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Sample records for cell units final

  1. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  2. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  3. Tax_Unit_Certification_Final_2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  4. Energy efficiency of computer power supply units - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [cepe - Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, H. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2002-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the efficiency of computer power supply units, which decreases rapidly during average computer use. The background and the purpose of the project are examined. The power supplies for personal computers are discussed and the testing arrangement used is described. Efficiency, power-factor and operating points of the units are examined. Potentials for improvement and measures to be taken are discussed. Also, action to be taken by those involved in the design and operation of such power units is proposed. Finally, recommendations for further work are made.

  5. Reactive transport predictions for an Olkiluoto. Final repository tunnel unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Nordman, H.

    2007-09-01

    The presented hydrogeochemical reactive transport calculations concentrate to a defined unit piece (unit cell) of the planned Olkiluoto repository that is under design for spent nuclear fuel. The material properties assigned to the tunnel unit are based on literature as far as possible. Calculations make up geochemical future scenarios on the repository evolution. Most recent predictions on the potential future climate at Olkiluoto are utilised together with estimates how future hydraulic conditions affect the repository. Two climate scenarios are considered in detail. The Weichselian-R scenario is based on the repetition of the last glacial cycle, while the Emissions-M scenario attempts to predict the future groundwater conditions at Olkiluoto in the situation where the atmospheric greenhouse gasses delay the next glacial cycle at least for 100,000 years. The groundwater compositions, considered active at the repository depth in future, are judged in this study. Several geochemical processes are considered active at the repository depth. Calculations concentrate on the changes occurring with time within the tunnel unit. All simulations are done in geochemically reducing conditions. It turns out that sulphur cycling in these conditions is in central role considering the safety assessment studies of Olkiluoto repository. Furthermore, groundwater salinity and cation occupancy within the exchange sites of montmorillonite contributes to sealing properties of the engineered barrier system. Calculations attempt to estimate effects of possible future scenarios for the Olkiluoto repository. The results indicate that the buffer capacities assigned to the tunnel unit are large enough, at least to next 100,000 years, to maintain dissolved sulphide contents low in the groundwater infiltrating through the tunnel engineered barrier system. Geochemical reactions raise the bicarbonate levels within the groundwater. This is a useful buffer if low pH conditions emerge in the

  6. Final Report: Self-Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, Russell; Kahn, Lawrence; Kurtis, Kimberly; Petrovic, Bojan; Loreto, Giovanni; Van Wyk, Jurie; Canterero-Leal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on work completed on DE-NE0000667, Self-Consolidating Concrete for Modular Units, in connection with the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (DOE-NEET) program. This project was completed in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, with Westinghouse Corporation as the industrial partner. The primary objective of this project was to develop self-consolidating concrete (also termed ''self-compacting concrete'' or SCC) mixtures so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The SCC mixtures developed were able to carry shearing forces across the cold-joint boundaries. This ''self-roughening'' was achieved by adding a tailored fraction of lightweight aggregate (LWA) to the concrete mix, some of which raised to the surface during curing, forming a rough surface on which subsequent concrete placements were made. The self-roughening behavior was validated through three sets of structural tests. Shear friction on small-scale specimens with cold joints was assessed using varying fractions of LWA and with varying amounts of external steel plate reinforcement. The results show that the shear friction coefficient, to be used with the provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9, can be taken as 1.35. Mid-scale beam tests were completed to assess the cold-joint capacity in both in-plane and out-of-plane bending. The results showed that the self-roughened joints performed as well as monolithic joints. The final assessment was a full-scale test using a steel composite module supplied by

  7. Final Report: Self-Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kahn, Lawrence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kurtis, Kimberly [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Loreto, Giovanni [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Van Wyk, Jurie [Westinghouse Inc., Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Canterero-Leal, Carlos [Westinghouse Inc., Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This report focuses on work completed on DE-NE0000667, Self-Consolidating Concrete for Modular Units, in connection with the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (DOE-NEET) program. This project was completed in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, with Westinghouse Corporation as the industrial partner. The primary objective of this project was to develop self-consolidating concrete (also termed “self-compacting concrete” or SCC) mixtures so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The SCC mixtures developed were able to carry shearing forces across the cold-joint boundaries. This “self-roughening” was achieved by adding a tailored fraction of lightweight aggregate (LWA) to the concrete mix, some of which raised to the surface during curing, forming a rough surface on which subsequent concrete placements were made. The self-roughening behavior was validated through three sets of structural tests. Shear friction on small-scale specimens with cold joints was assessed using varying fractions of LWA and with varying amounts of external steel plate reinforcement. The results show that the shear friction coefficient, to be used with the provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9, can be taken as 1.35. Mid-scale beam tests were completed to assess the cold-joint capacity in both in-plane and out-of-plane bending. The results showed that the self-roughened joints performed as well as monolithic joints. The final assessment was a full-scale test using a steel composite module supplied by Westinghouse and similar in construction to

  8. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  9. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  10. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  11. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  12. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  14. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  15. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  16. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  17. Newman Unit 1 advanced solar repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-01

    The five appendices give the selection process and system specification of the Newman Unit 1 solar repowering system, including the conceptual design drawings and diagrams; input data for the simulation program; and a review of the most important characteristics of the existing plant. (LEW)

  18. Final flush of the shielded cells melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.M.; Fellinger, T.L.; Harbour, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A flush of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Shielded Cells melter was performed after the completion of a campaign to vitrify loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange medium. The purpose of the flush was to lower levels of radioisotopes accumulated during the campaign and to lower the level of titanium dioxide present in the glass. This in turn would ready the melter for future campaigns involving the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

  19. Aggregated Dispatch of Distributed Generation Units: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    This final report describes a project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of aggregating distributed generating resources in New York State. This project demonstrates a system that allows distributed generation (DG) to participate in competitive markets in much the same way as large central-station power plants. This approach involves aggregating the distributed demand-side resources into a single transaction entity consistent with the requirements of the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). This single entity then buys or sells capacity and energy (i.e., curtailment) in NYISO markets.

  20. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  1. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  2. Final Report: Self Consolidating Concrete Construction for Modular Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Russell [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kahn, Lawrence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kurtis, Kimberly [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Loreto, Giovanni [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Van Wyk, Jurie [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Canterero-Leal, Carlos [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This report outlines the development of a self-consolidating concrete (also termed “self-compacting concrete” or SCC) so that concrete placement can be made into steel plate composite (SC) modular structures without the need for continuous concrete placement. As part of the research, SCC mixtures were developed and validated to ensure sufficient shear capacity across cold-joints, while minimizing shrinkage and temperature increase during curing to enhance concrete bonding with the steel plate construction found in modular units. The self-roughening concrete produced as part of this research was assessed in SC structures at three scales: small-scale shear-friction specimens, mid-scale beams tested in in-plane and out-of-plane bending, and a full-scale validation test using an SC module produced by Westinghouse as part of the Plant Vogtle expansion. The experiments show that the self-roughening concrete can produce a cold-joint surface of 0.25 inches (6 mm) without external vibration during concrete placement. The experiments and subsequent analysis show that the shear friction provisions of ACI 318-14, Section 22.9 can be used to assess the shear capacity of the cold-joints in SC modular construction, and that friction coefficient of 1.35 is appropriate for use with these provisions.

  3. Chemical cleaning of Dresden Unit 1: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The introduction of NS-1 solvent into the full primary system of Dresden Unit-1 nuclear power reactor on September 12, 1984, represented the culmination of several years of development, testing, planning, and construction. The requirement was to dissolve the highly radioactive deposits of primarily nickel ferrite without any corrosion which might compromise the reactor systems. During the actual cleaning with the NS-1 solvent, the chemical condition of the circulating solvent was measured. Iron, nickel, and radioactive cobalt all dissolved smoothly. The amount of copper in solution decreased in concentration, verifying expectations that metallic copper would plate on to clean metal surfaces. A special rinse formulation was employed after the primary cleaning steps and the ''lost'' copper was thus redissolved and removed from the system. After the cleaning was complete and the reactor had been refilled with pure water, radiation levels were measured. The most accurate of these measurements gave decontamination factors ranging well above 100, which indicated a significant removal of the radioactive deposits, and demonstrated the success of this project. Treatment of the radioactive liquid wastes from this operation required volume reduction and water purification. The primary method of processing the spent cleaning solvent and rinse water was evaporation. The resulting concentrate has been stored as a liquid, awaiting solidification to allow burial at a designated site. Water which was separated during evaporation, along with the dilute rinses, was processed by various chemical means, reevaporated, treated with activated carbon, and/or demineralized before its radionuclide and chemical content was low enough to allow it to be returned to Dresden Station for treatment or disposal. 60 figs., 31 tabs

  4. Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in reverse electrodialysis: Effect of unit cell configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Choi, Kyung Soo [Advanced Combustion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Soo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Han, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Ki; Jeong, Nam Jo [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in Reverse electrodialysis (RED) were performed. In this study, a module with 200 unit cells is considered for the demonstration of bench-scale RED module and two different unit cell configurations are utilized. Pressure drop through the module is measured by varying flow rates. For evaluating the hydrodynamic characteristics in the unit cell, a numerical simulation is also conducted and the simplified method using a porous media model is employed to simulate the channel filled with spacer. Due to the insertion of spacer and narrow channel, great pressure loss occurs along the unit cell. Based on estimated pressure data, high pressure difference between seawater and fresh water channel takes place locally in the unit cell configuration with crossflow direction, leading to a leakage problem through the membrane and finally degradation in the output power. Consequently, it is confirmed that the unit cell configuration is one of the important design parameters in a RED module.

  5. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  6. Reflections on the Value of Mapping the Final Theory Examination in a Molecular Biochemistry Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Eri, Rajaraman; Cook, Anthony; Brown, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of examination mapping as a tool to enhancing assessment and teaching quality in a second-year biochemistry unit for undergraduates. Examination mapping is a process where all questions in a written examination paper are assessed for links to the unit’s intended learning outcomes. We describe how mapping a final written examination helped visualise the impact of the assessment task on intended learning outcomes and skills for that biochemistry unit. The method...

  7. 78 FR 9111 - Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... impacts? 2. What are the water and solid waste impacts? 3. What are the energy impacts? 4. What are the.... Pulp and Paper Sludge 4. Rulemaking Petition Process for Other Categorical Non-Waste Determinations (40... and 241 Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

  8. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  9. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  10. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  11. Hydrogen and fuel cells in the United States Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacobucci, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the United States Congress has shown increasing interest in the development of hydrogen fuel and fuel cells for transportation, stationary, and mobile applications The high efficiency of fuel cell systems could address some of the concern over increasing dependence on imported petroleum. Further, lower emissions could help promote air quality goals However, many questions remain, including the affordability, safety, overall fuel-cycle efficiency and emissions. These questions, especially those related to cost, have led Members of Congress to enact legislation to speed the development and commercialization of the technologies. This paper discusses congressional action on hydrogen and fuel cells. It provides an overview of the U.S. Congress, and outlines the role of the appropriations process. It then provides a history of federal hydrogen fuel research and development (R and D), both in terms of legislative and executive initiatives, and it describes pending legislation current as of this writing, including bills on energy policy, transportation policy, tax policy, and appropriations. Finally, the paper presents some of the issues that the pending legislation may raise for industry. (author)

  12. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  13. 77 FR 10775 - United States v. SG Interests I LTD., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... a related qui tam case also filed in United States District Court for the District of Colorado... PROPOSED FINAL JUDGMENT The proposed Final Judgment relates to a qui tam action captioned United States ex... this action and the qui tam action arise from common facts related to BLM auctions in February 2005 and...

  14. Calculation method for the seasonal performance of heat pump compact units and validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Dott, R.; Afjei, Th. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Energy in Buildings, Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P.; Furter, R. [University of Applied Sciences Lucerne (HTA), Test center HLKS, Horw (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at compact heat pump units that have been developed for the heating of low energy consumption houses built to MINERGIE or MINERGIE-P standards. These units, which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and ventilation in one unit are described. A testing procedure developed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, using a test rig for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor (SPF) is described. A calculation method based on temperature classes for the calculation of the SPF of combined heat pump systems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation that was developed by the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is examined. Two pilot plants allowing detailed field monitoring of two compact units are described. One pilot plant installed in a single-family house built to MINERGIE standard in Gelterkinden, Switzerland, provided data on a compact unit. These results of measurements made on this and a further installation in a MINERGIE-P ultra-low energy consumption house in Zeiningen, Switzerland, are presented and discussed. Calculation methods, including exergy considerations are reviewed and their validation is discussed.

  15. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  16. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  17. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) from the United Arab Emirates. This review covers two producers/ exporters of subject merchandise: JBF... Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of...

  18. Radiation Tolerance Qualification Tests of the Final Source Interface Unit for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dénes, E; Futó, E; Kerék, A; Kiss, T; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Soós, C; Tölyhi, T; Van de Vyvre, P

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Data Link (DDL) is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE sub-detectors to the DAQ computers. The Source Interface Unit (SIU) of the DDL will operate in radiation environment. Previous tests showed that a configuration loss of SRAM-based FPGA devices may happen and the frequency of undetected data errors in the FPGA user memory area is also not acceptable. Therefore, we redesigned the SIU card using another FPGA based on flash technology. In order to detect bit errors in the user memory we added parity check logic to the design. The new SIU has been extensively tested using neutron and proton irradiation to verify its radiation tolerance. In this paper we summarize the design changes, introduce the final design, and the results of the radiation tolerance measurements on the final card.

  19. Audit of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 technical specifications. Final technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.

    1985-07-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented, and the Comments and Responses to the Wolf Creek Technical Specification Draft Inspection Report. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, the SER as supplemented, and the Draft Inspection Report was performed with the Wolf Creek T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR, SER, and Draft Inspection Report

  20. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  1. Unit cell geometry of 3-D braided structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank K.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional approach used in modeling of composites reinforced by three-dimensional (3-D) braids is to assume a simple unit cell geometry of a 3-D braided structure with known fiber volume fraction and orientation. In this article, we first examine 3-D braiding methods in the light of braid structures, followed by the development of geometric models for 3-D braids using a unit cell approach. The unit cell geometry of 3-D braids is identified and the relationship of structural parameters such as yarn orientation angle and fiber volume fraction with the key processing parameters established. The limiting geometry has been computed by establishing the point at which yarns jam against each other. Using this factor makes it possible to identify the complete range of allowable geometric arrangements for 3-D braided preforms. This identified unit cell geometry can be translated to mechanical models which relate the geometrical properties of fabric preforms to the mechanical responses of composite systems.

  2. Newman Unit 1 advanced solar repowering advanced conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-01

    The Newman Unit 1 solar repowering design is a water/steam central receiver concept supplying superheated steam. The work reported is to develop a refined baseline conceptual design that has potential for construction and operation by 1986, makes use of existing solar thermal technology, and provides the best economics for this application. Trade studies performed in the design effort are described, both for the conceptual design of the overall system and for the subsystem conceptual design. System-level functional requirements, design, operation, performance, cost, safety, environmental, institutional, and regulatory considerations are described. Subsystems described include the collector, receiver, fossil energy, electrical power generating, and master control subsystems, site and site facilities. The conceptual design, cost, and performance of each subsystem is discussed at length. A detailed economic analysis of the repowered unit is made to realistically assess the economics of the first repowered unit using present cost data for a limited production level for solar hardware. Finally, a development plan is given, including the design, procurement, construction, checkout, startup, performance validation, and commercial operation. (LEW)

  3. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  4. Final test results for the ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Described herein is a comprehensive project-a large-scale test of an integrated refrigeration and storage system called the Ground Operations and Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU LH2), sponsored by the Advanced Exploration Systems Program and constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A commercial cryogenic refrigerator interfaced with a 125,000 l liquid hydrogen tank and auxiliary systems in a manner that enabled control of the propellant state by extracting heat via a closed loop Brayton cycle refrigerator coupled to a novel internal heat exchanger. Three primary objectives were demonstrating zero-loss storage and transfer, gaseous liquefaction, and propellant densification. Testing was performed at three different liquid hydrogen fill-levels. Data were collected on tank pressure, internal tank temperature profiles, mass flow in and out of the system, and refrigeration system performance. All test objectives were successfully achieved during approximately two years of testing. A summary of the final results is presented in this paper.

  5. Advanced fuel cell development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are being developed in the United States to complement and/or supplant phosphoric acid cells for commercial and utility use. This paper described the two technologies and the programs for their development

  6. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  7. 76 FR 13209 - United States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System; Proposed Final Judgment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-O. On February 25..., ambulatory surgery center or radiology center in [a] 15 mile radius of United Regional Health Care System... 95% of billed charges for all inpatient and outpatient services at United Regional Health Care System...

  8. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report, Task E-4, April 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feduska, W.

    1978-03-31

    A two-year researth program to design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell is described in detail. A rare-earth chromite, in particular, La /sub 95/Mg /sub 05/Cr /sub 75/Al /sub 25/0/sub 3/ was identified, synthesized by RF-sputtering tested for resistivity, thermal expansion and inertness in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia, and was found promising as a candidate interconnection material. Films of these interconnection materials have been successfully deposited onto stabilized zirconia tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) and the technique has been used to fabricate such films in building fuel cell stacks. Tin-doped indium oxide and antimony-doped tin oxide air electrode current collector materials have been successfully (CVD) chemically vapor deposited, as thin films, onto zirconia tubes. Fabrication procedures for the preparation of thin films of the nickel-cermet fuel electrode and yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte have been re-verified and improved for use in preparing unit cells and cell stacks on the program. An in-house extrusion technology for porous calcia-stabilized zirconia tubes has been developed and has been used to provide suitable support tubes for component combination samples, unit cell and cell stack sample preparation. Test concepts for component combinations and for unit cells and cell stacks have been evolved, particularly, the crossed electrode technique, and test equipment has been designed, built and used to evaluate fuel cell components and their interfaces. A five-cell fuel cell stack has been fabricated and operated for 700 hours at 200 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 950 to 980/sup 0/C and was subjected to three temperature cycles during the testing. Three series connected cells of this five cell stack met the 80% voltage efficiency final target objective of the program (less than 10% voltage degradation in 700 hours - with only 300 hours required.)

  9. FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadick, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  10. FGF7 and cell density are required for final differentiation of pancreatic amylase-positive cells from human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yoshie, Susumu; Yue, Fengming; Mogi, Akimi; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-01

    The major molecular signals of pancreatic exocrine development are largely unknown. We examine the role of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) in the final induction of pancreatic amylase-containing exocrine cells from induced-pancreatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Our protocol consisted in three steps: Step I, differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) by activin A treatment of hES cell colonies; Step II, differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells by re-plating of the cells of Step I onto 24-well plates at high density and stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid; Step III, differentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells with a combination of FGF7, glucagon-like peptide 1 and nicotinamide. The expression levels of pancreatic endodermal markers such as Foxa2, Sox17 and gut tube endoderm marker HNF1β were up-regulated in both Step I and II. Moreover, in Step III, the induced cells expressed pancreatic markers such as amylase, carboxypeptidase A and chymotrypsinogen B, which were similar to those in normal human pancreas. From day 8 in Step III, cells immunohistochemically positive for amylase and for carboxypeptidase A, a pancreatic exocrine cell product, were induced by FGF7. Pancreatic progenitor Pdx1-positive cells were localized in proximity to the amylase-positive cells. In the absence of FGF7, few amylase-positive cells were identified. Thus, our three-step culture protocol for human ES cells effectively induces the differentiation of amylase- and carboxypeptidase-A-containing pancreatic exocrine cells.

  11. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  12. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  13. Heavy ion induced genetic effects in mammalian cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Brend'amour, M.; Casares, A.; Egenolf, R.; Gutermuth, F.; Ikpeme, S.E.; Koch, S.; Kost, M.; Loebrich, M.; Pross, H.D.; Russmann, C.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Stoll, U.; Weber, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generally assumed to be the most relevant initial event producing radiation-induced cellular lethality, as well as mutations and transformations. The dependence of their formation on radiation quality has been recently reviewed. Contrary to earlier observations there seems to be now agreement that the RBE does not increase above unity with increasing LET in mammalian cells when conventional techniques are applied which are not able to resolve smaller fragments. If they are, however, included in the analysis maximum RBE values around 2 are obtained. The situation is different with yeast: An increased effectiveness for DSB induction has been reported with alpha particles, as well as for heavy ions. This may be due to differences in methods or to chromosomal structure, as discussed in more detail in this paper. DSB induction was measured for a LET range of 100 to 11500 keV/? m in yeast cells using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Under the conditions applied the chromosomes of the yeast cells could be separated according to size allowing the direct quantification of the DSB yield by measuring the intensity of the largest chromosomes. The results demonstrate clearly that DSB induction in yeast depends on radiation quality. The derived cross-sections for DSB induction were also compared to those for cell inactivation determined in parallel experiments under identical irradiation conditions. (orig.)

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  15. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... of electronic books (``e-books'') in the United States in violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act... e-book retailers that restrict retailer discounting, see proposed Macmillan Final Judgment, Sec. Sec... retailers from discounting its e-books. See id. Sec. V.B. These provisions will help ensure that new...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING...

  17. Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-16

    3 0 B. Cost Accounting Standard 418 ..................................................... 3 1 1. D efinitio n s ...objective" as an activity for which a separate measurement of cost is desired. C. Horngren , Cost Accounting . A Managerial Emphasis 21 (5th ed. 1982...Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives 6. AUTHOR( S ) Stephen Thomas Lynch, Major 7. PERFORMING

  18. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, Jeremy; Frenette, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or ''clean,'' building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, ''Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201'') was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room into one

  19. THE GERMLINE STEM CELL NICHE UNIT IN MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Jon M.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses current understanding of the germline stem cell niche unit in mammalian testes. Spermatogenesis is a classic model of tissue-specific stem cell function relying on self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These fate decisions are influenced by a niche microenvironment composed of a growth factor milieu that is provided by several testis somatic support cell populations. Investigations over the last two decades have identified key determinants of the SSC niche including cytokines that regulate SSC functions and support cells providing these factors, adhesion molecules that influence SSC homing, and developmental heterogeneity of the niche during postnatal aging. Emerging evidence suggests that Sertoli cells are a key support cell population influencing the formation and function of niches by secreting soluble factors and possibly orchestrating contributions of other support cells. Investigations with mice have shown that niche influence on SSC proliferation differs during early postnatal development and adulthood. Moreover, there is mounting evidence of an age-related decline in niche function, which is likely influenced by systemic factors. Defining the attributes of stem cell niches is key to developing methods to utilize these cells for regenerative medicine. The SSC population and associated niche comprise a valuable model system for study that provides fundamental knowledge about the biology of tissue-specific stem cells and their capacity to sustain homeostasis of regenerating tissue lineages. While the stem cell is essential for maintenance of all self-renewing tissues and has received considerable attention, the role of niche cells is at least as important and may prove to be more receptive to modification in regenerative medicine. PMID:22535892

  20. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, David B; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2013-12-01

    The molecular/genetic era has seen the discovery of a staggering number of molecules implicated in pain mechanisms [18,35,61,69,96,133,150,202,224]. This has stimulated pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to invest billions of dollars to develop drugs that enhance or inhibit the function of many these molecules. Unfortunately this effort has provided a remarkably small return on this investment. Inevitably, transformative progress in this field will require a better understanding of the functional links among the ever-growing ranks of "pain molecules," as well as their links with an even larger number of molecules with which they interact. Importantly, all of these molecules exist side-by-side, within a functional unit, the cell, and its adjacent matrix of extracellular molecules. To paraphrase a recent editorial in Science magazine [223], although we live in the Golden age of Genetics, the fundamental unit of biology is still arguably the cell, and the cell is the critical structural and functional setting in which the function of pain-related molecules must be understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the nociceptor as a cell-biological unit that responds to a variety of extracellular inputs with a complex and highly organized interaction of signaling molecules. We also discuss the insights that this approach is providing into peripheral mechanisms of chronic pain and sex dependence in pain.

  1. An Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative Induces Neurogenesis by Increasing Final Cell Division in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Yeon; Kong, Sun-Young; Yoon, Hye Jin; Ann, Jihyae; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    P7C3 and its derivatives, 1-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3-(p-tolylamino)propan-2-ol (1) and N-(3-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), were previously reported to increase neurogenesis in rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Although P7C3 is known to increase neurogenesis by protecting newborn neurons, it is not known whether its derivatives also have protective effects to increase neurogenesis. In the current study, we examined how 1 induces neurogenesis. The treatment of 1 in NSCs increased numbers of cells in the absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), while not affecting those in the presence of growth factors. Compound 1 did not induce astrocytogenesis during NSC differentiation. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulsing experiments showed that 1 significantly enhanced BrdU-positive neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that 1 promotes neurogenesis by the induction of final cell division during NSC differentiation.

  2. Computer programs for unit-cell determination in electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.

    2005-01-01

    A set of computer programs for unit-cell determination from an electron diffraction tilt series and pattern indexing has been developed on the basis of several well-established algorithms. In this approach, a reduced direct primitive cell is first determined from experimental data, in the means time, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. The derived primitive cell is then checked for possible higher lattice symmetry and transformed into a proper conventional cell. Finally a least-squares refinement procedure is adopted to generate optimum lattice parameters on the basis of the lengths of basic reflections in each diffraction pattern and the indices of these reflections. Examples are given to show the usage of the programs

  3. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short

  4. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    approx 4,000 hours of operation correspond to a loss of catalytic active area of 58% for the anode and 69% for the cathode respectively, and the MEA can be expected to perform equivalent to MEAs with less than half the catalyst loating. DMFC durability tests were carried out on both Nafion and Hydrocarbon membrane based MEAs using different electrode designs. Several single DMFC cells and stacks have been tested up to 3,000 hours. The degradation rates found for both single cells and stacks were in the range between 10-90 muV/hours per cell, depending on the MEA configuration. Certain performance losses incurred by the cell during the steady-state operation were recovered, fully or in part, after the regular OCV hold. Regeneration of the Pt-catalyst particles include electro-reduction of the surface PtO that gradually forms over time, surface electro-oxidation of adsorbed poisons (namely CO formed from methanol crossover), and chemical reduction of PtO and/or PtOH via crossover methanol. The HT PEM FC results indicate that a degradation rate of approx 5 muV/h for HT PEM FC can be expected under continuous operation with hydrogen and air at 150-160 C, corresponding to a lifetime of 12,000 hours before 10% performance loss. This lifetime is somewhat shorter than aimed at in the national Danish HT PEM Road map (2009: 20,000 h), but it is in this context important to remember the limited knowledge on HT PEM lifetime at the time of the roadmap definition in 2008. The accelerated durability test with potential cycling showed significant catalyst degradation, primarily due to the corrosion of carbon supports, which triggers the platinum sintering/agglomeration. Modified catalyst supports in form of graphite or carbon nanotubes improve the catalyst and therefore the PBI cell durability. (LN)

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  6. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  7. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  8. 75 FR 42134 - United States v. Keyspan Corporation; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... rewards of discounting (selling a greater volume of capacity) while simultaneously mitigating the price... its remedy. See generally United States v. Microsoft Corp., 56 F.3d 1448, 1458-62 (D.C. Cir. 1995... (S.D.N.Y. 1997) (quoting Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1460) (emphasis in original), aff'd sub nom, United...

  9. Intensive Mode Delivery of a Neuroanatomy Unit: Lower Final Grades but Higher Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Macquarie University moved to a three-session academic year which included two 13-week sessions (traditional mode) and one seven-week session (intensive mode). This study was designed to compare the intensive and traditional modes of delivery in a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy. The new intensive mode neuroanatomy unit provided the…

  10. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  12. Micro solid oxide fuel cell on the chip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M.; Hotz, N.; Bieri, N.; Poulikakos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project is the numerical and experimental investigation of hydrocarbon-to-syngas reforming in micro reformers for incorporation into an entire micro fuel cell system. Numerical simulations are used to achieve deeper understanding of several determining aspects in such a micro reformer. These insights are used to optimize the reforming performance by proper choice of operational and geometrical parameters of a reformer. These numerical results are continued by comprehensive experimental studies. In the first chapter, the effect of wall conduction of a tubular methane micro reformer is investigated numerically. Methane is used as the representative hydrocarbon because its detailed surface reaction mechanism is known. It is found that the axial wall conduction can strongly influence the performance of the microreactor and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. In the second chapter, the effect of the catalyst amount and reactor geometry on the reforming process was investigated. It was found that the hydrogen selectivity changes significantly with varying catalyst loading. Thus, the reaction path leading to higher hydrogen production becomes more important by increasing the catalyst surface site density on the active surface. Another unexpected result is the presence of optimum channel geometry and optimum catalyst amount. In the third chapter of this project, the capability of flame-made Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles catalyzing the reforming of butane to H{sub 2}- and CO-rich syngas was investigated experimentally in a packed bed reactor. The main goal of this study was the efficient reforming of butane at temperatures between 500 and 600 {sup o}C for a micro intermediate-temperature SOFC system. Our results showed that Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles proved to be a very promising material for butane-to-syngas reforming with complete butane conversion and a hydrogen yield of 77

  13. 78 FR 17635 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-928] Uncovered Innerspring Units... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On... Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce...

  14. 77 FR 15125 - United States v. Morgan Stanley; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., expense and inevitable risk of litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971... antitrust consent decrees negotiated pre-trial. \\22\\ Cf: Armour, 402 U.S. at 681 (interpreting consent...

  15. 78 FR 285 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation Unit #2, Healy, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Export Authority (AIDEA). The DOE published a Record of Decision for HCCP in 1994, and in 1997 Healy Unit... is a not-for-profit cooperative formed in 1946 with financing from REA to provide electric service to...

  16. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  17. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  18. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  19. The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Maria Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-08-01

    Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called "the cell cycle", that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells, which are therefore identical to one another and often share the same fate. In many cases, however, cell division is asymmetrical and generates two daughter cells that differ in specific protein inheritance, cell size, or developmental potential. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an excellent system to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing asymmetric cell division and cytokinesis. Budding yeast is highly polarized during the cell cycle and divides asymmetrically, producing two cells with distinct sizes and fates. Many components of the machinery establishing cell polarization during budding are relocalized to the division site (i.e., the bud neck) for cytokinesis. In this review we recapitulate how budding yeast cells undergo polarized processes at the bud neck for cell division.

  20. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks

  1. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  2. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  3. Final environmental statement for Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1: (Docket No. 50-322)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an Operating License to the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) for the startup and operation of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (the plant) located on the north shore of Long Island, the State of New York, County of Suffolk, in the town of Brookhaven. The Shoreham station will employ a boiling-water reactor (BWR), which will operate at a thermal output of 2436 MW leading to a gross output of 846 MWe and a net output of about 820 MWe. The unit will be cooled by once-through flow of water from the Long Island Sound. One nuclear unit with a net capacity of 820 MWe will be added to the generating resources of the Long Island Lighting Company. This will have a favorable effect on reserve margins and provide a cost savings of approximately $62.1 million (1980 dollars) in production costs in 1980 if the unit comes on line as scheduled; additional cost savings will be realized in subsequent years. Approximately 100 acres (40 hectares) of the 500-acre (202-hectare) site of rural (mostly wooded) land owned by the applicant have been cleared. Most of this will be unavailable for other uses during at least the 40-year life of the plant. No offsite acreage has been or will be cleared. Land in the vicinity of the site has undergone some residential development that is typical for all of this area of Long Island. The operation of Shoreham Unit 1 will have insignificant impacts on this and other types of land uses in the vicinity of the site. 33 figs., 56 tabs

  4. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Weaponizing the Final Frontier: The United States and the New Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    prepare to defend these systems from attack.41 The next logical step is the development and execution of this philosophy to secure national interests...fourth argument impacting the weaponization of space references is the question of morality . In the article, Moral and Ethical Decisions Regarding Space...Warfare, Col (now General) John Hyten and Dr. Robert Uy describe the moral and ethical considerations to evaluate as the United States shapes

  7. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  8. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  9. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  10. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  11. Frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of centred lattices from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2012-03-01

    In crystallography, a centred conventional lattice unit cell has its corresponding reduced primitive unit cell. This study presents the frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of all centred lattice entries of the Protein Data Bank (as of 23 August 2011) in four unit-cell-dimension-based groups and seven interaxial-angle-based subgroups. This frequency distribution is an added layer of support during space-group assignment in new crystals. In addition, some interesting patterns of distribution are discussed as well as how some reduced unit cells could be wrongly accepted as primitive lattices in a different crystal system.

  12. Forest inventory, Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narolski, S.W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area

  13. Forest inventory: Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narolski, Steven W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area.

  14. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, P.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  15. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  16. Final environmental statement for decommissioning Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-133)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Final Environmental Statement contains the assessment of the environmental impact associated with decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. The proposed decommissioning would involve safe storage of the facility for about 30 years, after which the residual radioactivity would be removed so that the facility would be at levels of radioactivity acceptable for release of the facility to unrestricted access

  17. Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-286): Final environmental statement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This document contains nine appendices to Volume I, The Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit Number Three. Topics covered include thermal discharges to the Hudson River; supplemental information relating to biological models; radiation effects on aquatic biota; conditions, assumptions, and parameters used in calculating radioactive releases; meteorology for radiological dispersion calculations; life history information of important fish species in the Hudson River near Indian Point; additional information on cooling towers considered as alternatives; data and calculations for assessment of predicted electrical demand; and comments on draft environmental statement

  18. Phase II - final report of MARKAL studies for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnis, M.W.

    1980-10-01

    A system analysis approach to the assessment of comparative cost and energy contributions of some new technologies is presented. The work reported here refers to the energy system of the United Kingdom, and was carried out within the context of a multi-national R and D Strategy Project. The main tool of analysis is the linear program MARKAL, the function and method of operation of which are described briefly. A range of 14 scenarios is analysed, covering various assumption about the availability of oil, of nuclear power, and of the new technologies themselves. The input data used are described in detail. An overall view of the results is obtained in terms of the trade-off between independence from imported oil and total extra cost, and a cross-section of the detailed results is presented to illustrate and analyse the role of a number of new technologies. (orig.) [de

  19. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  20. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  1. Unit-cell refinement from powder diffraction scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the refinement of the crystal unit cell from a powder diffraction scan is presented. In this procedure knowledge of the crystal structure is not required, and at the end of the refinement a list of indexed intensities is produced. This list may well be usable as the starting point for the application of direct methods. The problems of least-squares ill-conditioning due to overlapping reflections are overcome by constraints. An example using decafluorocyclohexene, C 6 F 10 , shows the quality of fit obtained in a case which may even be a false minimum. The method should become more relevant as powder scans of improved resolution become available, through the use of pulsed neutron sources. (Auth.)

  2. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  3. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  4. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  5. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  6. Support for ITER ECRF design. Substask 3. Design and optimzation of the window unit. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumm, M.; Braz, O.; Iatrou, C.T.; Heidinger, S.; Henry, S.; Makowski, M.; Spoerl, R.; Szczesny, J.

    1999-02-01

    The proposed ITER ECH window unit employs a single, edge-cooled (water, e.g. 20 C) CVD-diamond disk in a corrugated HE 11 waveguide with 52 mm inner diameter, with an outer disk diameter of 77 mm and a thickness of 1.482 mm (4 λ/2). Thermal computations show that for larger outer disk diameters the peak temperature is unaffected. Thus due to the high thermal conductivity of the diamond, the exposed window edge area does not have to be large to obtain significant heat transfer. This implies that the window diameter can be minimized which has the added benefit of reducing the cost. For a power of 1 MW at 170 GHz, a loss tangent of 1.10 -5 , a thermal conductivity of 1800 W/mK (at room temperature) and a heat transfer coefficient of 12 kW/m 2 K (water flow: 13.5 1/min, water velocity: 2 m/s, room temperature) to the cooling water the central window temperature will not be higher than approx. 45 C and the edge temperature is about 30 C. The absorbed power is 176 W. Simulations also show that steady state conditions are generally achieved in under 3 s and that a 2 MW window should be feasible. Owing to the negligible temperature dependence of the CVD-diamond loss tangent, also the approximately 100 C hot torus cooling water could be used to cool the window. Simulations of an ''encased'' window, a window in which the edge of the disk has been covered with a 0.4 mm thick layer of electrodeposited copper (tritium barrier in case of broken window disk), show that this is feasible without a significant decrease in heat transfer rate. Neutron irradiation tests were extended to fluences of 10 21 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV)

  7. Uncertainty analysis of light water reactor unit fuel pin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerow, S.; Ivanov, K., E-mail: sln107@PSU.EDU, E-mail: kni1@PSU.EDU [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States); Moreno, C. Arenas, E-mail: cristina.arenas@UPC.EDU [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The study explored the calculation of uncertainty based on available covariance data and computational tools. Uncertainty due to temperature changes and different fuel compositions are the main focus of this analysis. Selected unit fuel pin cells were analyzed according to the OECD LWR UAM benchmark specifications. Criticality and uncertainty analyses were performed using TSUNAMI-1D sequence in SCALE 6.0. It was found that uncertainties increase with increasing temperature while k{sub eff} decreases. This increase in the uncertainty is due to the increase in sensitivity of the largest contributor of uncertainty, namely nuclide reaction {sup 238}U (n, gamma). The sensitivity grew larger as the capture cross-section of {sup 238}U expanded due to Doppler broadening. In addition, three different compositions (UOx, MOx, and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of fuel cells were analyzed. It showed a remarkable increase in uncertainty in k{sub eff} for the case of the MOx fuel cell and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel cell. The increase in the uncertainty of k{sub eff} in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel was nearly twice of that in MOx fuel and almost four times the amount in UOx fuel. The components of the uncertainties in k{sub eff} in each case were examined and it was found that the neutron-nuclide reaction of {sup 238}U, mainly (n,n'), contributed the most to the uncertainties in the cases of MOx and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. At higher energy, the covariance coefficient matrix of {sup 238}U (n,n') to {sup 238}U (n,n') and {sup 238}U (n,n') cross-section showed very large values. Further, examination of the UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case found that the {sup 238}U (n,n') became the dominant contributor to the uncertainty because most of the thermal neutrons in the cell were absorbed by Gadolinium in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case and thus shifting the neutron spectrum to higher energy. For the MOx case on other hand, {sup 239}Pu has a very strong absorption cross-section at low energy

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  9. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  10. Heterogenic final cell cycle by chicken retinal Lim1 horizontal progenitor cells leads to heteroploid cells with a remaining replicated genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Shirazi Fard

    Full Text Available Retinal progenitor cells undergo apical mitoses during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration and newly generated post-mitotic neurons migrate to their prospective retinal layer. Whereas this is valid for most types of retinal neurons, chicken horizontal cells are generated by delayed non-apical mitoses from dedicated progenitors. The regulation of such final cell cycle is not well understood and we have studied how Lim1 expressing horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs exit the cell cycle. We have used markers for S- and G2/M-phase in combination with markers for cell cycle regulators Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1 to characterise the final cell cycle of HPCs. The results show that Lim1+ HPCs are heterogenic with regards to when and during what phase they leave the final cell cycle. Not all horizontal cells were generated by a non-apical (basal mitosis; instead, the HPCs exhibited three different behaviours during the final cell cycle. Thirty-five percent of the Lim1+ horizontal cells was estimated to be generated by non-apical mitoses. The other horizontal cells were either generated by an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis or by a cell cycle with an S-phase that was not followed by any mitosis. Such cells remain with replicated DNA and may be regarded as somatic heteroploids. The observed heterogeneity of the final cell cycle was also seen in the expression of Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1. Phosphorylated Rb1-Ser608 was restricted to the Lim1+ cells that entered S-phase while cyclin B1 and cdc25C were exclusively expressed in HPCs having a basal mitosis. Only HPCs that leave the cell cycle after an apical mitosis expressed p27Kip1. We speculate that the cell cycle heterogeneity with formation of heteroploid cells may present a cellular context that contributes to the suggested propensity of these cells to generate cancer when the retinoblastoma gene is mutated.

  11. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  12. Solid oxide fuel cells for combined heat and power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottrup Barfod, R.; Juel Jensen, K.; Holt, T.; Drejer Jensen, M.; Danoe, S. (TOFC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mikkelsen, L.; Lund Frandsen, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The project has focused on examining three aspects that are important to the commercialization of ceramic fuel cells. The three main topics are: - the life and durability of ceramic fuel cells - the design of scalable units - increasing the electrical power. The studies range widely - from fundamental materials studies of the components in a stack to analysis of the requirements from the system that affect the design and the electrical connection of individual cells. In previous designs the lifetime was limited by the corrosion of the metal plate that electrically and mechanically connects the individual fuel cells in a stack. In this project, studies of various commercial types of steel, however, show that the lifetime can be increased significantly by choosing the right type of steel and an optimum operating temperature. In the project a lifetime of the steel of about seven years was achieved, and the steel is both cheaper and stronger than that which has hitherto been used. Another important result from the project is a significant increase of the electrical power. Compared with results from a previous project, the electrical power for a stack with the same area, same operating temperature and the same cell voltage increased by 130 %. This is achieved by a new design of the connection between the individual cells, optimized cells and improved utilization of the cell area. (ln)

  13. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  14. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project

  15. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  16. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00, 8507.20.80... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  17. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  18. Calcitonin, phosphate, and the osteocyte--osteoblast bone cell unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, R.V.; Matthews, J.L.; Martin, J.H.; Kennedy, J.W. III; Davis, W.L.; Roycroft, J.H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In this report we have attempted to correlate the morphological and chemical changes that occur in the long bone (tibia) of rats with the hypocalcemia that is produced following calcitonin injection or release from its gland of origin. By varying the supply of phosphate available to the rat, it has been possible to demonstrate that changes produced by CT both in bone and in plasma calcium concentrations were dependent upon an adequate supply of this ion. It is, therefore, postulated that the hypocalcemia produced by calcitonin is secondary to the formation of a calcium phosphate complex in and around osteocytes and lining cells. It is suggested that this complex, which is normally prevented from transforming to apatite crystal by the presence of an inhibitor, reduces the availability of calcium for rapid transport to the ECF. The reduction in calcium flux from bone to ECF results in a rapid and transient hypocalcemia. Regardless of the status of this postulate, we have at least demonstrated that the osteocyte-osteoblast unit of compact bone reacts rapidly to calcitonin in a process requiring phosphate in a sequence of events which can be closely correlated to the hypocalcemic action of the hormone.

  19. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Callaway Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-483)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Callaway Plant Unit 1, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Par 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the purpose and need for the Callaway project, alternatives to the project, the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. No water-use impacts are expected from cooling-tower markup withdrawn from, or blowdown discharged into, the Missouri River. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts from cooling-tower drift and other emissions and dust will also be small. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible with the development and implementation of the applicant's cultural-resources management plan. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of the Callaway Plant. 18 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be small. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of an operating license for Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3. 101 references, 33 figures, 30 tables

  1. Cadmium sulfide/copper ternary heterojunction cell research. Final report, April 1, 1980-August 25, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Chen, W. S.

    1982-08-01

    The properties of polycrystalline, thin-film CuInSe/sub 2//CdS and CuInSe/sub 2//Zn/sub x/Cd/sub 1-x/S solar cells prepared by vacuum-evaporation techniques onto metallized-alumina substrates are described. An efficiency of 10.6% for a 1 cm/sup 2/ area cell and 8.3% for an 8 cm/sup 2/ cell when tested under simulated AM1 illumination is reported. The mixed-sulfide cells are described as exhibiting increased open-circuit voltages, slightly higher short-circuit currents, and improved efficiencies. Mixed-sulfide film preparation by evaporation of CdS and ZnS powders from a single source and from two sources is discussed with preference given to the later technique. Selenide-film preparation in a planetary or rotating substrate vacuum-deposition apparatus is described. A 1 cm/sup 2/ area cell without AR-coating produced by the planetary approach is reported to demonstrate a 7.5% efficiency. The results of cell heat-treatment studies showing a strong environmental dependence are presented and indicate the desirability of an oxygen-containing atmosphere. An automatic, computer-controlled, cell-measurement system for I-V, C-V, and spectral-response analysis is described. The results of the cell-analysis and cell-modeling studies on both the plain CdS and mixed Zn/sub x/Cd/sub 1-x/S thin-film devices are presented. Finally, data obtained from constant illumination and elevated temperature life-tests on the thin-film cells showing little degradation after 9300 hours is reported.

  2. Rhombicuboctahedron unit cell based scaffolds for bone regeneration: geometry optimization with a mechanobiology - driven algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E; Laghetti, Luca N; Monno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    In a context more and more oriented towards customized medical solutions, we propose a mechanobiology-driven algorithm to determine the optimal geometry of scaffolds for bone regeneration that is the most suited to specific boundary and loading conditions. In spite of the huge number of articles investigating different unit cells for porous biomaterials, no studies are reported in the literature that optimize the geometric parameters of such unit cells based on mechanobiological criteria. Parametric finite element models of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were developed and incorporated into an optimization algorithm that combines them with a computational mechanobiological model. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the geometry of the unit cell until the best scaffold geometry is identified, i.e. the geometry that allows to maximize the formation of bone. Performances of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were compared with those of other scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells. We found that scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell are particularly suited for supporting medium-low loads, while, for higher loads, scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells are preferable. The proposed algorithm can guide the orthopaedic/surgeon in the choice of the best scaffold to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  4. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and ridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilties should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  5. RBX2 maintains final retinal cell position in a DAB1-dependent and -independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Corinne L; Hino, Keiko; Han, Jisoo S; Miltner, Adam M; Peinado Allina, Gabriel; Brown, Caileigh E; Burns, Marie E; La Torre, Anna; Simó, Sergi

    2018-02-02

    The laminated structure of the retina is fundamental for the organization of the synaptic circuitry that translates light input into patterns of action potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration and layering of the retina are poorly understood. Here, we show that RBX2, a core component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL5, is essential for retinal layering and function. RBX2 regulates the final cell position of rod bipolar cells, cone photoreceptors and Muller glia. Our data indicate that sustained RELN/DAB1 signaling, triggered by depletion of RBX2 or SOCS7 - a CRL5 substrate adaptor known to recruit DAB1 - causes rod bipolar cell misposition. Moreover, whereas SOCS7 also controls Muller glia cell lamination, it is not responsible for cone photoreceptor positioning, suggesting that RBX2, most likely through CRL5 activity, controls other signaling pathways required for proper cone localization. Furthermore, RBX2 depletion reduces the number of ribbon synapses and disrupts cone photoreceptor function. Together, these results uncover RBX2 as a crucial molecular regulator of retina morphogenesis and cone photoreceptor function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Field Performance of Residential Fuel Cells: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrero, E.; McClelland, R.

    2004-05-01

    Distributed generation has attracted significant interest from rural electric cooperatives and their customers. Cooperatives have a particular nexus because of inherently low customer density, growth patterns at the end of long lines, and an influx of customers and high-tech industries seeking to diversify out of urban environments. Fuel cells are considered a particularly interesting DG candidate for these cooperatives because of their power quality, efficiency, and environmental benefits. The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network residential fuel cell program demonstrated RFC power plants and assessed related technical and application issues. This final subcontract report is an assessment of the program's results. This 3-year program leveraged Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) funding.

  7. Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the United States: an emerging national concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel C; Schreiber, Kristin M; Saltos, Andreas; Lichenstein, Sarah B; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of cell phones has increased 8-fold in the United States. Cell phone use has been shown to increase crash risks for drivers, but no systematic analyses have described injuries related to ambulatory cell phone use. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantitate injuries and deaths among persons using cell phones while walking. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department (ED) reports of injuries related to phone use. The cases that returned were screened initially using words that would eliminate cases unlikely to be related to cell phone use and walking, possibly linked to distraction. The resulting cases were randomized and evaluated for consistency with predetermined case definitions by two authors blinded to the dates of the incidents. Cases that were disagreed upon were evaluated in a second screening by both authors for final case determination. National ED visit rates were estimated based on NEISS sampling methods. Annual variations were analyzed using linear regression with a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Our screening process identified 5,754 possible cases that occurred between 2000 and 2011, and 310 were agreed on as cases of cell-phone-induced distraction. The majority of the patients were female (68%) and 40 years of age or younger (54%). The primary mechanism of injury was a fall (72%), and most patients were treated and released from the ED (85%). No patients died from their injuries while they were in the ED. Linear modeling by year revealed a statistically significant increase in distraction injury rates over the years of study (pcell phone use has been increasing. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with walking and talking on a cell phone and to develop strategies for intervention. Cell phone use continues to increase both at home and outdoor environments. The use of smart phones, with their more enticing features, increases

  8. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  9. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  11. Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Bryan M. [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Bishop, Sean [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Gore, Colin [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Wang, Lei [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Correa, Luis [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Langdo, Thomas [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Deaconu, Stelu [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Pan, Keji [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States)

    2018-02-15

    In this project, we improved the power output and voltage efficiency of our intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) with a focus on ~600 °C operation. At these temperatures and with the increased power density (i.e., fewer cells for same power output), the stack cost should be greatly reduced while extending durability. Most SOFC stacks operate at temperatures greater than 800 °C. This can greatly increase the cost of the system (stacks and BOP) as well as maintenance costs since the most common degradation mechanisms are thermally driven. Our approach uses no platinum group metal (PGM) materials and the lower operating temperature allows use of simple stainless steel interconnects and commercial off-the-shelf gaskets in the stack. Furthermore, for combined heating and power (CHP) applications the stack exhaust still provides “high quality” waste heat that can be recovered and used in a chiller or boiler. The anticipated performance, durability, and resulting cost improvements (< $700/kWe) will also move us closer to reaching the full potential of this technology for distributed generation (DG) and residential/commercial CHP. This includes eventual extension to cleaner, more efficient portable generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and range extenders for transportation. The research added to the understanding of the area investigated by exploring various methods for increasing power density (Watts/square centimeter of active area in each cell) and increasing cell efficiency (increasing the open circuit voltage, or cell voltage with zero external electrical current). The results from this work demonstrated an optimized cell that had greater than 1 W/cm2 at 600 °C and greater than 1.6 W/cm2 at 650 °C. This was demonstrated in large format sizes using both 5 cm by 5 cm and 10 cm by 10 cm cells. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that high stability (no degradation over > 500 hours) can be achieved together with high performance in large

  12. Short and long-term career plans of final year dental students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Hazim H; Ghotane, Swapnil G; Abufanas, Salem H; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-08-13

    New dental schools have been established to train dentists in many parts of the world. This study examines the future dental workforce from the first dental school in the United Arab Emirates [UAE]; the aim of this study was to explore the short and long-term career aspirations of the final year dental students in the UAE in relation to their demography. Final year dental students of the Ajman University's College of Dentistry (n=87) were invited to participate in a self-completion questionnaire survey. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out on career aspirations using SPSS v20. Eighty-two percent of students (n=71) responded, the majority of whom were female (65%; n=46). Ethnicity was reported as: 'other Arab' (61%; n=43), 'Emirati' (17%, n=12), and 'Other' (21%, n=15). In the short-term, 41% (n=29) expressed a desire to work in government training centres, with Emirati students significantly more likely to do so (p=0.002). 'Financial stability' (80%; n=57) and 'gaining professional experience' (76%; n=54) emerged as the most important influences on their short-term career plans. The vast majority of students wished to specialise in dentistry (92%; n=65) in the longer term; logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of specialising in the most popular specialties of Orthodontics and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were less for the 'Other' ethnic group when compared with 'Emirati' students (0.26; 95% CI 0.068-0.989; p=0.04). Almost three-quarters of the students overall (72%; n=51) intended to work full-time. 'High income/financial security' (97%; n=69), 'standard of living' (97%; n=69), 'work/life balance' (94%; n=67), and 'professional fulfilment' (87%; n=62) were reported by the students as the most influential items affecting their long-term professional career choices. The findings suggest that students aspire to make a long-term contribution to the profession and there is a high level of

  13. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. A worked example using the SP249 advanced assessment route: the carregado unit 6 final superheater outlet header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, J.M.; Jarvis, P.; Jones, G.T. [ERA Technology (United Kingdom); Jovanovic, A.S.; Friemann, M.; Kluttig, B.; Ober, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Batista, A. [EDP-PROET (Portugal); Araujo, C.L. de; Pires, A. [ISQ (Portugal)

    1995-12-31

    As a key part of its information resource, the SP249 Project contains a number of case studies, drawn from the collective experience of the partners and from the literature. The user of the system may search this data-base by component type and material or by assessment method, to find a practical example close to his own current problem. He can thus draw upon past experience as well as state-of-the-art knowledge to obtain advice. To facilitate this, a set of key-words has been defined to create links between the case studies and the overall assessment methodology. These relate to damage and failure types and causes as well as to techniques of investigation and assessment. For demonstration, validation and didactic purposes, certain of these case studies - one per end-user utility in the project - have been chosen for full elaboration as `worked-examples`. These real component evaluations are worked through by an expert group from the project team so as to provide the utility staff with `hands-on` training in both the practical techniques of component life. The assessment and the use of the knowledge based system. The exercise also provides valuable opportunity for feedback, allowing refinement of the technology package and the software. Amongst these worked examples, an assessment of EDP`s Carregado Unit 6 Final Superheater Outlet Header has been chosen for special attention - as the operators have kindly allowed direct CSS to the component during two outages. This article summarises the Carregado Case Study. It is intended to serve as a demonstration and as to how the Advanced Assessment Route (AAR) is used in practice. The actions performed and results obtained are summarised

  15. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  16. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

  17. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaodong; Hovmoeller, Anders; Hovmoeller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types

  18. The Daniell Cell, Ohm's Law and the Emergence of the International System of Units

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40s and flourished in the following decades, but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell. Each company had their own resistance standard. In 1862 the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873 they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the...

  19. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that case, two movie theater booking agents agreed to refrain from actively soliciting each other's... order necessary or appropriate for the modification, interpretation, or enforcement of the Final...

  20. Final supplement to the final environmental statement related to operation of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2: (Docket No. 50-320)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The proposed action is the continuation of construction permit CPPR-66 and the issuance of operating license to Metropolitan Edison Company, Jersey Central Power and Light Company, and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (the Applicants) for the operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320, near Harrisburg in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit Number 2 has a designed thermal rating of 2772 megawatts with a maximum electrical output of 959 megawatts. Two natural draft cooling towers are utilized for dissipating the waste heat from the closed cycle cooling system. Extension of TMINS-Bechtelsville 500 kV transmission line an additional 7.36 miles from Bechtelsville to Hosensack required acquisition of additional 175 foot wide right-of-way along an existing 150 foot wide 230 kV corridor. Construction of this line segment resulted in clearing of 21 acres of woodland, spanning over 134.5 acres of agricultural land and diverting of 0.4 acres from agriculture to use under tower bases. About 550 curies of radionuclides in liquid effluents (0.24 Ci/yr excluding tritium and 550 Ci/yr of tritium) will be released to the environment annually. Gaseous releases will be approximately 6700 Ci/yr of noble gases, 0.01 Ci/yr of iodine-131, 560 Ci/yr of tritium, 25 Ci/yr of argon-41, and 0.06 Ci/yr of particulates. No significant environmental impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactive materials. The calculated dose to the estimated year 1990 US population is less than 540 manrem/yr. This value is less than the natural fluctuation in the approximately 28,000,000 manrem/yr dose this population would receive from background radiation

  1. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  3. Electrochemical characterization of a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    This work constitutes detailed EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) measurements on a PBIbased HT-PEM unit cell. By means of EIS the fuel cell is characterized in several modes of operation by varying the current density, temperature and the stoichiometry of the reactant gases. Using...

  4. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  5. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  6. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... while avoiding injuries to caregivers. The merchandise at issue, the Likorall lift unit, is the... unit. The charger is made in the same non-TAA country as the hand control. ISSUE: What is the country... adapter, but rather because of what the completed handset and base provide: communication over telephone...

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR TEACHING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE WRITING, EVALUATION, AND REVISION OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS WERE COMPLETED ON SCHEDULE AND A SUMMARY OF THE STUDY WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE LOCAL "RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION" TO BE SENT TO ALL STATES. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY WILL BE INCLUDED IN "AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION MAGAZINE." SAMPLE COPIES OF THE UNIT WERE…

  8. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  9. Implementation of a digital feedwater control system at Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapotocky, A.; Popovic, J.R.; Fournier, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the Digital Feedwater Control System Implementation at the Dresden 2 or 3 Units of the BWR Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Commonwealth Edison Company. The digital system has been operational in Unit 3 since August 1986, and in Unit 2 since April 1987. The Bailey Control's Network 90 based digital control system replaced the obsolete GE/MAC 5000 analog control system in the reactor feedwater control loop as a ''like-for-like'' replacement. Operational experience from the Digital Feedwater Control installations has been good and the system demonstrated better performance than the old analog systems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Emission factors of modern wood-pellet heating units under typical heating conditions - Final report; Emissionsfaktoren moderner Pelletkessel unter typischen Heizbedingungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the results of measurements made concerning the emission factors of two modern wood-pellet heating units under typical heating conditions. Using simulations, typical operation in single-family homes and apartment blocks were examined. Emissions during the different phases of operation were examined. Systems with and without buffer storage were also examined. The minimum running times to be striven for are quoted which would lead to a reduction of emissions to an acceptable level. The characteristic operating modes for the two heating units and the results obtained for various emissions are presented and discussed.

  11. 76 FR 21006 - United States and State of New York v. Stericycle, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    .... By: /s/ Richard L. Schwartz, Acting Chief, Antitrust Bureau. /s/ Richard E. Grimm, Assistant Attorney...-6015 E-mail: Richard.Grimm@ag.ny.gov E-mail: [email protected] United States District Court for...

  12. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit

  13. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353, Philadelphia Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    In April 1984 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Final Environmental Statement (NUREG-0974) related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, (Docket Nos. 50-352 and 50-353), located on the Schuylkill River, near Pottstown, in Limerick Township, Montgomery and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. The NRC has prepared this supplement to NUREG-0974 to present its evaluation of the alternative of facility operation with the installation of further severe accident mitigation design features. The NRC staff has discovered no substantial changes in the proposed action as previously evaluated in the Final Environmental Statement that are relevant to environmental concerns nor significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the licensing of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2. 15 refs., 10 tabs

  14. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    In September 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued its Final Environmental Statement (NUREG-0775) related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. The NRC has prepared this supplement to NUREG-0775 to present its evaluation of the alternative of operating Comanche Peak with the installation of further severe-accident-mitigation design features. The NRC has discovered no substantial changes in the proposed action as previously evaluated in the Final Environmental Statement that are relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the licensing of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  16. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of the Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the purpose and need for the Midland project, alternatives to the project, the affected environment, environment consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  17. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-410)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  18. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  19. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  20. Using stochastic cell division and death to probe minimal units of cellular replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Savita; Das, Suman; Venkatesan, Soumya; Sai Narain Seshasayee, Aswin; Thattai, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    The invariant cell initiation mass measured in bacterial growth experiments has been interpreted as a minimal unit of cellular replication. Here we argue that the existence of such minimal units induces a coupling between the rates of stochastic cell division and death. To probe this coupling we tracked live and dead cells in Escherichia coli populations treated with a ribosome-targeting antibiotic. We find that the growth exponent from macroscopic cell growth or decay measurements can be represented as the difference of microscopic first-order cell division and death rates. The boundary between cell growth and decay, at which the number of live cells remains constant over time, occurs at the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic. This state appears macroscopically static but is microscopically dynamic: division and death rates exactly cancel at MIC but each is remarkably high, reaching 60% of the antibiotic-free division rate. A stochastic model of cells as collections of minimal replicating units we term ‘widgets’ reproduces both steady-state and transient features of our experiments. Sub-cellular fluctuations of widget numbers stochastically drive each new daughter cell to one of two alternate fates, division or death. First-order division or death rates emerge as eigenvalues of a stationary Markov process, and can be expressed in terms of the widget’s molecular properties. High division and death rates at MIC arise due to low mean and high relative fluctuations of widget number. Isolating cells at the threshold of irreversible death might allow molecular characterization of this minimal replication unit.

  1. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 (Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529, and STN 50-530): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Arizona Public Service Company (APS, applicant) for the startup and operation of PVNGS, Units 1, 2, and 3, located in Maricopa County, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Buckeye, Arizona. The information in this statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with PVNGS Units 1, 2, and 3 pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 51 of the Commissions's Regulations. After receiving an application in July 1974 to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impacts that would occur during its construction and operation. That evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement/emdash/Construction Phase (FES-CP). After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Phoenix, Arizona, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Construction Permits Nos. CPPR-141, CPPR-142, and CPPR-143 for the construction of PVNGS Units 1, 2, and 3. As of September 1981, the construction of Unit 1 was about 92 percent complete, Unit 2 was 68 percent complete, and Unit 3 was 26 percent complete. 11 figs., 21 tabs

  2. 76 FR 72438 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ..., shaft lengths and shaft diameters. Finishes include, but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...://www.usitc.gov ). The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic... prehearing staff report in the final phase of this investigation will be placed in the nonpublic record on...

  3. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... final supplement available for public inspection. For Further Information, Contact: Ms. Elaine Keegan... Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop O-11F1, Washington, DC 20555-0001. Ms. Keegan may be contacted by telephone at (800) 368-5642, extension 8517, or by e-mail at Elaine.Keegan@nrc.gov Dated at Rockville, Maryland...

  4. 76 FR 38419 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et. al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... provisions of Section 5(a) of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(a), the proposed Final Judgment has no prima facie effect in any subsequent private lawsuit that may be brought against George's. V. Procedures... in protecting the public interest is one of insuring that the government has not breached its duty to...

  5. Evaluation of the impact of banking umbilical cord blood units with high cell dose for ethnically diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 10 7 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 10 7 to 124 or 149 × 10 7 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 10 7 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  7. 75 FR 53661 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... orders remain dispositive. The size or precision grade of a bearing does not influence whether the... also does not influence whether the bearing is covered by the orders. Bearings designed for highly... for individual examination of their sales of the subject merchandise to the United States during the...

  8. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  9. 75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Foster and Portec will create a virtual monopoly in the U.S. market for bonded joints. (2) Poly Joints 29.... For Plaintiff United States of America: Christine A. Varney, Assistant Attorney General. Molly S. Boast, Deputy Assistant Attorney General. Katherine B. Forrest, Deputy Assistant Attorney General...

  10. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: ON-SITE INCINERATION OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE PILOT TEST UNIT, TIMES BEACH, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period of July 8 - July 12, 1985, the Shirco Infrared Systems Portable Pilot Test Unit was in operation at the Times Beach Dioxin Research Facility to demonstrate the capability of Shirco's infrared technology to decontaminate silty soil laden with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorod...

  11. 76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... in innovations for these products. 5. Further, the elimination of AOS as a potential competitor of..., RBC, and one other company are the only significant competitors that sell electric motors for pool..., of electric motors for pool pumps in the United States. The third competitor accounts for most of the...

  12. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered to the U.S. Government under an undesignated government procurement package.'' Dated: June 7, 2010. Harold M. Singer, Director, Regulations and Disclosure Law Division, Office of International Trade. [FR Doc. 2010-14019 Filed 6-10-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  13. The Development of an Individualized Instructional Program in Beginning College Mathematics Utilizing Computer Based Resource Units. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Theron D.

    Reported is an attempt to develop and evaluate an individualized instructional program in pre-calculus college mathematics. Four computer based resource units were developed in the areas of set theory, relations and function, algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Objectives were determined by experienced calculus teachers, and…

  14. AN APPRAISAL OF INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES. APPENDIX TO FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    TWENTY-TWO OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TO 262 JUNIOR AND SENIOR STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY TO MEASURE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS DESIGNED TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES WHEN USED IN TEACHING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL…

  15. 75 FR 27798 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Commodity-Based Clustered Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...) with instructions on it that allows it to perform certain functions of preventing piracy of software... and HDD canisters usually include a disk array controller frame which effects the interface between the subsystem's storage units and a CPU. In this case, the software effects the interconnection...

  16. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  17. Replacement of the moderator cell unit of JRR-3's cold neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Tomoya; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-10-01

    The moderator cell of the JRR-3's cold neutron source (CNS) facility, converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons by passing through liquid cold hydrogen. The cold neutrons are used for material and life science research such as the neutron scattering. The CNS has been operated since the start of JRR-3's in 1990. The moderator cell containing liquid hydrogen is made of stainless steel. The material irradiation lifetime is limited to 7 years due to irradiation brittleness. The first replacement was done by using a spare part made in France. This replacement work of 2006 was carried out by using the domestic moderator cell unit. The following technologies were developed for the moderator cell unit production. 1) Technical development of black treatment on moderator cell surface to increase radiation heat. 2) Development of bending technology of concentric triple tubes consisting from inside tube, Outside tube and Vacuum insulation tube. 3) Development of manufacturing technique of the moderator cell with complicated shapes. According to detail planed work procedures, replacement work was carried out. As results, the working days were reduced to 80% of old ones. The radiation dose was also reduced due to reduction of working days. It was verified by measurement of neutrons characteristics that the replaced moderator cell has the same performance as that of the old moderator cell. The domestic manufacturing of the moderator cell was succeeded. As results, the replacement cost was reduced by development of domestic production technology. (author)

  18. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  20. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  1. Fuel Cells in Distributed Power Market Applications in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastler, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews results from EPRI market analysis, which examined the technical and economic market potential of fuel cells in distributed power markets in the United States. A methodology and approach for developing realistic quantitative estimates of market potential in competitive electricity markets is presented. Market size estimates for phosphoric acid, polymer exchange membrane, high temperature fuel cells (carbonate and solid oxide systems) and ultra-high efficient fuel cell hybrids are estimated. Market potentials are reviewed for fuel cells systems ranging in size from 3 kW up to 20-30 MW in scale and underlying assumptions are provided. The results and implications are discussed in relation to the changing U.S. electric utility market structures. Results will be of value to energy companies and to fuel cell developers seeking to understand revenue sales estimates, market size, and most profitable segments for fuel cells in the competitive US electric markets. (author)

  2. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  3. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  4. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  5. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  6. Identification of two distinct chromosome 12-derived amplification units in neuroblastoma cell line NGP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Forus, A.; Myklebost, O.; Cheng, N. C.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1995-01-01

    The neuroblastoma cell line NGP contains two homogeneously staining regions (hsr). One of these hsrs contains MYCN sequences. Reverse painting experiments demonstrated that the second HSR consisted of two chromosome 12-derived amplification units, located at 12q14-15 and 12q24. Southern blot and

  7. A Unit-Cell Model for Predicting the Elastic Constants of 3D Four Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Ye; Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the elastic constants of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts were predicted using analytical and numerical methods. First, the motion rule of yarn carrier of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed, and the horizontal projection of yarn motion trajectory was obtained. Then, the geometry models of unit-cells with different braiding angles and fiber volume contents were built up, and the meso-scale models of 3D cylindrical braided composite shafts were obtained. Finally, the effects of braiding angles and fiber volume contents on the elastic constants of 3D braided composite shafts were analyzed theoretically and numerically. These results play a crucial role in investigating the mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  8. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  9. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  10. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  11. Interconnection between the geometry and the structure of unit cells of substances in inorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Kuz'micheva, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Regularity of interconnection between the geometry and the structure of elementary cells of inorganic compounds is investigated. Structural motives on the basis of NaCl structure for all phases of rare earth chalcogenides are built. It is shown that compounds (phases of variable content), detected on 23 (out of 48 possible) state diagrams of rare earths chalcogen binary systems are closely bound both from the viewpoint of geometric dimensions of elementary cells and structural motives. It is shown that using ion representations the number of formula units in the cell of a new rare earth chalcogenide can be calculated and its structural motif can be built

  12. Final report on research project: Soil liquefaction testing and evaluation for Kozloduy nuclear power plant units 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, S [Energoproekt plc., Power Consulting Engineers, Hydropower Division, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-07-01

    The object of this study is the region of the channels of additional technical water supply of Kozloduy NPP, Units 5 and 6. This region is chosen because there are enough data for water saturated sands, necessary for the analysis, including data from cyclic triaxial tests and standard penetration tests. Three kinds ofprocedures for estimation of liquefaction potential of water saturated sands are used in the study. The results obtained by different procedures were compared, analyzed and conclusions drawn about the liquefaction potential of water saturated sands in the area of the channels of additional technical water supply.

  13. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1982-03-01

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  14. Development and Demonstration of Carbon Fuel Cell Final Report CRADA No. TC02091.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berner, J. K. [Contained Energy, Inc., Shaker Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Contained Energy, Inc. (CEI), to conduct necessary research and to develop, fabricate and test a multi-cell carbon fuel cell.

  15. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States: a comprehensive summary for the year 1975. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Nelson, D.R.

    1980-11-01

    The report summarizes the results of a study of 1975 occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in the United States. Exposure data for all workers exposed to radiation are unavailable, so many of the results are estimates based on extrapolation of partial data that may not be representative of some groups of workers. The primary findings are: (1) About 1.1 million United States workers were exposed to ionizing radiation in 1975. About 370,000 received measurable occupational doses; (2) The collective dose to the work force was nearly 130,000 person-rems. The approximately 5.5% of the work force that received more than 500 mrem accounted for about 75% of this collective dose; (3) The average annual dose to all workers was 120 mrem; for workers with measurable doses, it was 350 mrem; and for workers receiving more than 500 mrem, it was 1,600 mrem; and (4) About 67% of the work force received less-than-measurable doses; about 95% received doses of 500 mrem or less; and about 0.15% received doses exceeding 5 rem. Many other findings and observations are included

  16. Energy sensitivity and variability analysis of Populus hybrid short-rotation plantations in northeastern United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, T.W.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1979-10-24

    Production of biomass by corn-like plantations has been demonstrated by a number of researchers. These forest analogs of agronomic cropping systems have the potential to yield substantially more biomass per unit area than traditional forests. Care is needed in choosing the appropriate sites, species, spacing, and harvesting strategies. Opportunities for increased yields have been suggested for fertilization and irrigation. Utilization of the biomass from these dense plantations for energy was the focus of this study. Although the amount of energy potential of the biomass is important, the energy output must be greater than the energy input for biomass to have a positive benefit to society. Further, in order to completely evaluate the net energy of the system it is necessary to examine the energy out-to-in ratios on the basis of usable energy (for example, usable heat, process steam and electricity), as well as all of the energies expended in producing, harvesting, transporting and processing the biomass. The objective of this study is to establish and analyze the energy inputs for selected management strategies in order to evaluate the sensitivity and variability of the energy inputs in the net energy analysis, and based on the net energy analysis to recommend a management strategy that minimizes energy inputs while maximizing biomass yield for short-rotation systems of Populus spp. in the northeastern United States.

  17. Modulation of the androgenetic response in diverse skin cell types: the pilosebaceous unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurvarra, F.; Kerner, N.; Hagelin, K.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens play a central role in diverse morphogenetic processes of the skin. Hair growth and follicular cycle are regulated in part by androgens. Androgens also play a key function, together with other receptors such as the PPARs receptors family, on the proliferation and differentiation of the sebaceous gland that forms part of the pilosebaceous unit and influences hair growth and skin well-being. UV radiation may affect androgens regulation of skin homeostasis. Objectives: to study the modulation of androgenetic response related to UV radiation on the pilosebaceous unit, in two skin conditions: androgenetic alopecia and acne, both affecting skin and constituting major concerns for affected individuals. Methods: primary cultures of cells and established cell lines from the pilosebaceous unit: dermal papillae cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes. Analysis of lipid content, inflammatory response and proliferation of cells under the influence of androgens, PPARs ligands and UVR. Results: sebocytes primary cultures were obtained from human sebaceous glands. Proliferation and differentiation, as well as the expression of proinflammatory molecules (IL-1, TNF alpha, iNOs) and lipogenic enzymes (FASN) under androgens and UV treatment were assessed. The response to androgens under UV exposure was also analyzed in dermal papillae cells in culture. (authors)

  18. Phytoplankton excretion revisited: healthy cells may not do it, but how many cells are healthy? Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.M.

    1996-08-06

    The goal of this project was to develop fluorescent probes that could be used on a individual cell basis to determine the physiological condition of phytoplankton cells in the field. Progress gained and problems encounter are described.

  19. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs

  20. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs (limited water availability and/or high summer temperatures).

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of statistically optimal unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites from microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Brandyberry, M.; Tudor, A.; Matous, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic approach for characterization and reconstruction of statistically optimal representative unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites. Microtomography is used to gather rich three-dimensional data of a packed glass bead system. First-, second-, and third-order probability functions are used to characterize the morphology of the material, and the parallel augmented simulated annealing algorithm is employed for reconstruction of the statistically equivalent medium. Both the fully resolved probability spectrum and the geometrically exact particle shapes are considered in this study, rendering the optimization problem multidimensional with a highly complex objective function. A ten-phase particulate composite composed of packed glass beads in a cylindrical specimen is investigated, and a unit cell is reconstructed on massively parallel computers. Further, rigorous error analysis of the statistical descriptors (probability functions) is presented and a detailed comparison between statistics of the voxel-derived pack and the representative cell is made.

  2. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  3. Final environmental statement related to operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit No. 3: (Docket No. 50-286): Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a license to consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., for the operation of the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit No. 3, located in the State of New York, Westchester County, Village of Buchanan, 24 miles north of the New York City boundary line. Although the present action is the issuance of an operating license for Unit No. 3, this Statement considers the environmental impacts from simultaneous operation of all three Units. A Final Environmental Statement has been issued for Unit No. 2. Furthermore, in view of the proximity to the Indian Point site of existing and presently proposed power plants on the Hudson River, the cumulative environmental benefits and impacts of the plants within a 30-mile reach of the river have been assessed. The proposed action is interreleated to other actions taken by other Federal agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency, in regard to granting or denying application for discharge permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) instituted through the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and the Federal Power Commission, in licensing of other facilities on the Hudson River. 128 figs., 210 tabs

  4. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. Follow up report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Fuel cell technology continues to grow in the United States, with strong sales in stationary applications and early markets such as data centers, materials handling equipment, and telecommunications sites. New fuel cell customers include Fortune 500 companies Apple, eBay, Coca-Cola, and Walmart, who will use fuel cells to provide reliable power to data centers, stores, and facilities. Some are purchasing multi-megawatt (MW) systems, including three of the largest non-utility purchases of stationary fuel cells in the world by AT and T, Apple and eBay - 17 MW, 10 MW and 6 MW respectively. Others are replacing fleets of battery forklifts with fuel cells. Sysco, the food distributor, has more than 700 fuel cell-powered forklifts operating at seven facilities, with more on order. Mega-retailer Walmart now operates more than 500 fuel cell forklifts at three warehouses, including a freezer facility. Although federal government budget reduction efforts are impacting a wide range of departments and programs, fuel cell and hydrogen technology continues to be funded, albeit at a lower level than in past years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding fuel cell and hydrogen R and D and has nearly 300 ongoing projects at companies, national labs, and universities/institutes universities. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and DOE's Market Transformation efforts have acted as a government ''catalyst'' for market success of emerging technologies. Early market deployments of about 1,400 fuel cells under the ARRA have led to more than 5,000 additional fuel cell purchases by industry with no DOE funding. In addition, interest in Congress remains high. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), Chris Coons (D-DE), Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and John Hoeven (R-ND) re-launched the bipartisan Senate Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Caucus in August 2012 to promote the continued development and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

  5. Callaway Plant Units 1 and 2: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. STN 50-483 and STN 50-486)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a construction permit to the Union Electric company for the construction of the Callaway Plant Units 1 and 2. The Callaway Plant, located 5 m north of the Missouri River in Callaway County, Missouri, will employ a pressurized water reactor to produce up to 3425 megawatts thermal (MWt) from each unit. A steam turbine-generator will use the heat to provide 1120 MWe (net) of electrical power capacity. A stretch power level of 3579 MWt (1160 MWe) is anticipated at a future date and is considered in the assessments contained in this statement. The exhaust steam will be cooled in a closed cycle mode, with water from the Missouri River. Constructing the plant and adjacent facilities will disturb an area of about 600 acres, of which less than 300 acres will be occupied by the operating plant and road and rail access to it. The land presently consists of cropland, pasture and forest. About 1140 acres will be required for the transmission line routes. The land presently consists of forest, pasture and cropland. No unique land usage is involved. Siltation and erosion during construction generally will have minor adverse effects, based upon the extent of protection measures the applicant plans to impose. The effect on Logan Creek is expected to be minor, but further assessment is needed, including possible additional precautions. About 14% of the benthic invertebrate population will be lost in the rectangular area defined by the river width and the length of the area to be dredged for shoreline structures. 28 figs., 53 tabs

  6. Montague Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. 50-496 and 50-497)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company for the construction of the Montague Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the Connecticut River in the Town of Montague, Massachusetts. The plant will employ two identical boiling-water reactors to produce up to 3579 megawatts thermal (MWt) each. Two steam turbine-generators will use this heat to provide 1150 MWe (net) of electrical power capacity from each turbine-generator. A design power level of 3759 MWt (1220 Mwe net) for each unit is anticipated at a future date and is considered in the assessments contained in this statement. The waste heat will be rejected through natural-draft cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Connecticut River. The 1900-acre site is about 90% forest, with the remaining acreage in transmission-line corridor and old-field vegetation. The total loss of mixed-age forest will be 1273 acres. Nodesignated scenic areas will be crossed. Sixty acres of public lands, State forests, and parks will be lost to transmission facilities as well as losses associated with crossings of 2.0 miles of water bodies and 11.9 miles of wetlands. The maximum estimated potential loss of salable wood products will be $849,600. A maximum of 85.8 cfs of cooling water will be withdrawn from the Connecticut River. A maximum of 17.2 cfs will be returned to the river with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about 5. A maximum of 68.6 cfs will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. 143 refs., 58 figs., 69 tabs

  7. Low Cost Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Hung, Cheng-Hung [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Ma, Zhixun [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of online deposition of the active layer for thin-film PV modules. The envisioned PV online manufacturing process has a number of discrete unit operations integrated into a single process. Demonstration of feasibility would be deemed successful with the individual demonstration of each of these unit operations and development of the integrated process was not within the scope of this phase.

  8. Regulations in the United States for cell transplantation clinical trials in neurological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhu; Yuanqing Tan; Qi Gu; Weifang Han; Zhongwen Li; Jason S Meyer; Baoyang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a systematic approach to evaluate the current utilization, safety, and effectiveness of cell therapies for neurological diseases in human. And review the present regulations, considering United States (US) as a representative country, for cell transplantation in neurological disease and discuss the challenges facing the field of neurology in the coming decades. Methods:A detailed search was performed in systematic literature reviews of cellular‐based therapies in neurological diseases, using PubMed, web of science, and clinical trials. Regulations of cell therapy products used for clinical trials were searched from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results: Seven most common types of cell therapies for neurological diseases have been reported to be relatively safe with varying degrees of neurological recovery. And a series of regulations in US for cellular therapy was summarized including preclinical evaluations, sourcing material, stem cell manufacturing and characterization, cell therapy product, and clinical trials. Conclusions:Stem cell‐based therapy holds great promise for a cure of such diseases and will value a growing population of patients. However, regulatory permitting activity of the US in the sphere of stem cells, technologies of regenerative medicine and substitutive cell therapy are selective, theoretical and does not fit the existing norm and rules. Compiled well‐defined regulations to guide the application of stem cell products for clinical trials should be formulated.

  9. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  10. Analytical cell decontamination and shielding window refurbishment. Final report, March 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokowski, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the decontamination and refurbishment of five inactive contaminated analytical cells and six zinc bromide filled shielding windows. The analytical cells became contaminated during the nuclear fuel reprocessing carried out by Nuclear Fuel Services from 1966 to 1972. The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work was performed in these cells to make them useful as laboratories in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. To accomplish this objective, unnecessary equipment was removed from these cells. Necessary equipment and the interior of each cell were decontaminated and repaired. The shielding windows, essentially tanks holding zinc bromide, were drained and disassembled. The deteriorated, opaque zinc bromide was refined to optical clarity and returned to the tanks. All wastes generated in this operation were characterized and disposed of properly. All the decontamination and refurbishment was accomplished within 13 months. The Analytical Hot Cell has been turned over to Analytical Chemistry for the performance high-level waste (HLW) characterization analysis

  11. Final Report, Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Dr Scott L.; Thrun, Dr Lora B.; Arkenberg, Mr Gene B.; Chenault, Ms Kellie M.

    2012-01-03

    This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm2. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year).

  12. Standard house with integrated solar cell system. Technical final report; Typehus med integreret solcelleanlaeg. Faglig slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The interest in solar cell technology among Danish house owners is increasing, but there are many considerations to be made before the house owner choose to install solar cells on the house. Major barriers are the solar cell systems' price and appearance. This interdisciplinary development project will show that both aesthetic and economic advantages can be derived from integrating solar cells already when the first sketches of the house are being made. In order to promote utilization of solar cells in Denmark the solutions must be attractive, both economically and aesthetically. Therefore the solar cell solutions in this project are developed in preparation for marketing both as an aesthetic expression and a high-technological, green and prestigious element. (BA)

  13. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  14. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  15. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  16. Decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the March 28, 1979 accident, Three-Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Pennsylvania-Docket No. 50-320 (final supplement 2 to the final environmental impact statement of March 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Implementation of actions necessary for decontamination of the facility, defueling of the reactor, and disposition of the radioactive wastes that resulted from the accident on March 28, 1979 at Unit 2 of the Three-Mile Island Nuclear Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania are discussed. This second final supplement to the final environmental impact statement, filed in March 1981 on facility decontamination, reevaluates the environmental impacts of accident-generated water disposal alternatives, using more complete and current information. This supplement also includes a specific evaluation of the recently submitted proposal for water disposition. The project would alleviate a radiological hazard that threatens the well-being of the surrounding population and downstream communities. Risks to the general public have been estimated to be very small fractions of the estimated normal incidence of cancer fatalities and genetic disorders. The most significant potential impact is the risk of physical injury associated with transportation accidents. Social impacts during the operation could result in reduced property values, competition between the work force and tourists for temporary housing, and congestion of local traffic arteries. Some psychological stress would experienced by area residents. Economic effects could include increased electricity rates, reduced tourism, and possible resistance to consumption of area goods that consumers might mistakenly think are contaminated

  17. Fulton Generating Station Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-463 and 50-464): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Philadelphia Electric Company for the construction of the Fulton Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Fulton and Drumore Townships, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Makeup water for cooling will be withdrawn form Conowingo Pond at a maximum rate of 43,000 gpm. The dissolved solids content of the blowdown water will be increased by a factor of about two. The remainder of the water will be evaporated to the atmosphere by cooling towers. About 10 acres offsite, some 7 acres of which is woodland, will be used for railroad-spur construction. About 0.25 mile of new transmission-line rights-of-way (9 acres) will be needed, although 49 miles of new transmission line, which will require about 3 miles of selective clearing, will be constructed on existing rights-of-way. An unestablished amount of land will be used for access-road construction, but the applicant will use existing roadway corridors where feasible. A small loss of consumer species will result from loss of habitat. Some loss of benthic and pelagic organisms in Conowingo Pond will be caused by intake and discharge construction. The Station's thermal and chemical discharges will meet the State water-quality standards. The duration of additional ground-level fog caused by Station operation is expected to be less than 3 hr/year. (Sect. 5.3.3). No observable effects are expected from salt deposition from cooling-tower drift. (Sect. 5.3.3). Decomposers, primary producers, and zooplankton will be entrained and killed in the cooling-tower system; they, as well as benthic organisms, will be affected by the heated-water discharge. This loss will have little effect on the pond food web. 30 figs., 76 tabs

  18. South Texas project, Units 1 and 2: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a construction permit to the Houston Lighting and the Power Company, acting as Project manager on behalf of itself, the City Public Service Board of San Antonio, Central Power and Light Company, and the City of Austin, for the construction of the South Texas Project (STP) Units 1 and 2, located in Matagorda County, Texas. A total of 12,352 acres will be utilized for the STP site. Construction-related activities on the site will disturb about 610 acres not including the 7310 acres of inundated by the STP cooling lake and embankments, which will be constructed in conjunction with the project. Approximately 400 miles of transmission-line corridors will require about 5685 acres of land for the right-of-way. An access road and a railroad spur will affect about 60 acres. Farm to Market Road 521 will be rerouted north around the STP exclusion area. Plant construction will involve extensive community impacts. Two families will be displaced from the site. Traffic on local roads will increase due to construction and commuting activities. The influx of construction workers' families (2100 peak work force) is expected to cause no major housing or school problems. There will be a demand for increased services in Matagorda County. The proposed plan to alter Little Robbins Slough and the resultant 65% reduction in the watershed supplying freshwater inflow to the upper marsh may cause the displacement of numerous freshwater species and reduce its desirability as a nursery for estuarine-dependent organisms. Studies to determine the need for freshwater makeup will be required. 39 figs., 76 tabs

  19. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  20. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  1. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  2. Magnetoresistance oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in lateral superlattices with structured unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, Rolf R.

    2015-11-01

    Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.

  3. Efficient particle-in-cell simulation of auroral plasma phenomena using a CUDA enabled graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Stephen

    This thesis introduces a software framework that effectively utilizes low-cost commercially available Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) to simulate complex scientific plasma phenomena that are modeled using the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) paradigm. The software framework that was developed conforms to the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), a standard for general purpose graphic processing that was introduced by NVIDIA Corporation. This framework has been verified for correctness and applied to advance the state of understanding of the electromagnetic aspects of the development of the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis. For each phase of the PIC methodology, this research has identified one or more methods to exploit the problem's natural parallelism and effectively map it for execution on the graphic processing unit and its host processor. The sources of overhead that can reduce the effectiveness of parallelization for each of these methods have also been identified. One of the novel aspects of this research was the utilization of particle sorting during the grid interpolation phase. The final representation resulted in simulations that executed about 38 times faster than simulations that were run on a single-core general-purpose processing system. The scalability of this framework to larger problem sizes and future generation systems has also been investigated.

  4. Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    1996-12-31

    One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

  5. Efficiency Improvement of Crystalline Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 January 2002 - 30 September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E. R.

    2007-11-01

    UC-Berkeley study of transition metal related defects in PV-grade mc-Si to understand their pathways into solar cells; chemical state/distribution; interaction with structural defects; defect engineering.

  6. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-10-01

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author) [pt

  7. Fuel cell processor with low-temperature PEM fuel cell - testing. Final report; Naturgasreformersystem med lavtgemperatur-PEM braendselsceller - TEST. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Madsen, J.

    2006-11-03

    The purpose of the project is to further develop a Danish natural gas reformer system including optimisation of subsystems and the overall system consisting of a natural gas reformer and fuel cell CHP generator. This will contribute to the evaluation of to what extend Denmark shall develop small reformer units for PEM fuel Cells. In the project a reformer system with a high degree of automatic control has been build that fulfils the CHP requirements to operation time, dynamics etc. This work, with a FP05 reformer unit, has given valuable results concerning the possibilities and limitations of the reformer technology for CHP usage. It is important that the reformer and fuel cell units are designed with matching yields to optimise efficiency, turn-down start-up time etc. The burner that delivers heat for the steam reaction shall be able to use natural gas as fuel. This gives the possibility of using existing burner technology. In addition this will improve the efficiency since it will not be necessary to reform natural gas to feed the burner. The large number of BoP components in the FP05 unit is primarily used for achieving good regulation dynamics and accuracy. To reduce the number of components, a CHP unit with few or only one operational point should be considered. A single point of operation will reduce the number of valves as well as the requirements to the control and regulation of the system. A large part of the reformer size is needed to meet the high demands for CO purification of the reformat. This purification results in a very narrow window of operation for the reformer system. By using more CO tolerant fuel cells this part of the system can be reduced or even eliminated. To test the developed automatic control it was planned to integrate the FP05 reformer with a 10kW CHP unit that was being build by IRD in a separate project. This unit was perfect in size for testing with the reformer. However due to a number of reasons it was not possible during the

  8. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  9. GaAs thin film solar cells. Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bett, A.; Bronner, W.; Cardona, S.; Ehrhardt, A.; Habermann, G.; Habich, A.; Lanyi, P.; Lutz, F.; Nguyen, T.; Schetter, C.; Sulima, O.; Welter, H.; Yavas, O.

    1992-11-01

    This R and D project focused on the development of materials and technologies for the production of GaAs solar cells on GaAs and other substrates. Three subjects were gone into on particular: Material preparation (epitaxy), solar cell technology, characterisation of materials and processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Forschungsvorhaben hatte die Material- und Technologieentwickung fuer die Herstellung von GaAs-Solarzellen auf Eigen- und Fremdsubstrat zum Gegenstand. Drei Hauptaufgabenbereiche waren: Materialpraeparation (Epitaxie), Solarzellentechnologie, sowie Material- und Prozesscharakterisierung. (orig.)

  10. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  11. Next Generation Solvent - Materials Compatibility With Polymer Components Within Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (Final Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX(reg s ign)79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX(reg s ign)79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX(reg s ign)79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX(reg s ign)79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX(reg s ign)79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  12. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  13. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Final report, January 1, 1973-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.T.; Billen, D.

    1986-01-01

    These studies have focussed on agents which cause damage to DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty DNA replication or repair. The overall goal of this project has been to understand how environmental agents interact with the DNA of cells and how cells cope with any resulting damage. In particular we have been concerned with the nature of the repair systems involved in restoration of damaged DNA and the cellular responses to radiation or chemical damage

  14. Graetzel solar cell modules for outdoor applications, phase 2. Final report; Graetzel-solcellsmoduler foer utomhusapplikationer, fas 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Henrik [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The project 'Monolithic Dye PV Modules for Outdoor Applications' has been performed at IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation in Moelndal over the period June 2003 to December 2004. The possibility of the dye-sensitised solar cell technology compared to other PV technologies is to realise PV products with low cost/W{sub peak} in combination with a low investment cost for setting up a production unit. The latter is important since it opens for production by smaller companies and reduces the risk related to commercialisation. The technical efforts of the project have resulted in monolithic dye PV cells with efficiencies up to 7 %. The module preparation has been scaled up to module sizes of 200 cm{sup 2} using industrial manufacturing methods. These devices will be further developed in 2005 in the project 'Flexible Solar Cells'.

  15. Comparison of elastic properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials with different unit cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques have made it possible to create open-cell porous structures with arbitrary micro-geometrical characteristics. Since a wide range of micro-geometrical features is available for making an implant, having a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanical response of

  16. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  17. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  18. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  19. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D.; Barclay, Thomas G.; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the ‘energetic unit’ equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an ‘energetic unit’ equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain. PMID:24528745

  20. Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, JB

    2005-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.

  1. Light and energy - solar cells in transparent facades. Final report; Lys og energi - solceller i transparente facader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The overall purpose with the project 'LIGHT AND ENERGY - solar cells in transparent facades' is to demonstrate and disseminate the potentials for the application of light-filtering solar cells as multi-functional components, which meets the architectural objectives while contributing to a good indoor climate, a suitable quality of lighting indoor and at the same time produces electricity. The project was divided into six activities. The first activity 'zooms in' on the light-filtering solar cells on the market today. The following activities gradually 'zoom out' from the solar cell itself to the building component and ends up in the facade and the room behind. This order - which largely reflects the chronological development of the project - is repeated in the final project report to ensure the best possible overview. The characterisation in the different activities has been a combination of technical measurements, simulations, calculations and a thorough architectural evaluation of solar cell component, facade and room for attain an overall, interprofessional evaluation of the solar cell panels. It is important to stress that the basis of the project is the solar cell products available on the market today and In the near future. The possibilities and ideas have been evaluated and documented using mock-ups in 1:1 scale since the individual components have completely other qualities when they are integrated in a facade - the platform of this project. These models in full scale are a possibility to register and experience the character of the light inside out and under different light settings. It has been important to think of the solar cell filter as a part of the architecture instead of a replacement for windows and actively use the light-filtering features as a possibility in new facade designs - a filter which in combination with the completely transparent glass and completely light-blocking materials opens up for new possibilities

  2. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  3. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-400 and STN 50-401)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Shoran Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR 51, as amended, of the NRC regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archaeological sites will be negligible. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. 19 figs., 21 tabs

  4. Final environmental statement related to construction of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a Final Detailed Statement on Environmental Considerations associated with construction and operation of Midland Plant Units 1 and 2 at Midland, Michigan, pursuant to a construction permit and operating license which has been applied for by the Consumers Power Company. The application is under review by the US Atomic Energy Commission's Regulatory Staff. The environmental impact, including adverse and beneficial effects, of the Midland Plant includes reassignment of use of about 1100 acres of agricultural and residential land for the cooling pond (the plant buildings are located on industrial zoned land); this resulted in the dislocation of approximately 25 residences and relocation of the Midland County Farm to a newly built structure; the destruction of a maximum of 4400 tons of phytoplankton per year at the intake of makeup water from the Tittabawassee River; and a predicted small increase in fogging effects in the near vicinity of the cooling pond. 34 refs., 19 figs., 26 tabs

  5. Optimised fuel cell operation management. Final report; Optimiertes Betriebsmanagement von Brennstoffzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-05

    Investigations were carried out on two fuel cell systems of the type ONSI PC 25C (large fuel cells) and three fuel cell heaters of the type HXS 1000 PREMIERE by Sulzer HEXIS (small fuel cells) for long periods of time and in different modes of operation. Information was obtained on efficiencies and performance, pollutant emissions, degradation and availability. The status of the project is reported and compared with the goals stated initially. (orig.) [German] Das Hauptziel des Projektes bestand darin, Kriterien fuer den optimalen Betrieb (hohe Verfuegbarkeit, geringe Anzahl von Abschaltungen, hohe Energienutzung etc.) von Brennstoffzellen im Zusammenspiel mit den peripheren Komponenten der Gebaeudetechnik zu ermitteln. Hierzu wurden Untersuchungen an zwei Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen vom Typ ONSI PC 25C (grosse BZ) und an drei Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeraeten HXS 1000 PREMIERE von Sulzer HEXIS (kleine BZ) ueber laengere Zeitraeume und bei weitestgehend unterschiedlichen Betriebsweisen durchgefuehrt. In Auswertung dieser Messkomplexe wurden Aussagen zum Betriebsverhalten der Brennstoffzellen, wie z.B. zu Wirk- und Nutzungsgraden, Schadstoffemissionen, Verlauf der Degradation sowie zur Verfuegbarkeit getroffen. Im vorliegenden Bericht wird der erreichte Sachstand detailliert dargestellt und mit den Zielsetzungen des FuE-Antrages verglichen. (orig.)

  6. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  7. Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, S. M.; Colter, Peter

    2016-03-30

    The project goal is to enable multijunction cells to operate at greater than 2000× suns intensity with efficiency above forty percent. To achieve this goal the recipients have developed a robust high-bandgap tunnel junction, reduce series resistance, and integrated a practical heat dissipation scheme.

  8. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); van der Vliet, Dennis [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Cullen, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atanasoska, Ljiljana [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Low Cost, High Capacity Non- Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevsky, Gene [Sila Nanotechnologies, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Commercial Li-ion batteries typically use Ni- and Co-based intercalation cathodes. As the demand for improved performance from batteries increases, these cathode materials will no longer be able to provide the desired energy storage characteristics since they are currently approaching their theoretical limits. Conversion cathode materials are prime candidates for improvement of Li-ion batteries. On both a volumetric and gravimetric basis they have higher theoretical capacity than intercalation cathode materials. Metal fluoride (MFx) cathodes offer higher specific energy density and dramatically higher volumetric energy density. Challenges associated with metal fluoride cathodes were addressed through nanostructured material design and synthesis. A major goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate Li-ion cells based on Si-comprising anodes and metal fluoride (MFx) comprising cathodes. Pairing the high-capacity MFx cathode with a high-capacity anode, such as an alloying Si anode, allows for the highest possible energy density on a cell level. After facing and overcoming multiple material synthesis and electrochemical instability challenges, we succeeded in fabrication of MFx half cells with cycle stability in excess of 500 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation) and full cells with MFx-based cathodes and Si-based anodes with cycle stability in excess of 200 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation).

  10. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  11. Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter M. Ray

    2000-04-01

    The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).

  12. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  13. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Final environmental statement related to the operation of South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with station operation. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. No operational impacts to historic and archeological sites are anticipated. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project are anticipated to be minimal. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2

  15. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Texas Utilities Generating Company for the startup and operation of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located on Squaw Creek Reservoir in Somervell County, Texas, about 7 km north-northeast of Glen Rose, Texas, and about 65 km southwest of Fort Worth in north-central Texas. The information in this environmental statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receiving an application to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during its construction and operation. This evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement -- Construction Phase. After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Glen Rose, Texas, the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) issued construction permits for the construction of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. 16 figs., 34 tabs

  16. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. STN 50-482, Kansas Gas and Electric Company, et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and bridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to the Neosho River are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1

  17. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeologic sites will be moderate. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights of way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this environmental statement, it is concluded that the action called for under NEPA and 10 CFR 51 is the issuance of operating licenses for Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2. 27 figures, 23 tables

  18. Final report: Seven-layer membrane electrode assembly - an innovative approach to PEM fuel cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-07-01

    Costs of materials and fabrication, rather than appropriateness of technology, are the major barriers to the sales of fuel cells. With the objective of reducing costs, potential alternative component materials for (a) the fluid flow plate (FFP) and (b) the gas diffusion layers were investigated. The concept of a 7-layer membrane electrode assembly (MEA), in which components are bonded into a unitised module, was also studied. The advantages of the bonded cell, and the flow field design, are expounded. Low-cost carbon particle composites were developed for the FFPs. The modular 7-layer MEA has an order of magnitude saving over current materials. Overall, the study has led to a greater volumetric power output, lower costs and greater reliability. The work was carried out by Morgan Group Technology Limited and funded by the DTI.

  19. Final Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark

    2012-09-28

    The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.

  20. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  1. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  2. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  3. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  4. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  5. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  6. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  7. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  8. Silicon solar cells with high efficiencies. Final report; Silicium-Solarzellen mit hoechsten Wirkungsgraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Knobloch, J.; Glunz, S.W.; Henninger, V.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Koester, B.; Leimenstoll, A.; Schaeffer, E.; Schumacher, J.; Sterk, S.; Warta, W.

    1996-06-01

    In this report the basic activities for the development of the silicon high efficiency solar cell technology are described. The project had two main goals: (i) The improvement of efficiencies using a systematic optimization of all cell parameters and technology steps and (ii) the simplification of the technology towards the possibilities of an industrial production, keeping the cell efficiency at a high level. Starting from the LBSF technology, developed at Fraunhofer ISE, the reduction of all loss mechanisms led to efficiencies up to 22.5% on FZ-silicon. Using a modification of this technology efficiencies of up to 21.7% have been reached on Cz-silicon. Even after the reduction of the number of photolithographic steps from six to three efficiencies up to 21.6% on FZ- and 19.5% on Cz-silicon have been obtained. These are best values in an international comparison. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Projektbericht werden grundlegende Arbeiten zur Entwicklung der Silicium-`Highefficiency`-Solarzellentechnologie beschrieben. Das Projekt hatte zwei Hauptziele: (i) Die Erhoehung der Wirkungsgrade durch eine systematische Optimierung aller Zellparameter und aller Technologieschritte und (ii) die Vereinfachung der Technologie unter Beibehaltung sehr hoher Wirkungsgrade mit dem Ziel einer Annaeherung an die Moeglichkeiten der Industriefertigung. Ausgehend von der im Fraunhofer ISE entwickelten LBSF-Technologie gelang es durch Reduzierung aller Verlustmechanismen, Wirkungsgrade bis zu 22.5% auf FZ-Silicium zu erreichen. Nach Anpassung der Technologie wurden auf Cz-Silicium Wirkungsgrade bis 21.7% erzielt. Ein von sechs auf drei Fotomaskenschritte reduzierter Prozess erzielte immerhin noch Werte bis 21.6% auf FZ- und 19.5% auf Cz-Material. Alle dieser Werte stellen im internationalen Vergleich Spitzenleistungen dar. (orig.)

  9. Dancoff factors of unit cells in cluster geometry with partial absorption of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2011-01-01

    In its classical formulation, the Dancoff factor for a perfectly absorbing fuel rod is defined as the relative reduction in the incurrent of resonance neutrons into the rod in the presence of neighboring rods, as compared to the incurrent into a single fuel rod immersed in an infinite moderator. Alternatively, this factor can be viewed as the probability that a neutron emerging from the surface of a fuel rod will enter another fuel rod without any collision in the moderator or cladding. For perfectly absorbing fuel these definitions are equivalent. In the last years, several works appeared in literature reporting improvements in the calculation of Dancoff factors, using both the classical and the collision probability definitions. In this work, we step further reporting Dancoff factors for perfectly absorbing (Black) and partially absorbing (Grey) fuel rods calculated by the collision probability method, in cluster cells with square outer boundaries. In order to validate the results, comparisons are made with the equivalent cylindricalized cell in hypothetical test cases. The calculation is performed considering specularly reflecting boundary conditions, for the square lattice, and diffusive reflecting boundary conditions, for the cylindrical geometry. The results show the expected asymptotic behavior of the solution with increasing cell sizes. In addition, Dancoff factors are computed for the Canadian cells CANDU-37 and CANFLEX by the Monte Carlo and Direct methods. Finally, the effective multiplication factors, k eff , for these cells (cluster cell with square outer boundaries and the equivalent cylindricalized cell) are also computed, and the differences reported for the cases using the perfect and partial absorption assumptions. (author)

  10. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA's hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R ampersand D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required

  11. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christini, R.A.; Dawless, R.K.; Ray, S.P.; Weirauch, D.A. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  12. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  13. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    The career of Dr. E.L. Powers, a pioneer in the development of radiobiology, is reviewed. His initial research involved the effects of radiation and certain chemicals on Paramecium, associated ultrastructural studies on protozoan cells, responses of Rickettsia and bacteriophage to irradiation, and the development of techniques for studying bacterial spores. These efforts established the basic radiation biology of the spore and its importance in understanding the effects of free radicals, oxygen, and water. His recent research extended work on the dry spore to the very wet spore and to other selected chemical systems in aqueous suspension. 126 refs., 2 figs

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  15. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  17. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornforth, Michael N. [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  18. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'

  19. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  20. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  1. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  2. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. A report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide members of the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells with information regarding collaborative opportunities in the United States. The report is designed to provide an overview of key issues and activities and to provide guidance on strategies for finding U.S. research and commercial partners and gaining access to the U.S. market. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the key drivers of policy at the federal and state government levels regarding hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and provides a perspective of the U.S. industry and key players. It also suggests three general pathways for accessing U.S. opportunities: enhancing visibility; developing vendor relationships; and establishing a formal presence in the U.S. The next sections summarize focus areas for commercial and research activity that currently are of the greatest interest in the U.S. Section 2 describes major programs within the federal government and national laboratories, and discusses various methods for identifying R and D funding opportunities, with an overview of federal acquisition regulations. Section 3 reviews the efforts of several state governments engaging the fuel cell industry as an economic driver and presents an overview of acquisition at the state level. Section 4 discusses university research and development (R and D) and university-industry partnerships. There are 12 appendices attached to the report. These appendices provide more detailed information regarding the key federal government agencies involved in fuel cells and hydrogen, state-specific policies and activities, national laboratories and universities, and other information regarding the fuel cell and hydrogen industry in the U.S. (Author)

  3. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  4. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  5. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 Docket Nos. 50-440 and 50-441, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The information in this Final Environmental Statement is the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the construction and operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2, located on Lake Erie in Lake County, about 11 km (7 mi) northeast of Painesville, Ohio. The first assessment was the Final Environmental Statement related to the construction of the plant issued in April 1974, prior to issuance of the construction permits (CPRR-148 and CPPR-149). Plant construction for Unit 1 is currently about 83% complete, and Unit 2 about 43% complete. Fuel loading for Units 1 and 2 currently estimated by the licensee (Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company) for November 1983, with Unit 2 fuel load scheduled for May 1987. The present assessment is the result of the NRC staff review of the activities associated with the proposed operation of the plant

  6. Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2011-12-15

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.

  7. Fast Response, Load-Matching Hybrid Fuel Cell: Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. S.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Geist, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    Hybrid DER technologies interconnected with the grid can provide improved performance capabilities compared to a single power source, and, add value, when matched to appropriate applications. For example, in a typical residence, the interconnected hybrid system could provide power during a utility outage, and also could compensate for voltage sags in the utility service. Such a hybrid system would then function as a premium power provider and eliminate the potential need for an uninterruptible power supply. In this research project, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is combined with an asymmetrical ultracapacitor to provide robust power response to changes in system loading. This project also considers the potential of hybrid DER technologies to improve overall power system compatibility and performance. This report includes base year accomplishments of a proposed 3-year-option project.

  8. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  9. Final Report - Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagat [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) technology’s potential to enable a commercially viable high energy density is the key to a lower $/Wh, thereby a low cost battery. The design of a LIB with high energy, high power, safety and long life is a challenge that requires cell design from the ground up and synergy between all components. 3M Company (3M), the Recipient, led by its Principal Investigator, Jagat Singh, pursued this challenging task of a LIB by ‘teaming’ key commercial businesses [General Motors (GM), Umicore and Iontensity] and labs [Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL)]. The technology from each team member was complimentary and a close working relationship spanning the value chain drove productivity.The completion of this project is a significant step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles, making America less dependent on imported oil.

  10. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  11. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  12. OECD benchmark a of MOX fueled PWR unit cells using SAS2H, triton and mocup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Three code systems are tested by applying them to calculate the OECD PWR MOX unit cell benchmark A. The codes tested are the SAS2H code sequence of the SCALE5 code package using 44 group library, MOCUP (MCNP4C + ORIGEN2), and the new TRITON depletion sequence of SCALE5 using 238 group cross sections generated using CENTRM with continuous energy cross sections. The burnup-dependent k ∞ and actinides concentration calculated by all three code-systems were found to be in good agreement with the OECD benchmark average results. Limited results were calculated also with the WIMS-ANL code package. WIMS-ANL was found to significantly under-predict k ∞ as well as the concentration of Pu 242 , consistently with the predictions of the WIMS-LWR reported by two of the OECD benchmark participants. Additionally, SAS2H is benchmarked against MOCUP for a hydride fuel containing unit cell, giving very satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  13. Plant cell wall architecture. Final report, 1 June 1994--30 October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The authors have successfully finished the DOE-supported project entitled ``Plant cell wall architecture.`` During the funding period (June 1, 1994--October 30, 1996), they have published 6 research papers and 2 review articles. A brief description of these accomplishments is outlined as follows: (1) Improved and extended tissue printing techniques to reveal different surface and wall architectures, and to localized proteins and RNA. (2) Identification of an auxin- and cytokinin-regulated gene from Zinnia which is mainly expressed in cambium. (3) It was found that caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase is involved in an alternative methylation pathway of lignin biosynthesis. (4) It was found that two different O-methyltransferases involved in lignification are differentially regulated in different lignifying tissues during development. They propose a scheme of monolignol biosynthesis combining both methylation pathways. (5) Identification of cysteine and serine proteases which are preferentially expressed during xylogenesis. This is the first report to identify an autolysis-associated cDNA in plants. (6) Characterization of two ribonuclease genes which are induced during xylogenesis and by wounding. (7) Isolation of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene and analysis of its expression patterns during lignification.

  14. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  15. Stable amorphous semiconductors for solar cells. Final report; Stabile amorphe Halbleiterfilme fuer Solarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, W.; Lips, K.; Mell, H.; Stachowitz, R.; Will, S.; Ulber, I.

    1997-12-31

    This study was founded on the preceding projects. The main objective was the preparation and characterization of stable amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). For this purpose the deposition conditions were varied in a wide range. The main effort was on the change of the reactor geometry and the increase of the substrate temperature to values beyond 250 C. Comparative studies of the film stability were carried out using different degradation techniques. The electronic and structural properties of the films were investigated with the aim to find correlations between the stability and other film properties. Information on the defect density was obtained from electron spin resonance (ESR), photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and photocurrent spectroscopy (CPM). The influence of native and light-induced defects on the recombination kinetics was studied using both films and solar cells. The techniques mainly used for that were steady-state and frequency-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (FRS) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). The results of these studies were published in international journals and presented at international conferences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Vorhaben baute auf den vorangegangenen Projekten auf. Wichtigstes Ziel war die Herstellung und Charakterisierung stabiler amorpher Siliziumfilme (a-Si:H) durch Plasmadeposition. Dazu wurden die Depositionsbedingungen in einem weiten Bereich variiert. Im Vordergrund standen dabei die Aenderung der Reaktorgeometrie und die Erhoehung der Substrattemperatur auf Werte oberhalb von 250 C. Die Stabilitaet der Filme wurde mit verschiedenen Degradationsverfahren vergleichend geprueft. Die Filme wurden hinsichtlich ihrer elektronischen und strukturellen Eigenschaften mit dem Ziel untersucht, einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Stabilitaet und anderen Probeneigenschaften aufzufinden. Als Messverfahren fuer die Defektdichte standen

  16. Final Report for 'Gyrotron Design and Evaluation using New Particle-in-Cell Capability'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, David N.

    2008-01-01

    ITER will depend on high power CW gyrotrons to deliver power to the plasma at ECR frequencies. However, gyrotrons can suffer from undesirable low frequency oscillations (LFO's) which are known to interfere with the gun-region diagnostics and data collection, and are also expected to produce undesirable energy and velocity spread in the beam. The origins and processes leading to these oscillations are poorly understood, and existing gyrotron R and D tools, such as static gun solvers and interaction region models, are not designed to look at time-dependant oscillatory behavior. We have applied a time-domain particle-in-cell method to investigate the LFO phenomenon. Our company is at the forefront of smooth-curved-boundary treatment of the electromagnetic fields and particle emission surfaces, and such methods are necessary to simulate the adiabatically trapped and reflected electrons thought to be driving the oscillations. This approach provides the means for understanding, in microscopic detail, the underlying physical processes driving the low-frequency oscillations. In the Phase I project, an electron gun region from an existing gyrotron, known to observe LFO's, was selected as a proof-of-principle geometry, and was modeled with the curved-geometry time-domain simulation tool, in order to establish the feasibility of simulating LFO physics with this tool on office-scale, and larger, parallel cluster computers. Generally, it was found to be feasible to model the simulation geometry, emission, and magnetic features of the electron gun. Ultimately, the tool will be used to investigate the origins and life cycle within the trapped particle population. This tool also provides the foundations and validation for potential application of the software to numerous other time-dependant beam and rf source problems in the commercial arena.

  17. The histone genes in HeLa cells are on individual transcriptional units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.B.; Traub, P.; Gallwitz, D.

    1978-01-01

    The distances of the five major histone genes from their promotors have been investigated in order to determine whether in human cells these genes could be transcribed as a single polycistronic transcriptional unit. By measuring the decreases of both histone protein and histone mRNA synthesis as functions of the ultraviolet light dosage, it was possible to calculate the distances of the histone genes from their promotors. The inactivation kinetics for histone genes H1 and H3 are first-order, indicating a single type of transcriptional unit for each gene. The dose-response kinetics for genes H2A, H2B and H4 are first-order with two distinct rates; 10 to 15% of the genes for each of these histones appear to be much more sensitive to ultraviolet light inactivation than are the majority. It is concluded that the transcriptional units for 85 to 90% of the genes for H2A, H2B and H4 are similar. As determined by the inhibition of protein synthesis, the inactivation coefficients for the major component of each histone are: H1, 907 mm 2 /erg; H2A, 878 mm 2 /erg; H2B, 871 mm 2 /erg; H3, 965 mm 2 /erg; and H4, 792 mm 2 /erg. The sensitivities of histone mRNA synthesis to irradiation were measured by translation in vitro with similar results. The calculated target sizes for the genes (in base-pairs) are: H1, 1190; H2A, 1240; H2B, 1250; H3, 1130; and H4, 1380. This similarity in target sizes for all five of the histones genes indicates that they are primarily transcribed from individual transcriptional units. (author)

  18. Novel Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, Angus [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, Robert [Univesity of Toledo

    2018-04-15

    This program has explored a number of novel materials for contacts to CdTe solar cells in order to reduce the back contact Schottky barrier to zero and produce an ohmic contact. The project tested a wide range of potential contact materials including TiN, ZrN, CuInSe2:N, a-Si:H and alloys with C, and FeS2. Improved contacts were achieved with FeS2. As part of understanding the operation of the devices and controlling the deposition processes, a number of other important results were obtained. In the process of this project and following its conclusion it led to research that resulted in seven journal articles, nine conference publications, 13 talks presented at conferences, and training of eight graduate students. The seven journal articles were published in 2015, 2016, and 2017 and have been cited, as of March 2018, 52 times (one cited 19 times and two cited 11 times). We demonstrated high levels of doping of CIS with N but electrical activity of the resulting N was not high and the results were difficult to reproduce. Furthermore, even with high doping the contacts were not good. Annealing did not improve the contacts. A-Si:H was found to produce acceptable but unstable contacts, degrading even over a day or two, apparently due to H incorporation into the CdTe. Alloying with C did not improve the contacts or stability. The transition metal nitrides produced Schottky type contacts for all materials tested. While these contacts were found to be unsatisfactory, we investigated FeS2 and found this material to be effective and comparable to the best contacts currently available. The contacts were found to be chemically stable under heat treatment and preferable to Cu doped contacts. Thus, we demonstrated an improved contact material in the course of this project. In addition, we developed new ways of controlling the deposition of CdTe and other materials, demonstrated the nature of defects in CdTe, and studied the distribution of conductivity and carrier type in Cd

  19. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  20. Operation of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, Dockets Nos. 50-416 and 50-417: Mississippi Power and Light Company, Middle South Energy, Inc., South Mississippi Electric Power Association. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The information in this Final Environmental Statement is the second assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the Mississippi River in Claiborne County, Mississippi. The Draft Environmental Statement was issued in May 1981. The first assessment was the Final Environmental Statement related to construction, which was issued in August 1973 prior to issuance of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station construction permits. In September 1981 Grand Gulf Unit 1 was 92% complete and Unit 2 was 22% complete. Fuel loading for Unit 1 is scheduled for December 1981. The present assessment is the result of the NRC staff review of the activities associated with the proposed operation of the Station, and includes the staff responses to comments on the Draft Environmental Statement

  1. Final environmental statement related to the operation of St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-389, Florida Power and Light Company, Orlando Utilities Commission of the City of Orlando, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This final environmental statement was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (the staff) in accordance with the Commission's Regulations, set forth in 10 CFR Part 51, which implement the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Sections related to the aquatic environment were prepared in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV. This statement reviews the impact of operation of the St. Lucie Plant, Unit 2. Assessments that are found in this statement supplement those described in the Final Environmental Statement (FES-CP) that was issued in May 1974 in support of issuance of a construction permit for the unit

  2. Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331720-2TST, S/N 105/A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.

  4. Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Sang Bae; Park, Sang Bum; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2011-01-01

    The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survial and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.

  5. Relationship between unit cell type and porosity and the fatigue behavior of selective laser melted meta-biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Pouran, B; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-03-01

    Meta-materials are structures when their small-scale properties are considered, but behave as materials when their homogenized macroscopic properties are studied. There is an intimate relationship between the design of the small-scale structure and the homogenized properties of such materials. In this article, we studied that relationship for meta-biomaterials that are aimed for biomedical applications, otherwise known as meta-biomaterials. Selective laser melted porous titanium (Ti6Al4V ELI) structures were manufactured based on three different types of repeating unit cells, namely cube, diamond, and truncated cuboctahedron, and with different porosities. The morphological features, static mechanical properties, and fatigue behavior of the porous biomaterials were studied with a focus on their fatigue behavior. It was observed that, in addition to static mechanical properties, the fatigue properties of the porous biomaterials are highly dependent on the type of unit cell as well as on porosity. None of the porous structures based on the cube unit cell failed after 10(6) loading cycles even when the applied stress reached 80% of their yield strengths. For both other unit cells, higher porosities resulted in shorter fatigue lives for the same level of applied stress. When normalized with respect to their yield stresses, the S-N data points of structures with different porosities very well (R(2)>0.8) conformed to one single power law specific to the type of the unit cell. For the same level of normalized applied stress, the truncated cuboctahedron unit cell resulted in a longer fatigue life as compared to the diamond unit cell. In a similar comparison, the fatigue lives of the porous structures based on both truncated cuboctahedron and diamond unit cells were longer than that of the porous structures based on the rhombic dodecahedron unit cell (determined in a previous study). The data presented in this study could serve as a basis for design of porous biomaterials

  6. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  7. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  8. Mitigation of Unwanted Forward Narrow-band Radiation from PCBs with a Metamaterial Unit Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of EMI from a PCB is obtained through the use of a metamaterial unit cell. The focus is on the reduction of narrow-band radiation in the forward hemisphere when the resonant element is etched on a layer located between the source of radiation and the ground plane. As opposed to previous...... publications in the literature, the aim of this work is the application of a filter to scattered radiation, generalizing the former characterizations based solely upon transmission lines’ insertion loss. The radiating area accounts for traces and components placed on the top layer of a PCB and is simulated via...... a patch antenna. The study exhibits how the radiation pattern and the electric field on the patch antenna change within and outside the resonance bandwidth of the parasitic element. An EMC assessment provides experimental verification of the operating principle....

  9. Asymmetric lateral distribution of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kelly G; Iyer, Jayasri G; Nghiem, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent report suggested a trend towards more UV-linked skin cancers arising on the left rather than the right side of the body in the United States. Objective To test whether the reported incidences of two UV-linked skin cancers, malignant melanoma (MM) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), are greater on the left than the right in the US. Methods MMs (n = 82,587) and MCCs (n = 2,384) occurring on the left or right side of the face, arm or leg that were reported in the SE*ER registry between 1986–2006 were included for analysis. Results MM and MCC were significantly more likely to present on the left than the right (p automobile UV exposure (approximately 20-fold stronger on the left than right arm) is a likely contributing factor. It may be prudent to remind skin cancer-prone individuals to take appropriate sun precautions when driving in an automobile. PMID:21514002

  10. Prognosis of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Sidsel Christy; Nielsen, Jonas; Lindmark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure with inherent complications and intensive care may be necessary. We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of the HSCT recipients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We...... ventilation had a statistically significant effect on in-ICU (p = 0.02), 6-month (p = 0.049) and 1-year (p = 0.014) mortality. Renal replacement therapy also had a statistically significant effect on in-hospital (p = 0.038) and 6-month (p = 0.026) mortality. Short ICU admissions, i.e. ... to the ICU was confirmed in our study. Mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and an ICU admission of ≥10 days were each risk factors for mortality in the first year after ICU admission....

  11. DanDan. Final report. [PEM fuel cells for back-up power and UPS]; DanDan. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The project has provided valuable results for the partners involved, and has resulted in the construction and demonstration of a modular UPS system that can be used with fuel cells. Dantherm Power has provided a 5 kW fuel cell module, based on LT-pem technology, for use in the demonstration and testing facility. The function of the unit is verified by both internal testing and demonstrations from at third parties were it currently is set up to perform tests regarding lifetime. The development of a DC / DC converter, was made. The module has been tested under various conditions, and the development process has resulted in detailed specs of both technique and test process. The module has been tested both in laboratory environment and demonstrated at third parties. The module is part of the systems described in connection with initial test runs - performed at strategic partners - and in connection with the demonstration of the systems both in Japan and in South Africa. The modules are presently in a stage of demonstration, while subjected to substantial service life tests. The purchased reformers are part of the systems used for demonstration in the project and as such they will supply valuable data trough the comprehensive test and verification program initiated. (LN)

  12. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70, first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C, diamond (D, truncated cube (TC, truncated cuboctahedron (TCO, rhombic dodecahedron (RD, and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell.

  14. Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330): Draft supplement to the Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 is to be owned and operated by the Consumers Power Company of Michigan. The approximately 1190-acre plant is on the south of the Tittabawassee River immediately across from the Dow Chemical Company's main industrial complex which is within the Midland city limits. The site itself was, and the area south of the site is, partially wooded flat land with farming the only economically significant human activity. To the east and north within one mile of the site, the land is industrial, both developed and undeveloped. To the west, the land is used for suburban residences and light farming. The plant will utilize two pressurized-water nuclear reactor systems. The Consumers Power Company filed with AEC (now NRC) an application for construction permits and operating licenses for the Midland Plant on January 13, 1969. The Final Environmental Statement was issued in March 1972 and on December 15, 1972 construction permits were issued for the Midland Plant. On July 21, 1976, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit handed down decisions in the generic fuel cycle rulemaking and Midland appeals ruling that nuclear waste disposal and fuel reprocessing issues had been insufficiently considered by the AEC. In addition to consideration of the fuel cycle issues, the Court of Appeals remanded Consumer Power's construction permits for Midland to the NRC for further proceedings to consider energy conservation as an alternative to plant construction, and to consider any changed circumstances concerning the need of Dow for the process steam from the Midland Plant. 10 refs., 13 tabs

  15. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  16. Unit cell determination of epitaxial thin films based on reciprocal space vectors by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Huajun; Chen, Zuhuang; Chen, Lang; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A new approach, based on reciprocal space vectors (RSVs), is developed to determine Bravais lattice types and accurate lattice parameters of epitaxial thin films by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD). The lattice parameters of single crystal substrates are employed as references to correct the systematic experimental errors of RSVs of thin films. The general procedure is summarized, involving correction of RSVs, derivation of raw unit cell, subsequent conversion to the Niggli unit ...

  17. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 4 March 1998--15 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

    2003-10-01

    This is the final report covering about 42 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have been extensively covered in two Annual Reports. For this Final Report, highlights of the first two Phases will be provided and then detail will be given on the last year and a half of Phase III. The effort on CdTe-based materials is led by Prof. Compaan and emphasizes the use of sputter deposition of the semiconductor layers in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe cells. The effort on high-efficiency a-Si materials is led by Prof. Deng and emphasizes plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for cell fabrication with major efforts on triple-junction devices.

  18. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud; Devine, Erin E

    2017-10-31

    To analyze oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States for the years 1973 through 2013. Cross-sectional study using a large population-based cancer database. Data on incidence and mortality rates were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Database. Annual percentage change in rates was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Incidence rates increased (annual percent change [APC]; 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 2.88) from 1973 to 1983, remained stable (APC -0.52, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.26) from 1983 to 1997, and increased (APC 1.32, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.81) from 1997 to 2013. Overall, incidence rates increased for males (APC 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.25) but not females (APC -0.77, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.82). Incidence rates increased in the white population (APC 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25) but decreased in the black population (APC -0.72, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.02). The incidence rates increased for tongue-base tumors (APC 1.17, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.92) and tonsil tumors (APC 0.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.96) but decreased for other sites. Incidence-based mortality decreased (APC -0.78, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.42) from 1993 to 2013. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates increased in a nonlinear fashion from 1973 to 2013, whereas mortality rates declined. This, along with variation in trends by demographic and tumor factors, suggest that human papilloma virus is the main driver of the recent rise in incidence. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  20. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  1. The role of total cell-free DNA in predicting outcomes among trauma patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Mikail; Burcharth, Jakob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic value of cell-free DNA detection in trauma patients in the intensive care unit. Outcomes of interest included survival, posttraumatic...

  2. Physically elastic analysis of a cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    Elastic analysis is analytically presented to predict the behaviors of the stress and displacement components in the cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials. This analysis is based on the complex computation of the stress functions in the complex plane and polar coordinates. Also, suitable boundary conditions are considered and assumed to analyze along with the equilibrium equations and bi-harmonic equation. This method has some important applications in many fields of engineering such as mechanical, civil and material engineering generally. One of the applications of this research work is in composite design and designing the cylindrical devices under various loadings. Finally, it is founded that the convergence and accuracy of the results are suitable and acceptable through comparing the results.

  3. A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals using an imaging plate as a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Masaki; Imada, Katsumi; Katsube, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Higashi, Tsuneyuki

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals is presented, using the Fuji Imaging Plate as an X-ray detector and a rotating-anode generator as the X-ray source. It is an automatic data-acquisition system that requires almost no manual intervention. The quality of data collected on the system is discussed. Merging R values ranged from 0.04 to 0.05. Compared with a four-circle diffractometer, data reproducibility was better, isomorphous/anomalous Patterson maps were almost identical in quality and data from a small-molecule crystal, cytidine, were of almost the same quality. Protein structures were refinable using the data measured on the system, the final crystallographic R value of the 2.2 A 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase structure being 0.185 and that of the 1.88 A Flammulina veltipes agglutinin structure being 0.199. (orig.)

  4. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  5. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  6. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  7. Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.

  8. New solar cell and clean unit system platform (CUSP) for earth and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Enomoto, R.; Yasutake, M.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated InGaN-based multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC) in which sunlight propagates in a direction being orthogonal to that of photocarriers generated by the sunlight. Thanks to the orthogonality, in MOP3SC, absorption of the sunlight and collection of the photocarriers can be simultaneously and independently optimized with no trade-off. Furthermore, by exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert the whole solar spectrum into electricity resulting in the high conversion efficiency. For processing MOP3SC, we have developed Clean Unit System Platform (CUSP), which turns out to be able to serve as clean versatile environment having low power-consumption and high cost-performance. CUSP is suitable not only for processing devices, but also for cross-disciplinary fields, including medical/hygienic applications.

  9. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells : The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited,

  10. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  11. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  12. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  13. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  14. Risk factors for death in 632 patients with sickle cell disease in the United States and United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Gladwin

    Full Text Available The role of pulmonary hypertension as a cause of mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD is controversial.We evaluated the relationship between an elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and mortality in patients with SCD. We followed patients from the walk-PHaSST screening cohort for a median of 29 months. A tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV≥ 3.0 m/s cuttof, which has a 67-75% positive predictive value for mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg was used. Among 572 subjects, 11.2% had TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. Among 582 with a measured NT-proBNP, 24.1% had values ≥ 160 pg/mL. Of 22 deaths during follow-up, 50% had a TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. At 24 months the cumulative survival was 83% with TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec and 98% with TRV 47 years, male gender, chronic transfusions, WHO class III-IV, increased hemolytic markers, ferritin and creatinine were also associated with increased risk of death.A TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec occurs in approximately 10% of individuals and has the highest risk for death of any measured variable. The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT00492531.

  15. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from Visual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    RULES ( IFR ) AT MOODY AIR FORCE BASE, GEORGIA September 2015 Finding of No Significant Impact Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from...Interactions with Federally- Recognized Tribes. These tribal governments were also consulted regarding impacts to Final EA for VFR- IFR in R-3008A/B/C at Moody...analysis would focus on impacts to these Final EA for VFR- IFR in R-3008A/B/C at Moody AFB September 2015 2-5 resources from proposed activities

  16. Effect Of Ionized Radiation On Blood Vessels And Neural Celle On Workers In Cardiac Catheterization Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, E.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The catheterization laboratory is generally considered an area where exposure to radiation is particularly high. Factors such as the configuration of the of the x-ray equipment, the number of cases per day, contribute to this relatively high level of exposure, which is amongst the highest in the hospital (Butler et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Systematic reviews of the published epidemiological literature and cardiovascular diseases or reviews of studies of populations medically, occupationally or environmentally exposed to relatively low-dose radiation concluded that there is a significant association (although with substantial heterogeneity) between radiation exposure and circulatory disease, either cardiovascular or cerebra-vascular. Vascular injury is a well recognized cause of late radiation therapy morbidity and this manifests as atherosclerosis in large vessels (Nagababu et al., 2009). Since the brain is among the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy, mainly due to the development of cognitive dysfunction following white matter disruption. The neuro-vascular unit is also vulnerable to radiation effects, and cerebra-vascular atherosclerotic damage is now considered proven (Raber, 2004). Circulating EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) has been shown to be isolated from bone marrow or circulating mononuclear cells that express a variety of endothelial surface markers. EPCs incorporate into sites of revascularization and home to sites of endothelial denudation. Initial clinical studies demonstrated that risk factors for atherosclerosis are associated with reduced levels of circulating EPCs and that the functional integrity of the endothelium correlates with the activities of EPCs (Losordo and Dimmeler 2004). Since oxidative processes are essential one of the main mechanisms associated with radiation induced hazardous effects and early ageing is an effect associated with radiation exposure, accordingly it can be suggested that low-dose irradiation

  17. Theoretical characterization and design of small molecule donor material containing naphthodithiophene central unit for efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu-Ai; Geng, Yun; Li, Hai-Bin; Jin, Jun-Ling; Wu, Yong; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-07-15

    To seek for high-performance small molecule donor materials used in heterojunction solar cell, six acceptor-donor-acceptor small molecules based on naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (NDT) units with different acceptor units were designed and characterized using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. Their geometries, electronic structures, photophysical, and charge transport properties have been scrutinized comparing with the reported donor material NDT(TDPP)2 (TDPP  =  thiophene-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole). The open circuit voltage (V(oc)), energetic driving force(ΔE(L-L)), and exciton binding energy (E(b)) were also provided to give an elementary understanding on their cell performance. The results reveal that the frontier molecular orbitals of 3-7 match well with the acceptor material PC61 BM, and compounds 3-5 were found to exhibit the comparable performances to 1 and show promising potential in organic solar cells. In particular, comparing with 1, system 7 with naphthobisthiadiazole acceptor unit displays broader absorption spectrum, higher V(oc), lower E(b), and similar carrier mobility. An in-depth insight into the nature of the involved excited states based on transition density matrix and charge density difference indicates that all S1 states are mainly intramolecular charge transfer states with the charge transfer from central NDT unit to bilateral acceptor units, and also imply that the exciton of 7 can be dissociated easily due to its large extent of the charge transfer. In a word, 7 maybe superior to 1 and may act as a promising donor candidate for organic solar cell. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  19. Fermi surface properties of paramagnetic NpCd11 with a large unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Sakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Shugo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2010-03-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpCd11 with the cubic BaHg11-type structure by the Cd-self flux method. The lattice parameter of a = 9.2968(2) Å and crystallographic positions of the atoms were determined by x-ray single-crystal structure analysis. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat experiments, this compound is found to be a 5f-localized paramagnet with the singlet ground state in the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Fermi surface properties were measured using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) technique. Long-period oscillations were observed in the dHvA frequency range of 9.1 x 105 to 1.9 x 107 Oe, indicating small cross-sectional areas of Fermi surfaces, which is consistent with a small Brillouin zone based on a large unit cell. From the results of dHvA and magnetoresistance experiments, the Fermi surface of NpCd11 is found to consist of many kinds of closed Fermi surfaces and a multiply-connected-like Fermi surface, although the result of energy band calculations based on the 5f-localized Np3+(5f4) configuration reveals the existence of only closed Fermi surfaces. The corresponding cyclotron effective mass is small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m0, which is consistent with a small electronic specific heat coefficient γ ≅ 10mJ/K2·mol, revealing no hybridization between the 5f electrons and conduction electrons.

  20. Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G.; Du Toit, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

  1. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  2. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  3. Deciphering the Role of Sulfonated Unit in Heparin-Mimicking Polymer to Promote Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiehua; Yuan, Yuqi; Lyu, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Qi; Wang, Hongwei; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), hold great potential for inducing the neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the disadvantages of natural heparin/HS, such as difficulty in isolating them with a sufficient amount, highly heterogeneous structure, and the risk of immune responses, have limited their further therapeutic applications. Thus, there is a great demand for stable, controllable, and well-defined synthetic alternatives of heparin/HS with more effective biological functions. In this study, based upon a previously proposed unit-recombination strategy, several heparin-mimicking polymers were synthesized by integrating glucosamine-like 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose monomers (MAG) with three sulfonated units in different structural forms, and their effects on cell proliferation, the pluripotency, and the differentiation of ESCs were carefully studied. The results showed that all the copolymers had good cytocompatibility and displayed much better bioactivity in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs as compared to natural heparin; copolymers with different sulfonated units exhibited different levels of promoting ability; among them, copolymer with 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (SPA) as a sulfonated unit was the most potent in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs; the promoting effect is dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of P(MAG-co-SPA), with the highest levels occurring at the intermediate molecular weight and concentration. These results clearly demonstrated that the sulfonated unit in the copolymers played an important role in determining the promoting effect on ESCs' neural differentiation; SPA was identified as the most potent sulfonated unit for copolymer with the strongest promoting ability. The possible reason for sulfonated unit structure as a vital factor influencing the ability of the copolymers

  4. Final environmental statement related to construction of Skagit Nuclear Power Project Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-522 and 50-523)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Pudget Sound Power and Light Company, Pacific Power and Light Company, Washington Water Power Company and the Washington Public Power Supply System, for the construction of Skagit Nuclear Power Projects Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-522 and 50-523) in Skagit County, Washington (about 64 miles north of Seattle and 6 miles ENE of Sedro Woolley). These units are scheduled for commercial service in 1982 and 1985, respectively. Each unit will employ a boiling-water nuclear reactor with a maximum expected thermal power level of 4100 MWt, which is considered in the assessments contained in this statement. At the 3800 MWt power level initially to be licensed, the net electrical capacity of each unit will be 1288 MWe. The exhaust steam from the turbine-generators will be cooled in condensers which will utilize one hyperbolic-type natural-draft cooling tower per unit to dissipate heat to the atmosphere. Water (106 cfs max.) for the cooling tower makeup (82.4 cfs) and other plant uses will be withdrawn from the Skagit River through Ranney Collectors embedded in the north bank of the river and pumped to the plant through a pipeline about 35,000 ft. long. Cooling tower blowdown (7 cfs max.) from the project and dilution water (20 cfs max.) will flow through a pipeline back to the river where it will be discharged through a diffuser

  5. Final supplement to the final environmental statement related to construction of Skagit Nuclear Power Project, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. STN 50-522 and STN 50-523)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Puget Sound Power and Light Company, Pacific Power and Light Company, Washington Water Power Company and the Portland General Electric Company, for the construction of Skagit Nuclear Power Projects Units 1 and 2 in Skagit County, Washington (about 64 miles north of Seattle and 6 miles ENE of Sedro Woolley). These units are scheduled for commercial service in 1984 and 1986, respectively. The exhaust steam from the turbine-generators will be cooled in condensers which will utilize one hyperbolic-type natural-draft cooling tower per unit to dissipate heat to the atmosphere. Water (106 cfs max.) for the cooling tower makeup (82.4 cfs) and other plant uses will be withdrawn from the Skagit River through Ranney Collectors embedded in the north bank of the river and pumped to the plant through a pipeline about 35,000 ft. long. Cooling tower blowdown (7 cfs max.) from the project and dilution water (20 cfs max.) will flow through a pipeline back to the river where it will be discharged through a diffuser. Approximately 1750 acres of forested and agricultural land will be removed from harvesting for the life of the power plant; 360 acres of this land will be diverted to industrial use. This will affect less than 0.5% of standing forest in Skagit County and 16 acres in cultivated crops and pasturage. Increased siltation of onsite creeks and the Skagit River from construction work and the small amounts of heat and chemicals discharged to the river during plant operation will have insignificant impacts on water quality and aquatic biota due to erosion control efforts and dilution by the large river flow. (16,200 cfs average; 4740 cfs 7-day, 10-yr low). 18 figs

  6. First annual report RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the U-3fi waste unit. Final report, July 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emer, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi RCRA Unit, located in Area 3 of the Nevada Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada during the July 1995 to October 1996 period. Inspections of the U-3fi RCRA Unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. The objective of the neutron logging is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along the 420 ft ER3-3 borehole and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement in the regulated interval. This is the first annual report on the U-3fi closure and includes the first year baseline monitoring data as well as one quarter of compliance monitoring data

  7. Final report for the 1st ex-vessel neutron dosimetry installations and evaluations for Kori unit 2 reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lim, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha; Cheon, Byeong Jin

    2006-11-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori unit 2 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in regulatory guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During cycle 20 of reactor operation, an ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program was instituted at Kori unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of cycle 20.

  8. Final Report of the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installation And Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Li, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha

    2007-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Yonggwang Unit 1 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 16 of reactor operation, 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Yonggwang Unit 1 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 16.

  9. Final Report of the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installation And Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chung, Kyoung Ki; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Chang, Jong Hwa; Ha, Jea Ju

    2008-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori Unit 2 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 21 of reactor operation, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Kori Unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 21.

  10. Final report for the 1st ex-vessel neutron dosimetry installation and evaluations for Kori unit 4 reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lim, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha; Cheon, Byeong Jin

    2006-11-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori unit 4 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in regulatory guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During cycle 16 of reactor operation, an ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program was instituted at Kori unit 4 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of cycle 16.

  11. Final report for the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installations and Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chung, Kyoung Ki; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Chang, Jong Hwa; Ha, Jea Ju

    2008-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Yonggwang Unit 2 pressure vessel beltline region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the beltline region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 16 of reactor operation, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Yonggwang Unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the beltline region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 16.

  12. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  13. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  14. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  15. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document

  16. Survey of Foreign Language Entrance and Degree Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree in United States Institutions of High Education, Fall 1974. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Richard I.

    This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…

  17. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document.

  18. Quasi-Unit-Cell Model for an Al-Ni-Co Ideal Quasicrystal based on Clusters with Broken Tenfold Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Eiji; Saitoh, Koh; Takakura, H.; Tsai, A. P.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Jeong, H.-C.

    2000-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the quasi-unit-cell description of the Al 72 Ni 20 Co 8 decagonal quasicrystal which shows that the solid is composed of repeating, overlapping decagonal cluster columns with broken tenfold symmetry. We propose an atomic model which gives a significantly improved fit to electron microscopy experiments compared to a previous proposal by us and to alternative proposals with tenfold symmetric clusters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  20. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis

  1. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  2. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: Volume 1, Main report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report (NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  3. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operating license to Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) of Chicago, Illinois, for startup and operation of the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 on a 710-ha (1754-acre) site in Ogle County 6 km (4 miles) south-southwest of Byron, Illinois, and 3 km (2 miles) east of the Rock River. Each of the two generating units consists of a pressurized-water reactor, four steam generators, one steam turbine generator, a heat-dissipation system, and associated auxiliary and engineered safeguards. Information is presented under the following topics: purpose and need for the action; alternatives to the proposed action; project description and affected environment; environmental consequences and mitigating actions; evaluation of the proposed action; list of contributors; list of agencies and organizations requested to comment on the draft environmental statement; and responses to comments on the Draft Environmental Statement

  4. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United Sates: Volume 2, Appendix - Public comments and their disposition: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report(NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  5. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, Northeast Nuclear Energy Company, Docket No. 50-245. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This report documents the review of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, operated by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (located in Waterford, Connecticut). Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license. This report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in November 1982

  6. Final environmental statement for William B. McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-369 and 50-370)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Duke Power Company for the startup and operation of the William B. McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2 (the plant) located on the Lake Norman in Mecklenburg County, 17 miles north-northwest of Charlotte, North Carolina. The units will be cooled by once-through flow of water from Lake Norman. Two units, each with a net electrical capacity of 1180 MWe will be added to the resources of the Duke Power Company. This will have a favorable effect on reserve margins and provide a cost savings of $77 to $122 million in production costs in 1979 if the units come on line as scheduled, and cost savings in subsequent years. Approximately 200 acres of rural, partially wooded land owned by the applicant will be unavailable for other uses during the 40-year life of the plant. Approximately 61.6 acres of additional land will be utilized for transmission line corridors and/or switchyard and maintained under controlled conditions. Land-use patterns will necessarily conform to the needs of the application but will not be changed significantly from present usage. At full power, condenser cooling water could be heated to as high as 96/degree/F (35.6/degree/C) as a monthly average and will be discharged at a rate of up to 4492 cfs. The temperature rise of the water will be 16/degree/F (8.8/degree/C) to 32/degree/F (17.8/degree/C) above ambient. The heated water will mix with the cooler water of Lake Norman, where the heat will be dissipated to the atmosphere. The increase in temperature will cause a loss of approximately 31 cfs of water as a result of increased evaporation. 26 figs., 46 tabs

  7. Final environmental statement related to steam-generator repair at Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-266)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The staff hhas considered the environental impacts and economic costs of the proposed steam generator repair at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 1 along with reasonable alternatives to the proposed action. The staff has concluded that the proposed repair will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and that there are no preferable alternatives to the proposed action. Furthermore, any impacts from the repair program are outweighed by its benefits

  8. Final supplement to the final environmental statement related to construction of Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3 (Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529, and STN 50-530)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Arizona Public Service Company for the construction of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Preparation of the 3800-acre site will involve the clearing of up to 2500 acres of land, 1500 of which will ultimately be developed during the lifetime of the station. About 2200 site acres, previously devoted to agriculture, will be excluded from this land use. Soil disturbance during construction of the station, transmission lines, and water conveyance pipeline will tend to promote erosion and increase siltation local ephemeral water courses. Stringent measures will be taken to minimize these effects (Sec. 4.5). Station, transmission line, and water pipeline construction will kill, remove, displace, or otherwise disturb involved flora and fauna, and will eliminate varying amounts of wildlife breeding, nesting, and forage habitat. These will not be important permanent impacts to the population stability and structure of the involved local ecosystems of the Sonoran desert; however, measures will be taken to minimize such effects as do results from the proposed action. 26 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-12-15

    Contaminants present in paper recycling mills can degrade product properties and can also lead to substantial downtime. Of these, adhesive material such as hot melts and pressure sensitive adhesives are especially troublesome. These are known as “ stickies ” and their handling and re- moval requires process equipment such as screens and cleaners as well as chemical additives. In the preceding phase of the project we demonstrated that firing an underwater spark in a tank of stock reduces the tack of the stickies and reduces their impact. The present phase was to demon- strate the technology in full-scale trials, address any issues that might arise, and commercialize the process. Trials were run at the Appleton papers mill in West Carrollton, OH, the Graphics Packag- ing mill at Kalamazoo, MI, Stora Enso mills at Duluth, MN, and Wisconsin Rapids, WI, and the Jackson Paper mill at Sylva, NC. It was shown that the sparker not only detackified stickies but also increased the efficiency of their removal by centrifugal cleaners, improved the effectiveness of dissolved air flotation, and increased the efficiency of flotation deinking. It is estimated that the sparker improves the efficiency of hydrocyclone cleaner, deinking cells and dissolved and dispersed air flotation units by 10-15%. This translates to a corresponding energy benefit in operating these units. The technology has been licensed to Eka Chemicals, a division of Akzo Nobel.

  10. Silicon-Film(TM) Solar Cells by a Flexible Manufacturing System: Final Report, 16 April 1998 -- 31 March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, J.

    2002-02-01

    This report describes the overall goal to engineer and develop flexible manufacturing methods and equipment to process Silicon-Film solar cells and modules. Three major thrusts of this three-year effort were to: develop a new larger-area (208 mm x 208 mm) Silicon-Film solar cell, the APx-8; construct and operate a new high-throughput wafer-making system; and develop a 15-MW single-thread manufacturing process. Specific technical accomplishments from this period are: Increase solar cell area by 80%, increase the generation capacity of a Silicon-Film wafer-making system by 350%, use a new in-line HF etch system in solar cell production, design and develop an in-line NaOH etch system, eliminate cassettes in solar cell processing, and design a new family of module products.

  11. The use of PEM united regenerative fuel cells in solar- hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun K Doddathimmaiah; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Remote area power supply (RAPS) is a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. Solar hydrogen RAPS systems commonly employ photovoltaic panels, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser, a storage for hydrogen gas, and a PEM fuel cell. Currently such systems are more costly than conventional RAPS systems employing diesel generator back up or battery storage. Unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) have the potential to lower the costs of solar hydrogen RAPS systems since a URFC employs the same hardware for both the electrolyser and fuel cell functions. The need to buy a separate electrolyser and a separate fuel cell, both expensive items, is thus avoided. URFCs are in principle particularly suited for use in RAPS applications since the electrolyser function and fuel cell function are never required simultaneously. The present paper reports experimental findings on the performance of a URFC compared to that of a dedicated PEM electrolyser and a dedicated fuel cell. A design for a single-cell PEM URFC for use in experiments is described. The experimental data give a good quantitative description of the performance characteristics of all the devices. It is found that the performance of the URFC in the electrolyser mode is closely similar to that of the stand-alone electrolyser. In the fuel cell mode the URFC performance is, however, lower than that of the stand-alone fuel cell. The wider implications of these findings for the economics of future solar-hydrogen RAPS systems are discussed, and a design target of URFCs for renewable-energy RAPS applications proposed. (authors)

  12. Development of units for change measurement of batteries at photovoltaic plant. Final report; Entwicklung von Einheiten zur Ladezustandserfassung von Batterien in PV-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, M.; Knorr, R.; Willer, B.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to contribute to enhanced service life and reliability of batteries in photovoltaic systems by developing further processes and components for charge measurement. The essential basic information in charge determination is the direct measurement of acid concentration in the electrolyte compartment of lead batteries and the evaluation and processing of this signal. Within the framework of this project, operative acidity sensors were developed and tested. They are accurate within an error margin of 0.5 per cent for short periods and of 2 per cent for long periods. A charge measurement unit based on the acid concentration reading was built and special algorithms for measuring charge were developed and tested. This unit stands out particularly because of the following: determination of dynamic charge, long-term stability, and automatic and regular adaptation to the type, size and age of the battery. Using this unit in combination with the acid concentration sensor in photovoltaic plant will permit more efficient plant operation and reliable protection of the battery. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Lebensdauer und Zuverlaessigkeit von Batterien in PV-Anlagen durch die konkrete Weiterentwicklung von Verfahren und Komponenten zur Ladezustandserfassung aufzuzeigen, durchzufuehren und zu demonstrieren. Die direkte Messung der Saeuredichte im Elektrolytraum von Bleibatterien sowie die Auswertung und Weiterverarbeitung dieses Signals bildet dabei die wesentliche Basisinformation. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden funktionstuechtige Saeuredichtesensoren entwickelt und erprobt. Die dabei erreichte Genauigkeit betraegt im Kurzzeitbereich 0,5% und im Langzeitbereich ca. 2%. Eine Ladezustandseinheit basierend auf dem Saeuredichtesignal wurde aufgebaut und spezielle Algorithmen zur Ladezustandserfassung entwickelt und getestet. Besonders die Bestimmung des dynamischen Ladezustands, die Langzeitstabilitaet sowie

  13. Final environmental statement related to the operation of H.B. Robinson Nuclear Steam-Electric Plant, Unit 2: (Docket No. 50-261)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The proposed action is the continuation of Facility Operating License DPR-23 to Carolina Power and Light Company for H.B. Robinson Unit 2. Unit 2, located adjacent to Lake Robinson in Darlington County, near Hartsville, South Carolina, employs a pressurized water reactor to produce up to 2200 megawatts thermal (MWt). A steam turbine-generator uses this heat to provide 700 megawatts electric (MWe) of net electrical power capacity. A design power level of 2300 MWt (730 MWe) has been requested and is considered in the assessments contained in this statement. The exhaust steam is cooled by a flow of water obtained from the discharged to a 2250-acre cooling lake, Lake Robinson. Land areas disturbed during construction of the plant, but not used, have been seeded to native grasses, trees, and shrubs. Construction of a cooling water discharge canal extension resulted in alteration of about 100 acres of wildlife habitat. Subsequently, the canal banks were seeded with pines and legumes. Some erosion has taken place in the pine-seeded areas. Some small fish are killed by impingement on the water intake screens. Organisms passing through the screens very likely do not survive their passage through the circulating water system. Operation of the plant will cause an increase in the temperature of Black Creek below Lake Robinson. A small impact exists due to production and, after processing, disposal or release of sanitary and chemical wastes. Unit 2 may discharge up to 500 pounds/day of chemicals (primarily sulfates). Under conditions of low flow into and out of the lake, this increases the sulfate concentration in the lake by less than 1 ppM over the normal 7.7 ppM

  14. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  15. Final Report: Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications (2012-2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allen [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes project activities for Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) Contract Number DE-EE0005236 to the U.S. Department of Energy titled “Transportation Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment”. The project defined and projected the mass production costs of direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles (automobiles) and 40-foot transit buses. In each year of the five-year contract, the fuel cell power system designs and cost projections were updated to reflect technology advances. System schematics, design assumptions, manufacturing assumptions, and cost results are presented.

  16. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  17. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio: Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Volume 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices F--J

  18. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (Capsule 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin Unit 4 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.306E+18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.918 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.615E+18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 8.478E+18 and 1.673E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin Unit 4 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  19. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (CAPSULE 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.674E 18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.920 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.913E 18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 9.249E 18 and 1.834E 19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  20. A Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TC-02081-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The Phase I STTR research project was targeted at meeting the objectives and requirements stated in STTR solicitation A04-T028 for a Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring. In accordance with the requirements for STTR programs, collaboration was formed between a small business, Kionix, Inc., and The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The collaboration included CytoDiscovery, Inc. (CDI) which, in collaboration with Kionix, provided access to membrane chip technology and provided program support and coordination. The objective of the overall program (excerpted from the original solicitation) was: “To develop a small, portable cell maintenance system for the transport, storage, and monitoring of viable vertebrate cells and tissues.” The goal of the Phase I project was to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the program objectives utilizing a system comprised of a small-size, microfluidic chip-based cell maintenance cartridge (CMC) and a portable cell maintenance system (CMS) capable of housing a minimum of four CMCs. The system was designed to be capable of optimally maintaining multiple vertebrate cell types while supporting a wide variety of cellular assays.

  1. Gas-phase decontamination demonstration on PORTS cell X-25-4-2. Final technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Long-Term, Low Temperature (LTLT) process is a gas-phase in situ decontamination technique which has been tested by LMES/K-25 personnel on the laboratory scale with promising results. The purpose of the Gas-Phase Decontamination Demonstration at PORTS was to evaluate the LTLT process on an actual diffusion cascade cell at conditions similar to those used in the laboratory testing. The demonstration was conducted on PORTS diffusion cell X-25-4-2 which was one of the X-326 Building cells which was permanently shutdown as part of the Suspension of HEU Production at PORTS. The demonstration full-scale test consisted of rendering the cell leak-tight through the installation of Dresser seals onto the process seals, exposing the cell to the oxidants ClF 3 and F 2 for a period of 105 days and evaluating the effect of the clean-up treatment on cell samples and coupons representing the major diffusion cascade materials of construction. The results were extrapolated to determine the effectiveness of LTLT decontamination over the range of historical uranium isotope assays present in the diffusion complex. It was determined that acceptable surface contamination levels could be obtained in all of the equipment in the lower assay cascades which represents the bulk of the equipment contained in the diffusion complex

  2. Landfill leachate as a mirror of today's disposable society: Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in final leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Final leachates (leachate after storage or treatment processes) from 22 landfills in 12 states were analyzed for 190 pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), which were detected in every sample, with the number of CECs ranging from 1 to 58 (median = 22). In total, 101 different CECs were detected in leachate samples, including 43 prescription pharmaceuticals, 22 industrial chemicals, 15 household chemicals, 12 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 5 steroid hormones, and 4 animal/plant sterols. The most frequently detected CECs were lidocaine (91%, local anesthetic), cotinine (86%, nicotine degradate), carisoprodol (82%, muscle relaxant), bisphenol A (77%, component of plastics and thermal paper), carbamazepine (77%, anticonvulsant), and N,N-diethyltoluamide (68%, insect repellent). Concentrations of CECs spanned 7 orders of magnitude, ranging from 2.0 ng/L (estrone) to 17 200 000 ng/L (bisphenol A). Concentrations of household and industrial chemicals were the greatest (∼1000-1 000 000 ng/L), followed by plant/animal sterols (∼1000-100 000 ng/L), nonprescription pharmaceuticals (∼100-10 000 ng/L), prescription pharmaceuticals (∼10-10 000 ng/L), and steroid hormones (∼10-100 ng/L). The CEC concentrations in leachate from active landfills were significantly greater than those in leachate from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.05). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p landfills than in leachate released to groundwater from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.04). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p = 0.06) in the fresh leachate (leachate before storage or treatment) reported in a previous study compared with the final leachate sampled for the present study.

  3. CanDan 2, phase 2. Final report. [Fuel cell systems for back-up power and materials handling applications]; CanDan 2, fase 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    CanDan 2 Phase 2 is the second phase of a research and demonstration project for fuel cell backup power systems and fuel cell powered material handling equipment. In the Backup Power segment the fuel cell units have been developed, certified and delivered. A total of 32 fuel cell backup power systems have been delivered for EnergiMidt and in operation since early 2011. Following this project EnergiMidt has purchased another 31 systems in order to make a full transition from battery backup to fuel cell backup in their entire broadband network. In the material handling segment a 10 kW fuel cell system has been fully integrated in the fork lift truck, Dantruck 3000 Power Hydrogen. The result was a much more commercially mature product than expected from the beginning of the project. The result is a finished 2,5T fork lift truck which was presented at the CE-mat fair in April 2011. (LN)

  4. Flow-induced vibration analysis of Three Mile Island Unit-2 once-through steam generator tubes. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Brown, J.C.; Harris, C.E.; McGuinn, E.J.; Simonis, J.C.; Thoren, D.E.

    1981-06-01

    Tube responses to flow-induced vibration were measured in the top two spans and the tenth span in the B once-through steam generator at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. This program evaluated the effects of flow-induced biration of OTSG tubes during steady-state and transient operation. Twenty-three tubes were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages in tubes located along the open lane, in the bundle, and at the tenth span. Tube displacements, frequencies, dynamic strains, and mode shapes were determined during steady-state and transient operation. Pressure sensors were installed in the OTSG to measure pressure fluctuations and plant parameters, which were recorded for correlation with tube response. Data analysis results indicate that the steady-state tube response increases with increasing reactor power, with the maximum response (12 mils peak to peak at midspan) at the outer perimeter of the generator in the 16th span

  5. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the hazard categorizations and classifications for the activities associated with the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) remediation. Categories and classifications presented are applicable only to the 300-FF-1 OU waste sites specifically listed in the inventory. The purpose of this remedial action is to remove contaminated soil, debris, and solid waste from liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4 within the 300-FF-1 OU. Resulting waste from this project will be sent to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) in the 200 West Area. The 300-FF-1 OU is part of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and is next to the Columbia River. The objective of this remedial action is to reduce contamination at these waste sites to levels that are acceptable for industrial purposes. Specific remedial objectives (cleanup goals) for each contaminant of concern (COC) are provided in a table, along with the maximum soil concentration detected

  6. Final report for the 5th surveillance test of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule Y) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, ByoungChul; Chang, Kee Ok (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X, W and Y are 5.777E+18, 1.5371E+19, 3.7634E+19, 4.3045E+19, and 4.8662E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.953 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.2% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.659E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 13th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 48, 56 and 64EFPY would reach 3.625E+19, 5.293E+19, 6.127E+19 and 6.960E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the Pressurized Thermal Shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  7. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 Uppsala University Final report 2006-01-01 - 2007-06-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edoff, Marika (Thin Film Solar Cell group, Dep. Technical Sciences, Uppsala Univ., P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)) (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 has been going on for 18,5 months and was interrupted in advance on the 14th of June, 2007. The decision to shorten the period was taken by the board of the Swedish Energy Agency the 14th of February. It was decided to reevaluate and re-direct the financial support to the group. A new project, CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 3, superseded this project and will go on for the initially planned project period (until 2009-12-31). During the project much of the focus has been on research on Cd-free buffer layers, with an emphasis on the interface properties between the CIGS and the buffer layer. (CIGS is a commonly used acronym for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}, which is the active absorption layer in this type of solar cells) The combination of high quality CIGS and the new buffer layers has been another field of interest. CIGS solar cell module development and computer modelling of solar cells and modules has been the third major research area. The results show that the group still holds a position as one of the leaders in the world in this field. The 18.5 % efficient Cd-free solar cell, which was obtained and independently confirmed is only one percent away from the world record and in addition it is Cd-free using a Zn(O,S) buffer layer (the world record from NREL contains Cd). By alloying ZnO with MgO instead of ZnS almost equally good results can be achieved. During the last half year an 18.1 % cell has been measured with a (Zn,Mg)O buffer layer. Solar cell module technology includes several research issues, both fundamental as e.g. modelling of cell voltage and losses as a function of distance from interconnect to interconnect, but also more development as e.g. encapsulation routines. The harsh environment test (damp heat test) run at 85 deg C and 85 % relative humidity for 1000 hours was passed for both a small (12.5x12.5 cm2) and a large (27.5x30 cm2) module within the degradation limits stated by the IEC standards, using

  9. Construction of a photovoltaic cell based on the photoelectrochemistry of organic dyes at transparent semi-conducting electrodes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasielski, J; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, A

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the photoelectrochemical mechanisms of different dye-reductant systems at transparent semi-conducting bubbling gas electrodes, coupled with a detailed analysis of the photovoltammetric curves, allows: a deeper insight into the operation principles of the corresponding dye photogalvanic cells; prediction of the parameters important for optimizing the cell operation; and working out of strategies for improving the cell output. In order to compare the behaviors of an adsorbed type dye (rhodamine-hydroquinone) with a solution type dye in a photogalvanic cell, the thionine-Fe/sup 2 +/ system was examined, including a detailed kinetic analysis of the photocurrents at the bubbling gas electrode as a function of several parameters. Photoelectrochemical mechanisms related to the sensitization and supersensitization in this system have thus been determined. Photoelectrochemical methods were applied to analyze other dye-reductant systems. The photoelectrochemisty of three triphenyl-methanes, methyl violet, crystal violet, and malachite green were examined at the bubbling gas electrode. These dyes produce photocurrents originating from the adsorbed molecules and behave very much like rhodamine. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the erythrosine-hydroquinone couple is also examined. For constructing photogalvanic cells, the CdS-on-SnO/sub 2/-cysteine system is found promising. (LEW)

  10. Innovation on a Hospital Perinatal Unit: Cell Phone Use by Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrilak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the impact and effect of cell phone communication technology on reducing nurse task frequency and time spent on activities that could more appropriately be accomplished by hospital support staff...

  11. Natural Killer/T-cell Neoplasms: Analysis of Incidence, Patient Characteristics, and Survival Outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, Anuhya; Tella, Sri Harsha; Ganti, Apar Kishore; Armitage, James O

    2018-05-04

    Limited data are available regarding the incidence, survival patterns, and long-term outcomes of natural killer (NK)/T-cell neoplasms in the United States. We performed a retrospective study of patients with NK/T-cell neoplasms diagnosed from 2001 to 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival difference among the subgroups. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the factors affecting survival. For the 797 patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, the median age at diagnosis was 53 years, and males tended to be younger at diagnosis (P < .0001). The incidence of the disease increased from 0.4 in 2001 to 0.8 in 2014 per 1,000,000 individuals. The incidence was significantly greater in Hispanic patients compared with that in non-Hispanic patients (rate ratio, 3.03; P = .0001). The median overall survival was 20 months (range, 2-73 months) and varied significantly according to the primary site (P < .0001) and the disease stage at diagnosis (P < .0001). NK/T-cell lymphoma patients had an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (standardized incidence ratio, 18.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-67.81). For the 105 NK/T-cell leukemia patients, the median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 4-95 years). The overall incidence of the disease was 0.09 per 1,000,000 individuals and was significantly greater in males (rate ratio, 0.41; P < .0001). Unlike NK/T-cell lymphoma, no racial disparities were found in the incidence. The median overall survival was 17 months (range, 0-36 months). The incidence of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in the United States has at least doubled in the past decade, with the greatest predilection among Hispanics. Patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma might have an increased risk of the subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  13. Fundamental Research and Development for Improved Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.

    2007-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2002-2006 period toward high-efficiency, low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. This program emphasize fundamental and applied research on commercial substrates and manufacturable technologies. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, technology development, and complete cell fabrication were used to accomplish the goals of this program. This report is divided into five sections that summarize our work on i) PECVD SiN-induced defect passivation (Sections 1 and 2); ii) the effect of material inhomogeneity on the performance of mc-Si solar cells (Section 3); iii) a comparison of light-induced degradation in commercially grown Ga- and B-doped Czochralski Si ingots (Section 4); and iv) the understanding of the formation of high-quality thick-film Ag contacts on high sheet-resistance emitters (Section 5).

  14. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Kevin [Sprint, Reston, VA (United States); Bradley, Dwayne [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  15. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  16. The effect of sub-lethal damage repair and exchange on the final slope of cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M.C.; Wilkins, D.E.; Raaphorst, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Lea-Catcheside dose rate protraction factor, G, is the most widely used model to describe the effects of dose rate on cell survival. In the linear quadratic formalism, this factor modifies the beta component of cell killing; G is greatest for acute irradiations while vanishing at low dose rates. We have found a simple compartmental model that can derive the Lea-Catcheside function. This compartmental model clearly shows that the G function can only be derived using a little known assumption: the diminution of sub-lethal damage due to exchange of repairable lesions is negligible compared to that due to repair. This assumption was explicitly stated by Lea, but it does not appear to have been restated or verified since very early work on cell survival. The implication of this assumption is that sub-lethal damage can be modeled without considering exchange, which is evidenced by the fact that the G function does not contain parameters relating to exchange. By using a new model that fully accounts for repair and exchange of sublethal lesions, a cell survival expression that has a modified G function, but that retains the linear quadratic formalism, can be obtained. At low doses, this new model predicts linear-quadratic behavior, but the behavior gradually changes to mono-exponential at high doses, which is consistent with experimental observations. Modeling cell survival of well-known survival curves using the modified linear quadratic model shows statistically significant improvement in the fits to the cell survival data as compared to best fits obtained with the linear quadratic model. It is shown that these improvements in fits are due to a superior representation of the high dose region of the survival curve

  17. Degradation behaviour of phosphinothricin in nontransgenic and transgenic maize- and rape cells as well as in whole plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, G.; Pawlizki, K.H.; Ruhland, M.

    2000-01-01

    Up to now only very few publications are available about the metabolism of phosphinothricin (D/L-PPT, trade names: BASTA trademark , LIBERTY trademark ) in plants. In most of these reports degradation studies with cell cultures using very low herbicide concentrations are described. There are no publications about the degradation in transgenic intact plants under outdoor conditions yet. In order to clarify the question, whether the degradation in transgenic crops may differ from that in nontransgenic plants and if there exist differences between D- and L-PPT, the degradation of 14 C-D/L-, -L- and -D-PPT in transgenic and nontransgenic cell cultures as well as in intact, transgenic rape and maize plants was studied under outdoor conditions. D-PPT was not metabolised to a reasonable extent both in cell cultures and whole plants, all metabolites were formed from L-PPT. At harvest the amounts of total residues in maize plants ranged from 9 to 16% of the applied herbicide dosage and in rape plants from 35 to 47%. In nontransgenic plant cells L-PPT was exclusively metabolised to different methylphosphinico fatty acids. The main metabolite both in transgenic cells and whole plants with a content of 60 to 90% of total residues in rape and maize was N-acetyl-L-PPT, which seems to be stable in transgenic plants. In addition very low amounts of the same methylphosphinico fatty acids as in nontransgenic cells were detected in transgenic plants. More than 95% of the total residues were extractable by water, the formation of nonpolar and nonextractable residues was below 4%. At harvest the highest amounts of the residues were found in the treated leaves (4-15%), the lowest in the kernals (0,07-0,6%). According to these results total residues of PPT will not exceed the official tolerances in transgenic rape and maize if application follows good agricultural practice. (orig.) [de

  18. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  19. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  20. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  1. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance, a signifi...

  2. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Final report, April 1, 1988 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by α particles and develop into cancers have been determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This research included extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, a second major part of this research consisted of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheobronchial epithelial population(s) using immunocytochemistry and the proliferation marker PCNA on paraffin sections. The basal and suprabasal cycling cell populations of the bronchi of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women were compared. Normal human airway linings were also compared with normal adult dog trachea and bronchi as well as metaplastic and repairing human airways. The quantitative data from this project resulted in several publications on the cycling and putative stem cells of the tracheobronchial epithelium and more accurate radon dosimetry and risk analyses

  3. Anti-Müllerian hormone remains highly expressed in human cumulus cells during the final stages of folliculogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, M L; Nielsen, M Eilsø; Dal Canto, M B

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was differentially expressed in cumulus (CC) and granulosa (GC) cells from large antral and pre-ovulatory follicles collected from individual follicles in women undergoing in-vitro maturation (IVM) or IVF treatment. Expression studies of A...

  4. Research and Development of Zinc Air Fuel Cell To Achieve Commercialization Final Report CRADA No. TC-1544-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haley, H. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The specific goal of this project was to advance the development of the zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) towards commercial readiness in different mobile applications, including motor bikes, passenger cars, vans, buses and off-road vehicles (golf carts, factory equipment), and different stationary applications including generator sets, uninterruptible power systems and electric utility loading leveling and distributive power.

  5. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-10-18

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.

  6. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey

  7. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...... levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level...... was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. CONCLUSIONS: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs...

  8. Integrated plant safety assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-206): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues; (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review; and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1, operated by Southern California Edison Company. The San Onofre plant is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. This report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license. This report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the draft report issued in April 1985

  9. Marble Hill Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. STN 50-546 and STN 50-547)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Public Service Company of Indiana, Inc., Northern Indiana Public Service Company, Inc., East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Inc., and Wabash Valley Power Association for the construction of the Marble Hill Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2 (MH 1and2). The 987-acre site is predominately forest and cropland. Construction-related activities on the site would disturb about 250 acres. The portion of this land not be used for the plant facilities, parking lots, roads, etc., will be restored by seeding and landscaping. The temporary removal of vegetation will tend to promote erosion. Increased siltation and turbidity can be expected in local streams during construction, but measures will be taken to minimize these effects. A maximum of 69 cfs of cooling water will be withdrawn from the Ohio River of which cfs will be returned to the river via pipeline with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about 6. About cfs will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. The volume of discharge (9 cfs) is very small compared with the river flow (annual mean is about 110,000 cfs) and the thermal effect on the river ecosystem is not expected to be significant. Chemical discharges from the plant will be diluted to concentrations below those which might adversely affect aquatic biota. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure will be very low. 43 figs., 115 tabs

  10. Perkins Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. STN 50-488, STN 50-489, and STN 50-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a construction permit to the Duke Power Company for the construction of the Perkins Nuclear Station (PNS) Units 1, 2, and 3 located in Davie County, North Carolina. A total of 2402 acres will be used for the PNS site; another 1401 acres will be used for the Carter Creek Impoundment. Construction-related activities on the primary site will disturb about 617 acres. Approximately 631 acres of land will be required for transmission line right-of-way, and a railroad spur will affect 77 acres. This constitutes a minor local impact. The heat dissipation system will require a maximum water makeup of 55,816 gpm, of which 50,514 gpm will be consumed due to drift and evaporative losses. This amount represents 4% of the mean monthly flow of the Yadkin River. The cooling tower blowdown and chemical effluents from the station will increase the dissolved solids concentration in the Yadkin River by a maximum of 18 ppm. The thermal alterations and increases in total dissolved solids concentration will not significantly affect the aquatic productivity of the Yadkin River. 26 figs., 51 tabs

  11. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2 and 3 (Docket Nos. STN 50-528, STN 50-529 and STN 50-530): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Arizona public Service Company for the construction of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Preparation of the 3800-acre site will involve the clearing of up to 2500 acres of land, 1500 of which will be prominently devoted to station facilities. An additional 1200- to 1300-acre evaporation pond will ultimately be developed during the lifetime of the station. About 2200 site acres, previously devoted to agriculture, will be excluded from this land use. Soil disturbance during construction of the station, transmission lines, and water conveyance pipeline will tend to promote erosion and increase siltation in local ephemeral water courses. Stringent measures will be taken to minimize these effects. The total radiation dose to construction workers is estimated to be 15 man-rem. This dose is a small fraction of the approximately 470 man-rem which will be received by the construction force over the same period from natural background radiation. Station, transmission line, and water pipeline construction will kill, remove, displace, or otherwise disturb involved flora and fauna, and will eliminate varying amounts of wildlife breeding, nesting, and forage habitat. These will not be important permanent impacts to the population stability and structure of the involved local ecosystems of the Sonoran desert; however, measures will be taken to minimize such effects as do result form the proposed action

  12. Transport of radioactive material in the United States: results of a survey to determine the magnitude and characteristics of domestic, unclassified shipments of radioactive materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javitz, H.S.; Lyman, T.R.; Maxwell, C.; Myers, E.L.; Thompson, C.R.

    1985-04-01

    SRI International has completed a project for the Sandia National Laboratories designed to create a statistical data base identifying the volume and characteristics of shipments of unclassified radioactive materials (RAM)* in the continental United States. Agencies providing resources for this project have included: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Department of Transportation (DOT) Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Technical management of the project was the responsibility of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) of Sandia National Laboratories. This report is intended only as a brief summary of a project having as its primary product the Radioactive Materials Transportation (RAMT) survey data base provided by SRI to TTC. The data in the RAMT data base comes from two principal sources - a survey of NRC and Agreement State licensees (referred to as the Licensee survey) and a survey of DOE contractors (referred to as the DOE survey). This report provides summary information on: project background; objectives; approach; survey response; basic tables and discussion of shipment characteristics; and technical appendices. 21 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  14. Relationship of DNA repair processes to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in mammalian cells. Final report, August 1, 1977-January 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    We have compared the lethal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of radiation and alkylating agents in several types of cells. In C3H 10T 1/2 cells, lethal effects decreased, while the frequency of ouabain-resistant mutants and of transformed cells increased during a 4-hour holding period following EMS treatment. To isolate repair-deficient mutants, we used diploid BHK cells which were characterized with regard to reactivation of uv- and x-irradiated Herpes Simplex virus (HSV). Three radiation-sensitive BHK strains were isolated using a host cell viral-reactivation suicide procedure. Two of these strains were sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents. One strain was hypermutable and one hypomutable following treatment with EMS. Mouse lymphoma strain L5178Y-S (LY-S), though more sensitive to the lethal effects of X radiation and alkylating agents than strain L5178Y-R (LY-R), was less mutable by these agents at the Na + /K + ATPase and hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) loci. Strain LY-S exhibited less dose-rate dependence for lethal effects than strain LY-R, but no dose-rate dependence was observed in radiation-induced mutagenesis for either strain. Repair of x ray-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) at 25 0 was observed for strain LY-S but not LY-R. Addition of 3-aminobenzamide (2 mm) to the medium sensitized both strains to x radiation, uv radiation and MNU, and inhibited rapair of x ray-induced PLD in strain LY-S

  15. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: wangkd@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Flow Cell Studies of a Hydrogen-Bromine Fuel Cell, Part 1. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    There is increasing interest in hydrogen-bromine fuel cells as both primary and regenerative energy storage systems. One promising design for a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell is a negative half cell having only a gas phase, which is separated by a cationic exchange membrane from a positive half cell having an aqueous electrolyte. The hydrogen gas and the aqueous bromide solution are stored external to the cell. In order to calculate the energy storage capacity and to predict and assess the performance of a single cell, the open circuit potential (OCV) must be estimated for different states of change, under various conditions. Theoretical expressions were derived to estimate the OCV of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. In these expressions temperature, hydrogen pressure, and bromine and hydrobromic acid concentrations were taken into consideration. Also included are the effects of the Nafion membrance separator and the various bromide complex species. Activity coefficients were taken into account in one of the expressions. The sensitivity of these parameters on the calculated OCV was studied.

  17. Final environmental statement related to the proposed construction of Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-448 and 50-449)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Potomac Electric Power Company for the construction of the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Charles County, Maryland. The exhaust steam will be cooled via a closed-cycle mode incorporating natural-draft wet cooling towers. The water used in the cooling system will be obtained from the Potomac River. Construction-related activities on the site will convert about 290 acres of the 1390 acres of forested land at the Douglas Point site to industrial use. In addition to acreage at the site, approximately 4.5 miles of transmission corridor will require about 211 acres of land for rights-of-way. This corridor will connect with 27 miles of existing rights-of-way over which a line connecting Possum Point to Burches Hill has already been approved. The installation of new transmission line, uniquely identified with Douglas Point, along the existing right-of-way will involve approximately 464 additional acres. As described in the application, the maximum river water intake will be about 97,200 gpm. Of this, a maximum of about 28,000 gpm will be lost in drift or evaporation from the cooling towers. About 700 gpm maximum of fresh well water will be consumed. It is conservatively assumed that all aquatic organisms entrained in the service water system will be killed due to thermal and mechanical shock. It is further estimated that at 97,200 gpm maximum total river water intake, the maximum impact on the striped bass fishery will be a reduction of <5%. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. 32 figs., 59 tabs

  18. Final environmental statement: Related to the operation of Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-346)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operating license to the Toledo Edison Company and the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company for the startup and operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (the station) located near Port Clinton in Ottawa County, Ohio. The total site area is 954 acres of which 160 acres have been removed from production of grain crops and converted to industrial use. Approximately 600 acres of the area is marshland which will be maintained as a wildlife refuge. The disturbance of the lake shore and lake bottom during construction of the station water intake and discharge pipes resulted in temporary turbidity, silting, and destruction of bottom organisms. Since completion of these activities, evidence of improvement in turbidity and transparency measurements, and the reestablishment of the bottom organism has been obtained. The cooling tower blowdown and service water which the station discharges to Lake Erie, via a submerged jet, will be heated no more than 20/degrees/F above the ambient lake water temperature. Although some small fish and plankton in the discharge water plume will be disabled as a result of thermal shock, exposure to chlorine and buffeting, few adult fish will be affected. The thermal plume resulting from the maximum thermal discharge is calculated to have an area of less than one acre within the 3/degrees/F isotherm (above lake ambient). Approximately 101 miles of transmission lines have been constructed, primarily over existing farmland, requiring about 1800 acres of land for the rights-of-way. Land use will essentially be unchanged since only the land required for the base of the towers is removed from production. Herbicides will not be used to maintain the rights-of-way. 14 figs., 34 refs

  19. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  20. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The appendices included in this report include the following: Comments on the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (A-1); Commission's Statement of Policy and Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (B-1); 'Final Environmental Assessment for Decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building Atmosphere, Final NRC Staff Report,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0662, May 1980 (C-1); 'Environmental Assessment for Use of EPICOR-Il at Three Mile Island Unit 2,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0591, October 3, 1979 (D-1); Fish and Fisheries of York Haven Pond and Conowingo Pond of the Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay (E1); Reuse of Accident Water (F-1); Engineering Considerations for Treatment of TMI-2 Accident-Generated Liquid Waste G-1); Engineering Considerations Related to Immobilization of Radioactive Wastes (H-1); Justification for Radiation Fields Used in Section 6 I-1); Economic Cost Basis (K-1); Average Individual Quarterly Dose Limits Used in Determinations of Work Force Estimates (L-1); 'Long-Term Environmental Radiation Surveillance Plan for Three Mile Island,' US Environmental Protection Agency, 1981 (M-1); Occupational Radiation Exposure during Onsite Waste Handling (N-1); Decontamination Status of Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings (0-1); Chemical Systems for Decontamination of Primary System Components (P-1); Onsite Storage Facility (Q-1); Proposed Additions to Technical Specifications for TMI-2 Cleanup Program (R-1); Calculations of Discharge of Processed Accident Water to the Atmosphere (S-1); The Behavior of Sorbable Radionuclides in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay (T-1); Decommissioning of TMI-2 (U-1); Assessment of Groundwater Liquid Pathway from Leakage of Containment Water at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (V-1); Calculation Models and Parameters Used in Estimating Doses, and Interpretation of Model Results (W-1); Contributors to the PEIS X-1); Scheduled

  1. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  2. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair in human cells. Final performance report, July 1992 - June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The studies of DNA damage in living cells in vitro and in vivo were continued. A variety of systems including cultured mammalian cells, animals, and human tissues were used to conduct these studies. In addition, enzymatic repair of DNA base damage was studied using several DNA glycosylases. To this end, substrate specificities of these enzymes were examined in terms of a large number of base lesions in DNA. In the first phase of the studies, the author sought to introduce improvements to his methodologies for measurement of DNA damage using the technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In particular, the quantitative measurement of DNA base damage and DNA-protein crosslinks was improved by incorporation of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry into the methodologies. This is one of the most accurate techniques for quantification of organic compounds. Having improved the measurement technique, studies of DNA damage in living cells and DNA repair by repair enzymes were pursued. This report provides a summary of these studies with references to the original work

  3. Polycrystalline silicon film solar cells on insulator devices. Final report; Duennschichtsolarzellen aus kristallinem Silicium auf Glassubstraten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, J.H.; Wagner, T.A.; Bruehne, K.; Berge, C.; Dassow, R.; Jensen, N.; Koehler, J.; Nerding, M.; Oberbeck, L.; Rinke, T.J.; Bergmann, R.B.; Schubert, M.B.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of presenting a highly efficient thin film silicon solar cell was achieved by manufacturing a 4 cm{sup 2}, 45 {mu}m thin cell with an AM1.5 efficiency of 16.6% (confirmed by FhG-ISE, Freiburg, Germany). This result reflects the potential of a novel transfer technique for single-crystalline silicon thin films which uses an electrochemically etched separation layer. Since the year 2000, this method was investigated in this project, and it proved to be very promising for manufacturing high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells. The transfer technique is now subject of a project in continuation in order to verify the feasibility of its industrial application. Polycrystalline silicon with grain sizes in the range of (1-100) {mu}m suffers from grain boundaries crossing the pn-junction which enhance recombination, and thereby limit the output voltage of respective solar cells to very low, and practically useless values. For the first time, a complete analysis of these limitations is given. Hence, the initial approach of epitaxially growing solar cell absorbers on a laser-crystallised seed layer proved not successful. After proper optimisation, hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HW-CVD) yields <110>-textured nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films with stable and improved electronic properties. A successful use in stacked 'micromorph' solar cells, however, seems unlikely since the deposition rate of high-quality nc-Si from HW-CVD turns out to be as low as such as plasma deposited nc-Si. As further project results, there are spin-offs for microelectronics from ion-assisted deposition (IAD), for displays from laser crystallisation, and for photovoltaics in heterojunction solar cells. (orig.) [German] Das Projektziel wurde mit der Herstellung einer 45 {mu}m duennen, monokristallinen Siliciumsolarzelle auf Glas mit einem Wandlungswirkungsgrad von 16,6% (bestaetigt bei FhG-ISE, Freiburg) erreicht. Dieses Ergebnis war moeglich durch die Anwendung einer neu

  4. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

  5. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm 2 of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm 2 . The other three spots are 100 cm 2 or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10 2 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 and 8.5 x 10 4 dis/min-100 cm 2 . No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer

  6. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  7. Octasaccharide is the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of cyclophilin B to heparin and cell surface heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Denys, Agnès; Carpentier, Mathieu; Pakula, Rachel; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2004-09-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a heparin-binding protein first identified as a receptor for cyclosporin A. In previous studies, we reported that CyPB triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T-lymphocytes by way of interaction with two types of binding sites. The first site corresponds to a signalling receptor; the second site has been identified as heparan sulphate (HS) and appears crucial to induce cell adhesion. Characterization of the HS-binding unit is critical to understand the requirement of HS in pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. By using a strategy based on gel mobility shift assays with fluorophore-labelled oligosaccharides, we demonstrated that the minimal heparin unit required for efficient binding of CyPB is an octasaccharide. The mutants CyPB(KKK-) [where KKK- refers to the substitutions K3A(Lys3-->Ala)/K4A/K5A] and CyPB(DeltaYFD) (where Tyr14-Phe-Asp16 has been deleted) failed to interact with octasaccharides, confirming that the Y14FD16 and K3KK5 clusters are required for CyPB binding. Molecular modelling revealed that both clusters are spatially arranged so that they may act synergistically to form a binding site for the octasaccharide. We then demonstrated that heparin-derived octasaccharides and higher degree of polymerization oligosaccharides inhibited the interaction between CyPB and fluorophore-labelled HS chains purified from T-lymphocytes, and strongly reduced the HS-dependent pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. However, oligosaccharides or heparin were unable to restore adhesion of heparinase-treated T-lymphocytes, indicating that HS has to be present on the cell membrane to support the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the octasaccharide is likely to be the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of CyPB to cell surface HS and consequent HS-dependent cell responses.

  8. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITY NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada

  9. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Minimum Flushing Velocity Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-10-25

    The TNX Area is a semi-works facility for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), which is located one-quarter mile from the Savannah river at the Savannah River Site. As the result of TNX operation, groundwater contamination has occurred. The predominant contaminants detected in the flood plain downgradient from TNX are trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate.Treatability studies into the applicability of a groundwater remediation system combining GeoSiphon Cell and zero-valent iron technologies for treatment of the TCE-contaminated groundwater at TNX have been conducted. These treatability studies have been conducted by SRTC under the sponsorship of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  10. Electron-Ion Dynamics with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Towards Predictive Solar Cell Modeling: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Neepa [Hunter College City University of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-07-14

    This project investigates the accuracy of currently-used functionals in time-dependent density functional theory, which is today routinely used to predict and design materials and computationally model processes in solar energy conversion. The rigorously-based electron-ion dynamics method developed here sheds light on traditional methods and overcomes challenges those methods have. The fundamental research undertaken here is important for building reliable and practical methods for materials discovery. The ultimate goal is to use these tools for the computational design of new materials for solar cell devices of high efficiency.

  11. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Minimum Flushing Velocity Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The TNX Area is a semi-works facility for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), which is located one-quarter mile from the Savannah river at the Savannah River Site. As the result of TNX operation, groundwater contamination has occurred. The predominant contaminants detected in the flood plain downgradient from TNX are trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate.Treatability studies into the applicability of a groundwater remediation system combining GeoSiphon Cell and zero-valent iron technologies for treatment of the TCE-contaminated groundwater at TNX have been conducted. These treatability studies have been conducted by SRTC under the sponsorship of the Environmental Restoration Department

  12. Conjugated Polymer with Intrinsic Alkyne Units for Synergistically Enhanced Raman Imaging in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengliang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Li, Zhiliang; Huang, Yanyi; Schanze, Kirk S; Wang, Shu

    2017-10-16

    Development of Raman-active materials with enhanced and distinctive Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm -1 ) is highly required for specific molecular imaging of living cells with high spatial resolution. Herein, water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs), poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives, are explored for use as alkyne-state-dependent Raman probes for living cell imaging due to synergetic enhancement effect of alkyne vibrations in Raman-silent region compared to alkyne-containing small molecules. The enhanced alkyne signals result from the integration of alkyne groups into the rigid backbone and the delocalized π-conjugated structure. PPE-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were also prepared as Raman-responsive nanomaterials for distinct imaging application. This work opens a new way into the development of conjugated polymer materials for enhanced Raman imaging. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  14. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) Contract Number: DE-EE0006339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Kodie [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) leveraged the highest concentration of renewable resources in the U.S. as well as operation of the leading independent microgrid installations and other distributed technologies to collect and analyze real-time data streams, advance power system simulations and analysis, identify educational and training gaps and develop solutions-focused curricula. The SWUSA-DTTC consortium posed a unique collaboration between universities and utilities to ensure that classes were focused on subjects and topics of interest to the utilities and ones that had practical benefit related to the preparedness for accommodating high penetration of solar and other distributed energy technologies. This approach to have a close collaboration and shared effort to develop the course content and curriculum is unique and a significant departure from conventional course development. This coursework and training was intended to endure over a long time horizon (10-20 year time frame), and include professionals over the entire Southwest region and the rest of the US, and even outreach into foreign countries. Project Objectives In order to support the increase in power systems research, development, and analytical capacity, the SWUSA-DTTC brought together respected professors in Power Systems education, student/professor research and development, and valuable industry and utility experience. Through this program, the partnered universities created and/or modified existing curricula available to students and professionals in the form of university courses, short courses, videos, consortia-led training, and online materials. During this time, the supporting vendors and utilities provided the SWUSA-DTTC with technical advisory roles as well as providing input and feedback in terms of utility and related energy industry needs. The goals were to create power and energy systems training, curricula, and

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast in the United States: incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Zakalik, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of breast accounts for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and survival of this rare malignancy. Data were extracted from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry to identify women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of breast between 1998 and 2013. SEER*Stat 8.3.1 was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence, age-wise distribution, and annual percentage change in incidence. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for survival analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine predictors of survival. A total of 445 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of breast were diagnosed during the study period. The median age of diagnosis was 67 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence between 1998 and 2013 was 0.62 per 1,000,000 per year, and the incidence has been on a decline. Approximately half of the tumors were poorly differentiated. Stage II was the most common stage at presentation. Majority of the cases were negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. One-third of the cases underwent breast conservation surgery while more than half of the cases underwent mastectomy (unilateral or bilateral). Approximately one-third of cases received radiation treatment. The 1-year and 5-year cause-specific survival was 81.6 and 63.5%, respectively. Excluding patient with metastasis or unknown stage at presentation, in multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, older age at diagnosis and higher tumor stage (T3 or T4) or nodal stage at presentation were significant predictors of poor survival. Our study describes the unique characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of breast and demonstrates that it is an aggressive tumor with a poor survival. Older age and higher tumor or nodal stages at presentation were independent predictors of poor survival for loco-regional stages.

  16. Single fibre and multifibre unit cell analysis of strength and cracking of unidirectional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    damageable parts in composites (matrix cracks, fibre/matrix interface damage and fibre fracture) was observed in the simulations. The strength of interface begins to influence the deformation behaviour of the cell only after the fibre is broken. In this case, the higher interface layer strength leads...... to the higher stiffness of the damaged material. The damage in the composites begins by fibre breakage, which causes the interface damage, followed by matrix cracking....

  17. A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIR FLOW THROUGH A TELECOM BACK-UP UNIT POWERED BY AN AIR-COOLED PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and heat....... This product heat has to be effectively removed from the fuel cell, and while automotive fuel cells are usually liquid-cooled using a secondary coolant loop similar to the internal combustion engines, stationary fuel cell systems as they are used for telecom back-up applications often rely on excessive air fed...... to the fuel cell cathode to remove the heat. Thereby, the fuel cell system is much simpler and cheaper while the fuel cell performance is substantially lower compared to automotive fuel cells. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics analysis on the heat management of an air-cooled fuel cell powered...

  18. HTTR criticality calculations with SCALE6: Studies of various geometric and unit-cell options in modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. Y.; Chiang, M. H.; Sheu, R. J.; Liu, Y. W. H. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    The fuel element of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presents a doubly heterogeneous geometry, where tiny TRISO fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix form the fuel region of a cylindrical fuel rod, and a number of fuel rods together with moderator or reflector then constitute the lattice design of the core. In this study, a series of full-core HTTR criticality calculations were performed with the SCALE6 code system using various geometric and unit-cell options in order to systematically investigate their effects on neutronic analysis. Two geometric descriptions (ARRAY or HOLE) in SCALE6 can be used to construct a complicated and repeated model. The result shows that eliminating the use of HOLE in the HTTR geometric model can save the computation time by a factor of 4. Four unit-cell treatments for resonance self-shielding corrections in SCALE6 were tested to create problem-specific multigroup cross sections for the HTTR core model. Based on the same ENDF/B-VII cross-section library, their results were evaluated by comparing with continuous-energy calculations. The comparison indicates that the INFHOMMEDIUM result overestimates the system multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) by 55 mk, whereas the LATTICECELL and MULTIREGION treatments predict the k{sub eff} values with similar biases of approximately 10 mk overestimation. The DOUBLEHET result shows a more satisfactory agreement, about 4.2 mk underestimation in the k{sub eff} value. In addition, using cell-weighted cross sections instead of an explicit modeling of TRISO particles in fuel region can further reduce the computation time by a factor of 5 without sacrificing accuracy. (authors)

  19. Use of variations in unit cell length, reflectance and hardness for determining the origin of Fe disulphides in sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Eberhard, E.; Hartmann, B.

    1997-01-01

    Fe disulphides are common opaque accessories in sedimentary rocks. Both marcasite and pyrite may shed some light on the depositional environment and help determine the diagenesis of their host rocks. Quantitative ore microscopy (reflectance measurements, Vickers hardness numbers) and X-ray diffraction methods, supplemented with scanning electron microscopy and chemical analyses, were applied to pyrite (and some marcasite) hosted by sedimentary rocks spanning the interval from the Devonian to the Pliocene, and formed in various marine and continental environments. Quantitative ore microscopy of pyrites of sedimentary origin does not seem to be an efficient tool for analyzing the environment owing to the inhomogeneous nature of sulphide aggregates when viewed under the ore microscope, and the variable amounts of minor elements (e.g., As, Ni, and Co) that control the reflectance values (RV) and Vickers hardness numbers (VHN) of the host sulphides. However, such parameters as crystal habit and unit cell length of pyrite, which correlate with FeS x, are useful for environmental analysis. The redox conditions and the presence of organic remains during formation are the main factors determining these crystallographic parameters. Differences in these parameters from those of pure, ideal FeS 2 can be related to substitution of, e.g., wustite in the pyrite lattice, reflecting moderate oxidation (i.e. in the microenvironment). As far as crystal habit and length of the cell edge are concerned, late stage diagenesis is obviously less important than the microenvironment attending initial formation. The environment of deposition (i.e. the macroenvironment) of pyrite-bearing rocks has no influence on the crystal morphology or the length of the unit cell of Fe disulphide. X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that this method provides useful evidence on the microenvironment of sulphide precipitation around a single, equant pyrite, as well as around pyritized fossils.

  20. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium-ion-efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.K.; Ghosh, B.; Blackman, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to test the generality of radiofrequency-radiation-induced change in alternation of 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux from avian and feline brain tissues, human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to electromagnetic radiation at 147 MHz, amplitude modulated (AM) at 16 Hz, at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001, and 0.0005 Wkg. Significant 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux was obtained at SAR values of 0.05 and 0.005 Wkg. Enchanced efflux at 0.05 Wkg peaked at the 13-to-16 Hz and at the 57.5-to-60 Hz modulation ranges. A Chinese hamster-mouse hybrid neuroblastoma was also shown to exhibit enchanced radiation-induced 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux at an SAR of 0.05 Wkg, using 147 MHz, AM at 16 hz. These results confirm that amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation can induce response in cells of nervous tissue origin from widely different animal species including humans. The results are also consistent with reports of similar findings in avian and feline brain tissue reported by others and indicate the general nature of the phenomenon. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Results of comparative RBMK neutron computation using VNIIEF codes (cell computation, 3D statics, 3D kinetics). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, A.N.; Zhitnik, A.K.; Zvenigorodskaya, O.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In conformity with the protocol of the Workshop under Contract {open_quotes}Assessment of RBMK reactor safety using modern Western Codes{close_quotes} VNIIEF performed a neutronics computation series to compare western and VNIIEF codes and assess whether VNIIEF codes are suitable for RBMK type reactor safety assessment computation. The work was carried out in close collaboration with M.I. Rozhdestvensky and L.M. Podlazov, NIKIET employees. The effort involved: (1) cell computations with the WIMS, EKRAN codes (improved modification of the LOMA code) and the S-90 code (VNIIEF Monte Carlo). Cell, polycell, burnup computation; (2) 3D computation of static states with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes and comparison with results of computation with the NESTLE code (USA). The computations were performed in the geometry and using the neutron constants presented by the American party; (3) 3D computation of neutron kinetics with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes. These computations were performed in two formulations, both being developed in collaboration with NIKIET. Formulation of the first problem maximally possibly agrees with one of NESTLE problems and imitates gas bubble travel through a core. The second problem is a model of the RBMK as a whole with imitation of control and protection system controls (CPS) movement in a core.

  2. Performance evaluation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack under ambient conditions: Case study of United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zeyoudi, Hend; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of open-cathode PEM fuel cell stacks with forced air-convection. • Stack performance can vary up to 40% from winter to summer. • Hot and arid condition leads to membrane drying and performance deterioration. • Anode humidification improves the stack performance up to 40% during summer. - Abstract: The open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack has been a promising candidate as a sustainable energy conversion system for replacing fossil fuel-based energy conversion devices in portable and automotive applications. As the ambient air is directly used to provide both oxidant and cooling, the complex cooling loop can be avoided which reduces the complexity and cost. However, the stack performance is highly affected by ambient conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, the effect of monthly ambient air conditions (temperature and humidity) is evaluated with respect to the stack’s power production performance as well as thermal, water and gas management by employing a validated three-dimensional open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack model. The annual climate data from the hot and arid environment of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) are used as a case study. The objective is to develop a better fundamental understanding of the interactions of physical phenomena in a fuel cell stack, which can assist in improving the performance and operation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle. The results indicate that the stack performance can vary significantly (up to 40%) from winter to summer, especially at high operating currents, with significant changes in the stack temperature and the water content at the membrane. Moreover, the anode humidification results in a significant improvement in the stack performance (up to 40%) in hot and dry conditions. However, a careful balance has to be struck between the humidifier parasitic load and the stack power.

  3. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  4. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B. Shaik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region.

  5. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2006-07-01

    occurred during Phase II. The activities included: a. Dismantlement of the building structure surrounding the hot cells and then finally dismantlement of the hot cell block b. Soil remediation c. Handling and disposal of decommissioning wastes d. Confirmatory surveys 3. Final site release occurred during Phase III. 4. The final activity which occurred substantially after Phases II and III were complete was the shipment of the IFM to a DOE facility. The HCF and HM structures are approximately the same size on a volumetric basis. The volume of the HM hot cells is about 12 percent greater than at HCF but the HCF had 27 percent more surface area due to the existence of three separate cells. Of potential importance is that the contamination levels on the hot cell surfaces were not equal. The HCF facility was highly contaminated from such activities as band-sawing irradiated high temperature gas cooled reactor fuel. On these grounds it might be expected that the HCF actual costs would be higher than HM estimates. However, a factor of almost nine times higher seems to be exceptional. The very large difference in fact stems from a number of special circumstances at HCF that need to be backed-out of a cost comparison in order to make it meaningful. One special requirement was the removal and safe management of irradiated fuel material, including high enriched uranium. Another cost related to maintenance of the building before decommissioning could commence. The costs of waste disposal also vary substantially, in terms of unit costs and the proportion of dismantling waste that needs to be sentenced to a radioactive waste repository. The available information for HM has been evaluated and compared, to the extent possible, with the HCF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the main conclusions for the HM decommissioning cost estimate are as follows: Theoretical estimates of planning and other support activities can have a

  6. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Dismantlement occurred during Phase II. The activities included: a. Dismantlement of the building structure surrounding the hot cells and then finally dismantlement of the hot cell block b. Soil remediation c. Handling and disposal of decommissioning wastes d. Confirmatory surveys 3. Final site release occurred during Phase III. 4. The final activity which occurred substantially after Phases II and III were complete was the shipment of the IFM to a DOE facility. The HCF and HM structures are approximately the same size on a volumetric basis. The volume of the HM hot cells is about 12 percent greater than at HCF but the HCF had 27 percent more surface area due to the existence of three separate cells. Of potential importance is that the contamination levels on the hot cell surfaces were not equal. The HCF facility was highly contaminated from such activities as band-sawing irradiated high temperature gas cooled reactor fuel. On these grounds it might be expected that the HCF actual costs would be higher than HM estimates. However, a factor of almost nine times higher seems to be exceptional. The very large difference in fact stems from a number of special circumstances at HCF that need to be backed-out of a cost comparison in order to make it meaningful. One special requirement was the removal and safe management of irradiated fuel material, including high enriched uranium. Another cost related to maintenance of the building before decommissioning could commence. The costs of waste disposal also vary substantially, in terms of unit costs and the proportion of dismantling waste that needs to be sentenced to a radioactive waste repository. The available information for HM has been evaluated and compared, to the extent possible, with the HCF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the main conclusions for the HM decommissioning cost estimate are as follows: Theoretical estimates of planning and other support activities can

  7. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  10. Congenital and nosocomial sepsis in infants born in a regional perinatal unit: cause, outcome, and white blood cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, A; Vearncombe, M

    1987-02-01

    The incidence, cause, and outcome of sepsis and the white blood cell response were studied in 6315 infants born in a regional perinatal unit. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 6.5 per 1000 live births. Congenital sepsis (12 cases) was overwhelming, with associated maternal infection (92%), neutropenia (75%), and high rate of mortality (50%). The most common organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. There was a strong correlation between total white blood cell count and both mature and immature neutrophil counts in survivors but this correlation decreased substantially in neonates that died. Analysis of variance indicated that the means for polymorphonuclear leukocyte and immature neutrophil counts were significantly higher in survivors. Nosocomial sepsis (38 cases) occurred in premature low birth weight infants receiving invasive, intensive care. The most common organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis (76%). Total white blood cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and immature neutrophil counts rose significantly in response to sepsis. None died. Prevention of congenital sepsis requires methods to detect early maternal-fetal infection. Providing granulocytes to neutropenic neonates with congenital sepsis might improve outcome.

  11. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  12. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  13. Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

  14. Curcumin-loaded embryonic stem cell exosomes restored neurovascular unit following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Maldonado, Claudio; Bauer, Philip; Joshua, Irving G; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo cur ), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo cur for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo cur treatment. The study determined that MESC-exo cur treatment reduced neurological score, infarct volume and edema following IR-injury. As compared to untreated IR group, MESC-exo cur treated-IR group showed reduced inflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expression. Treatment of MESC-exo cur also reduced astrocytic GFAP expression and alleviated the expression of NeuN positive neurons in IR-injured mice. In addition, MESC-exo cur treatment restored vascular endothelial tight (claudin-5 and occludin) and adherent (VE-cadherin) junction proteins in IR-injured mice as compared to untreated IR-injured mice. These results suggest that combining the potentials of embryonic stem cell exosomes and curcumin can help neurovascular restoration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) related to the decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to a directive issued by the Commission on November 21, 1979. This statement is an overall study of the activities necessary for decontamination of the facility, defueling, and disposition of the radioactive wastes. The available alternatives considered ranged from implementation of full cleanup to no action other than continuing to maintain the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. Also included are comments of governmental agencies, other organizations, and the general public on the Draft PEIS on this project, and staff responses to these comments. (author)

  16. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-413 and 50-414, Duke Power Company, et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of the Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR 51, as amended, of the NRC regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land use and terrestrial and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Operational impacts to historic and archeological sites will be negligible. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission facilities should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial

  17. Effective clinical-scale production of dendritic cell vaccines by monocyte elutriation directly in medium, subsequent culture in bags and final antigen loading using peptides or RNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Michael; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Strasser, Erwin; Hendelmeier, Martin; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice

    2007-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination approaches are advancing fast into the clinic. The major obstacle for further improvement is the current lack of a simple functionally "closed" system to generate standardized monocyte-derived (mo) DC vaccines. Here, we significantly optimized the use of the Elutra counterflow elutriation system to enrich monocytic DC precursors by (1) developing an algorithm to avoid red blood cell debulking and associated monocyte loss before elutriation, and (2) by elutriation directly in culture medium rather than phosphate-buffered saline. Upon elutriation the bags containing the collected monocytes are simply transferred into the incubator to generate DC progeny as the final "open" washing step is no longer required. Elutriation resulted in significantly more (> or = 2-fold) and purer DC than the standard gradient centrifugation/adherence-based monocyte enrichment, whereas morphology, maturation markers, viability, migratory capacity, and T cell stimulatory capacity were identical. Subsequently, we compared RNA transfection, as this is an increasingly used approach to load DC with antigen. Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC could be electroporated with similar, high efficiency (on average >85% green fluorescence protein positive), and appeared also equal in antigen expression kinetics. Both Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC, when loaded with the MelanA peptide or electroporated with MelanA RNA, showed a high T cell stimulation capacity, that is, priming of MelanA-specific CD8+ T cells. Our optimized Elutra-based procedure is straightforward, clearly superior to the standard gradient centrifugation/plastic adherence protocol, and now allows the generation of large numbers of peptide-loaded or RNA-transfected DC in a functionally closed system.

  18. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-07

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide of cell wall constituents and digestibility energy of some agricultural residues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author). 37 refs., 22 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Energy Systems Based on Polyacetylene: Rechargeable Batteries and Schottky Barrier Solar Cells. Final Report, March 1, 1981-February 29, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    The chief thrust of the research has been directed towards the evaluation of polyacetylene (CH){sub x}, the prototype conducting polymer as an electrode- active material in novel, rechargeable batteries employing nonaqueous electrolytes. The p-doped material, [(CH{sup +y})A{sub y}{sup -}]{sub x}, (where A{sup -} is an anion) in conjunction with a Li anode, shows excellent discharge characteristics, e.g., very little change in discharge voltage with change in discharge current and a high power density. Its energy density is also good but it shows poor shelf life. When (CH){sub x} is used as a cathode (Li anode), which results in the formation of the n-doped polymer, [Li{sub y} {sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x}, during discharge, good discharge plateaus and power densities are obtained together with excellent shelf life and good recyclability. The energy density is, however only moderate. Cells employing an [M{sub y}{sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x} (where M = Li, Na) anode and a TiS{sub 2} cathode show very good discharge and recycling characteristics but their energy density is poor.

  1. Rising population of survivors of oral squamous cell cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Blackford, Amanda L; Rettig, Eleni M; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and a subset of oral cavity cancer (OCC) is increasing in the United States. To the authors' knowledge, the presumed growing prevalence of survivors of OPC and OCC has not been investigated to date. Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (1975-2012) estimated changes in incidence, 5-year cause-specific survival, and prevalence for OPC and OCC. Changes in incidence, cause-specific survival and prevalence were estimated by linear regression and expressed as the percentage change (B). Differences in incidence trends over time were determined by joinpoint analysis. The incidence of OPC increased by 62.6% from 1975 through 2012. Notable increases in OPC incidence were observed among men, white individuals, and those of younger ages. The 5-year survival for OPC increased significantly for all sexes, races, and individuals aged >30 years, with white individuals and males experiencing the largest increase in survival. By contrast, the incidence of OCC declined by 22.3% during the same time period. OCC incidence decreased across all groups but increased among individuals aged 30 to 39 years. Significant increases in survival were observed for OCC, except for those who were female, black, and aged American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains: a functional unit in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Gordon-Alonso, Mónica; Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2009-09-01

    Membrane lipids and proteins are non-randomly distributed and are unable to diffuse freely in the plane of the membrane. This is because of multiple constraints imposed both by the cortical cytoskeleton and by the preference of lipids and proteins to cluster into diverse and specialized membrane domains, including tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked proteins nanodomains and caveolae, among others. Recent biophysical characterization of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains suggests that they might be specially suited for the regulation of avidity of adhesion receptors and the compartmentalization of enzymatic activities. Moreover, modulation by tetraspanins of the function of adhesion receptors involved in inflammation, lymphocyte activation, cancer and pathogen infection suggests potential as therapeutic targets. This review explores this emerging picture of tetraspanin microdomains and discusses the implications for cell adhesion, proteolysis and pathogenesis.

  3. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  4. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  5. Integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

    2018-05-01

    Developing the idea of increasing the number of structural elements in the unit cell of a quasi-one-dimensional lattice as applied to the semi-discrete integrable systems of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we construct the zero-curvature representation for the general integrable nonlinear system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell. The integrability of the obtained general system permits to find explicitly a number of local conservation laws responsible for the main features of system dynamics and in particular for the so-called natural constraints separating the field variables into the basic and the concomitant ones. Thus, considering the reduction to the semi-discrete integrable system of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we revealed the essentially nontrivial impact of concomitant fields on the Poisson structure and on the whole Hamiltonian formulation of system dynamics caused by the nonzero background values of these fields. On the other hand, the zero-curvature representation of a general nonlinear system serves as an indispensable key to the dressing procedure of system integration based upon the Darboux transformation of the auxiliary linear problem and the implicit Bäcklund transformation of field variables. Due to the symmetries inherent to the six-component semi-discrete integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system with attractive-type nonlinearities, the Darboux-Bäcklund dressing scheme is shown to be simplified considerably, giving rise to the appropriately parameterized multi-component soliton solution consisting of six basic and four concomitant components.

  6. Large area multicrystalline silicon solar cells with high efficiency. Final report; Grossflaechige multikristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mit hohen Wirkungsraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebest, G.; Erler, K.; Mrwa, A.; Ball, M.

    2001-09-01

    Solar cells were produced of wafers of die-cast and strip-drawn multicrystalline silicon and characterized. Production methods like SOD (spin-on doping), RTP (rapid thermal processing), PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition), RIE (reactive ion etching) and screen printing were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Layer resistance can be adjusted by variation of the RTP temperature cycle and by selecting appropriate doping materials (P507 by Filmtronics); 2. The low resistance required for screen printing metallization are obtained only with a different doping material (P8545SF-Filmtronics); 3. Metallized aluminium and copper require a 30 nm TiN layer as diffusion barrier; 4. Reflectivity will be reduced most effectively by RIE with chlorine gas on monocrystalline and multicrystalline silicon wafers. [German] Im Rahmen des Projektes wurden auf Wafern aus blockgegossenem und bandgezogenem multikristallinen Silizium Solarzellen hergestellt und charakterisiert. Fuer die Herstellung wurden Verfahren wie SOD (spin-on doping), RTP (rapid thermal processing), PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition), RIE (reactive ion etching) und Siebdruck untersucht. Die Ergebnisse lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: 1. eine Einstellung des Schichtwiderstandes wird durch Variation des RTP-Temperaturzyklus sowie Auswahl verschiedener Dotierstoffe (P507 von Filmtronics) erreicht; 2. die fuer die Siebdruckmetallisierung erforderlichen geringen Schichtwiderstaende werden nur durch die Wahl eines anderen Dotierstoffes (P8545SF-Filmtronics) erreicht; 3. Aluminium- und Kupfermetallisierungen benoetigen eine 30 nm dicke TiN-Schicht als Diffusionsbarriere; und 4. die wirksamste Verminderung des Reflexionsgrades ist mittels RIE-Verfahren unter Verwendung von Chlorgas auf ein- und multikristalline Siliziumwafer erreichbar.

  7. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC's NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency's statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE's environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS

  8. Online estimation of internal stack temperatures in solid oxide fuel cell power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ɖ.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal stress is one of the main factors affecting the degradation rate of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. In order to mitigate the possibility of fatal thermal stress, stack temperatures and the corresponding thermal gradients need to be continuously controlled during operation. Due to the fact that in future commercial applications the use of temperature sensors embedded within the stack is impractical, the use of estimators appears to be a viable option. In this paper we present an efficient and consistent approach to data-driven design of the estimator for maximum and minimum stack temperatures intended (i) to be of high precision, (ii) to be simple to implement on conventional platforms like programmable logic controllers, and (iii) to maintain reliability in spite of degradation processes. By careful application of subspace identification, supported by physical arguments, we derive a simple estimator structure capable of producing estimates with 3% error irrespective of the evolving stack degradation. The degradation drift is handled without any explicit modelling. The approach is experimentally validated on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  9. Resonance region neutronics of unit cells in fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Deutsch, O.L.

    1977-05-01

    A method has been developed for generating resonance-self-shielded cross sections based upon an improved equivalence theorem, which appears to allow extension of the self-shielding-factor (Bondarenko f-factor) method, now mainly applied to fast reactors, to thermal reactors as well. The method is based on the use of simple prescriptions for the ratio of coolant-to-fuel region-averaged fluxes, in the equations defining cell averaged cross sections. Linearization of the dependence of these functions on absorber optical thickness is found to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an equivalence theorem. Results are given for cylindrical, spherical and slab geometries. The functional form of the flux ratio relations is developed from theoretical considerations, but some of the parameters are adjusted to force-fit numerical results. Good agreement over the entire range of fuel and coolant optical thicknesses is demonstrated with numerical results calculated using the ANISN program in the S 8 P 1 option

  10. Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, G.; Marleau, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)

  11. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  12. SMALL-DOSE CYTOKINES IN COMBINATION WITH 5-FLUOROURACIL IN OLISSEMINATED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: FINAL RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demidov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High and intermediate IL-2 regimens are difficult to recommend because of great toxicity and efficacy is not sufficient. We suggest that a combination of very low-dose cytokines is effective and safe in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC patients (pts. A prospective randomized study was started in 2003. The primary end-point was a response rate. Methods: The eligibility criteria included histopathologically confirmed MRCC, ECOG PS 0-2, no autoimmune diseases, no brain metastases, and normal organ function. All pts were randomized in three arms: IL-2 alone, 1.5 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 or IL-2 1.0 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 plus IFN 5 MIU, sc, t.i.w, weeks 1—3 or biochemotherapy group 5-FU, 500 mg/m2, iv, once a week, weeks 1—3 plus IL-2 1.0 MIU, iv, t.i.w., weeks 1—3 plus IFN 5 MIU, sc, t.i.w., weeks 1—3. Courses were repeated every three weeks. A response was assessed according to the RECIST every 2 courses.Results: 64 pts were enrolled, of whom 63 were analyzed. Their median age was 55.4 years (range 16—74. 42.9% of the patients had pre- viously received chemo- or immunotherapy. 55.6 percent of the pts had poor prognosis (according to Motzer et al., 2002. Bone metastases were present in 52.4% of the pts. Sixteen patients treated with IL-2 alone showed no CR, PR, 2 SD, or 14 PD. Of 23 patients in the IL-2+IFN group, there were 5 PR, 8 SD, and 10 PD, with a response rate of 21.7%. Amongst 24 patients in the 5-FU+IL-2+IFN group, there were 1 CR, 3 PR, 10 SD, and 10 PD, with a response rate of 16.7%. One-year survival was 20.0%, 81.3% and 81.0%, respectively. The influenza-like syndrome was the most common side effect in the pts who received IFN (89.1%, grade 1, CTC. Hypotension associated with IL-2 (all groups was seen in 56.3% (50%, grade 1 and 6.3%, grade 2. The other adverse reactions were 12.7% grade 1 neutropenia and vomiting in 4.7% pts (Group 3.Conclusion: All regimens are well tolerated. Small-dose IL-2

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  14. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  15. Interhospital Variability in Perioperative Red Blood Cell Ordering Patterns in United States Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Thurm, Cary W; Rothstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate perioperative red blood cell (RBC) ordering and interhospital variability patterns in pediatric patients undergoing surgical interventions at US children's hospitals. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children aged blood type and crossmatch were included when done on the day before or the day of the surgical procedure. The RBC transfusions included were those given on the day of or the day after surgery. The type and crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (TCTR) was calculated for each surgical procedure. An adjusted model for interhospital variability was created to account for variation in patient population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer type, and presence/number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs) per patient. A total of 357 007 surgical interventions were identified across all participating hospitals. Blood type and crossmatch was performed 55 632 times, and 13 736 transfusions were provided, for a TCTR of 4:1. There was an association between increasing age and TCTR (R(2) = 0.43). Patients with multiple CCCs had lower TCTRs, with a stronger relationship (R(2) = 0.77). There was broad variability in adjusted TCTRs among hospitals (range, 2.5-25). The average TCTR in US children's hospitals was double that of adult surgical data, and was associated with wide interhospital variability. Age and the presence of CCCs markedly influenced this ratio. Studies to evaluate optimal preoperative RBC ordering and standardization of practices could potentially decrease unnecessary costs and wasted blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardt, Frank [Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The equipment developed under this grant provides a solution to convert thermal energy into electricity for heat sources such as geothermal heat or waste heat from industrial processes. In the course of this research effort we developed a series-counterflow configuration for multiple units to increase the efficiency of the conversion process.

  17. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Fowler, M.W.; Entchev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlus TM , can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlus TM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlus TM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlus TM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (U f ), current density (I c ) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  18. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  19. Integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Czech Republic and in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Gene expression microarray and next generation sequencing efforts on conventional, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC have been mostly performed in North American and Western European populations, while the highest incidence rates are found in Central/Eastern Europe. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling on 101 pairs of ccRCC tumours and adjacent non-tumour renal tissue from Czech patients recruited within the "K2 Study", using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips to explore the molecular variations underlying the biological and clinical heterogeneity of this cancer. Differential expression analysis identified 1650 significant probes (fold change ≥2 and false discovery rate <0.05 mapping to 630 up- and 720 down-regulated unique genes. We performed similar statistical analysis on the RNA sequencing data of 65 ccRCC cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project and identified 60% (402 of the downregulated and 74% (469 of the upregulated genes found in the K2 series. The biological characterization of the significantly deregulated genes demonstrated involvement of downregulated genes in metabolic and catabolic processes, excretion, oxidation reduction, ion transport and response to chemical stimulus, while simultaneously upregulated genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, response to hypoxia, stress, wounding, vasculature development and cell activation. Furthermore, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 317 TCGA ccRCC/adjacent non-tumour renal tissue pairs indicated that deregulation of approximately 7% of genes could be explained by epigenetic changes. Finally, survival analysis conducted on 89 K2 and 464 TCGA cases identified 8 genes associated with differential prognostic outcomes. In conclusion, a large proportion of ccRCC molecular characteristics were common to the two populations and several may have clinical implications when validated further through large clinical cohorts.

  20. Hispanics have the lowest stem cell transplant utilization rate for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in the United States: A CIBMTR report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita

    2017-08-15

    Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  2. Solution Processed Organic Photovoltaic Cells Using D-A-D-A-D Type Small Molecular Donor Materials with Benzodithiophene and Diketopyrrolopyrrole Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangman; Nam, So Yeon; Suh, Dong Hack; Lee, Jaemin; Lee, Changjin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2016-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic Cells (OPVs) have been considered to be a next-generation energy source to overcome exhaustion of resources. Currently, OPVs are developed based on two types of donor material with polymer and small molecule. Polymeric donor materials have shown better power conversion efficiency (PCE) than small molecular donor materials, since it's easy to control the morphology of photoactive film. However, the difficulty in synthetic reproducibility and purification of polymeric donor were main drawback to overcome. And then, recently small molecule donor materials have been overcome bad morphology of OPVs film by using appropriate alkyl substituents and relatively long conjugation system. In this study, we designed and synthesized D-A-D-A-D type small molecular donor materials containing alternatively linked benzodithiophene (BDT) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units. Also, we studied on the effect of photovoltaic performance of prepared small molecular D-A-D-A-D type donor with variation of thiophene links and with/without hexyl substituent. Our small molecular donors showed HOMO energy levels from -5.26 to -5.34 eV and optical bandgaps from 1.70 to 1.87 eV by CV (cyclic voltammetry) and UV/Vis spectroscopy, respectively. Finally, 3.4% of PCE can be obtained using a mixture of BDT(DPP)2-T2 and PCBM as an active layer with a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.72 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.44 under 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G simulated light. We will discuss the performance of D-A-D-A-D type small molecular donor based OPVs with variation of both terminal substituents.

  3. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  4. The connection between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the United States: implications for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Junger, Michele L; Saraiya, Mona; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-08-01

    Results from studies conducted in the past several years suggest that some oropharyngeal cancers, those of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, are associated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, the authors summarize the available evidence regarding the epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, the available HPV vaccines and the implications of these for dentistry. They also examine the differences in HPV prevalence between cancers of the oral cavity and those of the oropharynx. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and the National Guideline Clearinghouse to identify English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers published from January 2005 through May 2011. Molecular and epidemiologic evidence suggest a strong etiologic association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States has increased between 1973 and 2007, whereas that of cancers at other head and neck sites has decreased steadily. Compared with HPV-negative cancers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are associated with certain sexual behaviors, occur more often among white men and people who do not use tobacco or alcohol, and may occur in a population younger by about four years (median ages, 52-56 years). Despite often having a later stage of diagnosis, people with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers have a lower risk of dying or recurrence than do those with HPV-negative cancers. The effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing oropharyngeal cancers is unknown. Dental health care personnel (DHCP) should be knowledgeable about the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, the association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers and HPV vaccines, and they should be prompt in referring patients with suggestive symptoms for evaluation. DHCP can play an important role in increasing patients' knowledge about HPV

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  6. HyLIFT-FLEX. ''Development and demonstration of flexible and scalable fuel cell power system for various material handling vehicles''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The project has successfully developed and tested a new fuel cell system from H2 Logic in a tow tractor from MULAG. Based on the project results a positive decision has been taken on continuing commercialisation efforts. Next step will be a large scale demonstration of up to 100 units in a new project named HyLIFT-Europe that is expected to commence in early 2013, with support from the FCH-JU programme. Main efforts in the project have been the development of a new fuel cell system, named H2Drive from H2 Logic, and the integration and test in a standard battery powered COMET 3 towing tractor from MULAG. The system size is exactly the same as a standard battery box (DIN measures) and can be easily integrated into e.g. the MULAG vehicle or other electric powered material handling vehicles using the same battery size. Several R and D efforts on the fuel cell system have been conducted with the aim to reduce cost and improve efficiency, among others the following: 1) New air compressor sub-system and control - improving overall system efficiency with {approx}2,5%. 2) New simplified air-based compressor cooling sub-system. 3) New hydrogen compressor sub-system with improved efficiency and reduced cost. 4) New hydrogen inlet and outlet manifold sub-system - resulting in reduction of more than 50% of all sensor components in the fuel cell system. 5) New DC/DC converter with an average efficiency of 97% - a 3% improvement. 6) A new optimized hybrid system that meets the vehicle cycle requirements. In total the R and D efforts have improved the overall fuel cell system efficiency with 10% and helped to reduce costs with 33% compared to the previous generation. A first prototype of the developed H2Drive system has been constructed and integrated into the MULAG Towing Tractor. Only few modifications were made on the base vehicle, among others integration of cabin-heating, displays and motor control. Several internal tests were conducted at H2 Logic and MULAG before making a

  7. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  8. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-12-01

    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  9. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Christopher; Quinn, Jason G; Watson, Stephanie; Doiron, Donald; Crocker, Bryan; Cheng, Calvino

    2014-01-01

    Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC) unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit's proximity to expiration. The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012) was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received), compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395) and 2.81% (261/9220), respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012) compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  10. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 115: AREA 25 TEST CELL A FACILITY, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the activities performed to close CAU 115, Area 25 Test Cell A Facility, as presented in the NDEP-approved SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The SAFER Plan includes a summary of the site history, process knowledge, and closure standards. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical and radiological data to confirm that the remediation goals were met and to document final site conditions. The approved closure alternative as presented in the SAFER Plan for CAU 115 (NNSA/NSO, 2004) was clean closure; however, closure in place was implemented under a Record of Technical Change (ROTC) to the SAFER Plan when radiological surveys indicated that the concrete reactor pad was radiologically activated and could not be decontaminated to meet free release levels. The ROTC is included as Appendix G of this report. The objectives of closure were to remove any trapped residual liquids and gases, dispose regulated and hazardous waste, decontaminate removable radiological contamination, demolish and dispose aboveground structures, remove the dewar as a best management practice (BMP), and characterize and restrict access to all remaining radiological contamination. Radiological contaminants of concern (COCs) included cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, uranium-234/235/236/238, and plutonium-239/240. Additional COCs included Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and asbestos

  11. Pressurized diesel fuel processing using hydrogen peroxide for the fuel cell power unit in low-oxygen environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangho; Han, Gwangwoo; Cho, Sungbaek; Bae, Joongmyeon

    2018-03-01

    A novel concept for diesel fuel processing utilizing H2O2 is suggested to obtain the high-purity H2 required for air-independent propulsion using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for use in submarines and unmanned underwater vehicles. The core components include 1) a diesel-H2O2 autothermal reforming (ATR) reactor to produce H2-rich gas, 2) a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to convert CO to H2, and 3) a H2 separation membrane to separate only high-purity H2. Diesel and H2O2 can easily be pressurized as they are liquids. The application of the H2 separation membrane without a compressor in the middle of the process is thus advantageous. In this paper, the characteristics of pressurized ATR and WGS reactions are investigated according to the operating conditions. In both reactors, the methanation reaction is enhanced as the pressure increases. Then, permeation experiments with a H2 separation membrane are performed while varying the temperature, pressure difference, and inlet gas composition. In particular, approximately 90% of the H2 is recovered when the steam-separated rear gas of the WGS reactor is used in the H2 separation membrane. Finally, based on the experimental results, design points are suggested for maximizing the efficiency of the diesel-H2O2 fuel processor.

  12. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  13. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Kumar Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, Dev [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Misra, Mano [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Heske, Clemens [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    The objectives included: Develop high efficiency metal oxide nanotubular array photo-anodes for generating hydrogen by water splitting; Develop density functional theory to understand the effect of the morphology of the nanotubes on the photo-electrochemical (PEC) properties of the photo-anodes; Develop kinetics and formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanotubes under different synthesis conditions; Develop combinatorial approach to prepare hybrid photo-anodes having multiple hetero-atoms incorporation in a single photo anode; Improve the durability of the material; and Scale up the laboratory demonstration to production unit.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  16. Extraordinary electromagnetic transmission by antenna arrays and frequency selective surfaces having compound unit cells with dissimilar elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, Hung; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2018-03-20

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to extraordinary electromagnetic transmission (EEMT) to enable multiple inefficient (un-matched) but coupled radiators and/or apertures to radiate and/or pass electromagnetic waves efficiently. EEMT can be utilized such that signal transmission from a plurality of antennas and/or apertures occurs at a transmission frequency different to transmission frequencies of the individual antennas and/or aperture elements. The plurality of antennas/apertures can comprise first antenna/aperture having a first radiating area and material(s) and second antenna/aperture having a second radiating area and material(s), whereby the first radiating/aperture area and second radiating/aperture area can be co-located in a periodic compound unit cell. Owing to mutual coupling between the respective antennas/apertures in their arrayed configuration, the transmission frequency of the array can be shifted from the transmission frequencies of the individual elements. EEMT can be utilized for an array of evanescent of inefficient radiators connected to a transmission line(s).

  17. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  18. Fatigue behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloy scaffolds produced by SLM, a unit cell design comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, M; Van Hooreweder, B; Van Humbeeck, J; Kruth, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique able to produce complex functional parts via successively melting layers of metal powder. This process grants the freedom to design highly complex scaffold components to allow bone ingrowth and aid mechanical anchorage. This paper investigates the compression fatigue behaviour of three different unit cells (octahedron, cellular gyroid and sheet gyroid) of SLM nitinol scaffolds. It was found that triply periodic minimal surfaces display superior static mechanical properties in comparison to conventional octahedron beam lattice structures at identical volume fractions. Fatigue resistance was also found to be highly geometry dependent due to the effects of AM processing techniques on the surface topography and notch sensitivity. Geometries minimising nodal points and the staircase effect displayed the greatest fatigue resistance when normalized to yield strength. Furthermore oxygen analysis showed a large oxygen uptake during SLM processing which must be altered to meet ASTM medical grade standards and may significantly reduce fatigue life. These achieved fatigue properties indicate that NiTi scaffolds produced via SLM can provide sufficient mechanical support over an implants lifetime within stress range values experienced in real life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection[NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted fro