disability. In infected internal fixation of hip fractures with partial or complete head destruction, total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be technically challenging; however, it restores hip biomechanics. The present study is to evaluate the results and assess the complications of THA following failed infected internal fixation of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of prospectiv...

  13. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Serfon, Cedric; Garonne, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy, Apache, and nginx. In this contribution, the reasons and design decisions for the deployment, the actual implementation, and an evaluation of all involved services and c...

  14. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Garonne, Vincent; Serfon, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possibly to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these component, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  15. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, M.; Vigne, R.; Beermann, T.; Barisits, M.; Garonne, V.; Serfon, C.

    2015-12-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possible to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these components, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  16. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class. PMID:24959981

  17. Hot chlorine leaching techniques for determining failed-particle fraction in HTGR fuel compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature chlorine leaching techniques as nondestractive inspection of the failed-particle fraction in HTGR fuel compacts have been studied. Compacts containing bare UO2 kernels were leached with chlorine gas at temperatures from 7000 to 12000C by two methods. The static method using a closed quartz reaction vessel completely extracted the uranium, but it was difficult to purge the compact completely of chlorine. The flow method wherein chlorination was made in the gas stream within a glassy carbon tube had no problem of the residual chlorine. The static method simpler in operation is suitable for the post-irradiation experiment, and the flow method for the pre-irradiation inspection. (author)

  18. Why Caldwell-Luc and nasoantral window procedures fail in patients with chronic sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT was performed on 80 patients with recurrent symptoms of chronic sinusitis after Caldwell-Luc and/or nasoantral window procedures. In each case there was anterior ethmoid sinus inflammatory disease with obstruction of the normal ipsilateral maxillary sinus drainage, the ostiomeatal unit. When the ipsilateral frontal sinus was also diseased, the anterior ethmoid sinus inflammatory process was found to block the frontal recess. These findings indicate that patients who have chronic sinusitis after Caldwell-Luc and/or nasoantral window procedures fail because of persistent disease. The disease is characteristically situated in the anterior ethmoid cells, with blockage of mucociliary clearance from the maxillary and frontal sinuses. Therefore, the cure is predicated on surgical procedures directed to restoring patency of the ostiomeatal unit and frontal recess

  19. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  20. When dialogue fails. Music therapy with elderly with neurological degenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2004-01-01

    When dialogue fails. Music therapy with elderly with neurological degenerative diseases. In persons suffering from neurological degenerative diseases we often see the following symptoms: difficulties in remembering, concentrating, perceiving input, and controlling and timing movements. Normal every...... it is possible to adjust the communication in order to enter dialogue. The dialogue is the potential for sharing emotions and meeting psychosocial needs. The core of the music therapy is seen as the moments where interaction and dialogue occurs. But these moments are only “highlights” of the sessions, and before....... Conclusion 1. In order to compensate for missing short-term memory it is important to work deliberately with cuing. A specific song in the beginning of the music therapy session will e.g. signalise that the music therapy is to start. Using songs as cues activates cortical memory function, and work as memory...

  1. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  2. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    same age (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 22) or older (Experiment 3, n = 24). Observer horses were allowed to observe the demonstrator being led three times through the detour route immediately before being given the opportunity to solve the task themselves. Controls were allowed only to observe the...... demonstrator horse eating at the final position, but not the demonstration of the route. Although we found a tendency towards better performance by observer horses in the second experiment, we were unable to repeat this result in a similar set-up with a new group of horses and older, dominant demonstrator......Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either the...

  3. Experience in the replacement of the failed acid-recovery evaporator at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the replacement of the failed acid-recovery evaporator for about eight months, valuable know-hows in connection with maintenance in a hot cell were obtained. A new evaporator was made of stainless steel (25Cr-20Ni-0.25Nb), and was fabricated in Japan. Many mock-up tests for welding were performed and evaluated before actual manufacture, and the best welding procedure was selected based on the results of such mock up tests. The welding works of the evaporator and connected pipes in the cell were carried out successfully in spite of operational space limitations. Also the personal exposure had been well controlled and the contamination on human body and out-cell area had been prevented completely. (author)

  4. The Fate of Failed Bank Material and Implications for Lateral Retreat: Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Thomas, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to deterministically predict the critical conditions for streambank failure in alluvial materials has improved markedly in recent years. Analytic tools such as the Bank-Stability and Toe-Erosion Model (BSTEM) account for a broad range of controlling processes and factors including hydraulic erosion of the bank toe, positive and negative pore-water pressures, layers of varying geotechnical resistance and root reinforcement. When failure is predicted, the failed mass is assumed to be transported away from the section by the flow, either as a single mass or as dispersed aggregates. Field observations indicate, however, that in cases where cohesive strength is high, either due to the effective cohesion of the soil skeleton or due to dense mats of fine roots, the failed block comes to rest in the vicinity of the bank toe. In this case, the resistance of the bank-toe region to hydraulic scour may be increased markedly and resistance to geotechnical failure may also be increased by buttressing. Conversely, deposition of blocks at bank toes may cause flow acceleration and scour landward of the block, resulting in further undercutting of the bank mass. Failure to account for these processes can lead to errors in predicting of rates of failure frequency, lateral retreat and streambank loadings.Once deposited at the bank toe, failed blocks can be eroded by hydraulic forces either as a mass and/or by erosion of aggregates comprising the block. Field research on the nature of hydraulic resistance and block erosion has been conducted along selected reaches of the Upper Truckee River (UTR) and Trout Creek, Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Block materials are generally characterized by lower apparent cohesive strength than their in situ counterparts due to the lower values of matric suction owing to their proximity to the water surface. Still, submerged jet-test device conducted in root-permeated blocks show critical shear stresses one to two orders of magnitude greater

  5. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure

  6. Woman jailed for failing to stop husband from raping her daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-21

    [Name removed] was sentenced to four years in jail after witnessing her HIV-positive husband rape her seven-year-old daughter. [Name removed], at the time, thwarted her 10-year-old son's attempt to call the police. The rape, which resulted in the HIV infection of her daughter, occurred just three hours after [name removed] married [name removed]. The Superior Court Judge felt [name removed] deserved a more severe penalty because she failed to protect her daughter from the danger posed by [name removed]' daily drug use and bizarre behavior. [Name removed] pleaded guilty last June to five felony counts of rape and child molestation. He is serving a 38-year prison sentence. PMID:11362388

  7. Parasites resistant to the antimalarial atovaquone fail to transmit by mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Christopher D; Siregar, Josephine E; Mollard, Vanessa; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Syafruddin, Din; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Toyama, Tomoko; Sturm, Angelika; Cozijnsen, Anton; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Kita, Kiyoshi; Marzuki, Sangkot; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2016-04-15

    Drug resistance compromises control of malaria. Here, we show that resistance to a commonly used antimalarial medication, atovaquone, is apparently unable to spread. Atovaquone pressure selects parasites with mutations in cytochrome b, a respiratory protein with low but essential activity in the mammalian blood phase of the parasite life cycle. Resistance mutations rescue parasites from the drug but later prove lethal in the mosquito phase, where parasites require full respiration. Unable to respire efficiently, resistant parasites fail to complete mosquito development, arresting their life cycle. Because cytochrome b is encoded by the maternally inherited parasite mitochondrion, even outcrossing with wild-type strains cannot facilitate spread of resistance. Lack of transmission suggests that resistance will be unable to spread in the field, greatly enhancing the utility of atovaquone in malaria control. PMID:27081071

  8. Prereactivation propranolol fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to prepared fear-conditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Justin D; Wood, Nellie E; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of memory reconsolidation has been demonstrated in fear-conditioned rodents and humans and may provide a means to reduce fearfulness in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Studying the efficacy of potential interventions in clinical populations is challenging, creating a need for paradigms within which candidate reconsolidation-blocking interventions can be readily tested. We used videos of biologically prepared conditioned stimuli (tarantulas) to test the efficacy of propranolol in blocking reconsolidation of conditioned fear in healthy young adults. Strong differential conditioning, measured by skin conductance, was observed among a screened subset of participants during acquisition. However, subsequent propranolol failed to reduce reactivity to the reactivated conditioned stimulus. These results are consistent with other recent findings and point to a need for testing other candidate drugs. PMID:25224026

  9. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  10. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation from a patient with failed eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yin; Li-Hua He; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori), a gastric pathogen, is a major cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is an important risk factor for the development of gastric malignancies. Culture of the bacterium from gastric biopsy is essential for the determination of drug resistance of H pylori. However, the isolation rates of H pylori from infected individuals vary from 23.5% to 97% due to a number of factors such as biopsy preparation, cultural environment, medium and the method adopted. In the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period of up to 19 d allowed successful isolation of H pylori from a patient who received triple therapy that failed to eradicate the bacterium.

  11. Why most Brand Manuals fail when it comes to defining Brand Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and describing their Brand Colors, they all fail. By examining and analyzing more than 300 different Brand Colors from 156 Brand Manuals by reputable local and global Brands including 28 of the 100 Best Global Brands (see Appendix) and by numerous of visits and interviews with responsible professionals from both...... sides throughout the years it is obvious that there is an alarming lack of communication between technical experts and design experts. 91 % of the Brand Manuals specifies their Brand Colors as either PANTONE or PANTONE C. 90.4 % of the Brand Manuals also specifies their Brand Colors with supplementary...... CMYK-values even though only 45.8 % of those Brand Colors are achievable by using the process colors CMYK. This will result in unpredicted color differences of up to 35 ΔEab or 8.3 ΔE2000 when some of those Brand Colors are reproduced. Nevertheless, none of the Brand Manuals has neither any remarks...

  12. Performance of magnetorheological fluids in a novel damper with excellent fail-safe behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, H.; Ehrlich, J.; Trendler, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    A novel magnetorheological damper, whose magnetic circuit contains beside an electromagnet also two permanent magnets, is described and tested. Without any consumption of electric energy, a medium damping force is achieved, which ensures an excellent fail-safe behaviour in case of an electric power loss. This medium damping force can be increased or decreased, depending on the polarity of the current in the coil. Furthermore, the performance of the damper with different MR fluids was investigated. By this way, the influence of the composition of the MR fluid in terms of the concentration of iron particles between 20 and 50 vol.% on the damping force could be evaluated. Finally, the damping force after various storage times of the damper was studied and indicated a good redispersibility of the MR fluid.

  13. Failed development and vulnerability to climate change in central Asia: implications for food security and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Craig R

    2010-07-01

    This article presents results of research undertaken to identify factors that affect the vulnerability of rural Mongolian herders to climate change. Findings suggest that models of market development instituted since 1990 have failed to recognize and support key elements of the pastoralist adaptive strategy. A retreating state presence has led to the collapse of regulatory regimes needed to safeguard critical common resources. This in turn has produced considerable social differentiation in the countryside, a breakdown in cooperative institutions, and conflicts over water and pasture. In a context of climate change, these changes seriously threaten the sustainability of the rural economy, leading to livelihood insecurity, growing rural poverty, and increasing rates of migration to shantytowns surrounding the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. The newly vulnerable poor are at higher risk for poor health and malnutrition. PMID:20566560

  14. Delayed extinction fails to reduce skin conductance reactivity to fear-conditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Jon; Greenberg, Mark S; Spring, Justin; Wood, Nellie; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    A brief 10-min time delay between an initial and subsequent exposure to extinction trials has been found to impair memory reconsolidation in fear-conditioned rodents and humans, providing a potential means to reduce fearfulness in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study used videos of biologically prepared, conditioned stimuli (tarantulas) to test the efficacy of delayed extinction in blocking reconsolidation of conditioned fear in healthy young adults. Strong differential conditioning, measured by skin conductance, was observed among a screened subset of participants during acquisition. However, the delayed-extinction intervention failed to reduce reactivity to the conditioned stimulus paired with the extinction delay. These results are partially consistent with other recent, mixed findings and point to a need for testing other candidate interventions designed to interfere with the reconsolidation process. PMID:27314560

  15. Defining health inequality: why Rawls succeeds where social welfare theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Antoine; Stecklov, Guy

    2002-05-01

    While there has been an important increase in methodological and empirical studies on health inequality, not much has been written on the theoretical foundation of health inequality measurement. We discuss several reasons why the classic welfare approach, which is the foundation of income inequality analysis, fails to provide a satisfactory foundation for health inequality analysis. We propose an alternative approach which is more closely linked to the WHO concept of equity in health and is also consistent with the ethical principles espoused by Rawls [A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1971]. This approach in its simplest form, is shown to be closely related to the concentration curve when health and income are positively related. Thus, the criteria presented in our paper provide an important theoretical foundation for empirical analysis using the concentration curve. We explore the properties of these approaches by developing policy scenarios and examining how various ethical criteria affect government strategies for targeting health interventions. PMID:12022270

  16. Emergency Surgery after Failed Percutaneous Transmitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of emergency after PTMC. Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC) Rawalpindi from January 2005 to June 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12 patients (2.3 percent) out of 523 who underwent PTMC and developed significant mitral regurgitation (MR) or cardiac tamponade (CT) was examined to analyze the outcome of emergency surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to select patients of MS with minimal calcification and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to rule out left atrial (LA) clot. Inuoe balloon was used in all cases for PTMC. Results: Out of twelve who presented for surgery after failed PTMC, 9(75 percent) had significant MR and 3(25 percent) had CT. Majority of patients were female (83.3 percent) with mean age of 30.9+-5.12 years. In patients with MR, anterior mitral leaflet (AML) tear was found in 8(66.7 percent) and posterior mitral leaflet tear in 1(8.3 percent). LA clot was found in 1(8.3 percent) patient who caused cerebral infarction. All patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) with prosthetic valve on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Two patients (16.7 percent) died; one because of cerebral infarction and one due to low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). Conclusion: With increasing experience of PTMC the magnitude of failure cases is decreasing as was seen in our case in which failed percentage was just 2.3 percent. Moreover, percentage of success of emergency surgery was good i.e. 83.3 percent. In case of failure a well coordinated effort between cardiologist and surgical team can prevent mortality significantly. (author)

  17. Oncological and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Abarzua-Cabezas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for RCC. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for suspected RCC during 2004-2012. We identified 839 patients, 13 of whom required salvage renal surgery. Demographic data was collected for all patients. Intraoperative and postoperative data included ischemic duration, blood loss and perioperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative assessments included abdominal CT or magnetic resonance imaging, chest CT and routine laboratory work. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The majority (85% of the patients were male, with an average age of 64 years. Ten patients underwent salvage partial nephrectomy while 3 underwent salvage radical nephrectomy. Cryotherapy was the predominant primary failed treatment modality, with 31% of patients undergoing primary open surgery. Pre-operatively, three patients were projected to require permanent post-operative dialysis. In the remaining 10 patients, mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine and eGFR levels were 1.35 mg/dL and 53.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 1.43 mg/dL and 46.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean warm ischemia time in 10 patients was 17.4 min and for all patients, the mean blood loss was 647 mL. The predominant pathological stage was pT1a (8/13; 62%. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 32.9 months (3.5-88 months. Conclusion While salvage renal surgery can be challenging, it is feasible and has adequate surgical, functional and oncological outcomes.

  18. Forensic analysis of failed heat exchanger tubes of NGL cooler of gas processing installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, S.S.; Kapoor, I.R.; Katarki, M.V. [Materials and Corrosion Section, Institute of Engineering and Ocean Technology, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, Panvel, Navi Mumbai, 410221 (India)

    2004-07-01

    Regular failures of heat exchangers in NGL cooler of gas processing installation of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation have been observed during the last few years. These heat exchangers are of shell and tube type. The failures were reported to be on tubes side only and none of the shell failed. Detailed laboratory investigations to examine the objective evidence presented by the failed components to determine the corrosion mechanism leading to failure, were carried out and the results of the said forensic analysis is reported in this paper. The corrosion morphology suggests that it is primarily a concentration cell corrosion type by under deposit attack and pinholes were found below the deposit in the internal surface of the exchanger tube. The corrosion product is magnetic in nature and the dominant peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectra are of Iron oxide in the form of magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The exchanger tube material was found to be highly susceptible to severe crevice corrosion under deposits in the electrochemical Tafel plot and cyclic polarisation studies under simulated test conditions using high pressure high temperature autoclave. During the last 3 to 4 years, maximum values recorded for the inorganic phosphate and total hardness in the quality control tests of cooling water were found to be higher than the acceptable limit while the zinc content was found to be falling below the acceptable limit. The decomposition of organic component of phosphate has led to insufficiency in the required dose of phosphate. Higher inorganic component of phosphates along with higher hardness led to precipitation and as such inorganic phosphate was found in the deposits. Therefore protective film formation was insufficient to mitigate under deposit pitting corrosion. Dose of 15 ppm total phosphate (having 40 to 60% organic phosphate form) and a minimum of 2 to 3 ppm zinc concentration were recommended to avoid recurrence of under deposit pitting corrosion. (authors)

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas and grafts: a preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Hak Hun; Park, Sung Kwang [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the vascular stenosis for failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas and grafts using contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE- MRI) and to compare the results with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Nine patients (27 segmental vessels) with symptoms and signs of AVF stenosis or occlusion who presented to our medical department were recruited into this prospective comparative study. All of the patients with Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Goretex) loop graft underwent MRA and DSA of the fistula. MRA was performed with a 1.5-T system using VIBE sequence: TR/TE=3.5/1.5 msec, flip angle 20-25, matrix 115*256, FOV 350*350, interpolated slice thickness 2.0 mm, fat suppression, scan time 13-18 sec and total time of 5 min. DSA was used as the reference standard for assessing the accuracy of MRA, and MRA was analyzed for the presence of stenosis or occlusion, a grading of stenosis, and the presence of collateral vessels. Two radiologists prospectively analyzed the MRAs by working in consensus. Regarding the stenotic grade, CE-MRA corresponded with the DSA in six patients (66.7%) and it overestimated the stenoses in three patients (33.3%). For the stenotic site, MRA had a sensitivity of 86.4% , a specificity of 40% , a positive predictive value of 32.1%, and a negative predictive value of 66.7%. Multiphase CE-MRA of the AVF noninvasively provided information comparable to that provided by DSA for the vascular stenosis regarding failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula.

  20. Metallurgical examination of piping failed at high pressure and high temperature in WIND project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WIND (Wide range piping INtegrity Demonstration) project is being performed at JAERI in order to prove the integrity of LWR piping under severe accident conditions. The failure behavior of pipings under beyond-design-basis conditions, i.e., if a considerably elevated temperature, has been investigated by means of heating tests with small diameter straight pipings. The specimen tests are performed above 800degC. The metallurgical examination was conducted to observe microstructures of failed pipings. As a result of the tensile test and short term creep test, 0.2% proof stress, tensile strength and creep rupture strength of SUS316 were superior to those of CF8M at high temperature. Ductility of SUS316 was higher than that of CF8M. The SUS316 and CF8M pipings failed under a constant internal pressure of 10 MPa using N2 at 1070 and about 1000degC, respectively during heat-up at a rate of 130degC/h. The deformation (increase of diameter and reduction of wall thickness) of SUS316 piping was greater than that of CF8M. The piping failure behavior could be qualitatively explained by the results of the specimen tests. As a result of the metallurgical examination, many cracks occurred from the outer surface of the pipings at heating area probably due to circumferential tensile stress. The cracks were observed mostly on the grain boundaries in SUS316 and within the dendrite phases in CF8M. The distribution of main elements was uniform in SUS316, as received. On the other hand, the microstructure of CF8M was two phase, which consisted of dendrite and matrix. The Ni content, which influences high temperature strength, was lower in dendrite than in matrix. The difference in the piping failure behavior can be attributed to the chemical composition and the microstructure due to the production method. (author)

  1. Esophagectomy for failed endoscopic therapy in patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B M; Louie, B E; Dunst, C M; Lipham, J C; Farivar, A S; Sharata, A; Aye, R W

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy (ablation +/- endoscopic resection) for high-grade dysplasia and/or intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) of the esophagus has demonstrated promising results. However, there is a concern that a curable, local disease may progress to systemic disease with repeated endotherapy. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent esophagectomy after endotherapy at three tertiary care esophageal centers from 2006 to 2012. Our objective was to document the clinical and pathologic outcomes of patients who undergo esophagectomy after failed endotherapy. Fifteen patients underwent esophagectomy after a mean of 13 months and 4.1 sessions of endotherapy for progression of disease (53%), failure to clear disease (33%), or recurrence (13%). Initially, all had Barrett's, 73% had ≥3-cm segments, 93% had a nodule or ulcer, and 91% had multifocal disease upon presentation. High-grade dysplasia was present at index endoscopy in 80% and IMC in 33%, and some patients had both. Final pathology at esophagectomy was T0 (13%), T1a (60%), T1b (20%), and T2 (7%). Positive lymph nodes were found in 20%: one patient was T2N1 and two were T1bN1. Patients with T1b, T2, or N1 disease had more IMC on index endoscopy (75% vs. 18%) and more endotherapy sessions (median 6.5 vs. 3). There have been no recurrences a mean of 20 months after esophagectomy. Clinical outcomes were comparable to other series, but submucosal invasion (27%) and node-positive disease (20%) were encountered in some patients who initially presented with a locally curable disease and eventually required esophagectomy after failed endotherapy. An initial pathology of IMC or failure to clear disease after three treatments should raise concern for loco-regional progression and prompt earlier consideration of esophagectomy. PMID:23795720

  2. Myocardial pre-synaptic sympathetic function correlates with glucose uptake in the failing human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that the myocardium of patients with heart failure (HF) is insulin resistant. Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in insulin resistance in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro, where sustained noradrenaline stimulation inhibited insulin-modulated glucose uptake. As the failing heart is characterized by increased sympathetic drive, we hypothesized that there is a correlation between pre-synaptic sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity in the myocardium of patients with HF. Eight patients (aged 67 ± 7 years) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 44 ± 10%) underwent function and viability assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Pre-synaptic noradrenaline re-uptake was measured by calculating [11C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine (HED) volume of distribution (Vd) with PET. Two groups of healthy volunteers served as controls for the FDG (n = 8, aged 52 ± 4 years, p -1.g-1) and dysfunctional (0.49 ± 0.14 μmol.min-1.g-1) segments compared with controls (0.61 ± 0.7 μmol.min-1.g-1; p d was reduced in dysfunctional segments of patients (38.9 ± 21.2 ml.g-1) compared with normal segments (52.2 ± 19.6 ml.g-1) and compared with controls (62.7 ± 11.3 ml.g-1). In patients, regional MGU was correlated with HED Vd. The results of this study provide novel evidence of a correlation between cardiac sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity, which may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance in failing human hearts. (orig.)

  3. Failed hypospadias repair: An algorithm for secondary reconstruction using remaining local tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozohoor Ekmark, Ann; Svensson, Henry; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Hansson, Emma

    2015-11-01

    Salvage hypospadias surgery is performed after failed primary reconstruction. Several treatment strategies have been suggested, all with pros and cons. The aim of this study was to evaluate our treatment algorithm for primary hypospadias repair applied to secondary cases in which a salvage procedure is indicated and, most importantly, local tissue is present. The algorithm was applied to 36 consecutive patients who had undergone a total of 109 surgical procedures before referral. In accordance with the algorithm, 12 patients without ventral curvature achieved a satisfactory result with one procedure by the use of local skin flaps. Six patients with moderate ventral curvature underwent orthoplasty, fistula closure, and/or urethral reconstruction using local skin flaps in one session. Eighteen patients with a severe ventral curvature or a proximal meatus were reconstructed in two stages using Byars' technique. After a median of two salvage procedures (range: 1-4), all patients but one, who awaits splitting of a skin bridge in the meatus, were successfully reconstructed. Two patients in active follow-up have potential problems requiring further surgery. Our findings indicate that failed hypospadias repairs are often due to an underestimation of the ventral curvature at the initial repair. Therefore, reevaluation of the degree of curvature is important. One-stage salvage repairs can be used, provided that none or minimal curvature remains. In cases of marked curvature, however, a meticulous resection of the chordee and ventral scarring is crucial. The subsequent repair of the large ventral defect and the long urethral reconstruction can, in most cases, be safely managed in a two-stage procedure. PMID:26195272

  4. Aerobic interval training partly reverse contractile dysfunction and impaired Ca2+ handling in atrial myocytes from rats with post infarction heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Anne Berit; Høydal, Morten Andre; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Stølen, Tomas; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about atrial myocyte Ca2+ handling in the failing hearts. The aim of this study was to examine atrial myocyte contractile function and Ca2+ handling in rats with post-infarction heart failure (HF) and to examine whether aerobic interval training could reverse a potential dysfunction. Methods and results: Post-infarction HF was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Atrial myocyte shortening was depressed (p

  5. Aerobic Interval Training Partly Reverse Contractile Dysfunction and Impaired Ca2+ Handling in Atrial Myocytes from Rats with Post Infarction Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Anne Berit; Høydal, Morten; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Stølen, Tomas; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about atrial myocyte Ca2+ handling in the failing hearts. The aim of this study was to examine atrial myocyte contractile function and Ca2+ handling in rats with post-infarction heart failure (HF) and to examine whether aerobic interval training could reverse a potential dysfunction. Methods and results Post-infarction HF was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Atrial myocyte shortening was depressed (p

  6. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.;

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  7. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  8. Mitochondrial structure and function are not different between nonfailing donor and end-stage failing human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzem, Katherine M; Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Ravikumar, Vinod K; Madden, Eli J; Ewald, Gregory A; Dikranian, Krikor; Beard, Daniel A; Efimov, Igor R

    2016-08-01

    During human heart failure, the balance of cardiac energy use switches from predominantly fatty acids (FAs) to glucose. We hypothesized that this substrate shift was the result of mitochondrial degeneration; therefore, we examined mitochondrial oxidation and ultrastructure in the failing human heart by using respirometry, transmission electron microscopy, and gene expression studies of demographically matched donor and failing human heart left ventricular (LV) tissues. Surprisingly, respiratory capacities for failing LV isolated mitochondria (n = 9) were not significantly diminished compared with donor LV isolated mitochondria (n = 7) for glycolysis (pyruvate + malate)- or FA (palmitoylcarnitine)-derived substrates, and mitochondrial densities, assessed via citrate synthase activity, were consistent between groups. Transmission electron microscopy images also showed no ultrastructural remodeling for failing vs. donor mitochondria; however, the fraction of lipid droplets (LDs) in direct contact with a mitochondrion was reduced, and the average distance between an LD and its nearest neighboring mitochondrion was increased. Analysis of FA processing gene expression between donor and failing LVs revealed 0.64-fold reduced transcript levels for the mitochondrial-LD tether, perilipin 5, in the failing myocardium (P = 0.003). Thus, reduced FA use in heart failure may result from improper delivery, potentially via decreased perilipin 5 expression and mitochondrial-LD tethering, and not from intrinsic mitochondrial dysfunction.-Holzem, K. M., Vinnakota, K. C., Ravikumar, V. K., Madden, E. J., Ewald, G. A., Dikranian, K., Beard, D. A., Efimov, I. R. Mitochondrial structure and function are not different between nonfailing donor and end-stage failing human hearts. PMID:27075244

  9. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  10. The Role of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Therapeutic Resection for Medically Failed Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yau-Lin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Cheng, Lili; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ho; Lu, Chung-Lan; Yen, Yi-Ting

    2016-05-01

    There are few reports regarding video-assisted thoracoscopic therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We reviewed our surgical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) therapeutic resection for pulmonary TB with medical failure, and its correlation with image characteristics on chest computed tomography (CT) scan.Between January 2007 and December 2012, among the 203 patients who had surgery for TB, the medical records of 89 patients undergoing therapeutic resection for medically failed pulmonary TB were reviewed. Clinical information and the image characteristics of CT scan were investigated and analyzed.Forty-six of the 89 patients undergoing successful VATS therapeutic resection had significantly lower grading in pleural thickening (P < 0.001), peribronchial lymph node calcification (P < 0.001), tuberculoma (P = 0.015), cavity (P = 0.006), and aspergilloma (P = 0.038); they had less operative blood loss (171.0 ± 218.7 vs 542.8 ± 622.8 mL; P < 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (5.2 ± 2.2 vs 15.6 ± 15.6 days; P < 0.001). They also had a lower percentage of anatomic resection (73.9% vs 93.0%; P = 0.016), a higher percentage of sublobar resection (56.5% vs 32.6%; P = 0.023), and a lower disease relapse rate (4.3% vs 23.3%; P = 0.009). Eighteen of the 38 patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDRTB) who successfully underwent VATS had significantly lower grading in pleural thickening (P = 0.001), peribronchial lymph node calcification (P = 0.019), and cavity (P = 0.017). They were preoperatively medicated for a shorter period of time (221.6 ± 90.8 vs 596.1 ± 432.5 days; P = 0.001), and had more sublobar resection (44.4% vs 10%), less blood loss (165.3 ± 148.3 vs 468.0 ± 439.9 mL; P = 0.009), and shorter hospital stay (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 11.8 ± 6.9 days; P = 0.001).Without multiple cavities

  11. Myocardial pre-synaptic sympathetic function correlates with glucose uptake in the failing human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongillo, Marco; Leccisotti, Lucia [Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); John, Anna S. [Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Pennell, Dudley J. [Royal Brompton Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Camici, Paolo G. [Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    We have previously shown that the myocardium of patients with heart failure (HF) is insulin resistant. Chronic {beta}-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in insulin resistance in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro, where sustained noradrenaline stimulation inhibited insulin-modulated glucose uptake. As the failing heart is characterized by increased sympathetic drive, we hypothesized that there is a correlation between pre-synaptic sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity in the myocardium of patients with HF. Eight patients (aged 67 {+-} 7 years) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 44 {+-} 10%) underwent function and viability assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Pre-synaptic noradrenaline re-uptake was measured by calculating [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine (HED) volume of distribution (V{sub d}) with PET. Two groups of healthy volunteers served as controls for the FDG (n = 8, aged 52 {+-} 4 years, p < 0.01 vs patients) and HED (n = 8, aged 40 {+-} 6 years, p < 0.01 vs patients) data. MGU in patients was reduced in both normal remote (0.44 {+-} 0.14 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}) and dysfunctional (0.49 {+-} 0.14 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}) segments compared with controls (0.61 {+-} 0.7 {mu}mol.min{sup -1}.g{sup -1}; p < 0.001 vs both). HED V{sub d} was reduced in dysfunctional segments of patients (38.9 {+-} 21.2 ml.g{sup -1}) compared with normal segments (52.2 {+-} 19.6 ml.g{sup -1}) and compared with controls (62.7 {+-} 11.3 ml.g{sup -1}). In patients, regional MGU was correlated with HED V{sub d}. The results of this study provide novel evidence of a correlation between cardiac sympathetic function and insulin sensitivity, which may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance in failing human hearts. (orig.)

  12. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  13. Antidepressant-like activity of flunarizine in modified tail suspension test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine, a Ca 2+ channel blocker, crosses blood brain barrier (BBB, antagonizes calcium influx and interferes with neurotransmitter system. Flunarizine 20 mg/kg exhibited significant antidepressant activity in our previous study using forced swim test (FST in mice, which was contradictory to the findings of other authors. Hence, the present study was designed to strengthen the results of our previous study, using the modified tail suspension test (TST in rats. Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flunarizine versus standard antidepressant drug fluoxetine in modified TST in rats. Materials and Methods: The study approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was conducted using 24 adult albino rats (n = 6 in each group. Antidepressant effect of normal saline (0.1 ml/100 g, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (ip, and flunarizine (2 and 10 mg/kg, ip was evaluated by using modified TST in rats. Thirty minutes after administration of all test drugs the duration of immobility was recorded for a period of 5 min in all rats by using modified TST. The data was analyzed by Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P 0.05. Also, currently used human dose of flunarizine when extrapolated to rats (i. e., 2 mg/kg, ip failed to show significant antidepressant effect in modified TST in rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate antidepressant-like activity of flunarizine.

  14. The Effect of Postoperative Passive Motion on Rotator Cuff Healing in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Peltz, Cathryn D.; Dourte, LeAnn M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Kim, Soung-Yon; Williams, Gerald R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical repairs of torn rotator cuff tendons frequently fail. Immobilization has been shown to improve tissue mechanical properties in an animal model of rotator cuff repair, and passive motion has been shown to improve joint mechanics in animal models of flexor tendon repair. Our objective was to determine if daily passive motion would improve joint mechanics in comparison with continuous immobilization in a rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that daily passive motio...

  15. CENTRAL AMYGDALA LESIONS AFFECT BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE DURING STRESS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, B.; Koolhaas, JM; Bohus, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a bilateral electrolytical lesion of the CEA on the behavioral and sympathetically induced cardiac response in the shock-probe/defensive-burying test have been analyzed in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA failed to affect defensive burying and accompanying tachycardiac response as compared to sham-lesioned controls during the presentation of the electrified shock probe (unconditioned test). However, CEA lesioning attenuated the bradycardiac response and the immobility behav...

  16. Gamma radiation induced alterations in the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and enzymes in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation (600 rads) on the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and some enzymes in wistar rat, are reported. Electron microscopic observations of endocrine pancreas revealed prominent changes in beta cells while alpha and delta cells were not much affected. Irradiation also inflicted hyperglycemia, increase in liver and muscle glycogen and decrease in insulin level. It has also increased the activity of enzymes but failed to produce significant changes in protein, lipid and mineral metabolism. (author)

  17. A public policy aid for bioenergy investment: Case study of failed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent failures of renewable energy plants have raised concerns regarding government's role in providing credit subsidies and have harmed the long-run development of renewable energy. The major reason for these failures lies in government loan appraisers not having a model that addresses these root causes and instead relying on traditional net present value (NPV) analysis. What is required is a model representing entrepreneurs' investment decision processes when faced with uncertainty, irreversibility, and flexibility that characterize renewable energy investments. The aim is to develop such a model with a real options analysis (ROA) criterion as the foundation. A case study comparing NPV with ROA decisions for 50 and 100 million gallon ethanol plants is used as a basis for future development of a template government loan appraisers can use for evaluating the feasibility of renewable energy investments. - Highlights: ► The role net present value (NPV) analysis is investigated in failed ethanol plants. ► NPV optimal entry and exit margins are compared to real options approach (ROA). ► The entry–exit margin gap is smaller under the NPV than it is under the ROA. ► Government policymakers employing NPV tend to react aggressively to margin stimuli.

  18. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice: cyclosporin A fails to protect against AA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice was induced by the i.v. injection of 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from H-2k identical but Mls mismatched CBA/J donor mice into previously irradiated (600 rad total body gamma) C3H/HeJ mice. Cyclosporin A (CsA), 25 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously from day -1 to day 30. Control mice included C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad alone, C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad plus CsA as above, and C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad total body irradiation followed by 10(7) LNC from CBA/J donors. CsA failed to prevent lethal AA. These results suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms operating in immunologically mediated AA differ from the mechanisms operating in rodents transplanted with allogeneically mismatched marrow or spleen cells which develop graft-versus-host disease. The results are consistent with a non-T cell-dependent mechanism causing the AA

  19. Will Jakarta Be The Next Atlantis? Excessive Groundwater Use Resulting From A Failing Piped Water Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colbran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the connection between a failing piped water network and excessive groundwater use in Jakarta. It discusses the political history of the city's piped water network, which was privatised in 1998, and how privatisation was intended to increase access to clean, safe water for its residents. The article asserts that this has not eventuated, and that tap water remains costly, unreliable and does not provide noticeable benefits when compared with groundwater. The result is that households, industry, businesses, luxury apartment complexes and hotels choose alternative water sources and distribution methods, in particular groundwater. This is having an unsustainable impact on groundwater levels and Jakarta 's natural environment, causing significant land subsidence, pollution and salinisation of aquifers, and increased levels of flooding. The effect is so severe that the World Bank has predicted much of Jakarta will be inundated by seawater in 2025, rendering one third of the city uninhabitable and displacing millions. The article concludes by discussing and assessing the steps the government has taken to address excessive and unlicensed groundwater use. These steps include new regulations on groundwater, a public awareness campaign on the importance of groundwater and a commitment to improve the raw water supplied to the piped water network. However, the article observes that the government is yet to develop long term policies for improvement of the network itself. The question therefore remains, has the government done enough, or will groundwater use continue unabated making Jakarta the next lost city of Atlantis?

  20. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Methods: Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. Results: The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. Conclusions: All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material

  1. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansberry, David R., E-mail: hansbedr@njms.rutgers.edu; Ramchand, Tekchand, E-mail: ramchate@njms.rutgers.edu; Patel, Shyam, E-mail: patel288@njms.rutgers.edu; Kraus, Carl, E-mail: krauscf@njms.rutgers.edu; Jung, Jin, E-mail: jungjk@njms.rutgers.edu; Agarwal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.agarwal@rutgers.edu; Gonzales, Sharon F., E-mail: gonzalsh@njms.rutgers.edu; Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@njms.rutgers.edu

    2014-09-15

    Introduction: Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Methods: Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. Results: The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. Conclusions: All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material.

  2. Why hospital improvement efforts fail: a view from the front line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O; Longenecker, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, healthcare executives are facing changes of unprecedented magnitude in virtually every area, affecting their ability to compete. That hindrance brings with it a greater need for rapid and effective organizational change and improvement. Yet changes in the U.S. healthcare delivery system have historically been criticized as slow and less than effective in responding to the changes necessary for rapid performance improvement. To that end, the purpose of this applied research study was to help healthcare executives better understand the barriers to effective organizational change and improvement from the perspective of frontline leaders. Focus groups were conducted with 167 frontline leaders from four community hospitals to explore why hospital change efforts fail. Participants representing 11 different functional areas, including all facets of hospital operations, were asked to identify the primary causes of failure of a recent change initiative at their hospital. A content analysis of the focus group data identified 10 primary barriers to successful hospital change, some of which are ineffective implementation planning and overly aggressive timelines, failure to create project buy-in and ownership, ineffective leadership and lack of trust in upper management, unrealistic improvement plans, and communication breakdowns. Leadership lessons and recommendations based on the research findings are provided. PMID:24783373

  3. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment for failing dental implants due to peri-implantitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Dawn; Blodgett, Kris; Braga, Charles; Finkbeiner, Larry; Fourrier, Jeanne; George, John; Gregg, Robert; Honigman, Allen; Houser, Bruce; Lamas, William; Lehrman, Neal; Linden, Eric; McCarthy, Delwin; McCawley, Tom; McCormick, Randy; Marcus, Ed; Noraian, Kirk; Rubelman, Peter; Salama, Maurice; Saunders, Steven; Seamons, Brandon; Thein, David; Toms, Michael; Vassos, George; Harris, David M.

    2014-02-01

    A large percentage of dental implants experience complications, most commonly, infection leading to peri-implantitis and peri-mucositis, inflammatory disease involving pathogen contamination. It presents with radiographic findings of crestal bone loss. At this time there appears to be no compelling evidence for an effective intervention. The LANAP protocol is a FDA cleared surgical protocol that produces new attachment and bone regeneration when applied to periodontally infected natural teeth. The LANAP protocol and laser dosimetry have been modified to treat ailing and failing implants. Twenty-one clinicians who have been trained to perform the LANAP protocol and the LAPIPTM protocol have volunteered 26 LAPIP case reports. The time from implant to intervention ranges from 3 months to 16 years. Post-LAPIP radiographs range from 2-48 months. Ten cases were excluded for technical reasons. All 16 remaining cases provide radiographic evidence of increase in crestal bone mass around the implant and, when reported, probe depth reductions. All treating clinicians report control of the infection, reversal of bone loss and rescue of the incumbent implant. Although the success/failure rate cannot be judged from these data, any successes in this area deserve reporting and further study.

  4. Tests on a prototype of the Passive Fission Gas Monitor for failed detection (PRISM reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Passive Diffusion Fission Gas Monitor PDFGM is mounted on the PRISM reactor head and extends into the cover gas Region where it determines the presence of radioactive fission gases (Kr, Xe, and so on) released from failed fuel pins. It contains a steel diffusion column that is closed at the upper end but opened to the cover gas at its lower end. The upper portion of the column is located in the field of view of a collimated gamma detector which is shielded from the remainder of the cover gas and of the sodium pool below. Heaters are provided to obtain a uniform axial temperature in the gas column and to minimize the potential for natural convection currents. In this way, the molecular diffusion can be established based on the fission gas concentration gradients along the column length. This is an advanced solution in comparison with current devices based on active components (pumps, filters, and so on). The experimental results on a prototype of PDFGM and their interpretation will be presented in this paper. (author)

  5. SWIM (sickle with ibuprofen and morphine) randomised controlled trial fails to recruit: lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gavin; Anie, Kofi A; Buckton, Jacky; Kiilu, Patricia; Layton, Mark; Alexander, Lydia; Hemmaway, Claire; Sutton, Dorothy; Amos, Claire; Doré, Caroline J; Kahan, Brennan; Meredith, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sickle With Ibuprofen and Morphine (SWIM) trial was designed to assess whether co-administration of ibuprofen (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) resulted in a reduction of opioid consumption delivered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for acute pain in sickle cell disease. Design A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Setting UK multicentre trial in acute hospital setting. Participants Adults with sickle cell disease of any gender and phenotype aged 16 years and over. Interventions Oral ibuprofen at a dose of 800 mg three times daily or placebo in addition to opioids (morphine or diamorphine) administered via PCA pump for up to 4 days. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was opioid consumption over 4 days following randomisation. Results The SWIM trial closed early because it failed to randomise to its target of 316 patients within a reasonable time. Conclusions The key issues identified include the unanticipated length of time between informed consent and randomisation, difficulties in randomisation of patients in busy emergency departments, availability of trained staff at weekends and out of hours, fewer centres than expected using PCA routinely for sickle cell pain treatment, lack of research staff and support for participation, and the trial design. There are implications for future UK trials in sickle cell disease. Trial registration number ISRCTN97241637, NCT00880373; Pre-results. PMID:27288381

  6. Waste management and final storage in Germany - failed for lack of content and a technical basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assertion by the political parties at present in government in Germany, SPD and Alliance 90/The Greens, that 'the previous waste management concept for radioactive waste had failed in terms of content and no longer had any technical basis', is a purely ideological statement utterly devoid of any realistic reason. In actual fact, the waste management concept so far pursued in Germany has been transferred into industrial practice in many areas: Transports of radioactive waste and spent fuel elements can be carried out safely at any time; spent fuel has been reprocessed on an industrial scale for many years. The central interim stores of Ahaus, Gorleben, and Lubmin, all of which are in operation, actually represent sufficient capacity for the interim storage of spent fuel elements. The successful exploration of the Gorleben salt dome has advanced far. No result so far would detract from its suitability. Consequently, the federal government should not try 'to elaborate a (new) national waste management plan for the inherited burden of radioactive waste', but rather invest all its power to make functional as quickly as possible the missing building blocks in the existing waste management concept. In doing so, it would make an important contribution to domestic peace and to the international recognition of Germany as a high-tech country. Part 1 of the article covers reprocessing and interim storage, while part 2, which will be published in atw 8/9, will be about problems of final storage. (orig.)

  7. Tidal stirring of satellites with shallow density profiles prevents them from being too big to fail

    CERN Document Server

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The "too big to fail" problem is revisited by studying the tidal evolution of populations of dwarf satellites with different density profiles. The high resolution cosmological $\\rm \\Lambda CDM$ "ErisMod" set of simulations is used. These simulations can model both the stellar and dark matter components of the satellites, and their evolution under the action of the tides of a MW-sized host halo at a force resolution better than 10 pc. The stronger tidal mass loss and re-shaping of the mass distribution induced in satellites with $\\gamma=0.6$ dark matter density distributions, as those resulting from the effect of feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation, is sufficient to bring the circular velocity profiles in agreement with the kinematics of MW's dSphs. In contrast, in simulations in which the satellites retain cusps at $z=0$ there are several "massive failures" with circular velocities in excess of the observational constraints. Various sources of deviations in the conventionally adop...

  8. The Effect of Silver Nitrate Pleurodesis after a Failed Thoracoscopic Talc Poudrage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Menna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemical pleurodesis is the procedure of choice in the management of recurrent malignant pleural effusions (MPE. Talc is probably the most effective sclerosant, with a success rate of 80%. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of silver nitrate solution (SNS pleurodesis after an unsuccessful thoracoscopic talc poudrage. Methods. Between 2011 and 2013 one hundred and nine patients with unilateral MPE underwent thoracoscopic talc poudrage. Seventeen patients who did not obtain a successful pleurodesis via thoracoscopic procedure were considered for an SNS slurry. The pleural injectate consisted of 100 mL 1% SNS with 10 mL of lidocaine (100 mg/5 mL. The SNS procedure was undertaken once and repeated with the same dose in 5 patients. Results. The duration of follow-up period was 30 days. Subjective pain was low and the same before and after SNS procedure ( value = NS. The mean daily fluid drainage was statistically different ( comparing values before ( mL and after SNS procedure ( mL. After 30 days from SNS procedure recurrence of pleural effusion was observed in 2 patients (11%. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates that SNS is an effective agent for producing pleurodesis after a failed thoracoscopic talc poudrage.

  9. Neutralizing antibody fails to impact the course of Ebola virus infection in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelien B Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This antibody was previously shown to fully protect guinea pigs from infection. Four rhesus macaques were given 50 mg/kg of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody KZ52 intravenously 1 d before challenge with 1,000 plaque-forming units of Ebola virus, followed by a second dose of 50 mg/kg antibody 4 d after challenge. A control animal was exposed to virus in the absence of antibody treatment. Passive transfer of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody not only failed to protect macaques against challenge with Ebola virus but also had a minimal effect on the explosive viral replication following infection. We show that the inability of antibody to impact infection was not due to neutralization escape. It appears that Ebola virus has a mechanism of infection propagation in vivo in macaques that is uniquely insensitive even to high concentrations of neutralizing antibody.

  10. A study of complex defects failing by fatigue, ductile tearing and cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect assessment procedures ensure the structural integrity of plant, which may contain complex defects. The present work addresses complex defects with re-entrant sectors, which develop from the interaction of two co-planar surface breaking defects in fatigue. Experimental studies show rapid fatigue growth and amplified crack driving forces in the re-entrant sector. This leads to the rapid evolution of the complex crack into a bounding semielliptical defect. Experiments involving ductile tearing of cracks with a re-entrant sector show that tearing initiates in the re-entrant sector and that the defect evolves into a bounding semielliptical defect. Cleavage failures of defects with re-entrant sectors indicate the re-characterisation procedure is only conservative after invoking constraint arguments. The study confirms the conservatism inherent in the re-characterisation rules of assessment procedures, such as BS 7910 [1] and ASME Section XI [2] for complex defects extending by fatigue or ductile tearing. A potentially non-conservative situation exists for defects with re-entrant sectors failing by cleavage at small fractions of the limit load.(author)

  11. The influence of shame on posttrauma disorders: have we failed to see the obvious?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry F. Taylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fear is known to be the dominant affect associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the presence and possible influence of other emotions is less well explored. Recent changes to diagnostic criteria have added anger, guilt and shame alongside fear as significant emotional states associated with the disorder. This article suggests that shame is a frequent, often poorly recognised sequel to trauma, occurring as a result of the meaning the individual places on the traumatic experience and on subsequent interpersonal and environmental events. Methods: The article reviews the literature on the socio-interpersonal aspects of the posttraumatic experience with particular emphasis on the emotion of shame as both primary and secondary emotion, in its intrapersonal and interpersonal contexts, and in adaptive and maladaptive forms. Results: The review suggests that posttrauma shame, and maladaptive shame regulation strategies, often manifesting as anger, substance abuse, social withdrawal or depression, may play an important role in the maintenance or exacerbation of the symptoms of PTSD and the development of co-morbidities. Conclusion: The recognition of shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies in PTSD treatment and management is critical. However, because shame is frequently considered a painful and discomforting emotion, it may fail to be addressed in the therapeutic setting by both client and therapist. Examination of potential shame-related changes in self-concept, close interpersonal relationships and social inclusion are recommended for individuals who have experienced a range of traumas to identify and address any underlying unacknowledged shame.

  12. Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Fails to Fully Regenerate the B-Lymphocyte Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliver Eid Bou Ghosn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B cells are key components of cellular and humoral immunity and, like all lymphocytes, are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. However, our recent single-HSC transfer studies demonstrate that adult bone marrow HSCs do not regenerate B-1a, a subset of tissue B cells required for protection against pneumonia, influenza, and other infections. Since B-1a are regenerated by transfers of fetal liver, the question arises as to whether B-1a derive from fetal, but not adult, HSCs. Here we show that, similar to adult HSCs, fetal HSCs selectively fail to regenerate B-1a. We also show that, in humanized mice, human fetal liver regenerates tissue B cells that are phenotypically similar to murine B-1a, raising the question of whether human HSC transplantation, the mainstay of such models, is sufficient to regenerate human B-1a. Thus, our studies overtly challenge the current paradigm that HSCs give rise to all components of the immune system.

  13. Is there a "too big to fail" problem in the field?

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P; Shankar, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey to measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their rotational velocity, Vrot,HI (as inferred from the width of their 21cm emission line). Based on the measured velocity function we statistically connect galaxies with their host halos, via abundance matching. In a LCDM cosmology, low-velocity galaxies are expected to be hosted by halos that are significantly more massive than indicated by the measured galactic velocity; allowing lower mass halos to host ALFALFA galaxies would result in a vast overestimate of their number counts. We then seek observational verification of this predicted trend, by analyzing the kinematics of a literature sample of field dwarf galaxies. We find that galaxies with Vrot,HI<25 km/s are kinematically incompatible with their predicted LCDM host halos, in the sense that hosts are too massive to be accommodated within the measured galactic rotation curves. This issue is analogous to the "too big to fail" problem ...

  14. Integrated Chassis Control System with Fail Safety Using Optimum Yaw Moment Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an integrated chassis control system with fail safety using optimum yaw moment distribution for a vehicle with steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire devices. The proposed system has two-level structure: upper- and lower-level controllers. In the upper-level controller, the control yaw moment is computed with sliding mode control theory. In the lower-level controller, the control yaw moment is distributed into the tire forces of active front steering(AFS) and electronic stability control(ESC) with the weighted pseudo-inverse based control allocation(WPCA) method. By setting the variable weights in WPCA, it is possible to take the sensor/actuator failure into account. In this framework, it is necessary to optimize the variables weights in order to enhance the yaw moment distribution. For this purpose, simulation-based tuning is proposed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulations are conducted on a vehicle simulation package, CarSim

  15. FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate intermediate filament protein vimentin during myogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipinski M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant hereditary neuromuscular disorder. The clinical features of FSHD include weakness of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles followed by wasting of skeletal muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Although FSHD myoblasts grown in vitro can be induced to differentiate into myotubes by serum starvation, the resulting FSHD myotubes have been shown previously to be morphologically abnormal. Aim. In order to find the cause of morphological anomalies of FSHD myotubes we compared in vitro myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts at the protein level. Methods. We induced myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts by serum starvation. We then compared protein extracts from proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identification of differentially expressed proteins. Results. We demonstrated that the expression of vimentin was elevated at the protein and mRNA levels in FSHD myotubes as compared to normal myotubes. Conclusions. We demonstrate for the first time that in contrast to normal myoblasts, FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate vimentin after induction of in vitro myogenic differentiation. We suggest that vimentin could be an easily detectable marker of FSHD myotubes

  16. Failing Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula and Percutaneous Treatment: Imaging with CT, MRI and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas with helical CT angiography (CTA), MR angiography (MRA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and to compare the efficacy of the three techniques in detecting the number, location, grade, and extent of stenoses and in assessing the technical results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting.Methods: Thirteen patients with Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula malfunction underwent MRA and CTA of the fistula and, within 1 week, DSA. A total of 11 PTAs were performed; in three cases an MR-compatible stent was placed. DSA served as the gold standard for comparison in all patients. The presence, site, and number of stenoses or occlusions and the technical results of percutaneous procedures were assessed with DSA, CTA, and MRA.Results: MRA underestimated a single stenosis in one patient; CTA and MRA did not overestimate any stenosis. Significant artifacts related to stent geometry and/or underlying metal were seen in MRA sequences in two cases.Conclusions: CT and MRI can provide information regarding the degree of vascular impairment, helping to stratify patients into those who can have PTA (single or multiple stenoses) versus those who require an operative procedure (occlusion). Conventional angiography can be reserved for candidates for percutaneous intervention

  17. Tumour cell proliferation after failed ruthenium plaque radiotherapy for posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enucleation following ruthenium plaque radiotherapy for posterior uveal melanoma indicates failure of treatment. This study focused on the histopathological findings and remaining tumour cell growth fraction in 42 of 46 patients with failed ruthenium plaque treatment (of 266 patients treated) for melanoma of the choroid or ciliary body. The cause for enucleation was clinically detected tumour regrowth in 27 (64%) patients, treatment-related ocular side effects in 12 (29%) cases and the patient's personal preference in three (7%) cases. The median time elapsing from plaque radiotherapy to enucleation was not significantly different for patients with recurrent tumour growth (23 months) compared to those enucleated without clinical signs of regrowth (19 months). While all tumours showed some regressive features by histopathological examination, only five melanomas were completely necrotic and viable-appearing tumours cells were present in all of the remaining 37 (88%) irradiated tumours. Microwave processed PC-10 immunostaining increased the sensitivity to detect cycling cells compared to the sole use of mitotic cell counts. By the former technique, proliferating tumour cells were detected in 17 or 23 (74%) studied melanomas of eyes enucleated for tumour regrowth following brachytherapy. Also, the number of cycling melanoma cells was similar to that of non-irradiated controls managed solely by enucleation. In contrast, the proliferative compartment of irradiated, but non-recurrent, posterior uveal melanomas were significantly reduced compared to those of matched controls. Still, cycling tumour cells were present in four of 13 (31%) irradiated melanomas, clinically assumed to be successfully treated. (au) 43 refs

  18. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  19. A triple-helix forming oligonucleotide targeting genomic DNA fails to induce mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshat, Reshat; Priestley, Catherine C; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2012-11-01

    Purine tracts in duplex DNA can bind oligonucleotide strands in a sequence specific manner to form triple-helix structures. Triple-helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) targeting supFG1 constructs have previously been shown to be mutagenic raising safety concerns for oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. We have engineered a TFO, TFO27, to target the genomic Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus to define the mutagenic potential of such structures at genomic DNA. We report that TFO27 was resistant to nuclease degradation and readily binds to its target motif in a cell free system. Contrary to previous studies using the supFG1 reporter construct, TFO27 failed to induce mutation within the genomic HPRT locus. We suggest that it is possible that previous reports of triplex-mediated mutation using the supFG1 reporter construct could be confounded by DNA quadruplex formation. Although the present study indicates that a TFO targeting a genomic locus lacks mutagenic activity, it is unclear if this finding can be generalised to all TFOs and their targets. For the present, we suggest that it is prudent to avoid large purine stretches in oligonucleotide pharmaceutical design to minimise concern regarding off-target genotoxicity. PMID:22914677

  20. Development of methodology to optimize management of failed fuels in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cladding is one of the key components in a fission reactor that confines radioactive materials inside a fuel tube. During reactor operation, however, cladding is sometimes breached, and radioactive materials leak from the fuel pellet into the coolant water through the breach. The primary coolant water is therefore monitored so that any leak is quickly detected; coolant water is periodically sampled, and the concentration of radioactive iodine 131 (I-131), for example, is measured. Depending on the measured leakage concentration, the faulty fuel assembly with leaking rod is removed from the reactor and replaced immediately or at the next refueling. In the present study, an effort has been made to develop a methodology to optimize the management for replacement of faulty fuel assemblies due to cladding failures using measured leakage concentration. A model numerical equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of an increase in I-131 concentration due to cladding failures and is then solved using the Monte Carlo method as a function of sampling rate. Our results indicate that, to achieve rationalized management of failed fuels, higher resolution to detect a small amount of I-131 is not necessarily required, but more frequent sampling is favorable. (author)

  1. Fundamental principles of failed fuel detection concepts on nuclear power units of WWER type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the paper is the Russian failed fuel detection concept in both operating and shut down reactors. The philosophy for detection of fission products released from defective fuel during operation and sipping tests and using of these results for regulation of the radiological situation at the NPP during the next cycle is widely spread. In presented work such philosophy is applied to the shut down rectors. An option for sipping test performed in a mast of Refueling Machine (RM) using a wet-gas version of sipping test is briefly described. The use of the FFD method in RM mast allows combining the procedure of Fuel Assemblies (FA) tightness test with transport operation during reloading of the fuel from the core into the cooling pool. This reduces the time for reloading and transport operation with FA and increases the safety of reactor operation. The FFD method in RM mast has passed successful tests on Unit 4 at Balakovskaja NPP and it is expected to apply in other NPP unit with WWER-1000 reactors

  2. Acetaminophen fails to inhibit ethanol-induced subjective effects in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, W B; Klein, S A; George, F R; Henningfield, J E

    1992-01-01

    In animals, ethanol causes some of its CNS effects by releasing prostaglandins (PG); this is demonstrated by reports that prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSIs) diminish ethanol-induced effects. However, use of animals in these studies has precluded testing for subjective effects. We studied the interaction of ethanol and acetaminophen, a PGSI, in a double-blind crossover experiment. Six adult males were given no drug or acetaminophen (0, 325, 650, 1300 or 1950 mg) 75 min before ethanol (total dose = 0.625 g/kg; five divided doses). Physiologic, subjective and performance measures were collected. Compared to the no drug condition, ethanol significantly increased ratings of drug "liking," "drunk," "sluggish" and "drug strength" and decreased ratings of "sober." Ethanol increased heart rate and acetaminophen did not diminish or enhance this effect. The failure to antagonize ethanol-induced subjective and physiologic effects by acetaminophen in humans may be due to species differences or inadequate dosage of the PGSI. It is also possible that subjective and certain physiologic effects of ethanol in humans are not mediated by prostaglandin-dependent neural processes. Nevertheless, the finding that at greater than typical analgesic doses, acetaminophen failed to prevent subjective effects of ethanol is of clinical significance. PMID:1539069

  3. Contamination of a PWR primary circuit by fuel pins with failed cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety authorities in the principal nuclear countries appear to be attaching increasing importance to keeping reactor primary circuits as contamination-free as possible. Therefore, the consequences of cladding failures and especially of those resulting from fabrication defects have to be evaluated, for when these failures become systematic in nature they constitute an important source of contamination in pressurized-water reactors. The Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre is implementing a programme on the study of such failures with a view to analysing the behaviour of failed fuel elements. A distinction is made between two types of cladding failure, depending on whether the primary water enters the fuel pin as soon as the circuits are pressurized (fabrication defect) or whether the failure is caused during operation. The emission of gaseous fission products and halogens has been analysed in different operating modes (steady-state or transient), and in spite of the complexity of the phenomena involved, some results have been obtained which already enable one to evaluate fission product contamination of the primary circuit. (author)

  4. Isopods failed to acclimate their thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance during predictable or stochastic cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Schuler

    Full Text Available Most organisms experience environments that vary continuously over time, yet researchers generally study phenotypic responses to abrupt and sustained changes in environmental conditions. Gradual environmental changes, whether predictable or stochastic, might affect organisms differently than do abrupt changes. To explore this possibility, we exposed terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber collected from a highly seasonal environment to four thermal treatments: (1 a constant 20°C; (2 a constant 10°C; (3 a steady decline from 20° to 10°C; and (4 a stochastic decline from 20° to 10°C that mimicked natural conditions during autumn. After 45 days, we measured thermal sensitivities of running speed and thermal tolerances (critical thermal maximum and chill-coma recovery time. Contrary to our expectation, thermal treatments did not affect the thermal sensitivity of locomotion; isopods from all treatments ran fastest at 33° to 34°C and achieved more than 80% of their maximal speed over a range of 10° to 11°C. Isopods exposed to a stochastic decline in temperature tolerated cold the best, and isopods exposed to a constant temperature of 20°C tolerated cold the worst. No significant variation in heat tolerance was observed among groups. Therefore, thermal sensitivity and heat tolerance failed to acclimate to any type of thermal change, whereas cold tolerance acclimated more during stochastic change than it did during abrupt change.

  5. Fail-safe ion chamber errant beam detector tailored for personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fail-safe ion chamber system is designed to be part of the personnel safety system (PSS) for the Los Alamos neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its job is to protect the occupants of the experimental areas from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport from the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the LANSCE neutron spallation target. Due to limited shielding between the beam transport line and the experimental area only if the beam losses in the transport line are very low. The worst case beam spill scenario is calculated to result in a personnel exposure of about 0.01 Gys/s (1 rad/s). Although the preferred solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam line and the experimental area, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit an adequate amount of shielding to be added. The solution adopted is a layered system of three types of highly reliable detector systems: a current limiter system located in the beam line, a neutron detector system located in the experimental areas, and an ion chamber system located on the walls of the beam line tunnels. The ion chamber system is capable of shutting off the beam in less than 0.5 s, resulting in a worst case personnel exposure of 0.005 Gys (0.5 rad). 4 figs

  6. Fail-safe ion chamber errant beam detector tailored for personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fail-safe ion chamber system is designed to be part of the personnel safety system (PSS) for the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its job is to protect the occupants of the experimental areas from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport from the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the LANSCE neutron spallation target. The worst case beam spill scenario is calculated to result in a personnel exposure of about 0.01 Gys/s (1 rad/s). Although the preferred solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam line and the experimental area, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit an adequate amount of shielding to be added. The solution adopted is a layered system of three types of highly reliable detector systems: a current limiter system located in the beam line, a neutron detector system located in the experimental areas, and an ion chamber system located on the walls of the beam line tunnels. The ion chamber system is capable of shutting off the beam in less than 0.5 s, resulting in a worst case personnel exposure of 0.005 Gys (0.5 rad). 4 figs

  7. Calibration of the Failed-Fuel-Element Detection Systems in the Aagesta Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a calibration of the systems for detection of fuel element ruptures in the Aagesta reactor are presented. The calibration was carried out by means of foils of zirconium-uranium alloy which were placed in a special fuel assembly. The release of fission products from these foils is due mainly to recoil and can be accurately calculated. Before the foils were used in the reactor their corrosion behaviour in high temperature water was investigated. The results obtained with the precipitator systems for bulk detection and localization are in good agreement with the expected performance. The sensitivity of these systems was found to be high enough for detection and localization of small defects of pin-hole type (ν 10-8/s ). The general performance of the systems was satisfactory during the calibration tests, although a few adjustments are desirable. A bulk detecting system for monitoring of activities in the moderator, in which the γ-radiation from coolant samples is measured directly after an ion exchanger, showed lower sensitivity than expected from calculations. It seems that the sensitivity of the latter system has to be improved to admit the detection of small defects. In the ion exchanger system, and to some extent in the precipitator systems, the background from A41 in the coolant limits the sensitivity. The calibration technique utilized seems to be of great advantage when investigating the performance of failed-fuel-element detection systems

  8. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  9. Six Serum miRNAs Fail to Validate as Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Costa, Juan M.; Llamusi, Beatriz; Bargiela, Ariadna; Zulaica, Miren; Alvarez-Abril, M. Carmen; Perez-Alonso, Manuel; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by expansion of a CTG microsatellite in the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Despite characteristic muscular, cardiac, and neuropsychological symptoms, CTG trinucleotide repeats are unstable both in the somatic and germinal lines, making the age of onset, clinical presentation, and disease severity very variable. A molecular biomarker to stratify patients and to follow disease progression is, thus, an unmet medical need. Looking for a novel biomarker, and given that specific miRNAs have been found to be misregulated in DM1 heart and muscle tissues, we profiled the expression of 175 known serum miRNAs in DM1 samples. The differences detected between patients and controls were less than 2.6 fold for all of them and a selection of six candidate miRNAs, miR-103, miR-107, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-30c, and miR-652 all failed to show consistent differences in serum expression in subsequent validation experiments. PMID:26919350

  10. Successfully Climbing the “STAIRs”: Surmounting Failed Translation of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Kahle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR provided initial (in 1999 and updated (in 2009 recommendations with the goal of improving preclinical stroke therapy assessment and to increase the translational potential of experimental stroke treatments. It is important for preclinical stroke researchers to frequently consider and revisit these concepts, especially since promising experimental stroke treatments continue to fail in human clinical trials. Therefore, this paper will focus on considerations for several key aspects of preclinical stroke studies including the selection and execution of the animal stroke model, drug/experimental treatment administration, and outcome measures to improve experimental validity and translation potential. Specific points of interest discussed include the incorporation of human comorbid conditions and drugs, the benefits of defining a proposed mechanism of action, replication of results using multiple methods, using clinically relevant routes of administration and treatment time windows, and performing and reporting good experimental methods to reduce bias such as, as suggested by the updated STAIR recommendations, sample size calculations, randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, and appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria. It is our hope that reviewing and revisiting these considerations will benefit researchers in their investigations of stroke therapies and increase the likelihood of translational success in the battle against stroke.

  11. Rat liver insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using insulin affinity chromatography, the authors have isolated highly purified insulin receptor from rat liver. When evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the rat liver receptor contained the M/sub r/ 125,000 α-subunit, the M/sub r/ 90,000 β-subunit, and varying proportions of the M/sub r/ 45,000 β'-subunit. The specific insulin binding of the purified receptor was 25-30 μg of 125I-insulin/mg of protein, and the receptor underwent insulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Rat liver and human placental receptors differ from each other in several functional aspects: (1) the adsorption-desorption behavior from four insulin affinity columns indicated that the rat liver receptor binds less firmly to immobilized ligands; (2) the 125I-insulin binding affinity of the rat liver receptor is lower than that of the placental receptor; (3) partial reduction of the rat liver receptor with dithiothreitol increases its insulin binding affinity whereas the binding affinity of the placental receptor is unchanged; (4) at optimal insulin concentration, rat liver receptor autophosphorylation is stimulated 25-50-fold whereas the placental receptor is stimulated only 4-6-fold. Conversion of the β-subunit to β' by proteolysis is a major problem that occurs during exposure of the receptor to the pH 5.0 buffer used to elute the insulin affinity column. Proteolytic destruction and the accompanying loss of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation can be substantially reduced by proteolysis inhibitors. In summary, rat liver and human placental receptors differ functionally in both α- and β-subunits. Insulin binding to the α-subunit of the purified rat liver receptor communicates a signal that activates the β-subunit; however, major proteolytic destruction of the β-subunit does not affect insulin binding to the α-subunit

  12.  The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kumar Eswar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Heme Biosynthetic Mutants Utilize Heme and Hemoglobin as a Heme Source but Fail To Grow within Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Paul C; Thomas, Christopher E.; Elkins, Christopher; Clary, Susan; Sparling, P F

    1998-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens, including pathogenic neisseriae, can use heme as an iron source for growth. To study heme utilization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, two heme biosynthetic mutants were constructed, one with a mutation in hemH (the gene encoding ferrochelatase) and one with a mutation in hemA (the gene encoding γ-glutamyl tRNA reductase). The hemH mutant failed to grow without an exogenous supply of heme or hemoglobin, whereas the hemA mutant failed to grow unless heme, hemoglobin, or heme...

  14. 腰椎手术失败综合征%Failed low back surgery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸢

    2012-01-01

    Failed low back surgery syndrome (FLBSS) is a term describing chronic, disabling low back pain, with or without radicular pain following one or more spine surgeries. It can result in disastrous emotional and financial consequences to the patient. FLBSS has considerable impact on the patient and health care system. The clinical feature of FLBSS is chronic postoperative pain. Pain may locate in axial (low back) or radicular (down to the leg) distributions and may be presented as mechanical pain, which is aggravated by weight-bearing activities; or neuropathic pain, which is a more constant, unbearable pain locating in a radicular distribution. Patients with significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis are at high-risk of developing FLBSS. Poor outcome after back surgery may also be due to the residual neurologic compression, spinal instability, neuropathic injury and fusion disease. Surgical complications such as infection, nerve injury, hematoma, and pseudomeningocele can also result in FLBSS. Diagnostic evaluation of FLBSS includes plain radiographs, CT scans, MRI, nerve root injection and diagnostic blocks. Plain radiographs include anterior-posterior, lateral, oblique and flexion/extension view in standing position. Loss of normal lordosis, hardware placement, prior laminectomy defects, plstlaminectomy fractures of the pars, as well as spondylolisthesis should be noted. CT scan provides very useful information in investigating the hardware placement, central and lateral recess stenosis, and bone fusion quality. MRI will provide precise visualization of disk disease and spinal stenosis, and adjacent segments. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI can help distinguish recurrent or residual disk herniations (without enhancing) from scar tissue formation (enhancing). Nerve root injections or blocks are helpful both as diagnostic and therapeutic method. Management of patients diagnosed with FLBSS should be in an interdisciplinary environment and each

  15. The Okavango Dike Swarm (ODS) of Northern Botswana: Was it associated with a failed Rift System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePera, Alan; Atekwana, Estella; Abdelsalam, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Dikes and dike swarms often play a significant role in the initiation and extension of rift zones. The giant ODS in northern Botswana, Africa represents a Jurassic aged (~180Ma) thermo-tectonic event which developed during the initial lithospheric weakening phase of Gondwana. Detailed investigations of the mafic dike swarm over the last four decades have provided insights into its age, shape, orientation, and chemistry but have thus far been limited in addressing the crustal structure below the swarm. Historically, the ODS has been interpreted as a failed rift arm based on its association with the Bouvet Hotspot and geometric relationship with two other prominent dike swarms. More recent studies suggest instead that the ODS was emplaced along a preexisting Precambrian basement fabric. Accordingly, the origin of the swarm still remains a matter of debate. The objectives of this study were: (1) determine the role of crustal heterogeneities on the emplacement of the dikes, (2) determine variations in crustal thickness below the ODS and geographically related Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), a zone of incipient rifting and (3) determine along-strike variations in Curie Point Depth (CPD) below the swarm. We used high resolution aeromagnetic data and applied mathematical filters to enhance structures associated with the swarm's oblique geometry. Crustal thicknesses were estimated using the radial average power spectrum method, applied to 1.2km spatial resolution gravity data. 3D inversions were used to map the magnetic basement and determine the depth to the base of the swarm. Our results showed: (1) There were no apparent basement structures with the same 110° orientation as the ODS. (2) Crustal thickness below the swarm ranges from 39 to 45km with an average of 42± 3km, comparable with thicknesses derived from the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE). In contrast, crustal thickness below the ORZ is 9 to 16km thinner than the surrounding blocks. (3) The magnetic

  16. When the Safety System Fails the Worker: Did We Do Our Job?...A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2006-02-03

    As safety professionals, we strive to implement a robust safety process in our organizations to maximize worker protection. We sell our philosophy and ideas to senior management, and then work with line management and the work force to develop and implement the safety process. Through this effort, we are likely to accomplish two major objectives. First, we obtain buy-in from line management and the workers, maybe even ownership for the safety process we implement. Second, we increase the likelihood that the hazards (and necessary controls) associated with the work activities performed by our workforce are identified and addressed by the safety process we implement. Our ambition is to maximize safety and health in the work place, and prevent injuries. Realizing this goal improves overall business operations. Petersen suggests an accident is an indication of something wrong in the management system (Petersen, pg 15). Successful organizations operate with the safety process fully integrated into the management system. If the management system fails, the safety process has failed the worker. As safety professionals, we must ask ourselves whether we did our job adequately. The better organizations strive for continuous improvement. The overall success of safety processes, in terms of accident and injury prevention has improved since safety professionals have learned to involve line management and the workers in the process. Although we maintain the label of 'safety expert', our role has shifted somewhat to that of a 'facilitator' in the process. The role of the safety professional is to advise and counsel line management (Kohn & Ferry, pg 28). Line management owns safety! If you subscribe to this philosophy, our role of advisor to line management makes perfect sense. Most safety professionals no longer operate as the 'safety cop'. That role belongs to line management. Instead, our role falls into the category of 'oversight' or

  17. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Sun H; O'Donnell, Philip J M; Kang, Jennifer L; Malhotra, Neil R; Dodge, George R; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2015-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  18. Evaluation of failing hemodialysis fistulas with multidetector CT angiography: Comparison of different 3D planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeli, E. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Tarhan, N.C. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Ulu, E.M. Kayahan; Tutar, N.U. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Basaran, O. [Department of General Surgery, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Coskun, M.; Niron, E.A. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate failing hemodialysis fistula complications using 16-detector MDCTA, and to assess the accuracies of different 3D planes. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (16 men, 14 women, aged 27-79 years) were referred for hemodialysis access dysfunction. Thirty-one MDCTA exams were done prior to fistulography. For MDCTA, contrast was administered (2 mL/kg at 5 mL/s) via a peripheral vein in the contralateral arm. Axial MIP, coronal MIP, and VRT images were constructed. Venous complications were evaluated on axial source images, on each 3D plane, and on all-planes together. Results were analyzed using McNemar test. Results: Axial MIP, VRT and all-planes evaluations were most sensitive for fistula site detection (93%). Coronal MIP had the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (35%, 96%, and 85%, respectively) for detecting venous stenosis. VRT and all-planes had the highest sensitivity and accuracy for detecting aneurysms (100%). All-planes and axial MIP were most sensitive for detecting venous occlusion (61% and 54%). Comparisons of detection frequencies for each venous pathology between the five categories of MDCTA revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05). MDCTA additionally showed 3 partially thrombosed aneurysms, 4 anastomosis site stenosis and 12 arterial complications. Conclusion: MDCTA overall gives low sensitivity for detection of central vein stenosis and moderate sensitivity for occlusion. For most pathology, all-planes evaluation of MDCTA gives highest sensitivity and accuracy rates when compared to other planes. For venous stenosis and occlusion, MDCTA should be considered when ultrasonography and fistulography are inconclusive. MDCTA is helpful in identifying aneurysms, collaterals, partial venous thromboses and additional arterial, anastomosis site pathologies.

  19. Comparison of illumina and 454 deep sequencing in participants failing raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Z Li

    Full Text Available The impact of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 minority variants (MVs on raltegravir treatment failure is unknown. Illumina sequencing offers greater throughput than 454, but sequence analysis tools for viral sequencing are needed. We evaluated Illumina and 454 for the detection of HIV-1 raltegravir-resistant MVs.A5262 was a single-arm study of raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve patients. Pre-treatment plasma was obtained from 5 participants with raltegravir resistance at the time of virologic failure. A control library was created by pooling integrase clones at predefined proportions. Multiplexed sequencing was performed with Illumina and 454 platforms at comparable costs. Illumina sequence analysis was performed with the novel snp-assess tool and 454 sequencing was analyzed with V-Phaser.Illumina sequencing resulted in significantly higher sequence coverage and a 0.095% limit of detection. Illumina accurately detected all MVs in the control library at ≥0.5% and 7/10 MVs expected at 0.1%. 454 sequencing failed to detect any MVs at 0.1% with 5 false positive calls. For MVs detected in the patient samples by both 454 and Illumina, the correlation in the detected variant frequencies was high (R2 = 0.92, P<0.001. Illumina sequencing detected 2.4-fold greater nucleotide MVs and 2.9-fold greater amino acid MVs compared to 454. The only raltegravir-resistant MV detected was an E138K mutation in one participant by Illumina sequencing, but not by 454.In participants of A5262 with raltegravir resistance at virologic failure, baseline raltegravir-resistant MVs were rarely detected. At comparable costs to 454 sequencing, Illumina demonstrated greater depth of coverage, increased sensitivity for detecting HIV MVs, and fewer false positive variant calls.

  20. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers). PMID:26206166

  1. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome; Imagerie du rachis lombaire opere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-09-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs.

  2. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  3. Immunization with Fasciola hepatica thioredoxin glutathione reductase failed to confer protection against fasciolosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioli, Gabriela; Bottini, Gualberto; Basika, Tatiana; Alonzo, Pablo; Salinas, Gustavo; Carmona, Carlos

    2016-07-15

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica remains an important agent of food-borne trematode disease producing great economic losses due to its negative effect on productivity of livestock grazing in temperate areas. The prevailing control strategy based on anthelmintic drugs is unsustainable due to widespread resistance hence vaccination appears as an attractive option to pursue. In this study we evaluate the effect of vaccination in calves with a functional recombinant thioredoxin glutathione reductase (rFhTGR) from liver fluke, a critical antioxidant enzyme at the crossroads of the thioredoxin and glutathione metabolism in flatworms. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was tested in two vaccination experiments; in the first trial rFhTGR was administered in combination with Freund́s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) in a three-inoculation scheme on weeks 0, 4 and 8; in the second trial rFhTGR was given mixed with Adyuvac 50 or Alum as adjuvants on weeks 0 and 4. In both cases calves were challenged with metacercariae (400 in the first and 500 in the second trial) 2 weeks after the last inoculation. Our results demonstrate that two or three doses of the vaccine induced a non-significant reduction in worm counts of 8.2% (FIA), 3.8% (Adyuvac 50) and 23.0% (Alum) compared to adjuvant controls indicating that rFhTGR failed to induce a protective immunity in challenged calves. All vaccine formulations induced a mixed IgG1/IgG2 response but no booster was observed after challenge. No correlations between antibody titres and worm burdens were found. PMID:27270384

  4. Failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of factors leading to instability after primary surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yong; AO Ying-fang; YU Jia-kuo; DAI Ling-hui; SHAO Zhen-xing

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery can be expected to become more common as the number of primary reconstruction keeps increasing.This study aims to investigate the factors causing instability after primary ACL reconstruction,which may provide an essential scientific base to prevent surgical failure.Methods One hundred and ten revision ACL surgeries were performed at our institute between November 2001 and July 2012.There were 74 men and 36 women,and the mean age at the time of revision was 27.6 years (range 16-56 years).The factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed.Results Fifty-one knees failed because of bone tunnel malposition,with too anterior femoral tunnels (20 knees),posterior wall blowout (1 knee),vertical femoral tunnels (7 knees),too posterior tibial tunnels (12 knees),and too anterior tibial tunnels (10 knees).There was another knee performed with open surgery,where the femoral tunnel was drilled through the medial condyle and the tibial tunnel was too anterior.Five knees were found with malposition of the fixation.One knee with allograft was suspected of rejection and a second surgery had been made to take out the graft.Three knees met recurrent instability after postoperative infection.The other factors included traumatic (48 knees) and unidentified (12 knees).Conclusion Technical errors were the main factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstructions,while attention should also be paid to the risk factors of re-injury and failure of graft incorporation.

  5. Failing Left Ventricles Have an Enhanced Post-Stimulation Potentiation Despite Their Impaired Force Frequency Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tohru; Kashimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Komei; Fujiki, Shinya; Hayashi, Yuka; Obata, Hiroaki; Hanawa, Haruo; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-05-25

    The left ventricular contractile force (LV dP/dtmax) of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction does not increase effectively with an increase in heart rate. In other words, their force-frequency relationship (FFR) is impaired. However, it is unknown whether a longer coupling interval subsequent to tachycardia causes a stronger contraction (poststimulation potentiation, PSP) in a rate-dependent manner.In 16 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (48 ± 2 years old, LVEF 30 ± 10%) and 6 control patients (58 ± 4 years old, LVEF 70 ± 7%), FFR was assessed by right atrial pacing using a micro-manometer-tipped catheter. At each pacing rate, the increase of LV dP/dtmax over basal LV dP/dt (ΔFFR) and the increase of LV dP/dtmax of the first beat after pacing cessation over LV dP/dtmax during pacing (ΔPSP) were evaluated.Patients with DCM had smaller LV dP/dtmax at baseline (872 ± 251 versus 1370 ± 123 mmHg/second, P = 0.0002) and developed smaller ΔFFR (eg, at 120/minute, 77 ± 143 versus 331 ± 131 mmHg/second, P = 0.0011). In contrast, they showed a rate-dependent increase of LV dP/dtmax of PSP and had greater ΔPSP (eg, at 120/minute, 294 ± 173 versus -152 ± 131 mmHg/second, P < 0.0001).Failing left ventricles develop little contractile force during tachycardia despite their rate-dependent enhancement in post-stimulation potentiation, suggesting that refractoriness of contractile force underlies impaired FFR. PMID:27181036

  6. cis-4-[{sup 18}F]-Fluoro-L-proline fails to detect peripheral tumors in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Gabriele; Pauleit, Dirk [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics-Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, FRG (Germany); Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido [Department of Oncology, Hematology, and Clinical Immunology, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, FRG (Germany); Salber, Dagmar [C. and O. Vogt Institute of Brain Research, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, FRG (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics - Nuclear Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, FRG (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics-Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, FRG (Germany)], E-mail: k.j.langen@fz-juelich.de

    2008-11-15

    System A amino acid transport is increased in transformed and malignant cells. The amino acid 4-cis[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro) has been shown to be a substrate of the System A amino acid carrier. In this pilot study, we investigated the diagnostic potential of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro in patients with various tumors in comparison with [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods: Eight patients (seven females, one male, age range 43-77 years) with large primary, recurrent or metastatic tumors of different histologies were included in this study. One patient had a recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma; two patients, metastatic colon or rectal cancer; one, a metastatic endometrial cancer; one, a multiple myeloma; one, an Ewing sarcoma; one, a metastatic breast cancer and one, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. PET scans of the trunk were acquired at 1 h after intravenous injection of 400 MBq cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro and compared to PET scans with [{sup 18}F]FDG. Results: None of the tumors or metastatic lesions in this series of patients demonstrated relevant uptake of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro. In contrast, all tumors with exception of the multiple myeloma showed an intensive uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG. The mean standardized uptake value of cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro in the tumor or metastases was significantly lower than that of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake (1.7{+-}0.6 vs. 5.7{+-}3.0; n=8; P<.01). Conclusion: Although other System A-specific tracers have shown relevant tumor uptake, cis-[{sup 18}F]FPro fails to detect most types of human tumors. Based on these results, we cannot recommend a further evaluation of this tracer as a tumor-seeking agent.

  7. Histologically proven epithelial ingrowth in failed Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK managed by repeat DSAEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Saurabh Ghosh,1 Richard Bonshek,2 Stephen J Morgan1 1Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, UK; 2National Specialist Ophthalmic Pathology Service (NSOPS Laboratory, Department of Histopathology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK Purpose: To report a case of corneal graft failure due to epithelial ingrowth after an uneventful combined Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK and phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implant treated successfully with a repeat DSAEK. Methods: A 77-year-old male patient underwent combined DSAEK and phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implant implantation for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy plus cataract in the right eye. The donor cornea was cut on the Moria ALTK system and introduced using a suture pull-through technique. After an episode of endothelial rejection, the graft failed, with signs suggesting epithelial ingrowth. It was stripped from the host cornea using a Descemet’s membrane stripper, and a Simcoe irrigation-aspiration cannula was used to remove all traces of interface material. The excised lenticule was examined histologically using a hematoxylin and eosin stain. Result: The patient regained and maintained excellent visual acuity with no sign of recurrence of epithelial ingrowth. Histopathological evaluation of the donor tissue of the first graft showed epithelial ingrowth on the stromal surface of the graft and very few endothelial cells, in keeping with the diagnosis of graft failure. Conclusion: Epithelial ingrowth is a possible cause of endothelial graft failure, but histologically proven cases are rare. Surgical intervention can achieve successful clearance, with the potential for cure and an excellent outcome. Keywords: epithelial ingrowth, Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, graft failure

  8. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Subjects with Successful and Failing Dental Implants. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Christos; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the prevalence of the bacterial genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and metronidazole respectively, in subjects with successful and failing dental implants and to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA gene encoding for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the same samples. Materials and Methodology: The subject sample included 20 participants with clinically healthy osseointegrated implants and 20 participants with implants exhibiting peri-implantitis. Clinical parameters were assessed with an automated probe, samples were collected from the peri-implant sulcus or pocket and analyzed with Polymerase Chain Reaction for blaTEM, tetM, tetQ and nim genes, S. aureus and MRSA using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. Results: Findings have shown high frequencies of detection for both groups for the tetracycline resistance genes tetM (>30%), tetQ (>65%) with no statistical differences between them (z-test with Bonferroni corrections, p<0.05). The blaTEM gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactams, was detected in <15% of the samples. The nim gene, which encodes resistance to metronidazole, S.aureus and the mecA gene encoding for MRSA were not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Conclusions: Healthy peri-implant sulci and peri-implantitis cases often harbor bacterial genes encoding for resistance to the tetracyclines and less often for beta-lactams. Thus, the antimicrobial activity of the tetracyclines and to a lower extent to beta-lactams, might be compromised for treatment of peri-implantitis. Since no metronidazole resistance genes were detected in the present study, its clinical use is supported by the current findings. S.aureus may not participate in peri-implant pathology. PMID:25646133

  9. Use of the Amplatzer Type 2 Plug for Flow Redirection in Failing Autogenous Hemodialysis Fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Alper, E-mail: bozkurtalper@yahoo.com; Kırbaş, İsmail, E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com [Turgut Ozal University Hospital, Radiology Department (Turkey); Kasapoglu, Benan, E-mail: benankasapoglu@hotmail.com [Turgut Ozal University Hospital, Internal Medicine Department (Turkey); Teber, Mehmet Akif, E-mail: drteberma@hotmail.com [Ataturk Education and Training Hospital, Radiology Department (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo present our experience with redirecting the outflow of mature arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in patients with cannulation and/or suboptimal flow problems by percutaneous intervention using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who presented with difficulty in cannulation and/or suboptimal flow in the puncture zone of the AVF and who underwent intervention using the AVP II to redirect the outflow through a better cannulation zone from March 2009 to November 2012. The mean survival rate of all AVFs was estimated, and the effects of patient age, sex, and AVF age on the AVF survival time were determined.ResultsIn total, 31 patients (17 male and 14 female) with a mean age of 57.8 years (range, 20–79 years) were included. In 2 patients, the AVF failed within the first 15 days because of rapid thrombosis. In 9 patients, the new AVF route was working effectively until unsalvageable thrombosis developed. One of the 31 patients died 9 months before the last radiologic evaluation. The new AVF route was still being used for dialysis in the remaining 19 patients. The mean AVF survival rate was 1,061.4 ± 139.4 days (range, 788–1,334 days). Patient age, sex, and AVF age did not affect the survival time.ConclusionWe suggest that the AVP II is useful for redirecting the outflow of AVFs with cannulation problems and suboptimal flow. Patency of existing AVFs may be extended, thereby extending surgery-free or catheter intervention-free survival period.

  10. Use of the Amplatzer Type 2 Plug for Flow Redirection in Failing Autogenous Hemodialysis Fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo present our experience with redirecting the outflow of mature arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in patients with cannulation and/or suboptimal flow problems by percutaneous intervention using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who presented with difficulty in cannulation and/or suboptimal flow in the puncture zone of the AVF and who underwent intervention using the AVP II to redirect the outflow through a better cannulation zone from March 2009 to November 2012. The mean survival rate of all AVFs was estimated, and the effects of patient age, sex, and AVF age on the AVF survival time were determined.ResultsIn total, 31 patients (17 male and 14 female) with a mean age of 57.8 years (range, 20–79 years) were included. In 2 patients, the AVF failed within the first 15 days because of rapid thrombosis. In 9 patients, the new AVF route was working effectively until unsalvageable thrombosis developed. One of the 31 patients died 9 months before the last radiologic evaluation. The new AVF route was still being used for dialysis in the remaining 19 patients. The mean AVF survival rate was 1,061.4 ± 139.4 days (range, 788–1,334 days). Patient age, sex, and AVF age did not affect the survival time.ConclusionWe suggest that the AVP II is useful for redirecting the outflow of AVFs with cannulation problems and suboptimal flow. Patency of existing AVFs may be extended, thereby extending surgery-free or catheter intervention-free survival period

  11. Operation of an ADR Using Helium Exchange Gas as a Substitute for a Failed Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  12. T cells fail to develop in the human skin-cell explants system; an inconvenient truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlocht Joris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is very successful in eradicating haematological tumours, but the long post-transplant T-lymphopenic phase is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Clark et al. have described a skin-explant system capable of producing host-tolerant donor-HSC derived T-cells. Because this T-cell production platform has the potential to replenish the T-cell levels following transplantation, we set out to validate the skin-explant system. Results Following the published procedures, while using the same commercial components, it was impossible to reproduce the skin-explant conditions required for HSC differentiation towards mature T-cells. The keratinocyte maturation procedure resulted in fragile cells with minimum expression of delta-like ligand (DLL. In most experiments the generated cells failed to adhere to carriers or were quickly outcompeted by fibroblasts. Consequently it was not possible to reproduce cell-culture conditions required for HSC differentiation into functional T-cells. Using cell-lines over-expressing DLL, we showed that the antibodies used by Clark et al. were unable to detect native DLL, but instead stained 7AAD+ cells. Therefore, it is unlikely that the observed T-lineage commitment from HSC is mediated by DLL expressed on keratinocytes. In addition, we did confirm expression of the Notch-ligand Jagged-1 by keratinocytes. Conclusions Currently, and unfortunately, it remains difficult to explain the development or growth of T-cells described by Clark et al., but for the fate of patients suffering from lymphopenia it is essential to both reproduce and understand how these co-cultures really "work". Fortunately, alternative procedures to speed-up T-cell reconstitution are being established and validated and may become available for patients in the near future.

  13. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Fails to Improve Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Sherrefa R; Iniaghe, Loretta O; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal stroke subtype, with no effective therapies. Hematoma expansion and inflammation play major roles in the pathophysiology of ICH, contributing to primary and secondary brain injury, respectively. Fucoidan, a polysaccharide from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, has been reported to activate a platelet receptor that may function in limiting bleeding, and to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fucoidan on hemorrhaging and neurological outcomes after ICH. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to experimental ICH by infusion of bacterial collagenase. Animals were randomly divided into the following groups: sham, ICH + vehicle, ICH + 25 mg/kg fucoidan, ICH + 75 mg/kg fucoidan, and ICH + 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Brain water content, neurobehavioral outcomes, and hemoglobin content were evaluated at 24 h post ICH. Our findings show that fucoidan failed to attenuate the ICH-induced increase in BWC. The neurological deficits that result from ICH also did not differ in the treatment groups at all three doses. Finally, we found that fucoidan had no effect on the hemoglobin content after ICH. We postulate that fucoidan treatment did not improve the measured outcomes after ICH because we used crude fucoidan, which has a high molecular weight, in our study. High-molecular-weight fucoidans are reported to have less therapeutic potential than low molecular weight fucoidans. They have been shown to exhibit anti-coagulant and pro-apoptotic properties, which seem to outweigh their anti-inflammatory and potential procoagulant abilities. We propose that using a low-molecular-weight fucoidan, or fractionating the crude polysaccharide, may be effective in treating ICH. Future studies are needed to confirm this. PMID:26463947

  14. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja-Leena Paukkeri

    Full Text Available Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD, including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach.Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery.Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages and 25% (T-lymphocytes in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages and 54% (T-lymphocytes in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response.The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect hypersensitivity reaction.

  15. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukkeri, Erja-Leena; Korhonen, Riku; Hämäläinen, Mari; Pesu, Marko; Eskelinen, Antti; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD), including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach. Methods Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages) and 25% (T-lymphocytes) in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages) and 54% (T-lymphocytes) in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response. Conclusions The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect

  16. Treatment of radiation syndrome with emphasis on stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within few years, the possibility that the human body contains cells that can repair and regenerate damaged and diseased tissue has gone from an unlikely proposition to a virtual certainty. Patients who have received doses of radiation in the potentially low to mid-lethal range (2-6 Gy) will have depression in bone-marrow function with cessation of blood-cell production leading to pancytopenia. Selection of cases for stem cell transplantation is based upon clinical signs and symptoms. Hematopoietic stem cell which produces blood cell progeny provides support for hematopoietic and other cells within the marrow, and has also been a focus for possible tissue repair. Another cell type termed mesenchymal or stromal also exists in the marrow. This cell provides support for hematopoietic and other cells within the marrow, and has also been a focus for possible tissue repair. Stem cells are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood, placental and umbilical cord blood, embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells. These cells have great potential for clinical research due to their potential to regenerate tissue. As well known, the cryo preservation process can store any cell type, particularly blood cells, for an indeterminate time. (author)

  17. Long-term survival of tissue engineering elongated dorsal root ganglion cells implanted into rat spinal cord lesion%组织工程延长后根神经节细胞移植修复脊髓损伤大鼠的长期存活观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟怀宇; 许百男

    2010-01-01

    目的 探索采用组织工程技术,构建由活性轴突形成的较长神经组织移植物,用来修复脊髓损伤.方法 (1)移植物制备:从8~10个15 d胚胎鼠取脊髓后根神经节(doral root ganglion,DRG)细胞,在普通神经细胞培养环境中培养5 d,然后用特制的延长装置将神经节细胞机械拉长,1 mm/d, 2 d,然后增至2 mm/d, 3 d,再减至1 mm/d, 2 d,培养获得10 mm长轴突105~106根,用水凝胶包裹构成神经组织准备移植,移植前用BDA标记轴突及其细胞体.(2)动物模型:成年雌性Sprague-Dawley大鼠225~250 g,40 mg/kg苯巴比妥腹腔注射麻醉,行T9~11双开门手术切除该节段右侧半脊髓约10 mm,同时移植构建好的移植物或单纯移植水凝胶为对照,严密缝合硬膜后行扩大椎板成形术,2个月后处死取标本.(3)免疫组化:纵向连续冷冻切片20 μm/张,行anti-NF200、anti-CGRP(DRG特异)、anti-BDA免疫组化染色.结果 2个月后单纯移植水凝胶者,没有宿主轴突长入水凝胶.移植DRG者,anti-NF200、anti-CGRP、anti-BDA染色均证实2个月后移植细胞存活.结论 组织工程延长后根神经节细胞移植物可以存活达2个月,或有可能在较长的脊髓损伤部位建立上下联系.

  18. Stem cell mediation of functional recovery after stroke in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramos-Cabrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed

  19. Women's Perceptions of Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Failed Infertility Treatment on Marital and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean

    1991-01-01

    Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)

  20. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L; Clotet, B; Loveday, C; Kjær, Jesper; Mens, Helene; Clumeck, N; Viksna, L; Antunes, F; Machala, L; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2007-01-01

    January 2006. Patients were grouped according to the number of active drugs in the failing regimen at t0 (GSS_f-t0). RESULTS: At t0, patients had been on the failing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for a median of 11 months (range, 6-50 months). Even patients with extensive resistance to the.......08 [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.13 to -0.03; P = 0.04] in those with GSS_f-t0 of 0.5-1.5 and -1.24 (95% CI, -2.44 to -0.04; P = 0.04) in those with GSS_f-t0 >or= 2. CONCLUSIONS: In patients kept on the same virologically failing cART regimen for a median of 6 months, there was considerable...... accumulation of drug resistance mutations, particularly in patients with initial low level of resistance to the failing regimen. Randomized comparisons of maintenance treatment strategies while awaiting a new suppressive therapy to become available are warranted....