WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell selection system

  1. Characterization of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells Selected by Vario Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Enyi; Lian, Xiaohua; Chen, Wei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34 bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34 dim cells. CD34 bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34 dim cells. Furthermore, CD34 bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS

  2. A multichip aVLSI system emulating orientation selectivity of primary visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and fabricated a multichip neuromorphic analog very large scale integrated (aVLSI) system, which emulates the orientation selective response of the simple cell in the primary visual cortex. The system consists of a silicon retina and an orientation chip. An image, which is filtered by a concentric center-surround (CS) antagonistic receptive field of the silicon retina, is transferred to the orientation chip. The image transfer from the silicon retina to the orientation chip is carried out with analog signals. The orientation chip selectively aggregates multiple pixels of the silicon retina, mimicking the feedforward model proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. The chip provides the orientation-selective (OS) outputs which are tuned to 0 degrees, 60 degrees, and 120 degrees. The feed-forward aggregation reduces the fixed pattern noise that is due to the mismatch of the transistors in the orientation chip. The spatial properties of the orientation selective response were examined in terms of the adjustable parameters of the chip, i.e., the number of aggregated pixels and size of the receptive field of the silicon retina. The multichip aVLSI architecture used in the present study can be applied to implement higher order cells such as the complex cell of the primary visual cortex.

  3. A Traceless Selection: Counter-selection System That Allows Efficient Generation of Transposon and CRISPR-modified T-cell Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mezzadra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen major breakthroughs in genome-engineering systems, such as transposon-mediated gene delivery systems and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing tools. In these systems, transient expression of auxiliary genes is responsible for permanent genomic modification. For both systems, it would be valuable to select for cells that are likely to undergo stable genome modification. Importantly, in particular for clinical applications of genome-engineered cell products, it will also be of importance to remove those cells that, due to random vector integration, display an unwanted stable expression of the auxiliary gene. Here, we develop a traceless selection system that on the one hand allows efficient enrichment of modified cells, and on the other hand can be used to select against cells that retain expression of the auxiliary gene. The value of this system to produce highly enriched-auxiliary gene-free cell products is demonstrated.

  4. Information system for selection of conditions and equipment for the cultivation of mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Batyrgazieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mammals cells and their products wide application, so the actual problem is a creation of an information system in the field of their cultivation for the organizing and structuring of information on process experimental data. This work is devoted the analysis of mammalian cell cultivation. The main technologies of cell cultivation, necessary equipment and matrices are considered. The main stages of database design and information system is described. The justification of software products are provided and the results of the database and information system implementation are done. The detailed description of all modules of the system, as well as a comparative analysis of the results of the search are in the system to verify correct operation of the system. The scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the effective tool for presenting knowledge and data for search by specific parameters is required. The convenience of the system is that it is not necessary to address in various data sources to get and conditions of cultivation of mammalian cells, it has already been collected and structured according to parameters. With help of the system, it is possible to select conditions for the cultivation of mammalian cells at the stage of scientific researches that will significantly reduce the time and cost of work, also to rank of recommended technological and hardware solutions. The system has a functional completeness, i.e. in a specific subject area, it ensures the fulfillment of user's requirements, and allows to accumulate and process information.

  5. A fuzzy logic urea dosage controller design for two-cell selective catalytic reduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kun; Wei, Lijiang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-12-22

    Diesel engines have dominated in the heavy-duty vehicular and marine power source. However, the induced air pollution is a big problem. As people's awareness of environmental protection increasing, the emission regulations of diesel-engine are becoming more stringent. In order to achieve the emission regulations, the after-treatment system is a necessary choice. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system has been widely applied to reduce the NO X emissions of diesel engine. Different from single-cell SCR systems, the two-cell systems have various benefits from the modeling and control perspective. In this paper, the urea dosage controller design for two-cell SCR systems was investigated. Firstly, the two-cell SCR modeling was introduced. Based on the developed model, the design procedure for the fuzzy logic urea dosage controller was well addressed. Secondly, simulations and comparisons were employed via an experimental verification of the whole vehicle simulator. And the results showed that the designed controller simultaneously achieved high NO X reduction rate and low tail-pipe ammonia slip. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of cell line development in the GS-CHO expression system using a high-throughput, single cell-based clone selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are commonly produced by high-expressing, clonal and recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Currently, CHO cells dominate as a commercial production host because of their ease of use, established regulatory track record, and safety profile. CHO-K1SV is a suspension, protein-free-adapted CHO-K1-derived cell line employing the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression system (GS-CHO expression system). The selection of high-producing mammalian cell lines is a crucial step in process development for the production of therapeutic antibodies. In general, cloning by the limiting dilution method is used to isolate high-producing monoclonal CHO cells. However, the limiting dilution method is time consuming and has a low probability of monoclonality. To minimize the duration and increase the probability of obtaining high-producing clones with high monoclonality, an automated single cell-based clone selector, the ClonePix FL system, is available. In this study, we applied the high-throughput ClonePix FL system for cell line development using CHO-K1SV cells and investigated efficient conditions for single cell-based clone selection. CHO-K1SV cell growth at the pre-picking stage was improved by optimizing the formulation of semi-solid medium. The efficiency of picking and cell growth at the post-picking stage was improved by optimization of the plating time without decreasing the diversity of clones. The conditions for selection, including the medium formulation, were the most important factors for the single cell-based clone selection system to construct a high-producing CHO cell line. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplementation of Nucleosides During Selection can Reduce Sequence Variant Levels in CHO Cells Using GS/MSX Selection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Louie, Salina; Hoi, Kam Hon; Shaw, David; Yim, Mandy; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-01-01

    In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as methotrexate (MTX) or methionine sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, it is questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer. The results show that the supplementation of nucleosides to the media during MSX selection decreased genomic DNA mutagenesis rates in the selected cells, probably by reducing nucleotide mis-incorporation into the DNA. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides enhance clone recovery post selection and does not affect antibody expression. It is further observed that nucleoside supplements lowered DNA mutagenesis rates only at the initial stage of the clone selection and do not have any effect on DNA mutagenesis rates after stable cell lines are established. Therefore, the data suggests that addition of nucleosides during early stages of MSX selection can lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer or clone stability in antibody expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transcriptional blockages in a cell-free system by sequence-selective DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Liu, A P; Denny, W A; Cullinane, C; Talarico, T; Phillips, D R

    2000-04-14

    There is considerable interest in DNA sequence-selective DNA-binding drugs as potential inhibitors of gene expression. Five compounds with distinctly different base pair specificities were compared in their effects on the formation and elongation of the transcription complex from the lac UV5 promoter in a cell-free system. All were tested at drug levels which killed 90% of cells in a clonogenic survival assay. Cisplatin, a selective alkylator at purine residues, inhibited transcription, decreasing the full-length transcript, and causing blockage at a number of GG or AG sequences, making it probable that intrastrand crosslinks are the blocking lesions. A cyclopropylindoline known to be an A-specific alkylator also inhibited transcription, with blocks at adenines. The aniline mustard chlorambucil, that targets primarily G but also A sequences, was also effective in blocking the formation of full-length transcripts. It produced transcription blocks either at, or one base prior to, AA or GG sequences, suggesting that intrastrand crosslinks could again be involved. The non-alkylating DNA minor groove binder Hoechst 33342 (a bisbenzimidazole) blocked formation of the full-length transcript, but without creating specific blockage sites. A bisbenzimidazole-linked aniline mustard analogue was a more effective transcription inhibitor than either chlorambucil or Hoechst 33342, with different blockage sites occurring immediately as compared with 2 h after incubation. The blockages were either immediately prior to AA or GG residues, or four to five base pairs prior to such sites, a pattern not predicted from in vitro DNA-binding studies. Minor groove DNA-binding ligands are of particular interest as inhibitors of gene expression, since they have the potential ability to bind selectively to long sequences of DNA. The results suggest that the bisbenzimidazole-linked mustard does cause alkylation and transcription blockage at novel DNA sites. in addition to sites characteristic of

  9. Stressing the ubiquitin-proteasome system without 20S proteolytic inhibition selectively kills cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Anchoori

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate, and for specific signaling pathways, notably HPV E6-targeted degradation of p53 and PDZ proteins. Natural compounds with antioxidant properties including flavonoids and triterpenoids hold promise as anticancer agents by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. An increasing body of evidence indicates that their α-β unsaturated carbonyl system is the molecular determinant for inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation up-stream of the catalytic sites of the 20S proteasome. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a new class of chalcone-based, potent and cell permeable chemical inhibitors of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, and a lead compound RAMB1. RAMB1 inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation without compromising the catalytic activities of the 20S proteasome, a mechanism distinct from that of Bortezomib. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with RAMB1 triggers unfolded protein responses, including aggresome formation and Hsp90 stabilization, and increases p53 steady state levels. RAMB1 treatment results in activation of lysosomal-dependent degradation pathways as a mechanism to compensate for increasing levels of poly-ubiquitin enriched toxic aggregates. Importantly, RAMB1 synergistically triggers cell death of cervical cancer cells when combined with the lysosome inhibitor Chloroquine.

  10. Understanding B-cell activation and autoantibody repertoire selection in systemic lupus erythematosus: A B-cell immunomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Christopher M; Hom, Jennifer R; Fucile, Christopher F; Rosenberg, Alexander F; Sanz, Inaki

    2018-07-01

    Understanding antibody repertoires and in particular, the properties and fates of B cells expressing potentially pathogenic antibodies is critical to define the mechanisms underlying multiple immunological diseases including autoimmune and allergic conditions as well as transplant rejection. Moreover, an integrated knowledge of the antibody repertoires expressed by B cells and plasma cells (PC) of different functional properties and longevity is essential to develop new therapeutic strategies, better biomarkers for disease segmentation, and new assays to measure restoration of B-cell tolerance or, at least, of normal B-cell homeostasis. Reaching these goals, however, will require a more precise phenotypic, functional and molecular definition of B-cell and PC populations, and a comprehensive analysis of the antigenic reactivity of the antibodies they express. While traditionally hampered by technical and ethical limitations in human experimentation, new technological advances currently enable investigators to address these questions in a comprehensive fashion. In this review, we shall discuss these concepts as they apply to the study of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The interleukin-15 system suppresses T cell-mediated autoimmunity by regulating negative selection and nT(H)17 cell homeostasis in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mau-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yen, Ching-Cheng; Lai, Yein-Gei; Liou, Yae-Huei; Lin, Chih-Kung; Liao, Nan-Shih

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-15 (IL-15) system is important for regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, however, its role in autoimmune disease remained unclear. Here we found that Il15(-/-) and Il15ra(-/-) mice spontaneously developed late-onset autoimmune phenotypes. CD4(+) T cells of the knockout mice showed elevated autoreactivity as demonstrated by the induction of lymphocyte infiltration in the lacrimal and salivary glands when transferred into nude mice. The antigen-presenting cells in the thymic medullary regions expressed IL-15 and IL-15Rα, whose deficiency resulted in insufficient negative selection and elevated number of natural IL-17A-producing CD4(+) thymocytes. These findings reveal previously unknown functions of the IL-15 system in thymocyte development, and thus a new layer of regulation in T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  13. A machine vision system for automated non-invasive assessment of cell viability via dark field microscopy, wavelet feature selection and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friehs Karl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell viability is one of the basic properties indicating the physiological state of the cell, thus, it has long been one of the major considerations in biotechnological applications. Conventional methods for extracting information about cell viability usually need reagents to be applied on the targeted cells. These reagent-based techniques are reliable and versatile, however, some of them might be invasive and even toxic to the target cells. In support of automated noninvasive assessment of cell viability, a machine vision system has been developed. Results This system is based on supervised learning technique. It learns from images of certain kinds of cell populations and trains some classifiers. These trained classifiers are then employed to evaluate the images of given cell populations obtained via dark field microscopy. Wavelet decomposition is performed on the cell images. Energy and entropy are computed for each wavelet subimage as features. A feature selection algorithm is implemented to achieve better performance. Correlation between the results from the machine vision system and commonly accepted gold standards becomes stronger if wavelet features are utilized. The best performance is achieved with a selected subset of wavelet features. Conclusion The machine vision system based on dark field microscopy in conjugation with supervised machine learning and wavelet feature selection automates the cell viability assessment, and yields comparable results to commonly accepted methods. Wavelet features are found to be suitable to describe the discriminative properties of the live and dead cells in viability classification. According to the analysis, live cells exhibit morphologically more details and are intracellularly more organized than dead ones, which display more homogeneous and diffuse gray values throughout the cells. Feature selection increases the system's performance. The reason lies in the fact that feature

  14. Selective Memory to Apoptotic Cell-Derived Self-Antigens with Implications for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhlin, Amanda; Chen, Yunying; Wermeling, Fredrik; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Lindh, Emma; Shinde, Rahul; Halaby, Marie Jo; Kaiser, Ylva; Winqvist, Ola; McGaha, Tracy L; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2016-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by pathogenic immune responses to self-antigens. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), many self-antigens are found in apoptotic cells (ACs), and defects in removal of ACs from the body are linked to a risk for developing SLE. This includes pathological memory that gives rise to disease flares. In this study, we investigated how memory to AC-derived self-antigens develops and the contribution of self-memory to the development of lupus-related pathology. Multiple injections of ACs without adjuvant into wild-type mice induce a transient primary autoimmune response without apparent anti-nuclear Ab reactivity or kidney pathology. Interestingly, as the transient Ab response reached baseline, a single boost injection fully recalled the immune response to ACs, and this memory response was furthermore transferable into naive mice. Additionally, the memory response contains elements of pathogenicity, accompanied by selective memory to selective Ags. Thus, we provide evidence for a selective self-memory that underlies progression of the response to self-antigens with implications for SLE development therapy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Layered double hydroxide-enhanced luminescence in a Fenton-like system for selective sensing of cobalt in Hela cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Yuan, Zhiqin; Lu, Chao

    2017-09-01

    This work presented a facile and eco-friendly method for the determination of cobalt ions (Co(II)) in living cells based on layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al CO3-LDHs) enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) emission of a Co(II)-hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydroxide system. The enhanced CL emission was attributed to the large specific surface area of Mg-Al CO3-LDHs, which facilitates the generation of an excited-stated intermediate. The proposed method displayed high selectivity toward Co(II) over other metal ions. Under the optimal conditions, the increased CL intensity showed a linear response versus Co(II) concentration in the range of 5.0-1000 nM with a detection limit of 3.7 nM (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation for nine repeated measurements of 100 nM Co(II) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied to detect Co(II) in living cell samples, and the results were agreed with those obtained by the standard ICP-MS method.

  16. A thermodynamic approach for selecting operating conditions in the design of reversible solid oxide cell energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Kazempoor, Pejman; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Reversible solid oxide cell (ReSOC) systems are being increasingly considered for electrical energy storage, although much work remains before they can be realized, including cell materials development and system design optimization. These systems store electricity by generating a synthetic fuel in electrolysis mode and subsequently recover electricity by electrochemically oxidizing the stored fuel in fuel cell mode. System thermal management is improved by promoting methane synthesis internal to the ReSOC stack. Within this strategy, the cell-stack operating conditions are highly impactful on system performance and optimizing these parameters to suit both operating modes is critical to achieving high roundtrip efficiency. Preliminary analysis shows the thermoneutral voltage to be a useful parameter for analyzing ReSOC systems and the focus of this study is to quantitatively examine how it is affected by ReSOC operating conditions. The results reveal that the thermoneutral voltage is generally reduced by increased pressure, and reductions in temperature, fuel utilization, and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, many different combinations of these operating conditions are expected to promote efficient energy storage. Pressurized systems can achieve high efficiency at higher temperature and fuel utilization, while non-pressurized systems may require lower stack temperature and suffer from reduced energy density.

  17. Towards increased selectivity of drug delivery to cancer cells: development of a LDL-based nanodelivery system for hydrophobic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzova, Diana; Huntosova, Veronika; Kasak, Peter; Petrovajova, Dana; Joniova, Jaroslava; Dzurova, Lenka; Nadova, Zuzana; Sureau, Franck; Midkovsky, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a natural in vivo carrier of cholesterol in the vascular system, play a key role in the delivery of hydrophobic photosensitizers (pts) to tumor cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. To make this delivery system even more efficient, we have constructed a nano-delivery system by coating of LDL surface by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. Fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging were used to characterize redistribution of hypericin (Hyp), a natural potent pts, loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes to free LDL molecules as well as to monitor cellular uptake of Hyp by U87-MG cells. It was shown than the redistribution process of Hyp between LDL molecules is significantly suppressed by dextran coating of LDL surface. On the other hand, PEG does not significantly influence this process. The modification of LDL molecules by the polymers does not inhibit their recognition by cellular LDL receptors. U-87 MG cellular uptake of Hyp loaded in LDL/PEG and LDL/dextran complexes appears to be similar to that one observed for Hyp transported by unmodified LDL particles. It is proposed that by polymers modified LDL molecules could be used as a basis for construction of a drug transport system for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells expressing high level of LDL receptors.

  18. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  19. Selected System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, F.; Puñal, O.; Klagges, K.; Kirsche, M.

    Apart from the general issue of modeling the channel, the PHY and the MAC of wireless networks, there are specific modeling assumptions that are considered for different systems. In this chapter we consider three specific wireless standards and highlight modeling options for them. These are IEEE 802.11 (as example for wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.16 (as example for wireless metropolitan networks) and IEEE 802.15 (as example for body area networks). Each section on these three systems discusses also at the end a set of model implementations that are available today.

  20. Interference Alignment-based Precoding and User Selection with Limited Feedback in Two-cell Downlink Multi-user MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a new approach to address interference in modern multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO cellular networks in which interference is an important factor that limits the system throughput. System throughput in most IA implementation schemes is significantly improved only with perfect channel state information and in a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR region. Designing a simple IA scheme for the system with limited feedback and investigating system performance at a low-to-medium SNR region is important and practical. This paper proposed a precoding and user selection scheme based on partial interference alignment in two-cell downlink multi-user MIMO systems under limited feedback. This scheme aligned inter-cell interference to a predefined direction by designing user’s receive antenna combining vectors. A modified singular value decomposition (SVD-based beamforming method and a corresponding user-selection algorithm were proposed for the system with low rate limited feedback to improve sum rate performance. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a higher sum rate than traditional schemes without IA. The modified SVD-based beamforming scheme is also superior to the traditional zero-forcing beamforming scheme in low-rate limited feedback systems. The proposed partial IA scheme does not need to collaborate between transmitters and joint design between the transmitter and the users. The scheme can be implemented with low feedback overhead in current MIMO cellular networks.

  1. Culture media-based selection of endothelial cells, pericytes, and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes from the young mouse vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Cai, Jing; Hou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaohan; Kachelmeier, Allan; Shi, Xiaorui

    2017-03-01

    The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs. Study of both the vestibular and strial BLB has been limited by the unavailability of primary culture cells from these barriers. To better understand how barrier component cells interact in the vestibular system to control BLB function, we developed a novel culture medium-based method for obtaining EC, PC, and PVM/M primary cells from tiny explants of the semicircular canal, sacculus, utriculus, and ampullae tissue of young mouse ears at post-natal age 8-12 d. Each phenotype is grown in a specific culture medium which selectively supports the phenotype in a mixed population of vestibular cell types. The unwanted phenotypes do not survive passaging. The protocol does not require additional equipment or special enzyme treatment. The harvesting process takes less than 2 h. Primary cell types are generated within 7-10 d. The primary culture ECs, PCs, and PVM/M shave consistent phenotypes more than 90% pure after two passages (∼ 3 weeks). The highly purified primary cell lines can be used for studying cell-cell interactions, barrier permeability, and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective chemokine receptor usage by central nervous system myeloid cells in CCR2-red fluorescent protein knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Saederup

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte subpopulations distinguished by differential expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 are difficult to track in vivo, partly due to lack of CCR2 reagents.We created CCR2-red fluorescent protein (RFP knock-in mice and crossed them with CX3CR1-GFP mice to investigate monocyte subset trafficking. In mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, CCR2 was critical for efficient intrathecal accumulation and localization of Ly6C(hi/CCR2(hi monocytes. Surprisingly, neutrophils, not Ly6C(lo monocytes, largely replaced Ly6C(hi cells in the central nervous system of these mice. CCR2-RFP expression allowed the first unequivocal distinction between infiltrating monocytes/macrophages from resident microglia.These results refine the concept of monocyte subsets, provide mechanistic insight about monocyte entry into the central nervous system, and present a novel model for imaging and quantifying inflammatory myeloid populations.

  3. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  4. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  5. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in

  6. Selecting practice management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, R; Ciotti, V

    1997-01-01

    Despite enormous advances in information systems, the process by which most medical practices select them has remained virtually unchanged for decades: the request for proposal (RFP). Unfortunately, vendors have learned ways to minimize the value of RFP checklists to where purchasers now learn little about the system functionality. The authors describe a selection methodology that replaces the RFP with scored demos, reviews of vendor user manuals and mathematically structured reference checking. In a recent selection process at a major medical center, these techniques yielded greater user buy-in and favorable contract terms as well.

  7. Analysis of correlations between selected endothelial cell activation markers, disease activity, and nailfold capillaroscopy microvascular changes in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciołkiewicz, Mariusz; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Klimiuk, Piotr Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between selected serum endothelial cell activation markers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), disease activity, and microvascular changes determined by nailfold capillaroscopy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Serum levels of VEGF, ET-1, sTM, and sE-selectin were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 SLE patients. The disease activity was measured with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in all patients. Positive correlation was found between VEGF and both ET-1 (r = 0.294, p nailfold capillaroscopy (r = 0.458, p nailfold capillaroscopy. The relationship between changes in nailfold capillaroscopy, endothelial cell activation markers, and the clinical activity of SLE points to an important role of microvascular abnormalities in the clinical manifestation of the disease.

  8. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way...

  9. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  10. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Bálint; Szabó, Gyula; Benczúr, András

    2013-01-01

    Background: The application and introduction of ERP systems have become a central issue for management and operation of enterprises. The competition on market enforces the improvement and optimization of business processes of enterprises to increase their efficiency, effectiveness, and to manage better the resources outside the company. The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. Objective: The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on th...

  11. Structure of the gene encoding VGF, a nervous system-specific mRNA that is rapidly and selectively induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, S R; Fischberg, D J; Dong, K W

    1991-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the development and survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Following treatment with NGF but not epidermal growth factor, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells undergo neural differentiation. We have cloned a nervous system-specific mRNA, NGF33.1, that is rapidly and relatively selectively induced by treatment of PC12 cells with NGF and basic fibroblast growth factor in comparison with epidermal growth factor. Analysis of the nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences of the NGF33.1 cDNA clone suggested that this clone corresponded to the NGF-inducible mRNA called VGF (A. Levi, J. D. Eldridge, and B. M. Paterson, Science 229:393-395, 1985; R. Possenti, J. D. Eldridge, B. M. Paterson, A. Grasso, and A. Levi, EMBO J. 8:2217-2223, 1989). We have used the NGF33.1 cDNA clone to isolate and characterize the VGF gene, and in this paper we report the complete sequence of the VGF gene, including 853 bases of 5' flank revealed TATAA and CCAAT elements, several GC boxes, and a consensus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein binding site. The VGF promoter contains sequences homologous to other NGF-inducible, neuronal promoters. We further show that VGF mRNA is induced in PC12 cells to a greater extent by depolarization and by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment than by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP treatment. By Northern (RNA) and RNase protection analysis, VGF mRNA is detectable in embryonic and postnatal central and peripheral nervous tissues but not in a number of nonneural tissues. In the cascade of events which ultimately leads to the neural differentiation of NGF-treated PC12 cells, the VGF gene encodes the most rapidly and selectively regulated, nervous-system specific mRNA yet identified.

  12. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  13. Sickle Cell: A Selected Resource Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This annotated, selective bibliography lists the following types of educational and informational material on both sickle cell disease and trait: (1) professional education materials; (2) fact sheets, pamphlets, and brochures; and (3) audiovisual material. A selected list of references is provided for the following topic areas: (1) genetic…

  14. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  15. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  16. Selective eradication of cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, M.H.; Schneiderman, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    A simple system consisting of cultured HeLa (human cancer) and WI38 (normal human fetal lung) cells and the control cultures of the individual cells were set up to test and compare the effects of the cell cycle-active agents /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine (/sup 125/IUdR) and hydroxyurea (HU) on cell survival. The presence of cells and growth after treatment were used as a positive indication of survival. The experimental cultures were first seeded with WI38 cells and allowed to grow to confluency before adding 1.0 x 10/sup 5/ HeLa cells. After two days of treatment-free growth, the co-cultures were continuously treated with /sup 125/IUdR (0.5-2.0 μCi/ml, carrier free) or HU (1.0 x 10/sup -9/ and 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M). At the termination of treatment the co-cultures were split 3 to 1 and incubated for seven days. As expected, there was little or no detectable effect on the growth of WI38 cells treated with HU or /sup 125/IUdR while the cells were confluent. However, HeLa cells were reduced by 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M HU and were eradicated after all concentrations of /sup 125/IUdR

  17. [Wavelength Selection in Hemolytic Evaluation Systems with Spectrophotometry Detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Su, Baochang; Ye, Xunda; Luo, Man

    2016-04-01

    Spectrophotometry is a simple hemolytic evaluation method commonly used in new drugs,biomedical materials and blood products.It is for the quantitative analysis of the characteristic absorption peaks of hemoglobin.Therefore,it is essential to select the correct detection wavelength when the evaluation system has influences on the conformation of hemoglobin.Based on the study of changes in the characteristic peaks over time of the hemolysis supernatant in four systems,namely,cell culture medium,phosphate buffered saline(PBS),physiological saline and banked blood preservation solution,using continuous wavelength scanning,the selections of detection wavelength were proposed as follows.In the cell culture medium system,the wavelength of 415 nm should be selected within 4h;,near 408 nm should be selected within 4~72h.In PBS system,within 4h,541 nm,577nm or 415 nm should be selected;4~72h,541 nm,577nm or near 406 nm should be selected.In physiological saline system,within 4h,414 nm should be selected;4~72h,near 405 nm should be selected;within 12 h,541nm or 577 nm could also be selected.In banked blood preservation solution system,within 72 h,415nm,540 nm or 576 nm should be selected.

  18. A Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas

    new skills and methods supporting the process of evaluating and selecting information systems. This paper presents a method for selecting COTS systems. The method includes the following phases: problem framing, requirements and appraisal, and selection of systems. The idea and distinguishing feature...... behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational' ends' or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends' (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means' (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way of approaching...

  19. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  20. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  1. Radioiodinated 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine, a system L selective artificial amino acid: molecular design and transport characterization in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto, E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.j [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kotani, Takashi; Nakajima, Syuichi; Ogura, Masato; Nakazawa, Shinya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Sagara, Jun-ichi [Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto [Center for Medical Science, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: High expression of the system L amino acid transporter has been observed in clinically important tissues including tumors and the blood-brain barrier. We examined amino acid transport system L selectivity of {sup 14}C(U)-L-tyrosine ({sup 14}C-Tyr), {sup 125}I-4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-6-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (6-{sup 125}I-mTyr), {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine ({sup 125}I-IMT) and {sup 125}I-3-iodo-L-tyrosine (3-{sup 125}I-Tyr) using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Methods: Cells in the exponential growth phase were incubated with 18.5 kBq of labeled amino acid in 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline-based uptake solution and an uptake solution with/without Na{sup +} at 37{sup o}C or 4{sup o}C. We examined the effects of the following compounds (1.0 mM) on transport: 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (a specific inhibitor of system A, in Na{sup +}-containing uptake solution); 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a specific inhibitor of system L, in Na{sup +}-free uptake solution); sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol (NaN{sub 3} and DNP, inhibitors of the generation of adenosine triphosphate); p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium (PAH and TEA, inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters); and L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids. Results: {sup 14}C-Tyr exhibited affinity for systems L, A and ASC. 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr and 3-{sup 125}I-Tyr exhibited high specificity for system L, whereas 6-{sup 125}I-mTyr and {sup 125}I-IMT exhibited affinity for both systems L and ASC. Uptake of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr was markedly reduced by incubation at 4 {sup o}C, and was not significantly inhibited by NaN{sub 3}, DNP, PAH or TEA. The inhibition profiles of the L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids indicated that system L mediates the transport of 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr. Conclusions: 4-{sup 125}I-mTyr exhibited the greatest system L specificity (93.46{+-}0.13%) of all of the tested amino acids.

  2. Application of the Sensor Selection Approach in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Prognostics and Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sensor selection approach is investigated with the aim of using fewer sensors to provide reliable fuel cell diagnostic and prognostic results. The sensitivity of sensors is firstly calculated with a developed fuel cell model. With sensor sensitivities to different fuel cell failure modes, the available sensors can be ranked. A sensor selection algorithm is used in the analysis, which considers both sensor sensitivity to fuel cell performance and resistance to noise. The performance of the selected sensors in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell prognostics is also evaluated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and results show that the fuel cell voltage can be predicted with good quality using the selected sensors. Furthermore, a fuel cell test is performed to investigate the effectiveness of selected sensors in fuel cell fault diagnosis. From the results, different fuel cell states can be distinguished with good quality using the selected sensors.

  3. Cell-selective metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ran; Hong, Senlian; Chen, Xing

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic labeling of biomolecules with bioorthogonal functionalities enables visualization, enrichment, and analysis of the biomolecules of interest in their physiological environments. This versatile strategy has found utility in probing various classes of biomolecules in a broad range of biological processes. On the other hand, metabolic labeling is nonselective with respect to cell type, which imposes limitations for studies performed in complex biological systems. Herein, we review the recent methodological developments aiming to endow metabolic labeling strategies with cell-type selectivity. The cell-selective metabolic labeling strategies have emerged from protein and glycan labeling. We envision that these strategies can be readily extended to labeling of other classes of biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Building Cell Selectivity into CPP-Mediated Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Martín

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for more effective and selective therapies for cancer and other diseases. Consequently, much effort is being devoted to the development of alternative experimental approaches based on selective systems, which are designed to be specifically directed against target cells. In addition, a large number of highly potent therapeutic molecules are being discovered. However, they do not reach clinical trials because of their low delivery, poor specificity or their incapacity to bypass the plasma membrane. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs are an open door for cell-impermeable compounds to reach intracellular targets. Putting all these together, research is sailing in the direction of the design of systems with the capacity to transport new drugs into a target cell. Some CPPs show cell type specificity while others require modifications or form part of more sophisticated drug delivery systems. In this review article we summarize several strategies for directed drug delivery involving CPPs that have been reported in the literature.

  5. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  6. Expert System Model for Educational Personnel Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Tabares-Ospina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The staff selection is a difficult task due to the subjectivity that the evaluation means. This process can be complemented using a system to support decision. This paper presents the implementation of an expert system to systematize the selection process of professors. The management of software development is divided into 4 parts: requirements, design, implementation and commissioning. The proposed system models a specific knowledge through relationships between variables evidence and objective.

  7. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  8. Particle compositions with a pre-selected cell internalization mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuzzi, Paolo (Inventor); Ferrari, Mauro (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of formulating a particle composition having a pre-selected cell internalization mode involves selecting a target cell having surface receptors and obtaining particles that have i) surface moieties, that have an affinity for or are capable of binding to the surface receptors of the cell and ii) a preselected shape, where a surface distribution of the surface moieties on the particles and the shape of the particles are effective for the pre-selected cell internalization mode.

  9. Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jungu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-10-23

    To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation, which indicates that the yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM could be used to select the optimal combination of CBMs suitable for the cellulose of each biomass.

  10. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Westelaken, van de, Thijs; Terwee, Bas; Ravesteijn, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However the research on BPMS is mostly focused on the architecture of the system and how to implement such systems. How to select a BPM system that fits the strategy and goals of a specific organization is ...

  11. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  12. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  14. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  15. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    ...). The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of VSV-induced killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  16. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Descriptor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, whi...... is that it can be used to propose a richer sparse or block diagonal controller structure. The interaction measure is used for control configuration selection of the linearized CSTR model with descriptor from....

  17. Selection of D-Alanine-Tolerant Rice Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi, Manabe; Koji, Ohira; Aizu Junior College of Fukushima Prefecture; Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University

    1984-01-01

    By repeating subculture of rice cells (parent cells) in a D-alanine containing medium, we could select rice cells which grew well in the D-alanine medium. The D-alanine-tolerant cells absorbed a fairly small amount of D-alanine from the medium and did not accumulate much D-alanine in the cells. Aggregation of D-alanine-tolerant cells was greater than that of parent cells. D-Alanine metabolism of D-alanine.-tolerant cells did not increase in comparison with parent cells.

  18. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  19. Selection of radioresistant cells by vitamin A deficiency in a small cell lung cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Takeo; Shimosato, Yukio; Wada, Makio; Yokota, Jun; Terada, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of a human small cell lung cancer cell line, Lu-134-B cells, cultured in serum-supplemented medium and of cells transferred to and cultured in delipidized serum-supplemented (vitamin A-deficient) medium was studied. The cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium showed the phenotype of classic small cell lung cancer sensitive to radiation, while cells transferred to delipidized serum-supplemented medium showed partial squamous cell differentiation and became resistant to radiation. These results suggest that some small cell lung cancer cells in vitro change their morphology and radiosensitivity depending on the culture conditions. The change in radiosensitivity was reproducible, and was not reversible by culture of the radioresistant cells in delipidized serum-supplemented medium with addition of retinoic acid (vitamin A-sufficient medium) for two months, although squamous cells disappeared. Acquisition of radioresistancy was considered to occur as the result of clonal selective growth in delipidized medium of a minor cell population in the original cell culture, based on a study of chromosome number. It was also found that there was no association of myc-family oncogenes with the changes of radiosensitivity in this cell line. (author)

  20. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  1. Selective evolutionary generation systems: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A.

    This dissertation is devoted to the problem of behavior design, which is a generalization of the standard global optimization problem: instead of generating the optimizer, the generalization produces, on the space of candidate optimizers, a probability density function referred to as the behavior. The generalization depends on a parameter, the level of selectivity, such that as this parameter tends to infinity, the behavior becomes a delta function at the location of the global optimizer. The motivation for this generalization is that traditional off-line global optimization is non-resilient and non-opportunistic. That is, traditional global optimization is unresponsive to perturbations of the objective function. On-line optimization methods that are more resilient and opportunistic than their off-line counterparts typically consist of the computationally expensive sequential repetition of off-line techniques. A novel approach to inexpensive resilience and opportunism is to utilize the theory of Selective Evolutionary Generation Systems (SECS), which sequentially and probabilistically selects a candidate optimizer based on the ratio of the fitness values of two candidates and the level of selectivity. Using time-homogeneous, irreducible, ergodic Markov chains to model a sequence of local, and hence inexpensive, dynamic transitions, this dissertation proves that such transitions result in behavior that is called rational; such behavior is desirable because it can lead to both efficient search for an optimizer as well as resilient and opportunistic behavior. The dissertation also identifies system-theoretic properties of the proposed scheme, including equilibria, their stability and their optimality. Moreover, this dissertation demonstrates that the canonical genetic algorithm with fitness proportional selection and the (1+1) evolutionary strategy are particular cases of the scheme. Applications in three areas illustrate the versatility of the SECS theory: flight

  2. Early Experience With CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System in Selection of Virus-specific T Cells From Third-party Donors for Pediatric Patients With Severe Viral Infections After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kállay, Krisztián; Kassa, Csaba; Réti, Marienn; Karászi, Éva; Sinkó, János; Goda, Vera; Stréhn, Anita; Csordás, Katalin; Horváth, Orsolya; Szederjesi, Attila; Tasnády, Szabolcs; Hardi, Apor; Kriván, Gergely

    2018-04-01

    Viral reactivation is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation especially in children. For refractory cases, rapid virus-specific T-cell therapy would be ideally implemented within a few days. Over the course of a year in our pediatric cohort of 43 allogeneic transplantation, 9 patients fulfilled criteria for virus-specific T-cell therapy. Viral infections were due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 2, and adenovirus (AdV) in 1 case, whereas >1 virus was detected in 3 cases. Viral diseases necessitating a T-cell therapy were CMV pneumonitis and colitis, AdV enteritis and cystitis, and EBV-induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease. Cells were produced by the CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System within 24 hours after mononuclear leukapheresis. Eight patients became completely asymptomatic, whereas 7 also cleared the virus. Six patients are alive without viral illness or sequelae demonstrating viral DNA clearance in peripheral blood with a median follow-up of 535 (350-786) days. One patient with CMV pneumonitis died of respiratory insufficiency. In 2 cases the viral illness improved or cleared, however, the patients died of invasive aspergillosis. No cases of graft-versus-host disease, rejection, organ toxicity, or recurrent infection were noticed. Virus-specific T-cell therapy implemented by the CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System is an automated, fast, safe, and probably effective way to control resistant viral diseases after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  3. Optimal Sensor Selection for Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, L. Michael; Sowers, T. Shane; Aguilar, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Sensor data are the basis for performance and health assessment of most complex systems. Careful selection and implementation of sensors is critical to enable high fidelity system health assessment. A model-based procedure that systematically selects an optimal sensor suite for overall health assessment of a designated host system is described. This procedure, termed the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4), was developed at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center in order to enhance design phase planning and preparations for in-space propulsion health management systems (HMS). Information and capabilities required to utilize the S4 approach in support of design phase development of robust health diagnostics are outlined. A merit metric that quantifies diagnostic performance and overall risk reduction potential of individual sensor suites is introduced. The conceptual foundation for this merit metric is presented and the algorithmic organization of the S4 optimization process is described. Representative results from S4 analyses of a boost stage rocket engine previously under development as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program are presented.

  4. T cell depleted haploidentical transplantation: positive selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Aversa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mismatched transplantation arises from the fact that a suitable one-haplotype mismatched donor is immediately available for virtually all patients, particularly for those who urgently need an allogenic transplant. Work on one haplotype-mismatched transplants has been proceeding for over 20 years all over the world and novel transplant techniques have been developed. Some centres have focused on the conditioning regimens and post transplant immune suppression; others have concentrated on manipulating the graft which may be a megadose of extensively T celldepleted or unmanipulated progenitor cells. Excellent engraftment rates are associated with a very low incidence of acute and chronic GVHD and regimen-related mortality even in patients who are over 50 years old. Overall, event-free survival and transplant-related mortality compare favourably with reports on transplants from sources of stem cells other than the matched sibling.

  5. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  6. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  7. Treatment selection for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Yuan Kuo

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Both primary surgery and RT/CRT organ preservation are effective treatments for tonsillar SCC. Single modality treatment, either surgery or RT/CRT, can typically be provided for stage I–II diseases. Although RT/CRT organ preservation is used more frequently for stage III–IV tonsillar SCC in recent years, primary surgery combined with adjuvant therapy still achieves equivalent outcomes. Multidisciplinary pretreatment counseling and the facilities and personnel available are therefore important for decision-making. In addition, if RT/CRT organ preservation is selected as the primary treatment, tumor tonsillectomy is not indicated.

  8. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  10. Neural mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Hysaj, Kristjana; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system. In particular, we describe the effects of attention on tactile behavior and corresponding neural activity in somatosensory cortex. Our focus is on neural mechanisms that select tactile stimuli based on their location on the body (somatotopic-based attention) or their sensory feature (feature-based attention). We highlight parallels between selection mechanisms in touch and other sensory systems and discuss several putative neural coding schemes employed by cortical populations to signal the behavioral relevance of sensory inputs. Specifically, we contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a gain vs. spike-spike correlation code for representing attended sensory stimuli. We favor a neural network model of tactile attention that is composed of frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas that controls somatosensory cells encoding the relevant stimulus features to enable preferential processing throughout the somatosensory hierarchy. Our review is based on data from noninvasive electrophysiological and imaging data in humans as well as single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  12. Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza kadhodazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers are one of the most vital parts of supply chain whose operation has significant indirect effect on customer satisfaction. Since customer's expectations from organization are different, organizations should consider different standards, respectively. There are many researches in this field using different standards and methods in recent years. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach for choosing a supplier in a food manufacturing company considering cost, quality, service, type of relationship and structure standards of the supplier organization. To evaluate supplier according to the above standards, the fuzzy inference system has been used. Input data of this system includes supplier's score in any standard that is achieved by AHP approach and the output is final score of each supplier. Finally, a supplier has been selected that although is not the best in price and quality, has achieved good score in all of the standards.

  13. Our Selections and Decisions: Inherent Features of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Frank

    The chapter summarizes findings on the neuronal bases of decisionmaking. Taking the phenomenon of selection it will be explained that systems built only from excitatory and inhibitory neuron (populations) have the emergent property of selecting between different alternatives. These considerations suggest that there exists a hierarchical architecture with central selection switches. However, in such a system, functions of selection and decision-making are not localized, but rather emerge from an interaction of several participating networks. These are, on the one hand, networks that process specific input and output representations and, on the other hand, networks that regulate the relative activation/inhibition of the specific input and output networks. These ideas are supported by recent empirical evidence. Moreover, other studies show that rather complex psychological variables, like subjective probability estimates, expected gains and losses, prediction errors, etc., do have biological correlates, i.e., they can be localized in time and space as activation states of neural networks and single cells. These findings suggest that selections and decisions are consequences of an architecture which, seen from a biological perspective, is fully deterministic. However, a transposition of such nomothetic functional principles into the idiographic domain, i.e., using them as elements for comprehensive 'mechanistic' explanations of individual decisions, seems not to be possible because of principle limitations. Therefore, individual decisions will remain predictable by means of probabilistic models alone.

  14. Selective tumor cell targeting by the disaccharide moiety of bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Schmaltz, Ryan M; Bozeman, Trevor C; Paul, Rakesh; Rishel, Michael J; Tsosie, Krystal S; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-02-27

    In a recent study, the well-documented tumor targeting properties of the antitumor agent bleomycin (BLM) were studied in cell culture using microbubbles that had been derivatized with multiple copies of BLM. It was shown that BLM selectively targeted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells but not the "normal" breast cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, it was found that the BLM analogue deglycobleomycin, which lacks the disaccharide moiety of BLM, did not target either cell line, indicating that the BLM disaccharide moiety is necessary for tumor selectivity. Not resolved in the earlier study were the issues of whether the BLM disaccharide moiety alone is sufficient for tumor cell targeting and the possible cellular uptake of the disaccharide. In the present study, we conjugated BLM, deglycoBLM, and BLM disaccharide to the cyanine dye Cy5**. It was found that the BLM and BLM disaccharide conjugates, but not the deglycoBLM conjugate, bound selectively to MCF-7 cells and were internalized. The same was also true for the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 (but not for normal PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells) and for the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 (but not for normal SVR A221a pancreas cells). The targeting efficiency of the disaccharide was only slightly less than that of BLM in MCF-7 and DU-145 cells and comparable to that of BLM in BxPC-3 cells. These results establish that the BLM disaccharide is both necessary and sufficient for tumor cell targeting, a finding with obvious implications for the design of novel tumor imaging and therapeutic agents.

  15. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

  16. CARbodies: Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Alonso-Camino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibody library was expressed on the surface of human T cells after transduction with lentiviral vectors (LVs. The repertoire was fused to a first-generation T cell receptor ζ (TCRζ-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR. We used this library to isolate antibodies termed CARbodies that recognize antigens expressed on the tumor cell surface in a proof-of-principle system. After three rounds of activation-selection there was a clear repertoire restriction, with the emergence dominant clones. The CARbodies were purified from bacterial cultures as soluble and active proteins. Furthermore, to validate its potential application for adoptive cell therapy, human T cells were transduced with a LV encoding a second-generation costimulatory CAR (CARv2 bearing the selected CARbodies. Transduced human primary T cells expressed significant levels of the CARbodies-based CARv2 fusion protein on the cell surface, and importantly could be specifically activated, after stimulation with tumor cells. This approach is a promising tool for the generation of antibodies fully adapted to the display format (CAR and the selection context (cell synapse, which could extend the scope of current adoptive cell therapy strategies with CAR-redirected T cells.

  17. Selection of genetically modified hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo using alkylating agent lysomustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, F N; Grinenko, T S; Levit, G L; Krasnov, V P; Belyavsky, A V

    2010-09-15

    Efficient gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells is vital for the success of gene therapy of hematopoietic and immune system disorders. An in vivo selection system based on a mutant form of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase gene (MGMTm) is considered one of the more promising strategies for expansion of hematopoietic cells transduced with viral vectors. Here we demonstrate that MGMTm-expressing cells can be efficiently selected using lysomustine, a nitrosourea derivative of lysine. K562 and murine bone marrow cells expressing MGMTm are protected from the cytotoxic action of lysomustine in vitro. We also show in a murine model that MGMTm-transduced hematopoietic cells can be expanded in vivo on transplantation into sublethally irradiated recipients followed by lysomustine treatment. These results indicate that lysomustine can be used as a potent novel chemoselection drug applicable for gene therapy of hematopoietic and immune system disorders. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  19. Antiproliferative Effects of Selected Chemotherapeutics in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Caltová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effect of selected cytostatics on a human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 as a model system for ovarian cancer treatment. This cell line is considered cisplatin-sensitive. Panel of tested cytostatics included cisplatin, paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, topotecan and etoposide. These cytostatics have a different mechanism of action. To evaluate cytotoxic potential of the tested compounds, the methods measuring various toxicological endpoints were employed including morphological studies, MTT assay, dynamic monitoring of cell proliferation with xCELLigence, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3 activity and expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. The A270 cell line showed different sensitivity towards the selected cytostatics, the highest cytotoxic effect was associated with paclitaxel and topotecan.

  20. Selection of fluids for tritium pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1984-02-01

    The degradation characteristics of three types of vacuum pump fluids, polyphenyl ethers, perfluoropolyethers and hydrocarbon oils were reviewed. Fluid selection proved to be a critical factor in the long-term performance of tritium pumping systems and subsequent tritium recovery operations. Thermal degradation and tritium radiolysis of pump fluids produce contaminants which can damage equipment and interfere with tritium recovery operations. General characteristics of these fluids are as follows: polyphenyl ether has outstanding radiation resistance, is very stable under normal diffusion pump conditions, but breaks down in the presence of oxygen at anticipated operating temperatures. Perfluoropolyether fluids are very stable and do not react chemically with most gases. Thermal and mechanical degradation products are inert, but the radiolysis products are very corrosive. Most of the degradation products of hydrogen oils are volatile and the principal radiolysis product is methane. Our studies show that polyphenyl ethers and hydrocarbon oils are the preferred fluids for use in tritium pumping systems. No corrosive materials are formed and most of the degradation products can be removed with suitable filter systems

  1. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  2. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ye Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Yuan Zi,1,* Juan Su,1 Hong-Xia Zhang,1 Xin-Rong Zhang,3 Hai-Ying Zhu,1 Jian-Xiu Li,1 Meng Yin,3 Feng Yang,3 Yi-Ping Hu,11Department of Cell Biology, 2School of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Pharmaceuticals, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Authors contributed equally.Abstract: In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy.Keywords: nanomedicine, selective cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrion-targeted nanomaterials

  3. Beyond Helper Phage: Using "Helper Cells" to Select Peptide Affinity Ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lisa Phipps

    Full Text Available Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1 ensure efficient display; 2 maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3 minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The "helper cell" packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination. Here we report on the first use of this system for peptide display, including the systematic characterization and optimization of helper cells, their inefficient use in antibody display and their use in creating and selecting from a set of phage display peptide libraries. Our libraries were analyzed with unprecedented precision by standard or deep sequencing, and shown to be superior in quality than commercial gold standards. Using our helper cell libraries, we have obtained ligands recognizing Yersinia pestis surface antigen F1V and L-glutamine-binding periplasmic protein QBP. In the latter case, unlike any of the peptide library selections described so far, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to select intriguing peptide ligands. Based on the success of our selections we believe that peptide libraries obtained with helper cells are not only suitable, but preferable to traditional phage display libraries for selection of peptidic ligands.

  4. An Antibiotic Selection System For Protein Overproducing Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Protein overproduction is a major bottleneck for analyses of membrane proteins and for the construction of cell factories. Screening for optimized protein production can be very time consuming. In this study we show that the coupling of antibiotic resistance to poorly produced...... membrane proteins of Escherichia coli can be used as a fast and simple selection system for protein overproduction.Methods: We designed an expression plasmid encoding the gene of interest and an additional, inducible antibiotic resistance marker. Both genes were linked by a hairpin structure...... that translationally couples the genes. Consequently, high expressing gene variants also allow for higher production of the coupled antibiotic resistance marker. Therefore, high expressing gene variants in a library can be determined either by plating the expression library on selection plates or by growing...

  5. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS; L22F, F31S and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY; T333I, S351Y conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA. Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+DHFR(FS+IMPDH2(IY+ T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold, MMF alone (2.9-fold, or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold. These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS/MTX and IMPDH2(IY/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  6. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mahesh; Brown, Christine E; Chang, Wen-Chung; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS); L22F, F31S) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY); T333I, S351Y) conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA). Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+)DHFR(FS+)IMPDH2(IY+) T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold), MMF alone (2.9-fold), or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold). These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS)/MTX and IMPDH2(IY)/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  7. Rhodacyanine derivative selectively targets cancer cells and overcomes tamoxifen resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koren

    Full Text Available MKT-077, a rhodacyanine dye, was shown to produce cancer specific cell death. However, complications prevented the use of this compound beyond clinical trials. Here we describe YM-1, a derivative of MKT-077. We found that YM-1 was more cytotoxic and localized differently than MKT-077. YM-1 demonstrated this cytotoxicity across multiple cancer cell lines. This toxicity was limited to cancer cell lines; immortalized cell models were unaffected. Brief applications of YM-1 were found to be non-toxic. Brief treatment with YM-1 restored tamoxifen sensitivity to a refractory tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cell model. This effect is potentially due to altered estrogen receptor alpha phosphorylation, an outcome precipitated by selective reductions in Akt levels (Akt/PKB. Thus, modifications to the rhodocyanine scaffold could potentially be made to improve efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties. Moreover, the impact on tamoxifen sensitivity could be a new utility for this compound family.

  8. ERP systems selection in multinational enterprises: a practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Moutaz Haddara

    2018-01-01

    The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system selection is an early phase in the ERP adoption process. When organizations evaluate an ERP, they commonly develop their own selection criteria that usually involve various system and vendor related factors. While the selection process is critical, however, there is an apparent research gap in literature. The ERP selection effort also focuses on the system’s fit with the organizational requirements and needs. Thus, the selection phase is critical,...

  9. Visual cells remember earlier applied target: plasticity of orientation selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Ghisovan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A canonical proposition states that, in mature brain, neurons responsive to sensory stimuli are tuned to specific properties installed shortly after birth. It is amply demonstrated that that neurons in adult visual cortex of cats are orientation-selective that is they respond with the highest firing rates to preferred oriented stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In anesthetized cats, prepared in a conventional fashion for single cell recordings, the present investigation shows that presenting a stimulus uninterruptedly at a non-preferred orientation for twelve minutes induces changes in orientation preference. Across all conditions orientation tuning curves were investigated using a trial by trial method. Contrary to what has been previously reported with shorter adaptation duration, twelve minutes of adaptation induces mostly attractive shifts, i.e. toward the adapter. After a recovery period allowing neurons to restore their original orientation tuning curves, we carried out a second adaptation which produced three major results: (1 more frequent attractive shifts, (2 an increase of their magnitude, and (3 an additional enhancement of responses at the new or acquired preferred orientation. Additionally, we also show that the direction of shifts depends on the duration of the adaptation: shorter adaptation in most cases produces repulsive shifts, whereas adaptation exceeding nine minutes results in attractive shifts, in the same unit. Consequently, shifts in preferred orientation depend on the duration of adaptation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The supplementary response improvements indicate that neurons in area 17 keep a memory trace of the previous stimulus properties, thereby upgrading cellular performance. It also highlights the dynamic nature of basic neuronal properties in adult cortex since repeated adaptations modified both the orientation tuning selectivity and the response strength to the preferred orientation. These

  10. Laser Process for Selective Emitter Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poulain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective emitter solar cells can provide a significant increase in conversion efficiency. However current approaches need many technological steps and alignment procedures. This paper reports on a preliminary attempt to reduce the number of processing steps and therefore the cost of selective emitter cells. In the developed procedure, a phosphorous glass covered with silicon nitride acts as the doping source. A laser is used to open locally the antireflection coating and at the same time achieve local phosphorus diffusion. In this process the standard chemical etching of the phosphorous glass is avoided. Sheet resistance variation from 100 Ω/sq to 40 Ω/sq is demonstrated with a nanosecond UV laser. Numerical simulation of the laser-matter interaction is discussed to understand the dopant diffusion efficiency. Preliminary solar cells results show a 0.5% improvement compared with a homogeneous emitter structure.

  11. System driven technology selection for future European launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Ramusat, G.; Sirbi, A.; Bouilly, Th.; Lavelle, F.; Cardone, T.; Fischer, H.; Appel, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of the next generation launcher activity at ESA, a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach have been performed for the identification of promising technologies and alternative conception of future European launch vehicles. The top-down approach consists in looking for system-driven design solutions and the bottom-up approach features design solutions leading to substantial advantages for the system. The main investigations have been focused on the future launch vehicle technologies. Preliminary specifications have been used in order to permit sub-system design to find the major benefit for the overall launch system. The development cost, non-recurring and recurring cost, industrialization and operational aspects have been considered as competitiveness factors for the identification and down-selection of the most interesting technologies. The recurring cost per unit payload mass has been evaluated. The TRL/IRL has been assessed and a preliminary development plan has been traced for the most promising technologies. The potentially applicable launch systems are Ariane and VEGA evolution. The main FLPP technologies aim at reducing overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen propellants, propellant management subsystems, elements significantly reducing fabrication and operational costs, avionics, pyrotechnics, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of the system driven approach allows creating performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost. This paper outlines the process of technology down selection using a system driven approach, the accomplishments already achieved in the various technology fields up to now, as well as the potential associated benefit in terms of competitiveness factors.

  12. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  13. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  14. Selective apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cell line by truncated minimal functional region of Apoptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ni, Lim; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah bt; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi b; Othman, Abas Mazni b; Othman, Fauziah bt

    2013-01-01

    Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) VP3 protein (also known as Apoptin), a basic and proline-rich protein has a unique capability in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Five truncated Apoptin proteins were analyzed to determine their selective ability to migrate into the nucleus of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells for inducing apoptosis. For identification of the minimal selective domain for apoptosis, the wild-type Apoptin gene had been reconstructed by PCR to generate segmental deletions at the N’ terminal and linked with nuclear localization sites (NLS1 and NLS2). All the constructs were fused with maltose-binding protein gene and individually expressed by in vitro Rapid Translation System. Standardized dose of proteins were delivered into human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and control human liver Chang cells by cytoplasmic microinjection, and subsequently observed for selective apoptosis effect. Three of the truncated Apoptin proteins with N-terminal deletions spanning amino acid 32–83 retained the cancer selective nature of wild-type Apoptin. The proteins were successfully translocated to the nucleus of MCF-7 cells initiating apoptosis, whereas non-toxic cytoplasmic retention was observed in normal Chang cells. Whilst these truncated proteins retained the tumour-specific death effector ability, the specificity for MCF-7 cells was lost in two other truncated proteins that harbor deletions at amino acid 1–31. The detection of apoptosing normal Chang cells and MCF-7 cells upon cytoplasmic microinjection of these proteins implicated a loss in Apoptin’s signature targeting activity. Therefore, the critical stretch spanning amino acid 1–31 at the upstream of a known hydrophobic leucine-rich stretch (LRS) was strongly suggested as one of the prerequisite region in Apoptin for cancer targeting. Identification of this selective domain provides a platform for developing small targets to facilitating carrier-mediated-transport across

  15. Radiobiology of Cell Renewal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, H. M. [Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1968-08-15

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to quantitative aspects of radiation effects on cell renewal systems. The behaviour of stem-type cells has been a focal point of interest, and it has been assumed by many that the fraction of surviving stem cells is the principal determinant of the probability of survival of the irradiated system or organism. The apparent close similarity in dose requirements for impairment of reproductive capacity, and the similarity in early repair and in stage sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.clearly indicate that purely cellular phenomena are reflected in the organized population. It does not necessarily follow, however, that there is a straightforward relationship between radiation effects on stem cells and the response of systems or organisms. Indeed, this is not so. It is abundantly clear that differential radiosensitivity is anchored in a number of variables that are associated with the organizational framework of the system and its environment. Many, but not all, effects can be understood in terms of the normal kinetics of the developmental pathway. Yet, deviations from normal kinetics that are minor in the steady state can have profound significance in the perturbed state. To understand the radiobiology of cell renewal systems and to place the many possible variables in reasonable perspective, we need to know a good deal more about the interplay of the component parts than we do at present. When we view the totality of an organized cell population, it seems necessary to postulate mechanisms external to any given cell in the regulation of the balanced sequence of proliferation and differentiation. At present, we have only a vague idea about this. Most attention has been directed to the proliferative process and it is encouraging to note the growing interest in the more developmental facets of cell renewal. (author)

  16. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ...

  17. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  18. Chromium Trioxide Hole-Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjie; Wu, Weiliang; Liu, Zongtao; Qiu, Kaifu; Cai, Lun; Yao, Zhirong; Ai, Bin; Liang, Zongcun; Shen, Hui

    2018-04-25

    A high recombination rate and high thermal budget for aluminum (Al) back surface field are found in the industrial p-type silicon solar cells. Direct metallization on lightly doped p-type silicon, however, exhibits a large Schottky barrier for the holes on the silicon surface because of Fermi-level pinning effect. As a result, low-temperature-deposited, dopant-free chromium trioxide (CrO x , x solar cell as a hole-selective contact at the rear surface. By using 4 nm CrO x between the p-type silicon and Ag, we achieve a reduction of the contact resistivity for the contact of Ag directly on p-type silicon. For further improvement, we utilize a CrO x (2 nm)/Ag (30 nm)/CrO x (2 nm) multilayer film on the contact between Ag and p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) to achieve a lower contact resistance (40 mΩ·cm 2 ). The low-resistivity Ohmic contact is attributed to the high work function of the uniform CrO x film and the depinning of the Fermi level of the SiO x layer at the silicon interface. Implementing the advanced hole-selective contacts with CrO x /Ag/CrO x on the p-type silicon solar cell results in a power conversion efficiency of 20.3%, which is 0.1% higher than that of the cell utilizing 4 nm CrO x . Compared with the commercialized p-type solar cell, the novel CrO x -based hole-selective transport material opens up a new possibility for c-Si solar cells using high-efficiency, low-temperature, and dopant-free deposition techniques.

  19. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  20. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  1. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  2. A quantitative system for discriminating induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells and somatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyou Wang

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from somatic cells (SCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs provide promising resources for regenerative medicine and medical research, leading to a daily identification of new cell lines. However, an efficient system to discriminate the different types of cell lines is lacking. Here, we develop a quantitative system to discriminate the three cell types, iPSCs, ESCs, and SCs. The system consists of DNA-methylation biomarkers and mathematical models, including an artificial neural network and support vector machines. All biomarkers were unbiasedly selected by calculating an eigengene score derived from analysis of genome-wide DNA methylations. With 30 biomarkers, or even with as few as 3 top biomarkers, this system can discriminate SCs from pluripotent cells (PCs, including ESCs and iPSCs with almost 100% accuracy. With approximately 100 biomarkers, the system can distinguish ESCs from iPSCs with an accuracy of 95%. This robust system performs precisely with raw data without normalization as well as with converted data in which the continuous methylation levels are accounted. Strikingly, this system can even accurately predict new samples generated from different microarray platforms and the next-generation sequencing. The subtypes of cells, such as female and male iPSCs and fetal and adult SCs, can also be discriminated with this method. Thus, this novel quantitative system works as an accurate framework for discriminating the three cell types, iPSCs, ESCs, and SCs. This strategy also supports the notion that DNA-methylation generally varies among the three cell types.

  3. Cell adsorption and selective desorption for separation of microbial cells by using chitosan-immobilized silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Munehiro; Matsui, Masayoshi; Chiku, Hiroyuki; Kasashima, Nobuyuki; Shimojoh, Manabu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2005-12-01

    Cell adsorption and selective desorption for separation of microbial cells were conducted by using chitosan-immobilized silica (CIS). When chitosan was immobilized onto silica surfaces with glutaraldehyde, bacterial cells adsorbed well and retained viability. Testing of the adsorption and desorption ability of CIS using various microbes such as Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces ludwigii, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed that most microbes could be adsorbed and selectively desorbed under different conditions. In particular, recovery was improved when L-cysteine was added. A mixture of two bacterial strains adsorbed onto CIS could also be successfully separated by use of specific solutions for each strain. Most of the desorbed cells were alive. Thus, quantitative and selective fractionation of cells is readily achievable by employing chitosan, a known antibacterial material.

  4. A Fast Adaptive Receive Antenna Selection Method in MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna selection has been regarded as an effective method to acquire the diversity benefits of multiple antennas while potentially reduce hardware costs. This paper focuses on receive antenna selection. According to the proportion between the numbers of total receive antennas and selected antennas and the influence of each antenna on system capacity, we propose a fast adaptive antenna selection algorithm for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems. Mathematical analysis and numerical results show that our algorithm significantly reduces the computational complexity and memory requirement and achieves considerable system capacity gain compared with the optimal selection technique in the same time.

  5. Targeting cancer cells using 3-bromopyruvate for selective cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H Baghdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment deserves more research efforts despite intensive conventional treatment modalities for many types of malignancies. Metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy receive a lot of global research efforts. The current advances in cancer biology may improve targeting the critical metabolic differences that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Cancer cells are highly glycolytic for energy production, exhibit the Warburg effect, establish aggressive acidic microenvironment, maintain cancer stem cells, exhibit resistance to chemotherapy, have low antioxidant systems but different ΔΨm (delta psi, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, express P-glycoprotein for multidrug resistance, upregulate glucose transporters and monocarboxylate transporters and are under high steady-state reactive oxygen species conditions. Normal cells differ in all these aspects. Lactate produced through the Warburg effect helps cancer metastasis. Targeting glycolysis reactions for energy production in cancer cells seems promising in decreasing the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate makes use of cancer biology in treating cancer cells, cancer stem cells and preventing metastasis in human cancer as discussed in this review. Updated advances are analyzed here, which include research analysis of background, experience, readings in the field of cancer biology, oncology and biochemistry.

  6. Implementation of Computer Assisted Test Selection System in Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azis Basri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an evaluative way of selection of civil servant system in all government areas, Computer Assisted Test selection system was started to apply in 2013. In phase of implementation for first time in all areas in 2014, this system selection had trouble in several areas, such as registration procedure and passing grade. The main objective of this essay was to describe implementation of new selection system for civil servants in the local governments and to seek level of effectiveness of this selection system. This essay used combination of study literature and field survey which data collection was made by interviews, observations, and documentations from various sources, and to analyze the collected data, this essay used reduction, display data and verification for made the conclusion. The result of this essay showed, despite there a few parts that be problem of this system such as in the registration phase but almost all phases of implementation of CAT selection system in local government areas can be said was working clearly likes in preparation, implementation and result processing phase. And also this system was fulfilled two of three criterias of effectiveness for selection system, they were accuracy and trusty. Therefore, this selection system can be said as an effective way to select new civil servant. As suggestion, local governments have to make prime preparation in all phases of test and make a good feedback as evaluation mechanism and together with central government to seek, fix and improve infrastructures as supporting tool and competency of local residents.

  7. Immunomodulation-accelerated neuronal regeneration following selective rod photoreceptor cell ablation in the zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David T; Sengupta, Sumitra; Saxena, Meera T; Xu, Qingguo; Hanes, Justin; Ding, Ding; Ji, Hongkai; Mumm, Jeff S

    2017-05-02

    Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis. Neutrophils displayed no reactivity to rod cell loss. Peripheral macrophage cells responded to rod cell loss, as evidenced by morphological transitions and increased migration, but did not enter the retina. Retinal microglia displayed multiple hallmarks of immune cell activation: increased migration, translocation to the photoreceptor cell layer, proliferation, and phagocytosis of dying cells. To test function during rod cell regeneration, we coablated microglia and rod cells or applied immune suppression and quantified the kinetics of ( i ) rod cell clearance, ( ii ) MG/progenitor cell proliferation, and ( iii ) rod cell replacement. Coablation and immune suppressants applied before cell loss caused delays in MG/progenitor proliferation rates and slowed the rate of rod cell replacement. Conversely, immune suppressants applied after cell loss had been initiated led to accelerated photoreceptor regeneration kinetics, possibly by promoting rapid resolution of an acute immune response. Our findings suggest that microglia control MG responsiveness to photoreceptor loss and support the development of immune-targeted therapeutic strategies for reversing cell loss associated with degenerative retinal conditions.

  8. Collateral methotrexate resistance in cisplatin-selected murine leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major cause of failure of many therapeutic protocols. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The exact mechanism depends upon the drug of interest as well as the tumor type treated. While studying a cell line selected for its resistance to cisplatin we noted that the cells expressed a >25,000-fold collateral resistance to methotrexate. Given the magnitude of this resistance we elected to investigate this intriguing collateral resistance. From a series of investigations we have identified an alteration in a membrane protein of the resistant cell as compared to the sensitive cells that could be the primary mechanism of resistance. Our studies reviewed here indicate decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein (molecular mass = 66 in the resistant cells, which results in little or no transfer of methotrexate from the medium into the cell. Since this is a relatively novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation, this information may provide insight into possible pharmacological approaches to modify therapeutic regimens by analyzing the status of this protein in tumor samples for a better survival of the cancer patients.

  9. A review and guidance for pattern selection in spatiotemporal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunni; Ma, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pattern estimation and selection in media can give important clues to understand the collective response to external stimulus by detecting the observable variables. Both reaction-diffusion systems (RDs) and neuronal networks can be treated as multi-agent systems from molecular level, intrinsic cooperation, competition. An external stimulus or attack can cause collapse of spatial order and distribution, while appropriate noise can enhance the consensus in the spatiotemporal systems. Pattern formation and synchronization stability can bridge isolated oscillators and the network by coupling these nodes with appropriate connection types. As a result, the dynamical behaviors can be detected and discussed by developing different spatial patterns and realizing network synchronization. Indeed, the collective response of network and multi-agent system depends on the local kinetics of nodes and cells. It is better to know the standard bifurcation analysis and stability control schemes before dealing with network problems. In this review, dynamics discussion and synchronization control on low-dimensional systems, pattern formation and synchronization stability on network, wave stability in RDs and neuronal network are summarized. Finally, possible guidance is presented when some physical effects such as polarization field and electromagnetic induction are considered.

  10. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  11. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Dotan

    Full Text Available The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining.TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls.A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam radiation or chemotherapy, with

  12. Microfluidic systems with ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-01-01

    When integrated into microfluidic chips, ion-selective nanoporous polymer and solid-state membranes can be used for on-chip pumping, pH actuation, analyte concentration, molecular separation, reactive mixing, and molecular sensing. They offer numerous functionalities and are hence superior to paper-based devices for point-of-care biochips, with only slightly more investment in fabrication and material costs required. In this review, we first discuss the fundamentals of several nonequilibrium ion current phenomena associated with ion-selective membranes, many of them revealed by studies with fabricated single nanochannels/nanopores. We then focus on how the plethora of phenomena has been applied for transport, separation, concentration, and detection of biomolecules on biochips.

  13. How nonuniform contact profiles of T cell receptors modulate thymic selection outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanrong; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kardar, Mehran

    2018-03-01

    T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies. Past theoretical work cast thymic selection as an extreme value problem and characterized the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids in the postselection TCR repertoire, showing how T cells are selected to be able to specifically recognize peptides derived from diverse pathogens yet have limited self-reactivity. Here, we investigate how the diversity of the postselection TCR repertoire is modified when TCRs make nonuniform contacts with peptide-MHC. Specifically, we were motivated by recent experiments showing that amino acids at certain positions of a TCR sequence have large effects on thymic selection outcomes, and crystal structure data that reveal a nonuniform contact profile between a TCR and its peptide-MHC ligand. Using a representative TCR contact profile as an illustration, we show via simulations that the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids now varies by position according to the contact profile, and, importantly, it depends on the implementation of nonuniform contacts during thymic selection. We explain these nontrivial results analytically. Our study has implications for understanding the selection forces that shape the functionality of the postselection TCR repertoire.

  14. Selection of aptamers for Candida albicans by cell-SELEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Alessandra Nunes Duarte

    2017-01-01

    The growing concern with invasive fungal infections, responsible for an alarming mortality rate of immunosuppressed patients and in Intensive Care Units, evidences the need for a fast and specific method for the Candida albicans detection, since this species is identified as one of the main causes of septicemia. Commonly, it is a challenge for clinicians to determine the primary infection foci, the dissemination degree, or whether the site of a particular surgery is involved. Although scintigraphic imaging represents a promising tool for infectious foci detection, it still lacks a methodology for C. albicans diagnosis due to the absence of specific radiotracers for this microorganism. Aptamers are molecules that have almost ideal properties for use as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, such as high specificity for their molecular targets, lack of immunogenicity and toxicity, high tissue penetration and rapid blood clearance. Aptamers can also be labeled with different radionuclides. This work aims to obtain aptamers for specific binding to C. albicans cells for future application as a radiopharmaceutical. It was used a variation of the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment) technique, termed cell-SELEX, in which cells are the targets for selection. A selection protocol was standardized using a random library of single-stranded oligonucleotides, each containing two fixed regions flanking a sequence of 40 random nucleotides. This library was incubated with C. albicans cells in the presence of competitors. Then, the binding sequences were separated by centrifugation, resuspended and amplified by PCR. The amplification was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. After that, the ligands were purified to obtain a new pool of ssDNA, from which a new incubation was carried out. The selection parameters were gradually modified in order to increase stringency. This cycle was repeated 12 times to allow the selection of sequences with the maximum

  15. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-04-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Adenovirus-specific T-cell Subsets in Human Peripheral Blood and After IFN-γ Immunomagnetic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chongsheng; Wang, Yingying; Cai, Huili; Laroye, Caroline; De Carvalho Bittencourt, Marcelo; Clement, Laurence; Stoltz, Jean-François; Decot, Véronique; Reppel, Loïc; Bensoussan, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive antiviral cellular immunotherapy by infusion of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) is becoming an alternative treatment for viral infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The T memory stem cell (TSCM) subset was recently described as exhibiting self-renewal and multipotency properties which are required for sustained efficacy in vivo. We wondered if such a crucial subset for immunotherapy was present in VSTs. We identified, by flow cytometry, TSCM in adenovirus (ADV)-specific interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells before and after IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection, and analyzed the distribution of the main T-cell subsets in VSTs: naive T cells (TN), TSCM, T central memory cells (TCM), T effector memory cell (TEM), and effector T cells (TEFF). In this study all of the different T-cell subsets were observed in the blood sample from healthy donor ADV-VSTs, both before and after IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection. As the IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection system sorts mainly the most differentiated T-cell subsets, we observed that TEM was always the major T-cell subset of ADV-specific T cells after immunomagnetic isolation and especially after expansion in vitro. Comparing T-cell subpopulation profiles before and after in vitro expansion, we observed that in vitro cell culture with interleukin-2 resulted in a significant expansion of TN-like, TCM, TEM, and TEFF subsets in CD4IFN-γ T cells and of TCM and TEM subsets only in CD8IFN-γ T cells. We demonstrated the presence of all T-cell subsets in IFN-γ VSTs including the TSCM subpopulation, although this was weakly selected by the IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection system.

  17. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs van de Westelaken; Bas Terwee; Pascal Ravesteijn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However

  18. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  19. Selection of nuclear power information database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxin; Wu Jianlei

    1996-01-01

    In the condition of the present database technology, in order to build the Chinese nuclear power information database (NPIDB) in the nuclear industry system efficiently at a high starting point, an important task is to select a proper database management system (DBMS), which is the hinge of the matter to build the database successfully. Therefore, this article explains how to build a practical information database about nuclear power, the functions of different database management systems, the reason of selecting relation database management system (RDBMS), the principles of selecting RDBMS, the recommendation of ORACLE management system as the software to build database and so on

  20. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system. The present .... In the vertebrate nervous system, special types of cells called radial glia .... As men- tioned earlier, astrocytes extend a 'foot process' (Figure 3) that ... capillaries that for a long time it was thought that these cells.

  2. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds

  3. ATTENTIONAL NETWORKS AND SELECTIVE VISUAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CASTILLO MORENO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we checked the principal researches and theories to explain the attention system functioning.We are going to start reviewing along time about the concept of attention, from filter theories andresources distributor theories, to the current theories in which attention is conceived as a control system.From this last point of view, we will emphasize on the attentional networks theory of Posner, thatproposes different systems to explain diverse aspects of attention, but they are related to each other. Atlast in this paper, we will mention experimental results that have been important to characterize theselective attentional mechanisms of the human visual system, using the attentional spotlight model forthis aim.

  4. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  5. The system of employees motivation in a selected company

    OpenAIRE

    BEEROVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The system of employees motivation in a selected company is the title of this thesis that closely analyzes the system of employees motivation in a selected company and outlines some suggestions that could improve the management and performance in this area. Moreover, the focus is placed towards the motivation of employees in the workplace.

  6. Selected methods of rehabilitation in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gerkowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a chronic connective tissue disease characterized by microvascular abnormalities, immune disturbances and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Skin involvement may result in contractures, leading to marked loss of hand mobility, adversely affecting the performance of daily activities and decreasing the quality of life. Face involvement not only causes functional loss, but also lowers the self-esteem of patients. Increasing attention has recently been focused on the need to rehabilitate patients with systemic sclerosis in order to prevent the development of joint contractures and loss of mobility. The study presents a review of the current literature on rehabilitation possibilities in patients with systemic sclerosis, with a special focus on physiotherapy methods.

  7. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper.

  8. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper

  9. A novel and effective cancer immunotherapy mouse model using antigen-specific B cells selected in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Moutai

    Full Text Available Immunotherapies such as adoptive transfer of T cells or natural killer cells, or monoclonal antibody (MoAb treatment have recently been recognized as effective means to treat cancer patients. However, adoptive transfer of B cells or plasma cells producing tumor-specific antibodies has not been applied as a therapy because long-term culture and selective expansion of antigen-specific B cells has been technically very difficult. Here, we describe a novel cancer immunotherapy that uses B-cell adoptive transfer. We demonstrate that germinal-center-like B cells (iGB cells induced in vitro from mouse naïve B cells become plasma cells and produce IgG antibodies for more than a month in the bone marrow of non-irradiated recipient mice. When transferred into mice, iGB cells producing antibody against a surrogate tumor antigen suppressed lung metastasis and growth of mouse melanoma cells expressing the same antigen and prolonged survival of the recipients. In addition, we have developed a novel culture system called FAIS to selectively expand antigen-specific iGB cells utilizing the fact that iGB cells are sensitive to Fas-induced cell death unless their antigen receptors are ligated by membrane-bound antigens. The selected iGB cells efficiently suppressed lung metastasis of melanoma cells in the adoptive immunotherapy model. As human blood B cells can be propagated as iGB cells using culture conditions similar to the mouse iGB cell cultures, our data suggest that it will be possible to treat cancer-bearing patients by the adoptive transfer of cancer-antigen-specific iGB cells selected in vitro. This new adoptive immunotherapy should be an alternative to the laborious development of MoAb drugs against cancers for which no effective treatments currently exist.

  10. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  11. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  12. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  13. Optimalization of selected RFID systems Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestenicky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes procedure for maximization of RFID transponder read range. This is done by optimalization of magnetics field intensity at transponder place and by optimalization of antenna and transponder coils coupling factor. Results of this paper can be used for RFID with inductive loop, i.e. system working in near electromagnetic field.

  14. Cancer cell-selective, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of aptamer decorated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Shira; Modrejewski, Julia; Walter, Johanna G.; Livney, Yoav D.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, resulting in 88% deaths of all diagnosed patients. Hence, novel therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Single-stranded oligonucleotide-based aptamers (APTs) are excellent ligands for tumor cell targeting. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their internalization into living cells have been poorly studied. Towards the application of APTs for active drug targeting to cancer cells, we herein studied the mechanism underlying S15-APT internalization into human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. We thus delineated the mode of entry of a model nanomedical system based on quantum dots (QDs) decorated with S15-APTs as a selective targeting moiety for uptake by A549 cells. These APT-decorated QDs displayed selective binding to, and internalization by target A549 cells, but not by normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B, cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and colon adenocarcinoma CaCo-2 cells, hence demonstrating high specificity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a remarkably low dissociation constant of S15-APTs-decorated QDs to A549 cells (Kd = 13.1 ± 1.6 nM). Through the systematic application of a series of established inhibitors of known mechanisms of endocytosis, we show that the uptake of S15-APTs proceeds via a classical clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. This cancer cell-selective mode of entry could possibly be used in the future to evade plasma membrane-localized multidrug resistance efflux pumps, thereby overcoming an important mechanism of cancer multidrug resistance. PMID:29765515

  15. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  16. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  17. Comparison and selection of off-grid PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Andrey Yu.; Lobachevsky, Yakov P.; Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2018-05-01

    This work deals with comparison, evaluation and selection of PV systems of the same type based on their technical parameters either indicated in their technical specifications or calculated ones. Stand-alone and grid backed up photoelectric systems have been considered. General requirements for photoelectric system selection and evaluation have been presented that ensure system operability and required efficiency in operation conditions. Generic principles and definition of photoelectric systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeted at PV engineering personnel and private customers purchasing PV systems. It can be also applied in the course of project contests, tenders, etc.

  18. Low resolution spectroscopy of selected Algol systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapalli, Shanti Priya; Jagirdar, Rukmini; Parthasarathy, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Mohan, Vijay; Bhatt, B. C.; Thomas, Vineet S.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of spectroscopic data for 30 Algol-type binaries is presented. All these systems are short period Algols having primaries with spectral types B and A. Dominant spectral lines were identified for the spectra collected and their equivalent widths were calculated. All the spectra were examined to understand presence of mass transfer, a disk or circumstellar matter and chromospheric emission. We also present first spectroscopic and period study for few Algols and conclude that high resolution spectra within and outside the primary minimum are needed for better understanding of these Algol type close binaries.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Min Lee, Gyun

    2018-01-01

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1...... and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated...... in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation...

  20. Alantolactone selectively ablates acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are largely attributed to leukemia stem cells (LSCs which are difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and responsible for relapse. Thus, new therapeutic strategies which could selectively target LSCs in clinical leukemia treatment and avoid drug resistance are urgently needed. However, only a few small molecules have been reported to show anti-LSCs activity. Methods The aim of the present study was to identify alantolactone as novel agent that can ablate acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells from AML patient specimens and evaluate the anticancer activity of alantolactone in vitro and in vivo. Results The present study is the first to demonstrate that alantolactone, a prominent eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, could specifically ablate LSCs from AML patient specimens. Furthermore, in comparison to the conventional chemotherapy drug, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, alantolactone showed superior effects of leukemia cytotoxicity while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Alantolactone induced apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner by suppression of NF-kB and its downstream target proteins. DMA-alantolactone, a water-soluble prodrug of alantolactone, could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Based on these results, we propose that alantolactone may represent a novel LSCs-targeted therapy and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones offer a new scaffold for drug discovery towards anti-LSCs agents.

  1. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  2. Fluorescent multiplex cell flow systems and methods

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-06-01

    Systems and methods are provided for simultaneously assaying cell adhesion or cell rolling for multiple cell specimens. One embodiment provides a system for assaying adhesion or cell rolling of multiple cell specimens that includes a confocal imaging system containing a parallel plate flow chamber, a pump in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber inlet line and a cell suspension in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber outlet line. The system also includes a laser scanning system in electronic communication with the confocal imaging system, and a computer in communication with the confocal imaging system and laser scanning system. In certain embodiments, the laser scanning system emits multiple electromagnetic wavelengths simultaneously it cause multiple fluorescent labels having different excitation wavelength maximums to fluoresce. The system can simultaneously capture real-time fluorescence images from at least seven cell specimens in the parallel plate flow chamber.

  3. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  4. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  5. Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain

    OpenAIRE

    KALUSOVÁ, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the thesis Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain is to explore and analyze the sphere in which the retailer chain operates, and evaluate their financial situation. At the same time, the selected retail chain will compare with the selected sectoral competition. The first part of thesis covers the theoretical information about issues, in particular the definition of basic terms of trade and retail. The second part of thesis includes application theoretical knowledg...

  6. Optimistic Selection Rule Better Than Majority Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takuya; Obata, Takuya; Hoki, Kunihito; Ito, Takeshi

    A recently proposed ensemble approach to game-tree search has attracted a great deal of attention. The ensemble system consists of M computer players, where each player uses a different series of pseudo-random numbers. A combination of multiple players under the majority voting system would improve the performance of a Shogi-playing computer. We present a new strategy of move selection based on the search values of a number of players. The move decision is made by selecting one player from all M players. Each move is selected by referring to the evaluation value of the tree search of each player. The performance and mechanism of the strategy are examined. We show that the optimistic selection rule, which selects the player that yields the highest evaluation value, outperforms the majority voting system. By grouping 16 or more computer players straightforwardly, the winning rates of the strongest Shogi programs increase from 50 to 60% or even higher.

  7. Waste system optimization - can diameter selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashline, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the waste system optimization study is to define in terms of cost incentives the preferred waste package for HLW which has been converted to glass at a commercial reprocessing plant. The Waste Management Economic Model (WMEM) was employed to analyze the effect of varying important design parameters on the overall net present cost of waste handling. The parameters found to have the greatest effect on the calculated overall net present cost were can diameter, repository type (salt, basalt/bentonite, or welded tuff), allowable areal heat loading, and the repository availability date. The overall net present of a waste handling option is calculated over a 20-year operating period. It includes the total capital and operating costs associated with high-level and intermediate-level liquid waste storage, liquid waste solidification, hulls storage and compaction, and general process trash handling. It also includes the cask leasing and transportation costs associated with each waste type and the waste repository disposal costs. The waste repository disposal costs used in WMEM for this analysis were obtained from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories and thir RECON model. 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Selective induction of DNA repair pathways in human B cells activated by CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Wu

    Full Text Available Greater than 75% of all hematologic malignancies derive from germinal center (GC or post-GC B cells, suggesting that the GC reaction predisposes B cells to tumorigenesis. Because GC B cells acquire expression of the highly mutagenic enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, GC B cells may require additional DNA repair capacity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether normal human B cells acquire enhanced expression of DNA repair factors upon AID induction. We first demonstrated that several DNA mismatch repair, homologous recombination, base excision repair, and ATR signaling genes were overexpressed in GC B cells relative to naïve and memory B cells, reflecting activation of a process we have termed somatic hyperrepair (SHR. Using an in vitro system, we next characterized activation signals required to induce AID expression and SHR. Although AID expression was induced by a variety of polyclonal activators, SHR induction strictly required signals provided by contact with activated CD4+ T cells, and B cells activated in this manner displayed reduced levels of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We further show the induction of SHR is independent of AID expression, as GC B cells from AID-/-mice retained heightened expression of SHR proteins. In consideration of the critical role that CD4+ T cells play in inducing the SHR process, our data suggest a novel role for CD4+ T cells in the tumor suppression of GC/post-GC B cells.

  9. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  10. ERP systems selection in multinational enterprises: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Haddara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system selection is an early phase in the ERP adoption process. When organizations evaluate an ERP, they commonly develop their own selection criteria that usually involve various system and vendor related factors. While the selection process is critical, however, there is an apparent research gap in literature. The ERP selection effort also focuses on the system’s fit with the organizational requirements and needs. Thus, the selection phase is critical, because if an organization chooses an unfit ERP, the whole project could be predestined to fail. This research provides an overview of an ERP selection process at an overseas branch office of a multinational company. The process employed a simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART for evaluation. In addition, this research presents how cross-border data protection laws between the parent company and its branch have influenced the selection process. As the ERP system has been implemented successfully, the method and the selection factors have been proven adequate for the selection process.

  11. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  12. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  13. Polycyclic selection system for the tropical rainforests of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen T. Dale; Grahame B. Applegate

    1992-01-01

    The polycyclic selection logging system developed and practiced for many years in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland has been successful in integrating timber production with the protection of conservation values. The system has been used by the Queensland Forest Service to manage north Queensland rainforests. The Queensland system has considerable potential...

  14. Sequence Selection and Performance in DS/CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Santos Ambrosio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work key concepts on coding division multiple access (CDMA communication systems have been discussed. The sequence selection impact on the performance and capacity of direct sequence CDMA (DS/CDMA systems under AWGN and increasing system loading, as well as under multiple antennas channels was investigated.

  15. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  16. Matching People and Jobs: Value Systems and Employee Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflich, Debra L.

    1981-01-01

    Offers strategies, based on six value systems, to reduce employee turnover. Maintains that understanding the value systems of people as they relate to jobs is the key to improving the selection process, and that employees should be chosen in accordance with how well their value systems match their work and work environments.

  17. Repair of Ischemic Injury by Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Cell Therapy without Teratoma through Selective Photosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem-toxic small molecules have been developed to induce selective cell death of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to lower the risk of teratoma formation. However, despite their high efficacies, chemical-based approaches may carry unexpected toxicities on specific differentiated cell types. Herein, we took advantage of KillerRed (KR as a suicide gene, to selectively induce phototoxicity using visible light via the production of reactive oxygen species. PSCs in an undifferentiated state that exclusively expressed KR (KR-PSCs were eliminated by a single exposure to visible light. This highly selective cell death in KR-PSCs was exploited to successfully inhibit teratoma formation. In particular, endothelial cells from KR-mPSCs remained fully functional in vitro and sufficient to repair ischemic injury in vivo regardless of light exposure, suggesting that a genetic approach in which KR is expressed in a tightly controlled manner would be a viable strategy to inhibit teratoma formation for future safe PSC-based therapies.

  18. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  19. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Indiveri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC, which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  20. Selective attention in multi-chip address-event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the "Selective Attention Chip" (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  1. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  2. Selective receptor expression restricts Nipah virus infection of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederich Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes severe diseases in animals and humans. Endothelial cell (EC infection is an established hallmark of NiV infection in vivo. Despite systemic virus spread via the vascular system, EC in brain and lung are preferentially infected whereas EC in other organs are less affected. As in vivo, we found differences in the infection of EC in cell culture. Only brain-derived primary or immortalized EC were found to be permissive to NiV infection. Using a replication-independent fusion assay, we could show that the lack of infection in non-brain EC was due to a lack of receptor expression. The NiV entry receptors ephrinB2 (EB2 or ephrinB3 were only expressed in brain endothelia. The finding that EB2 expression in previously non-permissive aortic EC rendered the cells permissive to infection then demonstrated that EB2 is not only necessary but also sufficient to allow the establishment of a productive NiV infection. This strongly suggests that limitations in receptor expression restrict virus entry in certain EC subsets in vivo, and are thus responsible for the differences in EC tropism observed in human and animal NiV infections.

  3. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ... fact that these cells did not show any electrical activity like neurons or muscles ... membrane potential higher than that of the surrounding neu- rons.

  4. Induction of rapid and selective cell necrosis in Drosophila using Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin and its silkworm receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Shiho; Kashio, Soshiro; Tsujimura, Hidenobu; Sato, Ryoichi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-07-08

    Genetic ablation of target cells is a powerful tool to study the origins and functions of cells, tissue regeneration, or pathophysiology in a human disease model in vivo. Several methods for selective cell ablation by inducing apoptosis have been established, using exogenous toxins or endogenous proapoptotic genes. However, their application is limited to cells with intact apoptotic machinery. Herein, we established a method for inducing rapid and selective cell necrosis by the pore-forming bacterial toxin Cry1Aa, which is specifically active in cells expressing the Cry1Aa receptor (CryR) derived from the silkworm Bombyx mori. We demonstrated that overexpressing CryR in Drosophila melanogaster tissues induced rapid cell death of CryR-expressing cells only, in the presence of Cry1Aa toxin. Cry/CryR system was effective against both proliferating cells in imaginal discs and polyploid postmitotic cells in the fat body. Live imaging analysis of cell ablation revealed swelling and subsequent osmotic lysis of CryR-positive cells after 30 min of incubation with Cry1Aa toxin. Osmotic cell lysis was still triggered when apoptosis, JNK activation, or autophagy was inhibited, suggesting that Cry1Aa-induced necrotic cell death occurred independently of these cellular signaling pathways. Injection of Cry1Aa into the body cavity resulted in specific ablation of CryR-expressing cells, indicating the usefulness of this method for in vivo cell ablation. With Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, we developed a novel method for genetic induction of cell necrosis. Our system provides a "proteinous drill" for killing target cells through physical injury of the cell membrane, which can potentially be used to ablate any cell type in any organisms, even those that are resistant to apoptosis or JNK-dependent programmed cell death.

  5. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E selectively induces oxidative DNA damage for selective killing of oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jen-Yang; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Wang, Hui-Ru; Chan, Ya-Ching; Haung, Jo-Wen; Shu, Chih-Wen; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction had been previously reported in 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE)-induced selective killing of oral cancer cells, but the mechanism involving ROS and the DNA damage effect remain unclear. This study explores the role of ROS and oxidative DNA damage of 4βHWE in the selective killing of oral cancer cells. Changes in cell viability, morphology, ROS, DNA double strand break (DSB) signaling (γH2AX foci in immunofluorescence and DSB signaling in western blotting), and oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) were detected in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and/or normal (HGF-1) cells. 4βHWE decreased cell viability, changed cell morphology and induced ROS generation in oral cancer cells rather than oral normal cells, which were recovered by a free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For immunofluorescence, 4βHWE also accumulated more of the DSB marker, γH2AX foci, in oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. For western blotting, DSB signaling proteins such as γH2AX and MRN complex (MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1) were overexpressed in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells in different concentrations and treatment time. In the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycolyase (Fpg)-based comet assay and 8-oxodG-based flow cytometry, the 8-oxodG expressions were higher in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. All the 4βHWE-induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage to oral cancer cells were recovered by NAC pretreatment. Taken together, the 4βHWE selectively induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage for the ROS-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimal Parameter Selection of Power System Stabilizer using Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyeng Hwan; Chung, Dong Il; Chung, Mun Kyu [Dong-AUniversity (Korea); Wang, Yong Peel [Canterbury Univeristy (New Zealand)

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that the selection method of optimal parameter of power system stabilizer (PSS) with robustness in low frequency oscillation for power system using real variable elitism genetic algorithm (RVEGA). The optimal parameters were selected in the case of power system stabilizer with one lead compensator, and two lead compensator. Also, the frequency responses characteristics of PSS, the system eigenvalues criterion and the dynamic characteristics were considered in the normal load and the heavy load, which proved usefulness of RVEGA compare with Yu's compensator design theory. (author). 20 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Transporter-Guided Delivery of Nanoparticles to Improve Drug Permeation across Cellular Barriers and Drug Exposure to Selective Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfa Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nano-drug delivery systems conjugated with specific ligands to target selective cell-surface receptors or transporters could enhance the efficacy of drug delivery and therapy. Transporters are expressed differentially on the cell-surface of different cell types, and also specific transporters are expressed at higher than normal levels in selective cell types under pathological conditions. They also play a key role in intestinal absorption, delivery via non-oral routes (e.g., pulmonary route and nasal route, and transfer across biological barriers (e.g., blood–brain barrier and blood–retinal barrier. As such, the cell-surface transporters represent ideal targets for nano-drug delivery systems to facilitate drug delivery to selective cell types under normal or pathological conditions and also to avoid off-target adverse side effects of the drugs. There is increasing evidence in recent years supporting the utility of cell-surface transporters in the field of nano-drug delivery to increase oral bioavailability, to improve transfer across the blood–brain barrier, and to enhance delivery of therapeutics in a cell-type selective manner in disease states. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent advancements in this interesting and important area. We also highlight certain key aspects that need to be taken into account for optimal development of transporter-assisted nano-drug delivery systems.

  8. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  9. Work flow management systems. Selection of Platforms and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses a formal procedure for selecting the Platform and tools necessary to implement a Work Flow system in a company's organisation. The proposed method is based on a preliminary study to ascertain the company's requirements; in other words, the tool is selected on the basis of the environment in which it is to be used, thus making it essential to know the frequency of use, the types of tasks to be executed, the complexity of work flow, etc. Once the preliminary study has been performed, the formal selection method does no differ greatly from that for selecting any other tool. The objective is to establish a series of weighted parameters so that each candidate configuration can be assessed and one finally selected. Lastly, the paper discusses some practical considerations which became evident during the selection of a work flow management tool for our own company. (Author)

  10. Biona-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a system to demonstrate the ability to perform accurate, real-time measurements of pH and CO2 in a cell culture media in Space. The BIONA-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System consists of S2K! developed ion selective sensors and control electronics integrated with the fluidics of a cell culture system. The integrated system comprises a "rail" in the Cell Culture Module (CCM) of WRAIR (Space Biosciences of Walter Read Army Institute of Research). The CCM is a Space Shuttle mid-deck locker experiment payload. The BIONA-C is displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. The presentation will stimulate interest in development of sensor technology for real-time cell culture measurements. The transfer of this technology to other applications will also be of interest. Additional information is contained in the original document.

  11. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems

  12. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-11-30

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems.

  13. NAC selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity: A higher redox homeostasis threshold exists in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengying Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity controls telomere length, and this plays an important role in stem cells, aging and tumors. Antioxidant was shown to protect telomerase activity in normal cells but inhibit that in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here we found that 7721 hepatoma cells held a higher redox homeostasis threshold than L02 normal liver cells which caused 7721 cells to have a higher demand for ROS; MnSOD over-expression in 7721 decreased endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibited telomerase activity; Akt phosphorylation inhibitor and NAC both inhibited 7721 telomerase activity. The over-elimination of ROS by NAC resulted in the inhibition of Akt pathway. Our results suggest that ROS is involved in the regulation of cancer telomerase activity through Akt pathway. The different intracellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant system in normal cells and tumor cells may be the cause of the opposite effect on telomerase activity in response to NAC treatment. Our results provide a theoretical base of using antioxidants selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity. Findings of the present study may provide insights into novel approaches for cancer treatment.

  14. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Intraclonal Cell Expansion and Selection Driven by B Cell Receptor in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Fabbi, Marina; Quintana, Giovanni; Quarta, Giovanni; Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2011-01-01

    The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) genes utilized by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) clones defines two disease subgroups. Patients with unmutated IGHV have a more aggressive disease and a worse outcome than patients with cells having somatic IGHV gene mutations. Moreover, up to 30% of the unmutated CLL clones exhibit very similar or identical B cell receptors (BcR), often encoded by the same IG genes. These “stereotyped” BcRs have been classified into defined subsets. The presence of an IGHV gene somatic mutation and the utilization of a skewed gene repertoire compared with normal B cells together with the expression of stereotyped receptors by unmutated CLL clones may indicate stimulation/selection by antigenic epitopes. This antigenic stimulation may occur prior to or during neoplastic transformation, but it is unknown whether this stimulation/selection continues after leukemogenesis has ceased. In this study, we focused on seven CLL cases with stereotyped BcR Subset #8 found among a cohort of 700 patients; in six, the cells expressed IgG and utilized IGHV4-39 and IGKV1-39/IGKV1D-39 genes, as reported for Subset #8 BcR. One case exhibited special features, including expression of IgM or IgG by different subclones consequent to an isotype switch, allelic inclusion at the IGH locus in the IgM-expressing cells and a particular pattern of cytogenetic lesions. Collectively, the data indicate a process of antigenic stimulation/selection of the fully transformed CLL cells leading to the expansion of the Subset #8 IgG-bearing subclone. PMID:21541442

  16. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  17. The antimicrobial peptide nisin Z induces selective toxicity and apoptotic cell death in cultured melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewies, Angélique; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; Miller, Hayley Christy; Du Plessis, Lissinda Hester

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anticancer therapies. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the anti-melanoma potential of the antimicrobial peptide, nisin Z, was evaluated in vitro. Nisin Z was shown to induce selective toxicity in melanoma cells compared to non-malignant keratinocytes. Furthermore, nisin Z was shown to negatively affect the energy metabolism (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of melanoma cells, increase reactive oxygen species generation and cause apoptosis. Results also indicate that nisin Z can decrease the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells demonstrating its potential use against metastasis associated with melanoma. As nisin Z seems to place a considerable extra burden on the energy metabolism of melanoma cells, combination therapies with known anti-melanoma agents may be effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity and the selective vulnerability of nervous system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laura L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the structure, function, and cellular composition of the nervous system confers extraordinary complexity and a multiplicity of mechanisms of chemical neurotoxicity. Because of its relatively high metabolic demands and functional dependence on postmitotic neurons, the nervous system is vulnerable to a variety of xenobiotics that affect essential homeostatic mechanisms that support function. Despite protection from the neuroglia and blood-brain barrier, the central nervous system is prone to attack from lipophilic toxicants and those that hijack endogenous transport, receptor, metabolic, and other biochemical systems. The inherent predilection of chemicals for highly conserved biochemical systems confers selective vulnerability of the nervous system to neurotoxicants. This chapter discusses selective vulnerability of the nervous system in the context of neuron-specific decrements (axonopathy, myelinopathy, disruption of neurotransmission), and the degree to which neuronal damage is facilitated or ameliorated by surrounding nonneural cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  20. Selected microRNAs define cell fate determination of murine central memory CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Almanza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an immune response T cells enter memory fate determination, a program that divides them into two main populations: effector memory and central memory T cells. Since in many systems protection appears to be preferentially mediated by T cells of the central memory it is important to understand when and how fate determination takes place. To date, cell intrinsic molecular events that determine their differentiation remains unclear. MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, causing translational repression and/or messenger RNA degradation. Here, using an in vitro system where activated CD8 T cells driven by IL-2 or IL-15 become either effector memory or central memory cells, we assessed the role of microRNAs in memory T cell fate determination. We found that fate determination to central memory T cells is under the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs including miR-150, miR-155 and the let-7 family. Based on miR-150 a new target, KChIP.1 (K (+ channel interacting protein 1, was uncovered, which is specifically upregulated in developing central memory CD8 T cells. Our studies indicate that cell fate determination such as surface phenotype and self-renewal may be decided at the pre-effector stage on the basis of the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs. These results may have implications for the development of T cell vaccines and T cell-based adoptive therapies.

  1. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Targeting of phage particles towards endothelial cells by antibodies selected through a multi-parameter selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, Ole A; Lykkemark, Simon; Kristensen, Peter

    2017-02-10

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is sustained angiogenesis. Here, normal endothelial cells are activated, and their formation of new blood vessels leads to continued tumour growth. An improved patient condition is often observed when angiogenesis is prevented or normalized through targeting of these genomically stable endothelial cells. However, intracellular targets constitute a challenge in therapy, as the agents modulating these targets have to be delivered and internalized specifically to the endothelial cells. Selection of antibodies binding specifically to certain cell types is well established. It is nonetheless a challenge to ensure that the binding of antibodies to the target cell will mediate internalization. Previously selection of such antibodies has been performed targeting cancer cell lines; most often using either monovalent display or polyvalent display. In this article, we describe selections that isolate internalizing antibodies by sequential combining monovalent and polyvalent display using two types of helper phages, one which increases display valence and one which reduces background. One of the selected antibodies was found to mediate internalization into human endothelial cells, although our results confirms that the single stranded nature of the DNA packaged into phage particles may limit applications aimed at targeting nucleic acids in mammalian cells.

  3. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis...

  4. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  5. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  6. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  7. Arrangement of fuel cell system for TNRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Takehiro; Yasuda, Ryo; Iikura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takuro; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hayashida, Hirotoshi

    2012-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (fuel cells) can be potentially employed as sources of clean energy because they discharge only water as by-products. Fuel cells generate electricity with supply of oxygen and hydrogen gases. However, the water produced by the fuel cells blocks the gas supply, thereby degrading their performances. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of the water produced by the fuel cells in order to facilitate their development. Neutron radiography is a useful tool for visualizing the distribution of water in fuel cells. We have designed fuel cell operation system for TNRF (Thermal Neutron Radiography Facility) at JRR-3. The fuel cell operation system consists of various components such as gas flow and humidification systems, hydrogen-diluting system, purge system, and safety system for hydrogen gas. We tested this system using a Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) standard cell. The system performed stably and efficiently. In addition, neutron radiography tests were carried out to visualize the water distribution. The water produced by the fuel cell was observed during the fuel cell operation. (author)

  8. Well-Controlled Cell-Trapping Systems for Investigating Heterogeneous Cell-Cell Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Abe, Yuta; Inoue, Kosuke; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2018-03-01

    Microfluidic systems have been developed for patterning single cells to study cell-cell interactions. However, patterning multiple types of cells to understand heterogeneous cell-cell interactions remains difficult. Here, it is aimed to develop a cell-trapping device to assemble multiple types of cells in the well-controlled order and morphology. This device mainly comprises a parylene sheet for assembling cells and a microcomb for controlling the cell-trapping area. The cell-trapping area is controlled by moving the parylene sheet on an SU-8 microcomb using tweezers. Gentle downward flow is used as a driving force for the cell-trapping. The assembly of cells on a parylene sheet with round and line-shaped apertures is demonstrated. The cell-cell contacts of the trapped cells are then investigated by direct cell-cell transfer of calcein via connexin nanopores. Finally, using the device with a system for controlling the cell-trapping area, three different types of cells in the well-controlled order are assembled. The correct cell order rate obtained using the device is 27.9%, which is higher than that obtained without the sliding parylene system (0.74%). Furthermore, the occurrence of cell-cell contact between the three cell types assembled is verified. This cell-patterning device will be a useful tool for investigating heterogeneous cell-cell interactions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. On the relationship between perceived importance of ERP systems selection characteristics and satisfaction with selected ERP systems in these characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja; Lenart, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    of the relationship between the two. The paper focuses on the correlation between importance of ERP system selection criteria and the level of satisfaction with the chosen ERP systems in these characteristics. The research hypothesis is that there exists a correlation between the two. The analysis presented...

  10. Rapid selection and proliferation of CD133+ cells from cancer cell lines: chemotherapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Kelly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. We have recently isolated and cultured CD133 positive [CD133+] cells from various cancer cell lines using a NASA developed Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB (Celdyne, Houston, TX. For comparison, another bioreactor, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS manufactured by Synthecon (Houston, TX was used. Both the HFB and the RCCS bioreactors simulate aspects of hypogravity. In our study, the HFB increased CD133+ cell growth from various cell lines compared to the RCCS vessel and to normal gravity control. We observed a +15-fold proliferation of the CD133+ cellular fraction with cancer cells that were cultured for 7-days at optimized conditions. The RCCS vessel instead yielded a (-4.8-fold decrease in the CD133+cellular fraction respect to the HFB after 7-days of culture. Interestingly, we also found that the hypogravity environment of the HFB greatly sensitized the CD133+ cancer cells, which are normally resistant to chemo treatment, to become susceptible to various chemotherapeutic agents, paving the way to less toxic and more effective chemotherapeutic treatment in patients. To be able to test the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vitro prior to their use in clinical setting on cancer cells as well as on cancer stem cells may pave the way to more effective chemotherapeutic strategies in patients. This could be an important advancement in the therapeutic options of oncologic patients, allowing for more targeted and personalized chemotherapy regimens as well as for higher response rates.

  11. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lachmann

    Full Text Available The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  12. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Sylvie; Jevons, Amy; De Rycker, Manu; Casamassima, Adele; Radtke, Simone; Collazos, Alejandra; Parker, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN) family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s) of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  13. Cell-specific cre recombinase expression allows selective ablation of glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ströh

    Full Text Available In the mouse retina, horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network and provide feedback signals to photoreceptors and feedforward signals to bipolar cells. Thereby, horizontal cells contribute to gain control at the first visual synapse and to the antagonistic organization of bipolar and ganglion cell receptive fields. However, the nature of horizontal cell output remains a matter of debate, just as the exact contribution of horizontal cells to center-surround antagonism. To facilitate studying horizontal cell function, we developed a knockin mouse line which allows ablating genes exclusively in horizontal cells. This knockin line expresses a Cre recombinase under the promoter of connexin57 (Cx57, a gap junction protein only expressed in horizontal cells. Consistently, in Cx57+/Cre mice, Cre recombinase is expressed in almost all horizontal cells (>99% and no other retinal neurons. To test Cre activity, we crossbred Cx57+/Cre mice with a mouse line in which exon 11 of the coding sequence for the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluA4 was flanked by two loxP sites (GluA4fl/fl. In GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, GluA4 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced (∼ 50% in the outer retina where horizontal cells receive photoreceptor inputs, confirming the functionality of the Cre/loxP system. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated horizontal cell somata showed a reduction of glutamate-induced inward currents by ∼ 75%, suggesting that the GluA4 subunit plays a major role in mediating photoreceptor inputs. The persistent current in GluA4-deficient cells is mostly driven by AMPA and to a very small extent by kainate receptors as revealed by application of the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI52466 and concanavalin A, a potentiator of kainate receptor-mediated currents. In summary, the Cx57+/Cre mouse line provides a versatile tool for studying horizontal cell function. GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, in which horizontal cells receive less

  14. Cell-Specific Cre Recombinase Expression Allows Selective Ablation of Glutamate Receptors from Mouse Horizontal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Schultz, Konrad; Cimiotti, Kerstin; Weiler, Reto; Willecke, Klaus; Dedek, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse retina, horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network and provide feedback signals to photoreceptors and feedforward signals to bipolar cells. Thereby, horizontal cells contribute to gain control at the first visual synapse and to the antagonistic organization of bipolar and ganglion cell receptive fields. However, the nature of horizontal cell output remains a matter of debate, just as the exact contribution of horizontal cells to center-surround antagonism. To facilitate studying horizontal cell function, we developed a knockin mouse line which allows ablating genes exclusively in horizontal cells. This knockin line expresses a Cre recombinase under the promoter of connexin57 (Cx57), a gap junction protein only expressed in horizontal cells. Consistently, in Cx57+/Cre mice, Cre recombinase is expressed in almost all horizontal cells (>99%) and no other retinal neurons. To test Cre activity, we crossbred Cx57+/Cre mice with a mouse line in which exon 11 of the coding sequence for the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluA4 was flanked by two loxP sites (GluA4fl/fl). In GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, GluA4 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced (∼50%) in the outer retina where horizontal cells receive photoreceptor inputs, confirming the functionality of the Cre/loxP system. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated horizontal cell somata showed a reduction of glutamate-induced inward currents by ∼75%, suggesting that the GluA4 subunit plays a major role in mediating photoreceptor inputs. The persistent current in GluA4-deficient cells is mostly driven by AMPA and to a very small extent by kainate receptors as revealed by application of the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI52466 and concanavalin A, a potentiator of kainate receptor-mediated currents. In summary, the Cx57+/Cre mouse line provides a versatile tool for studying horizontal cell function. GluA4fl/fl:Cx57+/Cre mice, in which horizontal cells receive less excitatory input

  15. Procedure for Selection of Suitable Resources in Interactions in Complex Dynamic Systems Using Artificial Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naors Y. anadalsaleem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic optimization procedure for -dimensional vector function of a system, the state of which is interpreted as adaptable immune cell, is considered Using the results of the theory of artificial immune systems. The procedures for estimate of monitoring results are discussed. The procedure for assessing the entropy is recommended as a general recursive estimation algorithm. The results are focused on solving the optimization problems of cognitive selection of suitable physical resources, what expands the scope of Electromagnetic compatibility.

  16. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  17. Selective neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells induced by nanosecond microplasma agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z; Zhao, S; Mao, X; Lu, X; He, G; Yang, G; Chen, M; Ishaq, M; Ostrikov, K

    2014-03-01

    An essential step for therapeutic and research applications of stem cells is their ability to differentiate into specific cell types. Neuronal cells are of great interest for medical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of central nervous system (CNS), but efforts to produce these cells have been met with only modest success. In an attempt of finding new approaches, atmospheric-pressure room-temperature microplasma jets (MPJs) are shown to effectively direct in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) predominantly into neuronal lineage. Murine neural stem cells (C17.2-NSCs) treated with MPJs exhibit rapid proliferation and differentiation with longer neurites and cell bodies eventually forming neuronal networks. MPJs regulate ~75% of NSCs to differentiate into neurons, which is a higher efficiency compared to common protein- and growth factors-based differentiation. NSCs exposure to quantized and transient (~150 ns) micro-plasma bullets up-regulates expression of different cell lineage markers as β-Tubulin III (for neurons) and O4 (for oligodendrocytes), while the expression of GFAP (for astrocytes) remains unchanged, as evidenced by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western Blot assay. It is shown that the plasma-increased nitric oxide (NO) production is a factor in the fate choice and differentiation of NSCs followed by axonal growth. The differentiated NSC cells matured and produced mostly cholinergic and motor neuronal progeny. It is also demonstrated that exposure of primary rat NSCs to the microplasma leads to quite similar differentiation effects. This suggests that the observed effect may potentially be generic and applicable to other types of neural progenitor cells. The application of this new in vitro strategy to selectively differentiate NSCs into neurons represents a step towards reproducible and efficient production of the desired NSC derivatives. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Selective neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells induced by nanosecond microplasma agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xiong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An essential step for therapeutic and research applications of stem cells is their ability to differentiate into specific cell types. Neuronal cells are of great interest for medical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of central nervous system (CNS, but efforts to produce these cells have been met with only modest success. In an attempt of finding new approaches, atmospheric-pressure room-temperature microplasma jets (MPJs are shown to effectively direct in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs predominantly into neuronal lineage. Murine neural stem cells (C17.2-NSCs treated with MPJs exhibit rapid proliferation and differentiation with longer neurites and cell bodies eventually forming neuronal networks. MPJs regulate ~75% of NSCs to differentiate into neurons, which is a higher efficiency compared to common protein- and growth factors-based differentiation. NSCs exposure to quantized and transient (~150 ns micro-plasma bullets up-regulates expression of different cell lineage markers as β-Tubulin III (for neurons and O4 (for oligodendrocytes, while the expression of GFAP (for astrocytes remains unchanged, as evidenced by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western Blot assay. It is shown that the plasma-increased nitric oxide (NO production is a factor in the fate choice and differentiation of NSCs followed by axonal growth. The differentiated NSC cells matured and produced mostly cholinergic and motor neuronal progeny. It is also demonstrated that exposure of primary rat NSCs to the microplasma leads to quite similar differentiation effects. This suggests that the observed effect may potentially be generic and applicable to other types of neural progenitor cells. The application of this new in vitro strategy to selectively differentiate NSCs into neurons represents a step towards reproducible and efficient production of the desired NSC derivatives.

  19. A Fuzzy-MOORA approach for ERP system selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Karande

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global and dynamic business environment, manufacturing organizations face the tremendous challenge of expanding markets and meeting the customer expectations. It compels them to lower total cost in the entire supply chain, shorten throughput time, reduce inventory, expand product choice, provide more reliable delivery dates and better customer service, improve quality, and efficiently coordinate demand, supply and production. In order to accomplish these objectives, the manufacturing organizations are turning to enterprise resource planning (ERP system, which is an enterprise-wide information system to interlace all the necessary business functions, such as product planning, purchasing, inventory control, sales, financial and human resources into a single system having a shared database. Thus to survive in the global competitive environment, implementation of a suitable ERP system is mandatory. However, selecting a wrong ERP system may adversely affect the manufacturing organization’s overall performance. Due to limitations in available resources, complexity of ERP systems and diversity of alternatives, it is often difficult for a manufacturing organization to select and install the most suitable ERP system. In this paper, two ERP system selection problems are solved using fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method and it is observed that in both the cases, SAP is the best solution.

  20. Selective adsorption of ions in charged slit-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Valiskó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the selective adsorption of various cations into a layered slit system using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The slit system is formed by a series of negatively charged membranes. The electrolyte contains two kinds of cations with different sizes and valences modeled by charged hard spheres immersed in a continuum dielectric solvent. We present results for various cases depending on the combinations of the properties of the competing cations. We concentrate to the case when the divalent cations are larger than the monovalent cations. In this case, size and charge have counterbalancing effects, which results in interesting selectivity phenomena.

  1. Database system selection for marketing strategies support in information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamically changing environment marketing has a significant role. Creating successful marketing strategies requires large amount of high quality information of various kinds and data types. A powerful database management system is a necessary condition for marketing strategies creation support. The paper briefly describes the field of marketing strategies and specifies the features that should be provided by database systems in connection with these strategies support. Major commercial (Oracle, DB2, MS SQL, Sybase and open-source (PostgreSQL, MySQL, Firebird databases are than examined from the point of view of accordance with these characteristics and their comparison in made. The results are useful for making the decision before acquisition of a database system during information system’s hardware architecture specification.

  2. Interspike Interval Based Filtering of Directional Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Vasile Martiniuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The information regarding visual stimulus is encoded in spike trains at the output of retina by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Among these, the directional selective cells (DSRGC are signaling the direction of stimulus motion. DSRGCs' spike trains show accentuated periods of short interspike intervals (ISIs framed by periods of isolated spikes. Here we use two types of visual stimulus, white noise and drifting bars, and show that short ISI spikes of DSRGCs spike trains are more often correlated to their preferred stimulus feature (that is, the direction of stimulus motion and carry more information than longer ISI spikes. Firstly, our results show that correlation between stimulus and recorded neuronal response is best at short ISI spiking activity and decrease as ISI becomes larger. We then used grating bars stimulus and found that as ISI becomes shorter the directional selectivity is better and information rates are higher. Interestingly, for the less encountered type of DSRGC, known as ON-DSRGC, short ISI distribution and information rates revealed consistent differences when compared with the other directional selective cell type, the ON-OFF DSRGC. However, these findings suggest that ISI-based temporal filtering integrates a mechanism for visual information processing at the output of retina toward higher stages within early visual system.

  3. Thermal System Modeling for Lunar and Martian Surface Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ryan Patrick; Smith, Phillip James; Jakupca, Ian Joseph; Bennett, William Raymond; Guzik, Monica Christine; Fincannon, Homer J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 degrees Celsius versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 degrees Celsius. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  4. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  5. Selecting a Relational Database Management System for Library Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhel, Alex; O'Brien, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of four relational database management systems (RDBMSs) (Informix Turbo, Oracle 6.0 TPS, Unify 2000 and Relational Technology's Ingres 5.0) to determine which is best suited for library automation. The evaluation criteria used to develop a benchmark specifically designed to test RDBMSs for libraries are discussed. (CLB)

  6. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  7. Dopant-Free and Carrier-Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; He, Jian; Yu, Jing; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Juye; Ge, Ziyi; Ye, Jichun

    2018-03-01

    By combining the most successful heterojunctions (HJ) with interdigitated back contacts, crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells (SCs) have recently demonstrated a record efficiency of 26.6%. However, such SCs still introduce optical/electrical losses and technological issues due to parasitic absorption/Auger recombination inherent to the doped films and the complex process of integrating discrete p + - and n + -HJ contacts. These issues have motivated the search for alternative new functional materials and simplified deposition technologies, whereby carrier-selective contacts (CSCs) can be formed directly with c-Si substrates, and thereafter form IBC cells, via a dopant-free method. Screening and modifying CSC materials in a wider context is beneficial for building dopant-free HJ contacts with better performance, shedding new light on the relatively mature Si photovoltaic field. In this review, a significant number of achievements in two representative dopant-free hole-selective CSCs, i.e . , poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si and transition metal oxides/Si, have been systemically presented and surveyed. The focus herein is on the latest advances in hole-selective materials modification, interfacial passivation, contact resistivity, light-trapping structure and device architecture design, etc. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of hole-selective materials and assessing their electrical transport properties, promising functional materials as well as important design concepts for such CSCs toward high-performance SCs have been highlighted.

  8. Dopant‐Free and Carrier‐Selective Heterocontacts for Silicon Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; He, Jian; Yu, Jing; Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Juye; Ge, Ziyi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract By combining the most successful heterojunctions (HJ) with interdigitated back contacts, crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cells (SCs) have recently demonstrated a record efficiency of 26.6%. However, such SCs still introduce optical/electrical losses and technological issues due to parasitic absorption/Auger recombination inherent to the doped films and the complex process of integrating discrete p+‐ and n+‐HJ contacts. These issues have motivated the search for alternative new functional materials and simplified deposition technologies, whereby carrier‐selective contacts (CSCs) can be formed directly with c‐Si substrates, and thereafter form IBC cells, via a dopant‐free method. Screening and modifying CSC materials in a wider context is beneficial for building dopant‐free HJ contacts with better performance, shedding new light on the relatively mature Si photovoltaic field. In this review, a significant number of achievements in two representative dopant‐free hole‐selective CSCs, i.e., poly(3,4‐ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si and transition metal oxides/Si, have been systemically presented and surveyed. The focus herein is on the latest advances in hole‐selective materials modification, interfacial passivation, contact resistivity, light‐trapping structure and device architecture design, etc. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of hole‐selective materials and assessing their electrical transport properties, promising functional materials as well as important design concepts for such CSCs toward high‐performance SCs have been highlighted. PMID:29593956

  9. Selective maintenance of multi-state systems with structural dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Cuong D.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the selective maintenance problem for multi-state systems with structural dependence. Each component can be in one of multiple working levels and several maintenance actions are possible to a component in a maintenance break. The components structurally form multiple hierarchical levels and dependence groups. A directed graph is used to represent the precedence relations of components in the system. A selective maintenance optimization model is developed to maximize the system reliability in the next mission under time and cost constraints. A backward search algorithm is used to determine the assembly sequence for a selective maintenance scenario. The maintenance model helps maintenance managers in determining the best combination of maintenance activities to maximize the probability of successfully completing the next mission. Examples showing the use of the proposed method are presented. - Highlights: • A selective maintenance model for multi-state systems is proposed considering both economic and structural dependence. • Structural dependence is modeled as precedence relationship when disassembling components for maintenance. • Resources for disassembly and maintenance are evaluated using a backward search algorithm. • Maintenance strategies with and without structural dependence are analyzed. • Ignoring structural dependence may lead to over-estimation of system reliability.

  10. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  11. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  12. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  13. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mandušić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to select the one that meets all defined parameters, with low costs/investment. Proper evaluation can save time and money.

  14. Configuration Selection for Reconfigurable Control of Piecewise Affine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Gholami, M.; Bak, T.

    2015-01-01

    the recongurability of the system and the optimal conguration in the architecture design phase. A recongurable control must ensure stability of the recongured system and, if possible, a graceful degradation in the performance. Therefore, in the proposed recongurability analysis, we consider both stabilizability......In this paper, the problem of conguration selection i.e. sensor/actuator placement for piecewise ane (PWA) systems subject to both sensor and actuator faults is considered. A method is proposed that provides a tool for the design phase to decide about the optimal placement of sensor/actuators where...... and performance of the system. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated on several numerical examples...

  15. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  16. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  17. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  18. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  19. A systematic and practical method for selecting systems engineering tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    analyses of the actual needs and the available tools. Grouping needs into categories, allow us to obtain a comprehensive set of requirements for the tools. The entire model-based systems engineering discipline was categorized for a modeling tool case to enable development of a tool specification...... in successful operation since 2013 at GN Hearing. We further utilized the method to select a set of tools that we used on pilot cases at GN Hearing for modeling, simulating and formally verifying embedded systems.......The complexity of many types of systems has grown considerably over the last decades. Using appropriate systems engineering tools therefore becomes increasingly important. Starting the tool selection process can be intimidating because organizations often only have a vague idea about what they need...

  20. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  1. System of selective disemination of information at ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the systems of selective dissemination of information (SDI) is presented, the concepts for such systems outlined, and their developments traced in advanced countries, its forms of operation and implications for the special libraries. Also the operation of INIS at CIDN (Centro de Informacion y Documentacion Nuclear) is presented, together with recommendations and conclusions to improve the development of this service in Mexico. (author)

  2. Expert hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Selection and design of oil and gas distribution systems involves a large number of decision makers and interest groups, as well as many alternative technical, financial, network, operating, management and regulatory options. Their objectives and measures of performance are different. Decision models can be effectively represented by hierarchical structures. A simple deterministic analytic hierarchy process is presented with application to oil and gas distribution systems

  3. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password.

  4. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password ...

  5. Corneal manifestations of selected systemic diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corneal manifestations of several selected systemic diseases are reviewed. Metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory and infectious diseases are included. A brief overview of each disease and how it manifests in the cornea is discussed. The importance of conducting a slit-lamp examination on every patient is emphasised.

  6. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  7. System for illuminating a region for isotopically selective photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaryshe, P.G.; Janes, G.S.; Levy, R.H.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described to improve laser beam utilization in isotope separation techniques (using laser induced isotopically selective photoexcitation) by increasing the probability of photon absorption without extreme beam propagation lengths. For this purpose an optical reflection system has been designed for illuminating substantially all of three-dimensional space of a transversely flowing vapor with multiple traversals of a beam of radiation. (UK)

  8. Selection and implementation of a laboratory computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, V A; McMaster, R; Dillon, T; Mayall, B

    1995-07-01

    The process of selection of a pathology computer system has become increasingly complex as there are an increasing number of facilities that must be provided and stringent performance requirements under heavy computing loads from both human users and machine inputs. Furthermore, the continuing advances in software and hardware technology provide more options and innovative new ways of tackling problems. These factors taken together pose a difficult and complex set of decisions and choices for the system analyst and designer. The selection process followed by the Microbiology Department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital included examination of existing systems, development of a functional specification followed by a formal tender process. The successful tenderer was then selected using predefined evaluation criteria. The successful tenderer was a software development company that developed and supplied a system based on a distributed network using a SUN computer as the main processor. The software was written using Informix running on the UNIX operating system. This represents one of the first microbiology systems developed using a commercial relational database and fourth generation language. The advantages of this approach are discussed.

  9. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-03-29

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1 and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the specific mAb productivity and these three gene copies (R 2  ≤ 0.012). Taken together, GS-mediated gene amplification does not occur in a single round of selection at a MSX concentration up to 50 μM. The use of the GS-knockout CHO host cell line facilitates the rapid generation of high producing clones with reduced production of lactate and ammonia in the absence of MSX.

  10. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  11. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  12. Hybrid feature selection for supporting lightweight intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianglong; Zhao, Wentao; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Redundant and irrelevant features not only cause high resource consumption but also degrade the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), especially when coping with big data. These features slow down the process of training and testing in network traffic classification. Therefore, a hybrid feature selection approach in combination with wrapper and filter selection is designed in this paper to build a lightweight intrusion detection system. Two main phases are involved in this method. The first phase conducts a preliminary search for an optimal subset of features, in which the chi-square feature selection is utilized. The selected set of features from the previous phase is further refined in the second phase in a wrapper manner, in which the Random Forest(RF) is used to guide the selection process and retain an optimized set of features. After that, we build an RF-based detection model and make a fair comparison with other approaches. The experimental results on NSL-KDD datasets show that our approach results are in higher detection accuracy as well as faster training and testing processes.

  13. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in sickle cell disease: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2015-07-01

    be donors. Matched siblings should be referred to an experienced transplant center for evaluation and counseling. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for these opinions and make recommendations for patient selection.Keywords: sickle cell disease, morbidity, stem cell transplantation, patient selection, matched sibling donor

  14. Optimal Subinterval Selection Approach for Power System Transient Stability Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  15. Bags versus flasks: a comparison of cell culture systems for the production of dendritic cell-based immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Natalie; Béland, Ariane V; Campbell, Katie; Clark, Sarah L; Hoesli, Corinne A

    2018-04-19

    In recent years, cell-based therapies targeting the immune system have emerged as promising strategies for cancer treatment. This review summarizes manufacturing challenges related to production of antigen presenting cells as a patient-tailored cancer therapy. Understanding cell-material interactions is essential because in vitro cell culture manipulations to obtain mature antigen-producing cells can significantly alter their in vivo performance. Traditional antigen-producing cell culture protocols often rely on cell adhesion to surface-treated hydrophilic polystyrene flasks. More recent commercial and investigational cancer immunotherapy products were manufactured using suspension cell culture in closed hydrophobic fluoropolymer bags. The shift to closed cell culture systems can decrease risks of contamination by individual operators, as well as facilitate scale-up and automation. Selecting closed cell culture bags over traditional open culture systems entails different handling procedures and processing controls, which can affect product quality. Changes in culture vessels also entail changes in vessel materials and geometry, which may alter the cell microenvironment and resulting cell fate decisions. Strategically designed culture systems will pave the way for the generation of more sophisticated and highly potent cell-based cancer vaccines. As an increasing number of cell-based therapies enter the clinic, the selection of appropriate cell culture vessels and materials becomes a critical consideration that can impact the therapeutic efficacy of the product, and hence clinical outcomes and patient quality of life. © 2018 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  16. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  17. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  18. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  19. Sensor Selection method for IoT systems – focusing on embedded system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayama Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.

  20. Machine-Vision Systems Selection for Agricultural Vehicles: A Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems are becoming increasingly common onboard agricultural vehicles (autonomous and non-autonomous for different tasks. This paper provides guidelines for selecting machine-vision systems for optimum performance, considering the adverse conditions on these outdoor environments with high variability on the illumination, irregular terrain conditions or different plant growth states, among others. In this regard, three main topics have been conveniently addressed for the best selection: (a spectral bands (visible and infrared; (b imaging sensors and optical systems (including intrinsic parameters and (c geometric visual system arrangement (considering extrinsic parameters and stereovision systems. A general overview, with detailed description and technical support, is provided for each topic with illustrative examples focused on specific applications in agriculture, although they could be applied in different contexts other than agricultural. A case study is provided as a result of research in the RHEA (Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management project for effective weed control in maize fields (wide-rows crops, funded by the European Union, where the machine vision system onboard the autonomous vehicles was the most important part of the full perception system, where machine vision was the most relevant. Details and results about crop row detection, weed patches identification, autonomous vehicle guidance and obstacle detection are provided together with a review of methods and approaches on these topics.

  1. An engineering thermodynamic approach to select the electromagnetic wave effective on cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio; Silvagno, Francesca

    2017-09-21

    To date, the choice of the characteristics of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field beneficial in proliferative disorders is still empirical. In order to make the ELF interaction selective, we applied the thermodynamic and biochemical principles to the analysis of the thermo-chemical output generated by the cell in the environment. The theoretical approach applied an engineering bio-thermodynamic approach recently developed in order to obtain a physical-mathematical model that calculated the frequency of the field able to maximize the mean entropy changes as a function of cellular parameters. The combined biochemical approach envisioned the changes of entropy as a metabolic shift leading to a reduction of cell growth. The proliferation of six human cancer cell lines was evaluated as the output signal able to confirm the correctness of the mathematical model. By considering the cell as a reactive system able to respond to the unbalancing external stimuli, for the first time we could calculate and validate the frequencies of the field specifically effective on distinct cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  3. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  4. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  5. Withaferin A Induces Cell Death Selectively in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells but Not in Normal Fibroblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WA, a major bioactive component of the Indian herb Withania somnifera, induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis in multiple types of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity remains elusive. We report here that 2 μM WA induced cell death selectively in androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU-145 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its toxicity was less severe in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts (TIG-1 and KD. WA also killed PC-3 cells in spheroid-forming medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WA significantly increased mRNA levels of c-Fos and 11 heat-shock proteins (HSPs in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in LNCaP and TIG-1. Western analysis revealed increased expression of c-Fos and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP(L. Expression of HSPs such as HSPA6 and Hsp70 was conspicuously elevated; however, because siRNA-mediated depletion of HSF-1, an HSP-inducing transcription factor, reduced PC-3 cell viability, it is likely that these heat-shock genes were involved in protecting against cell death. Moreover, WA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in normal fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that WA disrupted the vimentin cytoskeleton, possibly inducing the ROS generation, c-Fos expression and c-FLIP(L suppression. These observations suggest that multiple events followed by disruption of the vimentin cytoskeleton play pivotal roles in WA-mediated cell death.

  6. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tax gene expression and cell cycling but not cell death are selected during HTLV-1 infection in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinatel Christiane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult T cell leukemia results from the malignant transformation of a CD4+ lymphoid clone carrying an integrated HTLV-1 provirus that has undergone several oncogenic events over a 30-60 year period of persistent clonal expansion. Both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes are infected in vivo; their expansion relies on CD4+ cell cycling and on the prevention of CD8+ cell death. Cloned infected CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells from patients without malignancy also add up nuclear and mitotic defects typical of genetic instability related to theexpression of the virus-encoded oncogene tax. HTLV-1 expression is cancer-prone in vitro, but in vivo numerous selection forces act to maintain T cell homeostasis and are possibly involved in clonal selection. Results Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 associated CD4+ preleukemic phenotype and the specific patterns of CD4+ and CD8+ clonal expansion are in vivo selected processes. By comparing the effects of recent (1 month experimental infections performed in vitro and those observed in cloned T cells from patients infected for >6-26 years, we found that in chronically HTLV-1 infected individuals, HTLV-1 positive clones are selected for tax expression. In vivo, infected CD4+ cells are positively selected for cell cycling whereas infected CD8+ cells and uninfected CD4+ cells are negatively selected for the same processes. In contrast, the known HTLV-1-dependent prevention of CD8+ T cell death pertains to both in vivo and in vitro infected cells. Conclusions Therefore, virus-cell interactions alone are not sufficient to initiate early leukemogenesis in vivo.

  8. Microfluidic cell culture systems for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-04-21

    In pharmaceutical research, an adequate cell-based assay scheme to efficiently screen and to validate potential drug candidates in the initial stage of drug discovery is crucial. In order to better predict the clinical response to drug compounds, a cell culture model that is faithful to in vivo behavior is required. With the recent advances in microfluidic technology, the utilization of a microfluidic-based cell culture has several advantages, making it a promising alternative to the conventional cell culture methods. This review starts with a comprehensive discussion on the general process for drug discovery and development, the role of cell culture in drug research, and the characteristics of the cell culture formats commonly used in current microfluidic-based, cell-culture practices. Due to the significant differences in several physical phenomena between microscale and macroscale devices, microfluidic technology provides unique functionality, which is not previously possible by using traditional techniques. In a subsequent section, the niches for using microfluidic-based cell culture systems for drug research are discussed. Moreover, some critical issues such as cell immobilization, medium pumping or gradient generation in microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems are also reviewed. Finally, some practical applications of microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems in drug research particularly those pertaining to drug toxicity testing and those with a high-throughput capability are highlighted.

  9. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Sotoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface.

  11. In-cell intrabody selection from a diverse human library identifies C12orf4 protein as a new player in rodent mast cell degranulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Mazuc

    Full Text Available The high specificity of antibodies for their antigen allows a fine discrimination of target conformations and post-translational modifications, making antibodies the first choice tool to interrogate the proteome. We describe here an approach based on a large-scale intracellular expression and selection of antibody fragments in eukaryotic cells, so-called intrabodies, and the subsequent identification of their natural target within living cell. Starting from a phenotypic trait, this integrated system allows the identification of new therapeutic targets together with their companion inhibitory intrabody. We applied this system in a model of allergy and inflammation. We first cloned a large and highly diverse intrabody library both in a plasmid and a retroviral eukaryotic expression vector. After transfection in the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line, we performed seven rounds of selection to isolate cells displaying a defect in FcεRI-induced degranulation. We used high throughput sequencing to identify intrabody sequences enriched during the course of selection. Only one intrabody was common to both plasmid and retroviral selections, and was used to capture and identify its target from cell extracts. Mass spectrometry analysis identified protein RGD1311164 (C12orf4, with no previously described function. Our data demonstrate that RGD1311164 is a cytoplasmic protein implicated in the early signaling events following FcεRI-induced cell activation. This work illustrates the strength of the intrabody-based in-cell selection, which allowed the identification of a new player in mast cell activation together with its specific inhibitor intrabody.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  13. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  14. A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Florian; Lu, Yixin; Schaefer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption heating and cooling system used for buildings. The integrated system can provide heating/cooling and/or hot water for buildings while consuming natural gas. The aim of this study is to give an overall description of the system. The possibility of such an integrated system is discussed and the configuration of the system is described. A system model is presented, and a specific case study of the system, which consists of a pre-commercial SOFC system and a commercial LiBr absorption system, is performed. In the case study, the detailed configuration of an integrated system is given, and the heat and mass balance and system performance are obtained through numerical calculation. Based on the case study, some considerations with respect to system component selection, system configuration and design are discussed. Additionally, the economic and environmental issues of this specific system are evaluated briefly. The results show that the combined system demonstrates great advantages in both technical and environmental aspects. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating and cooling systems, it is very likely that such a combined system will become increasingly feasible within the following decade

  15. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  16. Quality assurance considerations for nuclear power system selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.

    1977-01-01

    The key quality assurance principle to be applied in nuclear system selection is to establish that the technological basis is understood and used properly. Knowledgeable and capable personnel with experience in the application are needed, and they must have access to appropriate engineering, laboratory, and manufacturing facilities. A suitable balance must be maintained between the responsibilities of the seller-supplier and the purchaser-owner to assure an even-handed treatment of the implementation program. Safety and reliability must be inherent to the regulatory framework. There must be flexibility in the purchaser-owner resources to overcome unanticipated adversity. Given these quality assurance elements, the nuclear system selection process should result in a high probability that the performance objectives will be satisfied

  17. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  18. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  19. Gene transfer preferentially selects MHC class I positive tumour cells and enhances tumour immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Ulrich T; Schildhauer, Ines; Barroso, Margarita Céspedes; Kofler, David M; Gerner, Franz M; Mysliwietz, Josef; Buening, Hildegard; Hallek, Michael; King, Susan B S

    2006-05-01

    The modulated expression of MHC class I on tumour tissue is well documented. Although the effect of MHC class I expression on the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of MHC class I negative tumour cell lines has been rigorously studied, less is known about the validity of gene transfer and selection in cell lines with a mixed MHC class I phenotype. To address this issue we identified a C26 cell subline that consists of distinct populations of MHC class I (H-2D/K) positive and negative cells. Transient transfection experiments using liposome-based transfer showed a lower transgene expression in MHC class I negative cells. In addition, MHC class I negative cells were more sensitive to antibiotic selection. This led to the generation of fully MHC class I positive cell lines. In contrast to C26 cells, all transfectants were rejected in vivo and induced protection against the parental tumour cells in rechallenge experiments. Tumour cell specificity of the immune response was demonstrated in in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. Transfectants expressing CD40 ligand and hygromycin phosphotransferase were not more immunogenic than cells expressing hygromycin resistance alone. We suggest that the MHC class I positive phenotype of the C26 transfectants had a bearing on their immunogenicity, because selected MHC class I positive cells were more immunogenic than parental C26 cells and could induce specific anti-tumour immune responses. These data demonstrate that the generation of tumour cell transfectants can lead to the selection of subpopulations that show an altered phenotype compared to the parental cell line and display altered immunogenicity independent of selection marker genes or other immune modulatory genes. Our results show the importance of monitoring gene transfer in the whole tumour cell population, especially for the evaluation of in vivo therapies targeted to heterogeneous tumour cell populations.

  20. Comparison of the Cellient(™) automated cell block system and agar cell block method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A M; Stevens, M W; Kerley, K J; Carter, C D

    2014-12-01

    To compare the Cellient(TM) automated cell block system with the agar cell block method in terms of quantity and quality of diagnostic material and morphological, histochemical and immunocytochemical features. Cell blocks were prepared from 100 effusion samples using the agar method and Cellient system, and routinely sectioned and stained for haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD). A preliminary immunocytochemical study was performed on selected cases (27/100 cases). Sections were evaluated using a three-point grading system to compare a set of morphological parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Parameters assessing cellularity, presence of single cells and definition of nuclear membrane, nucleoli, chromatin and cytoplasm showed a statistically significant improvement on Cellient cell blocks compared with agar cell blocks (P cell groups, PASD staining or the intensity or clarity of immunocytochemical staining. A discrepant immunocytochemistry (ICC) result was seen in 21% (13/63) of immunostains. The Cellient technique is comparable with the agar method, with statistically significant results achieved for important morphological features. It demonstrates potential as an alternative cell block preparation method which is relevant for the rapid processing of fine needle aspiration samples, malignant effusions and low-cellularity specimens, where optimal cell morphology and architecture are essential. Further investigation is required to optimize immunocytochemical staining using the Cellient method. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  2. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  3. Environmental and economical aspects of selected energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of environmental and economical aspects of selected renewable energy systems is presented. The aim was to provide a basis for estimating the competitive status in each case, to review the consequences of technological development, to identify attractive markets and to evaluate the effects of various economic conditions. Calculation methods are described and individual solar heating systems are compared to oil-fired boilers, boilers fired with solid fuels are compared to oil-fired boilers and straw-fired cogeneration plants are compared with coal, fuel-oil and straw-fired district heating plants. Results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  4. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Domenis

    Full Text Available A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression, proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs. Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  5. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  6. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  7. Functional Analysis Of A Selected Airport’s System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two selected airport’s systems (Flight Information System and Public Address Voice Annunciation are defined and described. Then they are used to create an integrated unit, with the presentation of its way of functioning and a schematic picture. The author names main purposes of the integration process, serving to counteract negative consequences arising from implementation of the increasing number of systems on transport objects. In the following part of the article functional analysis of the integrated unit is carried out, defining system’s possible states of work and relations between them. Utilization of mathematical apparatus allows to calculate probabilities of system staying in the respective states, as well as system’s time indexes. Presented results are a fundament for the further analysis of this matter.

  8. Selection of Novel Peptides Homing the 4T1 CELL Line: Exploring Alternative Targets for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L Silva

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages to select novel ligands has been widely explored for cancer therapy. Their application is most warranted in cancer subtypes lacking knowledge on how to target the cancer cells in question, such as the triple negative breast cancer, eventually leading to the development of alternative nanomedicines for cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the following study aimed to select and characterize novel peptides for a triple negative breast cancer murine mammary carcinoma cell line- 4T1. Using phage display, 7 and 12 amino acid random peptide libraries were screened against the 4T1 cell line. A total of four rounds, plus a counter-selection round using the 3T3 murine fibroblast cell line, was performed. The enriched selective peptides were characterized and their binding capacity towards 4T1 tissue samples was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. The selected peptides (4T1pep1 -CPTASNTSC and 4T1pep2-EVQSSKFPAHVS were enriched over few rounds of selection and exhibited specific binding to the 4T1 cell line. Interestingly, affinity to the human MDA-MB-231 cell line was also observed for both peptides, promoting the translational application of these novel ligands between species. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that both peptides target human Mucin-16. This protein has been implicated in different types of cancer, as it is involved in many important cellular functions. This study strongly supports the need of finding alternative targeting systems for TNBC and the peptides herein selected exhibit promising future application as novel homing peptides for breast cancer therapy.

  9. Cell-to-Cell Contact Results in a Selective Translocation of Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Quasispecies across a Trophoblastic Barrier by both Transcytosis and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagaye, S.; Derrien, M.; Menu, E.; Coïto, C.; Tresoldi, E.; Mauclère, P.; Scarlatti, G.; Chaouat, G.; Barré-Sinoussi, F.; Bomsel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission can occur in utero, mainly intrapartum and postpartum in case of breastfeeding. In utero transmission is highly restricted and results in selection of viral variant from the mother to the child. We have developed an in vitro system that mimics the interaction between viruses, infected cells present in maternal blood, and the trophoblast, the first barrier protecting the fetus. Trophoblastic BeWo cells were grown as a tight polarized monolayer in a two-chamber system. Cell-free virions applied to the apical pole neither crossed the barrier nor productively infected BeWo cells. In contrast, apical contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) resulted in transcytosis of infectious virus across the trophoblastic monolayer and in productive infection correlating with the fusion of HIV-infected PBMCs with trophoblasts. We showed that viral variants are selected during these two steps and that in one case of in utero transmission, the predominant maternal viral variant characterized after transcytosis was phylogenetically indistinguishable from the predominant child's virus. Hence, the first steps of transmission of HIV-1 in utero appear to involve the interaction between HIV type 1-infected cells and the trophoblastic layer, resulting in the passage of infectious HIV by transcytosis and by fusion/infection, both leading to a selection of virus quasispecies. PMID:11312350

  10. Selection of metastatic breast cancer cells based on adaptability of their metabolic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis

  11. Selection of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Based on Adaptability of Their Metabolic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Tai, Karen; Madan, Simran; Raythatha, Milan R.; Cady, Amanda M.; Braunlin, Megan; Irving, LaTashia R.; Bajaj, Ankur; Lucci, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind) variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis and then primary

  12. BiOSS: A system for biomedical ontology selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Vázquez-Naya, José M; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    In biomedical informatics, ontologies are considered a key technology for annotating, retrieving and sharing the huge volume of publicly available data. Due to the increasing amount, complexity and variety of existing biomedical ontologies, choosing the ones to be used in a semantic annotation problem or to design a specific application is a difficult task. As a consequence, the design of approaches and tools addressed to facilitate the selection of biomedical ontologies is becoming a priority. In this paper we present BiOSS, a novel system for the selection of biomedical ontologies. BiOSS evaluates the adequacy of an ontology to a given domain according to three different criteria: (1) the extent to which the ontology covers the domain; (2) the semantic richness of the ontology in the domain; (3) the popularity of the ontology in the biomedical community. BiOSS has been applied to 5 representative problems of ontology selection. It also has been compared to existing methods and tools. Results are promising and show the usefulness of BiOSS to solve real-world ontology selection problems. BiOSS is openly available both as a web tool and a web service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  14. Selective decreases of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in PC12 cells exposed to fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jia; Shan, K.-R.; Long, Y.-G.; Wang, Y.-N.; Nordberg, Agneta; Guan, Z.-Z.

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which excessive fluoride damages the central nervous system, the effects of exposure of PC12 cells to different concentrations of fluoride for 48 h on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were characterized here. Significant reductions in the number of binding sites for both [ 3 H]epibatidine and [ 125 I]α-bungarotoxin, as well as a significant decrease in the B max value for the high-affinity of epibatidine binding site were observed in PC12 cells subjected to high levels of fluoride. On the protein level, the α3 and α7 subunits of nAChRs were also significantly decreased in the cells exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. In contrast, such exposure had no significant effect on the level of the β2 subunit. These findings suggest that selective decreases in the number of nAChRs may play an important role in the mechanism(s) by which fluoride causes dysfunction of the central nervous system

  15. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2017-05-16

    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  16. Impact of HLA diversity on donor selection in organ and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Claas, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex is a multigene system encoding polymorphic human leucocyte antigens (HLA) that present peptides derived from pathogens to the immune system. The high diversity of HLA alleles and haplotypes in the worldwide populations represents a major barrier to organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, because HLA incompatibilities are efficiently recognized by T and B lymphocytes. In organ transplantation, pre-transplant anti-HLA antibodies need to be taken into account for organ allocation. Although HLA-incompatible transplants can be performed thanks to immunosuppressive drugs, the de novo production of anti-HLA antibodies still represents a major cause of graft failure. The HLAMatchmaker computer algorithm determines the immunogenicity of HLA mismatches and allows to define HLA antigens that will not induce an antibody response. Because of the much higher stringency of HLA compatibility criteria in stem cell transplantation, the best donor is a HLA genotypically identical sibling. However, more than 50% of the transplants are now performed with hematopoietic stem cells from volunteer donors selected from the international registry. The development of European national registries covering populations with different HLA haplotype frequencies is essential for optimizing donor search algorithms and providing the best chance for European patients to find a fully compatible donor.

  17. An interactive roof bolting selection and performance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agioutantis, Z.; Stiakakis, C.; Stiakakis, N. [Technical Univ. of Crete, Chania (Greece); Karmis, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In the last decades, bolting has become one of the most dominant support methods in underground construction, including both mining as well as civil engineering applications. A variety of bolt types has been developed in order to meet the support needs of different geological and geotechnical settings. The selection of the appropriate bolt type, as well as the troubleshooting procedures in case of failure or suspected failure, are often complex and require extensive experience. To facilitate bolt type selection as well as troubleshooting, various tools have been presented in the form of nomograms, computer programs or trouble shooting guides. The approach described in this paper incorporates information and data developed by laboratory and field investigations and has led to the development of a dynamic knowledge base system that can aid in the selection of appropriate bolting systems and, also, help troubleshoot existing installations. Additionally, the user can enhance the functionality of the existing database with site-specific information and geological behavior as experienced by field personnel. The package is developed as a Windows trademark based application, where data is stored in Microsoft Access trademark database. (orig.)

  18. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Xu, Peng; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  19. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-08-09

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  20. HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG selectively eradicates lymphoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bryan; Liu, Yan; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Sun, Duxin; Wang, Yin

    2012-09-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC; also called tumor-initiating cells) comprise tumor cell subpopulations that preserve the properties of quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation of normal stem cells. In addition, CSCs are therapeutically important because of their key contributions toward drug resistance. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1α is critical for CSC maintenance in mouse lymphoma. In this study, we showed that low concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG eliminate lymphoma CSCs in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the transcriptional function of HIF1α, a client protein of HSP90. 17-AAG preferentially induced apoptosis and eliminated the colony formation capacity of mouse lymphoma CSCs and human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) CSCs. However, low concentrations of 17-AAG failed to eliminate highly proliferative lymphoma and AML cells (non-CSCs), in which the AKT-GSK3 signaling pathway is constitutively active. The heat shock transcription factor HSF1 is highly expressed in non-CSCs, but it was weakly expressed in lymphoma CSCs. However, siRNA-mediated attenuation of HSF1 abrogated the colony formation ability of both lymphoma and AML CSCs. This study supports the use of 17-AAG as a CSC targeting agent and, in addition, shows that HSF1 is an important target for elimination of both CSCs and non-CSCs in cancer. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells.

  2. 77 FR 27263 - Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education AGENCY: Selective Service System. Action: Notice. In accordance with the Privacy Act of... of Participating Agencies The Selective Service System (SSS) and the Department of Education (ED). 2...

  3. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  4. Selection of Shared and Neoantigen-Reactive T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy Based on CD137 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Seliktar-Ofir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell therapy (ACT of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL is an effective immunotherapy for patients with solid tumors, yielding objective response rates of around 40% in refractory patients with metastatic melanoma. Most clinical centers utilize bulk, randomly isolated TIL from the tumor tissue for ex vivo expansion and infusion. Only a minor fraction of the administered T cells recognizes tumor antigens, such as shared and mutation-derived neoantigens, and consequently eliminates the tumor. Thus, there are many ongoing effects to identify and select tumor-specific TIL for therapy; however, those approaches are very costly and require months, which is unreasonable for most metastatic patients. CD137 (4-1BB has been identified as a co-stimulatory marker, which is induced upon the specific interaction of T cells with their target cell. Therefore, CD137 can be a useful biomarker and an important tool for the selection of tumor-reactive T cells. Here, we developed and validated a simple and time efficient method for the selection of CD137-expressing T cells for therapy based on magnetic bead separation. CD137 selection was performed with clinical grade compliant reagents, and TIL were expanded in a large-scale manner to meet cell numbers required for the patient setting in a GMP facility. For the first time, the methodology was designed to comply with both clinical needs and limitations, and its feasibility was assessed. CD137-selected TIL demonstrated significantly increased antitumor reactivity and were enriched for T cells recognizing neoantigens as well as shared tumor antigens. CD137-based selection enabled the enrichment of tumor-reactive T cells without the necessity of knowing the epitope specificity or the antigen type. The direct implementation of the CD137 separation method to the cell production of TIL may provide a simple way to improve the clinical efficiency of TIL ACT.

  5. Optical Selection Rule of Excitons in Gapped Chiral Fermion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoou; Shan, Wen-Yu; Xiao, Di

    2018-02-01

    We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w , a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a CN-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w ±1 +n N with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s -like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C4 rotational symmetry and biased 3 R -stacked MoS2 bilayers. In the latter case, we show that gating can be used to tune the s -like excitons from bright to dark by changing the winding number. Our theory thus provides a pathway to electrical control of optical transitions in two-dimensional material.

  6. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  7. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.

  8. Tissue-Specific Gain of RTK Signalling Uncovers Selective Cell Vulnerability during Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Fan

    Full Text Available The successive events that cells experience throughout development shape their intrinsic capacity to respond and integrate RTK inputs. Cellular responses to RTKs rely on different mechanisms of regulation that establish proper levels of RTK activation, define duration of RTK action, and exert quantitative/qualitative signalling outcomes. The extent to which cells are competent to deal with fluctuations in RTK signalling is incompletely understood. Here, we employ a genetic system to enhance RTK signalling in a tissue-specific manner. The chosen RTK is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor Met, an appropriate model due to its pleiotropic requirement in distinct developmental events. Ubiquitously enhanced Met in Cre/loxP-based Rosa26(stopMet knock-in context (Del-R26(Met reveals that most tissues are capable of buffering enhanced Met-RTK signalling thus avoiding perturbation of developmental programs. Nevertheless, this ubiquitous increase of Met does compromise selected programs such as myoblast migration. Using cell-type specific Cre drivers, we genetically showed that altered myoblast migration results from ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme rather than in migrating myoblasts themselves. qRT-PCR analyses show that ectopic Met in limbs causes molecular changes such as downregulation in the expression levels of Notum and Syndecan4, two known regulators of morphogen gradients. Molecular and functional studies revealed that ectopic Met expression in limb mesenchyme does not alter HGF expression patterns and levels, but impairs HGF bioavailability. Together, our findings show that myoblasts, in which Met is endogenously expressed, are capable of buffering increased RTK levels, and identify mesenchymal cells as a cell type vulnerable to ectopic Met-RTK signalling. These results illustrate that embryonic cells are sensitive to alterations in the spatial distribution of RTK action, yet resilient to fluctuations in signalling levels of an

  9. Microvesicles derived from adult human bone marrow and tissue specific mesenchymal stem cells shuttle selected pattern of miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Collino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs have been described as a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. MVs after internalization within target cells may deliver genetic information. Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and liver resident stem cells (HLSCs were shown to release MVs shuttling functional mRNAs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MVs derived from MSCs and HLSCs contained selected micro-RNAs (miRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MVs were isolated from MSCs and HLSCs. The presence in MVs of selected ribonucleoproteins involved in the traffic and stabilization of RNA was evaluated. We observed that MVs contained TIA, TIAR and HuR multifunctional proteins expressed in nuclei and stress granules, Stau1 and 2 implicated in the transport and stability of mRNA and Ago2 involved in miRNA transport and processing. RNA extracted from MVs and cells of origin was profiled for 365 known human mature miRNAs by real time PCR. Hierarchical clustering and similarity analysis of miRNAs showed 41 co-expressed miRNAs in MVs and cells. Some miRNAs were accumulated within MVs and absent in the cells after MV release; others were retained within the cells and not secreted in MVs. Gene ontology analysis of predicted and validated targets showed that the high expressed miRNAs in cells and MVs could be involved in multi-organ development, cell survival and differentiation. Few selected miRNAs shuttled by MVs were also associated with the immune system regulation. The highly expressed miRNAs in MVs were transferred to target cells after MV incorporation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MVs contained ribonucleoproteins involved in the intracellular traffic of RNA and selected pattern of miRNAs, suggesting a dynamic regulation of RNA compartmentalization in MVs. The observation that MV-highly expressed miRNAs were transferred to target cells, rises the possibility that the biological effect of stem

  10. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  11. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  12. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  13. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ∼ 25 and ∼ 40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: ► Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: ≤ 1, ≤ 10, 25 and 40 μg/dL ► Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH

  14. Cell-Selective Biological Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors Correlates with Subcellular Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, Alexis C.; Schneider, Curtis J.; Weidmann, Alyson G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are associated with several types of cancers, as well as resistance to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Rhodium metalloinsertors have been found to bind DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity in vitro, and also exhibit cell-selective cytotoxicity, targeting MMR-deficient cells over MMR-proficient cells. Ten distinct metalloinsertors with varying lipophilicities have been synthesized and their mismatch binding affinities and biological activities determined. Although DNA photocleavage experiments demonstrate that their binding affinities are quite similar, their cell-selective antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities vary significantly. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) experiments have uncovered a relationship between the subcellular distribution of these metalloinsertors and their biological activities. Specifically, we find that all of our metalloinsertors localize in the nucleus at sufficient concentrations for binding to DNA mismatches. However, the metalloinsertors with high rhodium localization in the mitochondria show toxicity that is not selective for MMR-deficient cells, whereas metalloinsertors with less mitochondrial rhodium show activity that is highly selective for MMR-deficient versus proficient cells. This work supports the notion that specific targeting of the metalloinsertors to nuclear DNA gives rise to their cell-selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities. The selectivity in cellular targeting depends upon binding to mismatches in genomic DNA. PMID:23137296

  15. A Dimeric Mutant of Human Pancreatic Ribonuclease with Selective Cytotoxicity toward Malignant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Renata; di Gaetano, Sonia; de Lorenzo, Claudia; Grauso, Michela; Monaco, Carmen; Spalletti-Cernia, Daniela; Laccetti, Paolo; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Matousek, Josef; D'Alessio, Giuseppe

    1999-07-01

    Monomeric human pancreatic RNase, devoid of any biological activity other than its RNA degrading ability, was engineered into a dimeric protein with a cytotoxic action on mouse and human tumor cells, but lacking any appreciable toxicity on mouse and human normal cells. This dimeric variant of human pancreas RNase selectively sensitizes to apoptotic death cells derived from a human thyroid tumor. Because of its selectivity for tumor cells, and because of its human origin, this protein represents a potentially very attractive, novel tool for anticancer therapy.

  16. New strategies for designing inexpensive but selective bioadsorbants for environmental pollutants: Selection of specific ligands and their cell surface expression. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataai, M.M.; Georgiou, G.; Iverson, B.L.; Koepsel, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    'The broad, long term objective of the research plan is to develop exquisitely selective polypeptide metal chelators for the remediation of aqueous systems. A variety of polypeptide chelators will be developed and optimized ranging from antibodies to small peptides. Then, through unique molecular engineering approaches developed in the laboratories, the polypeptide chelators will be anchored directly on the surface of the cells that produce them. Thus, instead of using isolated biomolecules the authors will employ inexpensive genetically engineered whole cell adsorbents. Following a simple, easily scaleable treatment, the engineered cells can be used to manufacture an inexpensive, particulate adsorbent for metal removal. The authors are currently in year two of a three year program. Work has been focused on preparing the molecular biology constructs needed to carry out the optimization of a metal complex binding antibody, and on the isolation of a metal binding peptide.'

  17. Pregnancy promotes tolerance to future offspring by programming selective dysfunction in long-lived maternal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brendan M; Xu, Rong; Wherry, E John; Porrett, Paige M

    2017-04-01

    Fetal antigen available during pregnancy induces the proliferation of maternal T cells. It is unknown, however, whether these antigen-activated T cells differentiate into long-lived memory T cells that are capable of mediating rapid-recall responses to tissue antigens. To test the hypothesis that pregnancy induces an alternative fate in fetal-specific maternal T cells, we used a murine model to track longitudinally fetal-specific T cells in pregnant and postpartum animals and test the response of these cells when challenged with the same antigen during sequential pregnancy or skin transplantation. Fetal-specific CD8 + T cells were robustly primed during pregnancy but failed to acquire robust effector functions. These primed cells persisted long term in postpartum animals, frequently maintained a programmed death 1 (PD-1) + phenotype, and failed to expand or produce cytokines robustly in response to second pregnancy or skin transplantation. However, whereas there was no impact on second pregnancy as a result of the persistence of fetal-primed memory CD8 + T cells in the mother, skin grafts bearing the same antigen were rejected more rapidly. Altogether, our data suggest that fetal antigen exposure during pregnancy induces the differentiation of long-lived maternal CD8 + T cells with context-dependent, selective effector dysfunction. This programmed effector dysfunction provides temporal and systemic restraint of maternal anti-fetal alloreactivity to promote reproductive fitness efficiently, while preserving potentially protective effector T cell responses. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. Distributive estimation of frequency selective channels for massive MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2015-12-28

    We consider frequency selective channel estimation in the uplink of massive MIMO-OFDM systems, where our major concern is complexity. A low complexity distributed LMMSE algorithm is proposed that attains near optimal channel impulse response (CIR) estimates from noisy observations at receive antenna array. In proposed method, every antenna estimates the CIRs of its neighborhood followed by recursive sharing of estimates with immediate neighbors. At each step, every antenna calculates the weighted average of shared estimates which converges to near optimal LMMSE solution. The simulation results validate the near optimal performance of proposed algorithm in terms of mean square error (MSE). © 2015 EURASIP.

  19. Synaptic Basis for Differential Orientation Selectivity between Complex and Simple Cells in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-tang; Liu, Bao-hua; Chou, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Li I; Tao, Huizhong W

    2015-08-05

    In the primary visual cortex (V1), orientation-selective neurons can be categorized into simple and complex cells primarily based on their receptive field (RF) structures. In mouse V1, although previous studies have examined the excitatory/inhibitory interplay underlying orientation selectivity (OS) of simple cells, the synaptic bases for that of complex cells have remained obscure. Here, by combining in vivo loose-patch and whole-cell recordings, we found that complex cells, identified by their overlapping on/off subfields, had significantly weaker OS than simple cells at both spiking and subthreshold membrane potential response levels. Voltage-clamp recordings further revealed that although excitatory inputs to complex and simple cells exhibited a similar degree of OS, inhibition in complex cells was more narrowly tuned than excitation, whereas in simple cells inhibition was more broadly tuned than excitation. The differential inhibitory tuning can primarily account for the difference in OS between complex and simple cells. Interestingly, the differential synaptic tuning correlated well with the spatial organization of synaptic input: the inhibitory visual RF in complex cells was more elongated in shape than its excitatory counterpart and also was more elongated than that in simple cells. Together, our results demonstrate that OS of complex and simple cells is differentially shaped by cortical inhibition based on its orientation tuning profile relative to excitation, which is contributed at least partially by the spatial organization of RFs of presynaptic inhibitory neurons. Simple and complex cells, two classes of principal neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1), are generally thought to be equally selective for orientation. In mouse V1, we report that complex cells, identified by their overlapping on/off subfields, has significantly weaker orientation selectivity (OS) than simple cells. This can be primarily attributed to the differential tuning selectivity

  20. Cell lethality after selective irradiation of the DNA replication fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, K.G.; Warters, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that nascent DNA located at the DNA replication fork may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to radiation damage. To evaluate this hypothesis, Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) either in the presence or absence of aphidicolin. Aphidicolin (5 μg/ml) reduced cellular 125 IUdR incorporation to 3-5% of the control value. The residual 125 I incorporation appeared to be restricted to low molecular weight (sub-replicon sized) fragments of DNA which were more sensitive to micrococcal nuclease attack and less sensitive to high salt DNase I digestion than randomly labeled DNA. These findings suggest that DNA replicated in the presence of aphidicolin remains localized at the replication fork adjacent to the nuclear matrix. Based on these observations an attempt was made to compare the lethal consequences of 125 I decays at the replication fork to that of 125 I decays randomly distributed over the entire genome. Regardless of the distribution of decay events, all treatment groups exhibited identical dose-response curves (D 0 : 101 125 I decays/cell). Since differential irradiation of the replication complex did not result in enhanced cell lethality, it can be concluded that neither the nascent DNA nor the protein components (replicative enzymes, nuclear protein matrix) associated with the DNA replication site constitute key radiosensitive targets within the cellular genome. (orig.)

  1. [Survival of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact of gene aberrations and protein overexpression of bcl-2 and C-MYC, and selection of chemotherapy regimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W J; Zhu, X; Yang, H Y; Sun, W Y; Wu, M J

    2018-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the impact of clinicopathological features, gene rearrangements and protein expression of bcl-6, bcl-2, C-MYC and chemotherapy regime on the prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL). Methods: Thirty-three cases of PCNS-DLBCL diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2016 at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were collected. The expression of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1 and MYC were detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The presence of EB virus was detected by in situ hybridization(EBER). Copy number variation (ICN) and translocation status of bcl-6, bcl-2 and C-MYC genes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relationship between the above indexes and the prognosis was analyzed by univariate, bivariate survival analysis and multiple Cox hazard regression analysis. Results: The study included 33 patients of PCNS-DLBCL, without evidence of primary or secondary immunodeficient disease. Male to female ratio was 1.36∶1.00, and the average age was 56 years. Twenty cases had single lesion while 13 had multiple lesions. Deep brain involvement was seen in 12 cases. All patients underwent partial or total tumor resection. Five patients received whole brain post-surgery radiotherapy, nine patients received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based chemotherapy, and 12 patients received whole-brain radiotherapy combined with HD-MTX based chemotherapy. Severn patients received no further treatment and rituximab was used in 8 patients. According to the Hans model, 27 cases were classified as non-GCB subtypes (81.8%). Bcl-2 was positive in 25 cases (75.8%, 25/33) and highly expressed in 8 (24.2%). MYC was positive in 12 cases (36.4%) and double expression of bcl-2 and MYC was seen in 6 cases. EBER positive rate was 10.0%(3/30), all of which had multiple lesions. Two bcl-6 gene translocations and 3 amplifications were found in 28 patients. Two translocations, 3 ICN or with both

  2. Combinational Effect of Cell Adhesion Biomolecules and Their Immobilized Polymer Property to Enhance Cell-Selective Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Kurimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surface immobilization of medical devices with bioactive molecules is one of the most widely used strategies to improve biocompatibility, the physicochemical properties of the biomaterials significantly impact the activity of the immobilized molecules. Herein we investigate the combinational effects of cell-selective biomolecules and the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the polymeric substrate on selective adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs, fibroblasts (FBs, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs. To control the polymeric substrate, biomolecules are immobilized on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide (poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm-grafted glass surfaces. By switching the molecular conformation of the biomolecule-immobilized polymers, the cell-selective adhesion performances are evaluated. In case of RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide-immobilized surfaces, all cell types adhere well regardless of the surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, a tri-Arg-immobilized surface exhibits FB-selectivity when the surface is hydrophilic. Additionally, a tri-Ile-immobilized surface exhibits EC-selective cell adhesion when the surface is hydrophobic. We believe that the proposed concept, which is used to investigate the biomolecule-immobilized surface combination, is important to produce new biomaterials, which are highly demanded for medical implants and tissue engineering.

  3. Tantalum Nitride Electron-Selective Contact for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo; Aydin, Erkan; Xu, Hang; Kang, Jingxuan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Liu, Wenzhu; Wan, Yimao; Peng, Jun; Samundsett, Christian; Cuevas, Andres; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2018-01-01

    novel electron‐selective, passivating contact for c‐Si solar cells is presented. Tantalum nitride (TaN x ) thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition are demonstrated to provide excellent electron‐transporting and hole‐blocking properties

  4. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  5. Addressing selected problems of the modelling of digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2004-12-01

    The introduction of digital systems to practical activities at nuclear power plants brings about new requirements for their modelling for the purposes of reliability analyses required for plant licensing as well as for inclusion into PSA studies and subsequent use in applications for the assessment of events, limits and conditions, and risk monitoring. It is very important to assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the effect of this change on operational safety. The report describes selected specific features of reliability analysis of digital system and recommends methodological procedures. The chapters of the report are as follows: (1) Flexibility and multifunctionality of the system. (2) General framework of reliability analyses (Understanding the system; Qualitative analysis; Quantitative analysis; Assessment of results, comparison against criteria; Documenting system reliability analyses; Asking for comments and their evaluation); and (3) Suitable reliability models (Reliability models of basic events; Monitored components with repair immediately following defect or failure; Periodically tested components; Constant unavailability (probability of failure to demand); Application of reliability models for electronic components; Example of failure rate decomposition; Example modified for diagnosis successfulness; Transfer of reliability analyses to PSA; Common cause failures - CCF; Software backup and CCF type failures, software versus hardware). (P.A.)

  6. An integrative analysis of reprogramming in human isogenic system identified a clone selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutova, Maria V; Surdina, Anastasia V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Naumov, Vladimir A; Bogomazova, Alexandra N; Vassina, Ekaterina M; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Lagarkova, Maria A; Kiselev, Sergey L

    2016-01-01

    The pluripotency of newly developed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is usually characterized by physiological parameters; i.e., by their ability to maintain the undifferentiated state and to differentiate into derivatives of the 3 germ layers. Nevertheless, a molecular comparison of physiologically normal iPSCs to the "gold standard" of pluripotency, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), often reveals a set of genes with different expression and/or methylation patterns in iPSCs and ESCs. To evaluate the contribution of the reprogramming process, parental cell type, and fortuity in the signature of human iPSCs, we developed a complete isogenic reprogramming system. We performed a genome-wide comparison of the transcriptome and the methylome of human isogenic ESCs, 3 types of ESC-derived somatic cells (fibroblasts, retinal pigment epithelium and neural cells), and 3 pairs of iPSC lines derived from these somatic cells. Our analysis revealed a high input of stochasticity in the iPSC signature that does not retain specific traces of the parental cell type and reprogramming process. We showed that 5 iPSC clones are sufficient to find with 95% confidence at least one iPSC clone indistinguishable from their hypothetical isogenic ESC line. Additionally, on the basis of a small set of genes that are characteristic of all iPSC lines and isogenic ESCs, we formulated an approach of "the best iPSC line" selection and confirmed it on an independent dataset.

  7. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  8. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SARRAB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.

  9. Selection of initial events of accelerator driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qianglong; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Li Yazhou; Yang Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is an important tool in reactor safety analysis and a significant reference to the design and operation of reactor. It is the origin and foundation of the PSA for a reactor to select the initial events. Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) has advanced design characteristics, complicated subsystems and little engineering and operating experience, which makes it much more difficult to identify the initial events of ADS. Based on the current design project of ADS, the system's safety characteristics and special issues were analyzed in this article. After a series of deductions with Master Logic Diagram (MLD) and considering the relating experience of other advanced research reactors, a preliminary initial events was listed finally, which provided the foundation for the next safety assessment. (authors)

  10. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  11. IL-15 inhibits pre-B cell proliferation by selectively expanding Mac-1+B220+ NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Shinsuke; Hida, Shigeaki; Taki, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the cells critical for inhibition of repopulation of allogenic bone marrow cells. However, it is not well known if NK cells affect autologous lymphopoiesis. Here, we observed that NK cells could inhibit pre-B cell proliferation in vitro driven by interleukin (IL)-7 in a manner dependent on IL-15. Interestingly, the great majority of expanding NK cells were Mac-1 + B220 + , a recently identified potent interferon (IFN)-γ producer. Indeed, IFN-γ was produced in those cultures, and pre-B cells lacking IFN-γ receptors, but not those lacking type I IFN receptors, were resistant to such an inhibition. Furthermore, even NK cells from mice lacking β2-microglobulin, which were known to be functionally dampened, inhibited pre-B cell proliferation as well. Thus, activated NK cells, which were expanded selectively by IL-15, could potentially regulate B lymphopoiesis through IFN-γ beyond the selection imposed upon self-recognition

  12. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  13. Role of inhibition in the specification of orientation selectivity of cells in the cat striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1989-01-01

    Mechanisms supporting orientation selectivity of cat striate cortical cells were studied by stimulation with two superimposed sine-wave gratings of different orientations. One grating (base) generated a discharge of known amplitude which could be modified by the second grating (mask). Masks presented at nonoptimal orientations usually reduced the base-generated response, but the degree of reduction varied widely between cells. Cells with narrow orientation tuning tended to be more susceptible to mask presence than broadly tuned cells; similarly, simple cells generally showed more response reduction than did complex cells. The base and mask stimuli were drifted at different temporal frequencies which, in simple cells, permitted the identification of individual response components from each stimulus. This revealed that the reduction of the base response by the mask usually did not vary regularly with mask orientation, although response facilitation from the mask was orientation selective. In some sharply tuned simple cells, response reduction had clear local maxima near the limits of the cell's orientation-tuning function. Response reduction resulted from a nearly pure rightward shift of the response versus log contrast function. The lowest mask contrast yielding reduction was within 0.1-0.3 log unit of the lowest contrast effective for excitation. The temporal-frequency bandpass of the response-reduction mechanism resembled that of most cortical cells. The spatial-frequency bandpass was much broader than is typical for single cortical cells, spanning essentially the entire visual range of the cat. These findings are compatible with a model in which weak intrinsic orientation-selective excitation is enhanced in two stages: (1) control of threshold by nonorientation-selective inhibition that is continuously dependent on stimulus contrast; and (2) in the more narrowly tuned cells, orientation-selective inhibition that has local maxima serving to increase the slope of

  14. Multicriteria analysis in selecting the optimal variant of solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziejowska Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative energy sources are becoming more serious competition to traditional ways of generating energy. It becomes real integration of eco-energy with ecology, as well as the innovative technologies with low-energy construction. Apart from the cost an important issue are technical parameters of the equipment, durability, ease of installation, etc. The investor therefore is facing with the problem of decision-making to choose the best solution from the point of view of many criteria. In the article, the authors present the proposal to apply the methods of multi-criteria analysis to select the most beneficial variant of the solar system solutions. In this purpose will be use among other method: multivariate analysis of Saaty’s AHP, the taxonomic method of weighting factors and, belonging to a group of methods using outranking relations, the Promethee II method. Proposed comparative analysis can be used as a method for decision support during the selection of the most beneficial technological solution of solar installation and to evaluate operational efficiency existing buildings which will have implemented new systems.

  15. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  17. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris

    2012-01-01

    for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that aims to resolve...... this challenge, and identify a set of potential HLA class II-restricted HIV epitopes that in concert will provide optimal viral and host coverage. Using this selection strategy, we identified 64 putative epitopes (peptides) located in the Gag, Nef, Env, Pol and Tat protein regions of HIV. In total, 73...... II-restricted epitopes. All together, selection strategies, such as PopCover, might with success be used for the evaluation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses and design of future vaccines....

  18. Selective isolation and noninvasive analysis of circulating cancer stem cells through Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Hossain, Md Khaled; Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hun Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-15

    Circulating cancer stem cells (CCSCs), a rare circulating tumor cell (CTC) type, recently arose as a useful resource for monitoring and characterizing both cancers and their metastatic derivatives. However, due to the scarcity of CCSCs among hematologic cells in the blood and the complexity of the phenotype confirmation process, CCSC research can be extremely challenging. Hence, we report a nanoparticle-mediated Raman imaging method for CCSC characterization which profiles CCSCs based on their surface marker expression phenotypes. We have developed an integrated combinatorial Raman-Active Nanoprobe (RAN) system combined with a microfluidic chip to successfully process complete blood samples. CCSCs and CTCs were detected (90% efficiency) and classified in accordance with their respective surface marker expression via completely distinct Raman signals of RANs. Selectively isolated CCSCs (93% accuracy) were employed for both in vitro and in vivo tumor phenotyping to identify the tumorigenicity of the CCSCs. We utilized our new method to predict metastasis by screening blood samples from xenograft models, showing that upon CCSC detection, all subjects exhibited liver metastasis. Having highly efficient detection and noninvasive isolation capabilities, we have demonstrated that our RAN-based Raman imaging method will be valuable for predicting cancer metastasis and relapse via CCSC detection. Moreover, the exclusion of peak overlapping in CCSC analysis with our Raman imaging method will allow to expand the RAN families for various cancer types, therefore, increasing therapeutic efficacy by providing detailed molecular features of tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective fluorescence detection of Cu{sup 2+} in aqueous solution and living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Lee, Ki-Hwan, E-mail: khlee@kongju.ac.kr

    2014-01-15

    A rhodamine B semicarbazide 3 was synthesized by the reaction of rhodamine B acid chloride 2 with hydrazine carboxamide hydrochloride under reflux with triethyl amine in acetonitrile. It was used as selective fluorescent and colorimetric sensor for visual detection of Cu{sup 2+} over competitive ions (Fe{sup 3+},Fe{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ag{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Li{sup +}) in aqueous methanol (1:1, v/v), exhibiting a fast response time, less than few second and a detection limit of 1.6×10{sup −7} mol/L at neutral pH. The proposed sensing system can be successfully applicable for determination of Cu{sup 2+} in waste water samples showing turn on fluorescence response and for further monitoring of intracellular Cu{sup 2+} levels in living cells with high sensitivity and selectivity at micro molar level concentrations using confocal fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesis of probe 3 was confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectrometric analysis. -- Highlights: • New chemosensor rhodamine B semicarbazide 3 was synthesized. • Addition of Cu{sup +2} ion into aqueous solution of probe 3 gave visual color changes as well as fluorescent off/on observations. • The proposed spirolactam ring opening mechanism of the synthesized probe triggered by copper ion was revealed by using mass spectrum. • High selectivity and sensitivity of probe 3 towards Cu{sup +2} are excellent enough to detect micromolar level of Cu{sup +2} ion even in aqueous media and living cells.

  20. Development of decision support system for employee selection using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Azzam Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of children day care is increasing from year to year. Children day care is categorized as service industry that help parents in caring and educate children. This type of service industry plays a substitute for the family at certain hours, usually during work hours. The common problems in this industry is related to the employee performance. Most of employees have a less understanding about the whole job. Some employees only perform a routine task, i.e. feeding, cleaning and putting the child to sleep. The role in educating children is not performed as well as possible. Therefore, the employee selection is an important process to solve a children day care problem. An effective decision support system is required to optimize the employee selection process. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is used to develop the decision support system for employee selection process. The data used to build the system is the historical data of employee selection process in children day care. The data shows the characteristic of job applicant that qualified and not qualified. From that data, the system can perform a learning process and give the right decision. The system is able to provide the right decision with an error of 0,00016249. It means that the decision support system that developed using ANFIS can give the right recommendation for employee selection process.

  1. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  2. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  3. Schwann Cell Glycogen Selectively Supports Myelinated Axon Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M; Evans, Richard D; Black, Joel; Ransom, Bruce R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Interruption of energy supply to peripheral axons is a cause of axon loss. We determined if glycogen was present in mammalian peripheral nerve, and if it supported axon conduction during aglycemia. Methods We used biochemical assay and electron microscopy to determine the presence of glycogen, and electrophysiology to monitor axon function. Results Glycogen was present in sciatic nerve, its concentration varying directly with ambient [glucose]. Electron microscopy detected glycogen granules primarily in myelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm and these diminished after exposure to aglycemia. During aglycemia, conduction failure in large myelinated axons (A fibers) mirrored the time-course of glycogen loss. Latency to CAP failure was directly related to nerve glycogen content at aglycemia onset. Glycogen did not benefit the function of slow-conducting, small diameter unmyelinated axons (C fibers) during aglycemia. Blocking glycogen breakdown pharmacologically accelerated CAP failure during aglycemia in A fibers, but not in C fibers. Lactate was as effective as glucose in supporting sciatic nerve function, and was continuously released into the extracellular space in the presence of glucose and fell rapidly during aglycemia. Interpretation Our findings indicated that glycogen is present in peripheral nerve, primarily in myelinating Schwann cells, and exclusively supports large diameter, myelinated axon conduction during aglycemia. Available evidence suggests that peripheral nerve glycogen breaks down during aglycemia and is passed, probably as lactate, to myelinated axons to support function. Unmyelinated axons are not protected by glycogen and are more vulnerable to dysfunction during periods of hypoglycemia. PMID:23034913

  4. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A; Hamilton, W Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2011-11-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ~25 and ~40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The antimicrobial polymer PHMB enters cells and selectively condenses bacterial chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chindera, Kantaraja; Mahato, Manohar; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To combat infection and antimicrobial resistance, it is helpful to elucidate drug mechanism(s) of action. Here we examined how the widely used antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) kills bacteria selectively over host cells. Contrary to the accepted model of microbial membrane disrupti...... to bacterial and mammalian cellular DNA and selectively binds and condenses bacterial chromosomes. Because acquired resistance to PHMB has not been reported, selective chromosome condensation provides an unanticipated paradigm for antimicrobial action that may not succumb to resistance....

  6. SELECTING A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM HOSPITAL BY A METHOD MULTICRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino, Sidney L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to assess how the multi-criteria method Analytic Hierarchy Process [HP] can help a hospital complex to choose a more suitable management system, known as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP. The choice coated is very complex due to the novelty of the process of choosing and conflicts generated between areas that did not have a single view of organizational needs, generating a lot of pressure in the department responsible for implementing systems. To assist in this process, he was hired an expert consultant in decision-making and AHP, which in its role of facilitator, contributed to the criteria for system selection were defined, and the choice to occur within a consensual process. We used the study of a single case, based on two indepth interviews with the consultant and the project manager, and documents generated by the advisory and the tool that supported the method. The results of this analysis showed that the method could effectively collaborate in the system acquisition process, but knowledge of the problems of employees and senior management support, it was not used in new decisions of the organization. We conclude that this method contributed to the consensus in the procurement process, team commitment and engagement of those involved.

  7. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  8. Promising System for Selecting Healthy In Vitro–Fertilized Embryos in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in vitro–fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors—(i) timing of the first cleavage; (ii) number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii) presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv) number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v) oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage—pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%). The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos. PMID:22590579

  9. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  10. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading killer of both men and women in the US, and the 5-year survival remains poor. However, the approval of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has shifted the treatment paradigm and provides hope for improved survival. The ability of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC to evade the host immune system can be overcome by agents such as pembrolizumab (MK-3475/lambrolizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1 receptor. In early studies, treatment with pembrolizumab led to dramatic and durable responses in select patients (PD-L1+ tumors. This remarkable efficacy lead to approval of pembrolizumab in the second-line setting as response rates were almost doubled compared to standard of care (SOC chemotherapy. Most recently, data in the first-line setting from the KEYNOTE-024 study have redefined the SOC therapy for a selected subset of patients. In patients with ≥50% PD-L1+ tumors, pembrolizumab had a clear progression-free survival and overall survival benefit. Toxicity was mostly immune related and similar to checkpoint blockade toxicities observed in previous studies. The initial approval and subsequent studies of pembrolizumab required and utilized a companion diagnostic test, Dako’s IHC 22C3, to assess PD-L1 status of patients. The evaluation and scoring system of this assay has been used by other companies as a reference to develop their own assays, which may complicate selection of patients. Finally, the impact of pembrolizumab in NSCLC is growing as evidenced by the numerous, ongoing trials open for combinations with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, other immunotherapeutics, immunomodulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Further studies

  11. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  12. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  13. Selective effect of cell membrane on synaptic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Róg, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membr...... the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike.......Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic...... membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition...

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies of Electron-Selective Titanium Oxide Contacts in Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Haider; Yang, Xinbo; Weber, Klaus; Schoenfeld, Winston V.; Davis, Kristopher O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the cross-section of electron-selective titanium oxide (TiO2) contacts for n-type crystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the excellent cell efficiency of 21

  15. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  16. Identification of a selective small molecule inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Andrew R; Carmody, Leigh C; Morgan, Barbara; Fernandez, Cristina; Forbeck, Erin; Lewis, Timothy A; Nag, Partha P; Ting, Amal; VerPlank, Lynn; Feng, Yuxiong; Perez, Jose R; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Lander, Eric S; Gupta, Piyush B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2012-05-15

    A high-throughput screen (HTS) with the National Institute of Health-Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (NIH-MLSMR) compound collection identified a class of acyl hydrazones to be selectively lethal to breast cancer stem cell (CSC) enriched populations. Medicinal chemistry efforts were undertaken to optimize potency and selectivity of this class of compounds. The optimized compound was declared as a probe (ML239) with the NIH Molecular Libraries Program and displayed greater than 20-fold selective inhibition of the breast CSC-like cell line (HMLE_sh_Ecad) over the isogenic control line (HMLE_sh_GFP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction and selection of mutants from in vitro cultured plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung Il; Kim, Jae Sung; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    Mutant cell lines are useful for biochemical, physiological and genetical material for marker in various genetic manipulation experiments and for the direct use in crop plant improvement. Mutant selection may lead to the production of plants showing resistance or tolerance to specific environmental stress, such as solinity, drought, toxed metals, herbicides, pathogens and low temperature. In this review, these included the production of the somatic variation, the selection process itself and stability of the selected characters in cell culture and regenerated plant. Which would seem to be useful for improving plants and securring genetic resources. 45 refs. (Author).

  18. Induction and selection of mutants from in vitro cultured plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung Il; Kim, Jae Sung; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae

    1994-07-01

    Mutant cell lines are useful for biochemical, physiological and genetical material for marker in various genetic manipulation experiments and for the direct use in crop plant improvement. Mutant selection may lead to the production of plants showing resistance or tolerance to specific environmental stress, such as solinity, drought, toxed metals, herbicides, pathogens and low temperature. In this review, these included the production of the somatic variation, the selection process itself and stability of the selected characters in cell culture and regenerated plant. Which would seem to be useful for improving plants and securring genetic resources. 45 refs. (Author)

  19. Black silicon laser-doped selective emitter solar cell with 18.1% efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Li, Hongzhao; To, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication of nanostructured, laser-doped selective emitter (LDSE) silicon solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and a fill factor (FF) of 80.1%. The nanostructured solar cells were realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing......-texturing as well as the LDSE process, we consider this specific combination a promising candidate for a cost-efficient process for future Si solar cells....

  20. Evodiamine selectively targets cancer stem-like cells through the p53-p21-Rb pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seula; Woo, Jong Kyu; Jung, Yuchae; Jeong, Dawoon; Kang, Minsook; Yoo, Young-Ji; Lee, Hani; Oh, Seung Hyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kim, Woo-Young

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the recent improvements, the resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by relapse is the main hurdle for the successful treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of death in women. A small population of breast cancer cells that have stem-like characteristics (cancer stem-like cells; CSLC) may contribute to this resistance and relapse. Here, we report on a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, evodiamine, which selectively targets CSLC of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDAMB 231 at a concentration that does show a little or no cytotoxic effect on bulk cancer cells. While evodiamine caused the accumulation of bulk cancer cells at the G2/M phase, it did not hold CSLC in a specific cell cycle phase but instead, selectively killed CSLC. This was not due to the culture of CSLC in suspension or without FBS. A proteomic analysis and western blotting revealed that evodiamine changed the expression of cell cycle regulating molecules more efficiently in CSLC cells than in bulk cancer cells. Surprisingly, evodiamine selectively activated p53 and p21 and decreased inactive Rb, the master molecules in G1/S checkpoint. These data collectively suggest a novel mechanism involving CSLC-specific targeting by evodiamine and its possible use to the therapy of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine selectively kills breast cancer stem like cells at G1 phase. • Evodiamine utilizes different mechanism of cell cycle modulation in CSLC and in bulk cancer cells. • Evodiamine activate the p53, p21 and Rb pathway.

  1. Evodiamine selectively targets cancer stem-like cells through the p53-p21-Rb pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seula [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kyu [College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yuchae; Jeong, Dawoon; Kang, Minsook; Yoo, Young-Ji; Lee, Hani [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Hyun [College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Ha [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young, E-mail: wykim@sookmyung.ac.kr [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    In spite of the recent improvements, the resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by relapse is the main hurdle for the successful treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of death in women. A small population of breast cancer cells that have stem-like characteristics (cancer stem-like cells; CSLC) may contribute to this resistance and relapse. Here, we report on a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, evodiamine, which selectively targets CSLC of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDAMB 231 at a concentration that does show a little or no cytotoxic effect on bulk cancer cells. While evodiamine caused the accumulation of bulk cancer cells at the G2/M phase, it did not hold CSLC in a specific cell cycle phase but instead, selectively killed CSLC. This was not due to the culture of CSLC in suspension or without FBS. A proteomic analysis and western blotting revealed that evodiamine changed the expression of cell cycle regulating molecules more efficiently in CSLC cells than in bulk cancer cells. Surprisingly, evodiamine selectively activated p53 and p21 and decreased inactive Rb, the master molecules in G1/S checkpoint. These data collectively suggest a novel mechanism involving CSLC-specific targeting by evodiamine and its possible use to the therapy of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine selectively kills breast cancer stem like cells at G1 phase. • Evodiamine utilizes different mechanism of cell cycle modulation in CSLC and in bulk cancer cells. • Evodiamine activate the p53, p21 and Rb pathway.

  2. Hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. Development of CO{sub 2}-selective biogas membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestboe, A.P.

    2012-02-15

    The project started as a literature study and technology development project for a hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. The introduction of hydrogen (for example produced from wind turbines by surplus electricity) in the gas system makes it possible to store energy which can be selectively used with high energy conversion in fuel cells directly located at the end users. In order to make this possible, it is necessary to have a separating unit that can selectively remove hydrogen from the gas mixture and deliver it as fuel to the electrical generator (a fuel cell). In the project, several existing technologies were evaluated with regard to the application in view. It was concluded that while other technologies are ripe, they are costly in energy and unsuitable for the relatively low capacity application that are in question close to the end users. Membrane technology was evaluated to be the most suitable, although the technology is still under development in many cases. In the project it was found that metallic membranes in the form of palladium coated stainless discs would answer the needs for the high purity needed. Laboratory development yielded discs that could separate hydrogen from natural gas, however, the flux was low compared to the needs of the application. It was found that at least 2 bar pressure difference of hydrogen would be needed to get a high enough flux. The way to achieve this pressure would necessitate a compressor which would consume an energy amount high enough to invalidate the concept. When concluding on the results and the study it was found that the direction of the project could be changed towards developing CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with the goal of developing membrane technology that could upgrade biogas by removing CO{sub 2}. The laboratory equipment and setup that were developed in the first part of the project could be used directly in this second part of the project. In this second part of the project it was

  3. ISABELLE half-cell control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Humphrey, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The primary function of the ISABELLE half-cell control system is to monitor and control the magnet power supplies of the half-cell. In addition, the control system must be flexible enough that it can be expanded to become involved in additional areas such as vacuum and magnetic measurements. A control system based upon AGS control standards, but modified into a development tool for research and electrical engineering support was constructed. Special attention was given to the inherent differences between controlling an ISABELLE and a conventional fast cycling accelerator. The use of FORTRAN and BASIC networks, and microprocessors is reviewed insofar as they pertain to this system. Some general opinions on model control systems, based upon experience, are presented

  4. Cinnamides as selective small-molecule inhibitors of a cellular model of breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Andrew R; Carmody, Leigh C; Nag, Partha P; Morgan, Barbara; Verplank, Lynn; Fernandez, Cristina; Donckele, Etienne; Feng, Yuxiong; Perez, Jose R; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Lander, Eric S; Gupta, Piyush B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2013-03-15

    A high-throughput screen (HTS) was conducted against stably propagated cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations using a library of 300,718 compounds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). A cinnamide analog displayed greater than 20-fold selective inhibition of the breast CSC-like cell line (HMLE_sh_Ecad) over the isogenic control cell line (HMLE_sh_eGFP). Herein, we report structure-activity relationships of this class of cinnamides for selective lethality towards CSC-enriched populations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Airbreathing engine selection criteria for SSTO propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Maita, Masataka

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents airbreathing engine selection criteria to be applied to the propulsion system of a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO). To establish the criteria, a relation among three major parameters, i.e., delta-V capability, weight penalty, and effective specific impulse of the engine subsystem, is derived as compared to these parameters of the LH2/LOX rocket engine. The effective specific impulse is a function of the engine I(sub sp) and vehicle thrust-to-drag ratio which is approximated by a function of the vehicle velocity. The weight penalty includes the engine dry weight, cooling subsystem weight. The delta-V capability is defined by the velocity region starting from the minimum operating velocity up to the maximum velocity. The vehicle feasibility is investigated in terms of the structural and propellant weights, which requires an iteration process adjusting the system parameters. The system parameters are computed by iteration based on the Newton-Raphson method. It has been concluded that performance in the higher velocity region is extremely important so that the airbreathing engines are required to operate beyond the velocity equivalent to the rocket engine exhaust velocity (approximately 4500 m/s).

  6. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biringer, K.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Buden, D.; Foreman, J.; Harrison, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs

  7. Endocytic pathways involved in PLGA nanoparticle uptake by grapevine cells and role of cell wall and membrane in size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palocci, Cleofe; Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Donati, Livia; Bramosanti, Marco; Brasili, Elisa; Baldan, Barbara; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    PLGA NPs' cell uptake involves different endocytic pathways. Clathrin-independent endocytosis is the main internalization route. The cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in NPs' size selection. In the last years, many studies on absorption and cell uptake of nanoparticles by plants have been conducted, but the understanding of the internalization mechanisms is still largely unknown. In this study, polydispersed and monodispersed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized, and a strategy combining the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal analysis, fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs, a probe for endocytic vesicles (FM4-64), and endocytosis inhibitors (i.e., wortmannin, ikarugamycin, and salicylic acid) was employed to shed light on PLGA NP cell uptake in grapevine cultured cells and to assess the role of the cell wall and plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. The ability of PLGA NPs to cross the cell wall and membrane was confirmed by TEM and fluorescence microscopy. A strong adhesion of PLGA NPs to the outer side of the cell wall was observed, presumably due to electrostatic interactions. Confocal microscopy and treatment with endocytosis inhibitors suggested the involvement of both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis in cell uptake of PLGA NPs and the latter appeared to be the main internalization pathway. Experiments on grapevine protoplasts revealed that the cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. While the cell wall prevents the uptake of PLGA NPs with diameters over 50 nm, the plasma membrane can be crossed by PLGA NPs with a diameter of 500-600 nm.

  8. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Bardet, Michel; De Paepe, Gael; Hediger, Sabine; Ayala, Isabel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  9. Solid-state NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ayala, Isabel; Bardet, Michel; De Paëpe, Gaël; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Hediger, Sabine

    2013-04-03

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool.

  10. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  11. Cooling Grapple System for FMEF hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, L.S.; Frandsen, G.B.; Tome, R.

    1983-01-01

    A Cooling Grapple System was designed and built to handle fuel assemblies within the FMEF hot cell. The variety of functions for which it is designed makes it unique from grapples presently in use. The Cooling Grapple can positively grip and transport assemblies vertically, retrieve assemblies from molten sodium where six inches of grapple tip is submerged, cool 7 kw assemblies in argon, and service an in-cell area of 372 m 2 (4000 ft 2 ). Novel and improved operating and maintenance features were incorporated in the design including a shear pin and mechanical catcher system to prevent overloading the grapple while allowing additional reaction time for crane shutdown

  12. Phenotypic plasticity and effects of selection on cell division symmetry in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttara N Lele

    Full Text Available Aging has been demonstrated in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. Whether the asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive and adaptable response is debated. Although asymmetric division leads to aging and death of some cells, it increases the effective growth rate of the population as shown by theoretical and empirical studies. Mathematical models predict on the other hand, that if the cells divide symmetrically, cellular aging may be delayed or absent, growth rate will be reduced but growth yield will increase at optimum repair rates. Therefore in nutritionally dilute (oligotrophic environments, where growth yield may be more critical for survival, symmetric division may get selected. These predictions have not been empirically tested so far. We report here that Escherichia coli grown in oligotrophic environments had greater morphological and functional symmetry in cell division. Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection appeared to shape cell division time asymmetry but plasticity was lost on prolonged selection. Lineages selected on high nutrient concentration showed greater frequency of presumably old or dead cells. Further, there was a negative correlation between cell division time asymmetry and growth yield but there was no significant correlation between asymmetry and growth rate. The results suggest that cellular aging driven by asymmetric division may not be hardwired but shows substantial plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

  13. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  14. Resistance of tumor cells to hydrogen peroxide as a factor of selection of highly metastatic cell variants in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, G.I.; Vendrov, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the theory that tumor cells which catabolize H 2 O 2 more actively may possibly have selected advantages in vivo (of different origin). The authors tested the sensitivity to H 2 O 2 of parental cells of strain STHE (which did not progress in vivo) and 17 of its daughter variants isolated from lung tissue of experimental animals at different stages of formation of metastases (before and after their formation) and differing in metastatic activity. Intact cells were placed into test tube No. 6 of each series. After 30 min of exposure at 20 0 C, cells treated with H 2 O 2 and intact cells were washed out by centrifugation, and resuspended in nutritive medium containing 10% bovine serum and 3 H-thymidine, and each sample was diffused at a volume of 2.0 ml of cell suspension in each of three scintillation vials. The proliferative pool of cells in each sample was determined according to incorporation (for 22 h at 37 0 C) of 3 H-thymidine into cell nuclei. Data concerning incorporation of 3 H-thymidine was expressed for each sample of cells in percentages in relation to corresponding intact control (incorporation of label in a control culture of intact cells was taken as 100%). Each cell variant was investigated repeatedly in two-three more experiments

  15. Onion root tip cell system for biodosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradiz, J; Druskovic, B.; Lovka, M.; Skrk, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology for radiation dose assessment based on chromosomal damage to plant cells has no yet been established, although root meristems have been the pioneer cytogenetic materials and profound analyses of irradiated meristematic cells of horse bean (Viciafaba L.) had been performed. Onion (Allium cepa L.) root tips frequently used for radiation cytogenetic studies, are recently considered to be one of the most promising plant test system for the detection of genotoxic environmental pollutants. We studied the possibility of using cytogenetic analyses of irradiated onion cells to determine the effective biological dose of ionizing radiation. The dose-effect relationships for chromosomal damages to onion meristematic cells were established after plants had been irradiated and subsequently grown in both laboratory and field conditions

  16. Entry into Midgut Epithelial Cells is a Key Step in the Selection of Genotypes in a Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Clavijo; Trevor Williams; Delia Mu(n)oz; Miguel L(o)pez-Ferber; Primitivo Caballero

    2009-01-01

    An isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus comprises a stable proportion of deletion genotypes (e.g., SfNIC-C), that lack pif1 and pif2 rendering them noninfectious per os, and that survive by complementation with a complete genotype (SfNIC-B) in coinfected cells. To determine whether selection for particular ratios of complete and deletion genotypes occurs mainly during the establishment of the primary infection in insect midgut cells or during subsequent systemic infection, we examined genotype frequencies in insects that fed on OBs comprising different co-occluded mixtures of genotypes. Dramatic changes in genotype frequencies were observed between the OB inoculum and budded virus (BV) samples taken from larvae inoculated with OBs comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C indicating that a marked reduction of SfNIC-C genotype had occurred in the insect midgut due to the immediate elimination of all OBs that originated from cells that had been infected only by SfNIC-C. In contrast, immediate changes were not observed in OBs comprising mixtures of 50% SfNIC-B + 50% SfNIC-C or those comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C as most of the OBs in these mixtures originated from cells that had been infected by both genotypes. Subsequent changes in genotypic frequencies during five days of systemic infection were fairly small in magnitude for all genotypic mixtures. We conclude that the prevalence of defective genotypes in the SfNIC population is likely determined by a balance between host selection against OBs produced in cells infected by SfNIC-C alone and within-host selection for fast-replicating deletion genotypes. The strength of intra-host selection is likely modulated by changes in MOI during the infection period.

  17. Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Molderings

    Full Text Available Systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD comprises disorders characterized by an enhanced release of mast cell mediators accompanied by accumulation of dysfunctional mast cells. Demonstration of familial clustering would be an important step towards defining the genetic contribution to the risk of systemic MCAD. The present study aimed to quantify familial aggregation for MCAD and to investigate the variability of clinical and molecular findings (e.g. somatic mutations in KIT among affected family members in three selected pedigrees. Our data suggest that systemic MCAD pedigrees include more systemic MCAD cases than would be expected by chance, i.e., compared with the prevalence of MCAD in the general population. The prevalence of MCAD suspected by symptom self-report in first-degree relatives of patients with MCAD amounted to approximately 46%, compared to prevalence in the general German population of about 17% (p<0.0001. In three families with a high familial loading of MCAD, the subtype of MCAD and the severity of mediator-related symptoms varied between family members. In addition, genetic alterations detected in KIT were variable, and included mutations at position 816 of the amino acid sequence. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for common familial occurrence of MCAD. Our findings observed in the three pedigrees together with recent reports in the literature suggest that, in familial cases (i.e., in the majority of MCAD, mutated disease-related operator and/or regulator genes could be responsible for the development of somatic mutations in KIT and other proteins important for the regulation of mast cell activity. Accordingly, the immunohistochemically different subtypes of MCAD (i.e. mast cell activation syndrome and systemic mastocytosis should be more accurately regarded as varying presentations of a common generic root process of mast cell dysfunction, than as distinct diseases.

  18. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  19. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  20. Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial activity and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A Elbaz

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solid tumors including pancreatic cancer, but the effectiveness of treatment is limited by radiation resistance. Resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration and drugs that stimulate mitochondrial respiration may decrease radiation resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of (--epicatechin to stimulate mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells and to selectively sensitize cancer cells to radiation. We investigated the natural compound (--epicatechin for effects on mitochondrial respiration and radiation resistance of pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cells using a Clark type oxygen electrode, clonogenic survival assays, and Western blot analyses. (--Epicatechin stimulated mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption in Panc-1 cells. Human normal fibroblasts were not affected. (--Epicatechin sensitized Panc-1, U87, and MIA PaCa-2 cells with an average radiation enhancement factor (REF of 1.7, 1.5, and 1.2, respectively. (--Epicatechin did not sensitize normal fibroblast cells to ionizing radiation with a REF of 0.9, suggesting cancer cell selectivity. (--Epicatechin enhanced Chk2 phosphorylation and p21 induction when combined with radiation in cancer, but not normal, cells. Taken together, (--epicatechin radiosensitized cancer cells, but not normal cells, and may be a promising candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment when combined with radiation.

  1. Active Multispectral Band Selection and Reflectance Measurement System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rennich, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    .... To aid in the selection of these bands, a novel multispectral band selection technique is presented based on the cross-correlation of the material class reflectance spectra over a wavelength range of 1 - 5 microns...

  2. Selective ablation of Copper-Indium-Diselenide solar cells monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and classification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego-Vallejo, David [Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ashkenasi, David, E-mail: d.ashkenasi@lmtb.de [Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Lemke, Andreas [Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Eichler, Hans Joachim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and two classification methods, i.e. linear correlation and artificial neural networks (ANN), are used to monitor P1, P2 and P3 scribing steps of Copper-Indium-Diselenide (CIS) solar cells. Narrow channels featuring complete removal of desired layers with minimum damage on the underlying film are expected to enhance efficiency of solar cells. The monitoring technique is intended to determine that enough material has been removed to reach the desired layer based on the analysis of plasma emission acquired during multiple pass laser scribing. When successful selective scribing is achieved, a high degree of similarity between test and reference spectra has to be identified by classification methods in order to stop the scribing procedure and avoid damaging the bottom layer. Performance of linear correlation and artificial neural networks is compared and evaluated for two spectral bandwidths. By using experimentally determined combinations of classifier and analyzed spectral band for each step, classification performance achieves errors of 7, 1 and 4% for steps P1, P2 and P3, respectively. The feasibility of using plasma emission for the supervision of processing steps of solar cell manufacturing is demonstrated. This method has the potential to be implemented as an online monitoring procedure assisting the production of solar cells. - Highlights: • LIBS and two classification methods were used to monitor CIS solar cells processing. • Selective ablation of thin-film solar cells was improved with inspection system. • Customized classification method and analyzed spectral band enhanced performance.

  3. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  4. Automated Cell Enrichment of Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells for Clinical Applications using the Cytokine-capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken; Figliola, Mathew; Moyes, Judy S; Huls, M Helen; Tewari, Priti; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-10-05

    The adoptive transfer of pathogen-specific T cells can be used to prevent and treat opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Viral-specific T cells from allogeneic donors, including third party donors, can be propagated ex vivo in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), employing repeated rounds of antigen-driven stimulation to selectively propagate desired T cells. The identification and isolation of antigen-specific T cells can also be undertaken based upon the cytokine capture system of T cells that have been activated to secrete gamma-interferon (IFN-γ). However, widespread human application of the cytokine capture system (CCS) to help restore immunity has been limited as the production process is time-consuming and requires a skilled operator. The development of a second-generation cell enrichment device such as CliniMACS Prodigy now enables investigators to generate viral-specific T cells using an automated, less labor-intensive system. This device separates magnetically labeled cells from unlabeled cells using magnetic activated cell sorting technology to generate clinical-grade products, is engineered as a closed system and can be accessed and operated on the benchtop. We demonstrate the operation of this new automated cell enrichment device to manufacture CMV pp65-specific T cells obtained from a steady-state apheresis product obtained from a CMV seropositive donor. These isolated T cells can then be directly infused into a patient under institutional and federal regulatory supervision. All the bio-processing steps including removal of red blood cells, stimulation of T cells, separation of antigen-specific T cells, purification, and washing are fully automated. Devices such as this raise the possibility that T cells for human application can be manufactured outside of dedicated good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and instead be produced

  5. CD34+ (Non-Malignant) Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Schwachman Diamond Syndrome; Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Histiocytic Syndrome; Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphocytosis; Lymphohistiocytosis; Macrophage Activation Syndrome; Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH); Hemoglobinopathies; Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle Cell-beta-thalassemia

  6. Dual targeting of gene delivery by genetic modification of adenovirus serotype 5 fibers and cell-selective transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, L M; Ritchie, N; Nicklin, S A; Reynolds, P N; Baker, A H

    2004-08-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene delivery is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of the vasculature and is being used in both preclinical models and clinical trials. However, safety concerns relating to infection of nontarget tissue and the poor infectivity of vascular cells compared to other cell types necessitates Ad vector refinement. Here, we combine a transductional targeting approach to improve vascular cell infectivity through RGD peptide insertion into adenovirus fibers, combined with transcriptional targeting to endothelial cells using a approximately 1 kb fragment of the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (FLT-1) promoter. Single- and double-modified vectors were characterized in human cell lines that either support or have silenced FLT-1 expression. In rat hepatocytes and endothelial cells, the double modification substantially shifted transduction profiles toward vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, in intact aortae derived from spontaneously hypertensive rats that display enhanced alphav integrin expression on dysfunctional endothelium, enhanced levels of transduction were observed using the double-modified vector but not in aortae derived from normotensive control rats. Our data indicate that Ad-mediated transduction can be beneficially modified in vitro and in vivo by combining fiber modification and a cell-selective promoter within a single-component vector system.

  7. Characterisation of a cell swelling-activated K+-selective conductance of Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2000-01-01

    activated by cell swelling was measured as outward current at the Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl) under quasi-physiological gradients. It could be abolished by replacing extracellular Na+ with K+, thereby cancelling the driving force. Replacement with other cations suggested a selectivity sequence of K......+ currents of Ehrlich cells are voltage and calcium insensitive and are resistant to a range of K+ channel inhibitors. These characteristics are similar to those of the so-called background K+ channels. 6.  Noise analysis of whole-cell current was consistent with a unitary conductance of 5.5 p...

  8. Novel HER2 Aptamer Selectively Delivers Cytotoxic Drug to HER2-positive Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aptamer-based tumor targeted drug delivery system is a promising approach that may increase the efficacy of chemotherapy and reduce the related toxicity. HER2 protein is an attractive target for tumor-specific drug delivery because of its overexpression in multiple malignancies, including breast, gastric, ovarian, and lung cancers. Methods In this paper, we developed a new HER2 aptamer (HB5 by using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology (SELEX and exploited its role as a targeting ligand for delivering doxorubicin (Dox to breast cancer cells in vitro. Results The selected aptamer was an 86-nucleotide DNA molecule that bound to an epitope peptide of HER2 with a Kd of 18.9 nM. The aptamer also bound to the extracellular domain (ECD of HER2 protein with a Kdof 316 nM, and had minimal cross reactivity to albumin or trypsin. In addition, the aptamer was found to preferentially bind to HER2-positive but not HER2-negative breast cancer cells. An aptamer-doxorubicin complex (Apt-Dox was formulated by intercalating Dox into the DNA structure of HB5. The Apt-Dox complex could selectively deliver Dox to HER2-positive breast cancer cells while reducing the drug intake by HER2-negative cells in vitro. Moreover, Apt-Dox retained the cytotoxicity of Dox against HER2-positive breast cancer cells, but reduced the cytotoxicity to HER2-negative cells. Conclusions The results suggest that the selected HER2 aptamer may have application potentials in targeted therapy against HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

  9. Foxp3(+) T cells regulate immunoglobulin a selection and facilitate diversification of bacterial species responsible for immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Kato, Lucia M; Suda, Wataru; Atarashi, Koji; Doi, Yasuko; Tsutsui, Yumi; Qin, Hongyan; Honda, Kenya; Okada, Takaharu; Hattori, Masahira; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-17

    Foxp3(+) T cells play a critical role for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Here we show that in mice, Foxp3(+) T cells contributed to diversification of gut microbiota, particularly of species belonging to Firmicutes. The control of indigenous bacteria by Foxp3(+) T cells involved regulatory functions both outside and inside germinal centers (GCs), consisting of suppression of inflammation and regulation of immunoglobulin A (IgA) selection in Peyer's patches, respectively. Diversified and selected IgAs contributed to maintenance of diversified and balanced microbiota, which in turn facilitated the expansion of Foxp3(+) T cells, induction of GCs, and IgA responses in the gut through a symbiotic regulatory loop. Thus, the adaptive immune system, through cellular and molecular components that are required for immune tolerance and through the diversification as well as selection of antibody repertoire, mediates host-microbial symbiosis by controlling the richness and balance of bacterial communities required for homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cis-acting pathways selectively enforce the non-immunogenicity of shed placental antigen for maternal CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Siean Tay

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus and placenta is thought to be established in part by pathways that attenuate T cell priming to antigens released from the placenta into maternal blood. These pathways remain largely undefined and their existence, at face value, seems incompatible with a mother's need to maintain a functional immune system during pregnancy. A particular conundrum is evident if we consider that maternal antigen presenting cells, activated in order to prime T cells to pathogen-derived antigens, would also have the capacity to prime T cells to co-ingested placental antigens. Here, we address this paradox using a transgenic system in which placental membranes are tagged with a strong surrogate antigen (ovalbumin. We find that although a remarkably large quantity of acellular ovalbumin-containing placental material is released into maternal blood, splenic CD8 T cells in pregnant mice bearing unmanipulated T cell repertoires are not primed to ovalbumin even if the mice are intravenously injected with adjuvants. This failure was largely independent of regulatory T cells, and instead was linked to the intrinsic characteristics of the released material that rendered it selectively non-immunogenic, potentially by sequestering it from CD8α(+ dendritic cells. The release of ovalbumin-containing placental material into maternal blood thus had no discernable impact on CD8 T cell priming to soluble ovalbumin injected intravenously during pregnancy, nor did it induce long-term tolerance to ovalbumin. Together, these results outline a major pathway governing the maternal immune response to the placenta, and suggest how tolerance to placental antigens can be maintained systemically without being detrimental to host defense.

  11. Cis-Acting Pathways Selectively Enforce the Non-Immunogenicity of Shed Placental Antigen for Maternal CD8 T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chin-Siean; Tagliani, Elisa; Collins, Mary K.; Erlebacher, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus and placenta is thought to be established in part by pathways that attenuate T cell priming to antigens released from the placenta into maternal blood. These pathways remain largely undefined and their existence, at face value, seems incompatible with a mother's need to maintain a functional immune system during pregnancy. A particular conundrum is evident if we consider that maternal antigen presenting cells, activated in order to prime T cells to pathogen-derived antigens, would also have the capacity to prime T cells to co-ingested placental antigens. Here, we address this paradox using a transgenic system in which placental membranes are tagged with a strong surrogate antigen (ovalbumin). We find that although a remarkably large quantity of acellular ovalbumin-containing placental material is released into maternal blood, splenic CD8 T cells in pregnant mice bearing unmanipulated T cell repertoires are not primed to ovalbumin even if the mice are intravenously injected with adjuvants. This failure was largely independent of regulatory T cells, and instead was linked to the intrinsic characteristics of the released material that rendered it selectively non-immunogenic, potentially by sequestering it from CD8α+ dendritic cells. The release of ovalbumin-containing placental material into maternal blood thus had no discernable impact on CD8 T cell priming to soluble ovalbumin injected intravenously during pregnancy, nor did it induce long-term tolerance to ovalbumin. Together, these results outline a major pathway governing the maternal immune response to the placenta, and suggest how tolerance to placental antigens can be maintained systemically without being detrimental to host defense. PMID:24391885

  12. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  13. Sexual selection, genetic conflict, selfish genes, and the atypical patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleene, Kenneth C

    2005-01-01

    This review proposes that the peculiar patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells are the consequence of powerful evolutionary forces known as sexual selection. Sexual selection is generally characterized by intense competition of males for females, an enormous variety of the strategies to maximize male reproductive success, exaggerated male traits at all levels of biological organization, co-evolution of sexual traits in males and females, and conflict between the sexual advantage of the male trait and the reproductive fitness of females and the individual fitness of both sexes. In addition, spermatogenesis is afflicted by selfish genes that promote their transmission to progeny while causing deleterious effects. Sexual selection, selfish genes, and genetic conflict provide compelling explanations for many atypical features of gene expression in spermatogenic cells including the gross overexpression of certain mRNAs, transcripts encoding truncated proteins that cannot carry out basic functions of the proteins encoded by the same genes in somatic cells, the large number of gene families containing paralogous genes encoding spermatogenic cell-specific isoforms, the large number of testis-cancer-associated genes that are expressed only in spermatogenic cells and malignant cells, and the overbearing role of Sertoli cells in regulating the number and quality of spermatozoa.

  14. Sinularin Selectively Kills Breast Cancer Cells Showing G2/M Arrest, Apoptosis, and Oxidative DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurng-Wern Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural compound sinularin, isolated from marine soft corals, is antiproliferative against several cancers, but its possible selective killing effect has rarely been investigated. This study investigates the selective killing potential and mechanisms of sinularin-treated breast cancer cells. In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H- tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay, sinularin dose-responsively decreased the cell viability of two breast cancer (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but showed less effect on breast normal (M10 cells after a 24 h treatment. According to 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD flow cytometry, sinularin dose-responsively induced the G2/M cycle arrest of SKBR3 cells. Sinularin dose-responsively induced apoptosis on SKBR3 cells in terms of a flow cytometry-based annexin V/7AAD assay and pancaspase activity, as well as Western blotting for cleaved forms of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspases 3, 8, and 9. These caspases and PARP activations were suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC pretreatment. Moreover, sinularin dose-responsively induced oxidative stress and DNA damage according to flow cytometry analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP, mitochondrial superoxide, and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG. In conclusion, sinularin induces selective killing, G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and oxidative DNA damage of breast cancer cells.

  15. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  16. Selection of radioresistant tumor cells and presence of ALDH1 activity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihatsch, Julia; Toulany, Mahmoud; Bareiss, Petra M.; Grimm, Sabrina; Lengerke, Claudia; Kehlbach, Rainer; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tumor resistance to radiotherapy has been hypothesized to be mediated by a tumor subpopulation, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Based on the proposed function of CSCs in radioresistance, we explored the cancer stem cell properties of cells selected for radioresistance phenotype. Materials and methods: A549 and SK-BR-3 cells were radioselected with four single doses of 4 or 3 Gy in intervals of 10-12 days and used for colony formation assay and γ-H2AX foci formation assay. Expression of putative stem cell markers, i.e. Sox2, Oct4, ALDH1, and CD133 were analyzed using Western blotting. A549 and SK-BR-3 cells sorted based on their ALDH1 activity were analyzed in clonogenic survival assays. Results: Radioselected A549 and SK-BR-3 cells (A549-R, SK-BR-3-R) showed increased radioresistance and A549-R cells presented enhanced repair of DNA-double strand breaks. PI3K inhibition significantly reduced radioresistance of A549-R cells. Cell line specific differences in the expression of the putative CSC markers Sox2 and Oct4 were observed when parental and radioselected cells were compared but could not be directly correlated to the radioresistant phenotype. However, enzyme activity of the putative stem cell marker ALDH1 showed a correlation to radioresistance. Conclusions: Subpopulations of pooled radioresistant colonies, selected by various radiation exposures were analyzed for the presence of putative stem cell markers. Although the pattern of Sox2, Oct4, and CD133 expression was not generally associated with radioresistance, presence of ALDH1 seems to be indicative for subpopulations with increased radioresistance.

  17. Selective elimination of neuroblastoma cells by synergistic effect of Akt kinase inhibitor and tetrathiomolybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátilová, Jarmila; Karasová, Martina; Kohutková Lánová, Martina; Jiráková, Ludmila; Budková, Zuzana; Pacherník, Jiří; Šmarda, Jan; Beneš, Petr

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy. Pathological activation of glucose consumption, glycolysis and glycolysis-activating Akt kinase occur frequently in neuroblastoma cells, and these changes correlate with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, several inhibitors of glucose utilization and the Akt kinase activity are in preclinical trials as potential anti-cancer drugs. However, metabolic plasticity of cancer cells might undermine efficacy of this approach. In this work, we identified oxidative phosphorylation as compensatory mechanism preserving viability of neuroblastoma cells with inhibited glucose uptake/Akt kinase. It was oxidative phosphorylation that maintained intracellular level of ATP and proliferative capacity of these cells. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, tetrathiomolybdate) synergized with inhibitor of the Akt kinase/glucose uptake in down-regulation of both viability of neuroblastoma cells and clonogenic potential of cells forming neuroblastoma spheroids. Interestingly, tetrathiomolybdate acted as highly specific inhibitor of oxygen consumption and activator of lactate production in neuroblastoma cells, but not in normal fibroblasts and neuronal cells. Moreover, the reducing effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cell viability and the level of ATP in the cells with inhibited Akt kinase/glucose uptake was also selective for neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, efficient elimination of neuroblastoma cells requires inhibition of both glucose uptake/Akt kinase and oxidative phosphorylation activities. The use of tetrathiomolybdate as a mitochondrial inhibitor contributes to selectivity of this combined treatment, preferentially targeting neuroblastoma cells. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Pure-Phase Selective Excitation in Fast-Relaxing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika; Sterk, Heinz

    2001-09-01

    Selective pulses have been used frequently for small molecules. However, their application to proteins and other macromolecules has been limited. The long duration of shaped-selective pulses and the short T2 relaxation times in proteins often prohibited the use of highly selective pulses especially on larger biomolecules. A very selective excitation can be obtained within a short time by using the selective excitation sequence presented in this paper. Instead of using a shaped low-intensity radiofrequency pulse, a cluster of hard 90° pulses, delays of free precession, and pulsed field gradients can be used to selectively excite a narrow chemical shift range within a relatively short time. Thereby, off-resonance magnetization, which is allowed to evolve freely during the free precession intervals, is destroyed by the gradient pulses. Off-resonance excitation artifacts can be removed by random variation of the interpulse delays. This leads to an excitation profile with selectivity as well as phase and relaxation behavior superior to that of commonly used shaped-selective pulses. Since the evolution of scalar coupling is inherently suppressed during the double-selective excitation of two different scalar-coupled nuclei, the presented pulse cluster is especially suited for simultaneous highly selective excitation of N-H and C-H fragments. Experimental examples are demonstrated on hen egg white lysozyme (14 kD) and the bacterial antidote ParD (19 kD).

  19. Selectable high-yield recombinant protein production in human cells using a GFP/YFP nanobody affinity support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Petrovich, Robert M; Malone, Christine C; Williams, R Scott

    2018-03-25

    Recombinant protein expression systems that produce high yields of pure proteins and multi-protein complexes are essential to meet the needs of biologists, biochemists, and structural biologists using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. An ideal expression system for recombinant human proteins is cultured human cells where the correct translation and chaperone machinery are present. However, compared to bacterial expression systems, human cell cultures present several technical challenges to their use as an expression system. We developed a method that utilizes a YFP fusion-tag to generate recombinant proteins using suspension-cultured HEK293F cells. YFP is a dual-function tag that enables direct visualization and fluorescence-based selection of high expressing clones for and rapid purification using a high-stringency, high-affinity anti-GFP/YFP nanobody support. We demonstrate the utility of this system by expressing two large human proteins, TOP2α (340 KDa dimer) and a TOP2β catalytic core (260 KDa dimer). This robustly and reproducibly yields >10 mg/L liter of cell culture using transient expression or 2.5 mg/L using stable expression. Published 2018. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. A Model for Service Life Control of Selected Device Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieja Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of determining distribution of limit state exceedence time by a diagnostic parameter which determines accuracy of maintaining zero state. For calculations it was assumed that the diagnostic parameter is deviation from nominal value (zero state. Change of deviation value occurs as a result of destructive processes which occur during service. For estimation of deviation increasing rate in probabilistic sense, was used a difference equation from which, after transformation, Fokker-Planck differential equation was obtained [4, 11]. A particular solution of the equation is deviation increasing rate density function which was used for determining exceedance probability of limit state. The so-determined probability was then used to determine density function of limit state exceedance time, by increasing deviation. Having at disposal the density function of limit state exceedance time one determined service life of a system of maladjustment. In the end, a numerical example based on operational data of selected aircraft [weapon] sights was presented. The elaborated method can be also applied to determining residual life of shipboard devices whose technical state is determined on the basis of analysis of values of diagnostic parameters.

  1. Mode Selection Rule for Three-Delay Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Kobayashi, Taizo

    2017-12-01

    We study the mode selection rule for a three-delay system to determine which oscillation mode is first excited by the Hopf bifurcation with increasing control parameter. We use linear stability analysis to detect an oscillating mode excited by the first bifurcation. There are two conditions, relevant and irrelevant conditions, determined by the ratios of three delay times, t1, t2, and tf, where tf is fixed and t1 and t2 are set as 0 < t1 < tf and 0 < t2 < tf. In a neighborhood of the relevant condition defined such that both t1/tf = n1/m1 and t2/tf = n2/m2 are ratios of odd to odd, oscillations nearly equal to the \\tilde{m}th-harmonic mode are excited, where \\tilde{m} is the least common multiple of m1 and m2. In the parameter space (t1,t2), there are irrelevant lines each of which is determined by a rational dependence of t1, t2, and tf, and does not allow any relevant condition. Extremely high order modes are observed along both sides of the irrelevant line. In particular, the line t2 = tf - t1, i.e., a diagonal with a slope of -1, shows the strongest irrelevancy.

  2. Strategies to intervene on causal systems are adaptively selected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Anna; Rehder, Bob; Gureckis, Todd M

    2015-06-01

    How do people choose interventions to learn about causal systems? Here, we considered two possibilities. First, we test an information sampling model, information gain, which values interventions that can discriminate between a learner's hypotheses (i.e. possible causal structures). We compare this discriminatory model to a positive testing strategy that instead aims to confirm individual hypotheses. Experiment 1 shows that individual behavior is described best by a mixture of these two alternatives. In Experiment 2 we find that people are able to adaptively alter their behavior and adopt the discriminatory model more often after experiencing that the confirmatory strategy leads to a subjective performance decrement. In Experiment 3, time pressure leads to the opposite effect of inducing a change towards the simpler positive testing strategy. These findings suggest that there is no single strategy that describes how intervention decisions are made. Instead, people select strategies in an adaptive fashion that trades off their expected performance and cognitive effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody-directed lentiviral gene transduction for live-cell monitoring and selection of human iPS and hES cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-tze Wu

    Full Text Available The identification of stem cells within a mixed population of cells is a major hurdle for stem cell biology--in particular, in the identification of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells during the reprogramming process. Based on the selective expression of stem cell surface markers, a method to specifically infect stem cells through antibody-conjugated lentiviral particles has been developed that can deliver both visual markers for live-cell imaging as well as selectable markers to enrich for iPS cells. Antibodies recognizing SSEA4 and CD24 mediated the selective infection of the iPS cells over the parental human fibroblasts, allowing for rapid expansion of these cells by puromycin selection. Adaptation of the vector allows for the selective marking of human embryonic stem (hES cells for their removal from a population of differentiated cells. This method has the benefit that it not only identifies stem cells, but that specific genes, including positive and negative selection markers, regulatory genes or miRNA can be delivered to the targeted stem cells. The ability to specifically target gene delivery to human pluripotent stem cells has broad applications in tissue engineering and stem cell therapies.

  4. Notch3 is dispensable for thymocyte β-selection and Notch1-induced T cell leukemogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Suliman

    Full Text Available Notch1 (N1 signaling induced by intrathymic Delta-like (DL ligands is required for T cell lineage commitment as well as self-renewal during "β-selection" of TCRβ⁺CD4⁻CD8⁻ double negative 3 (DN3 T cell progenitors. However, over-expression of the N1 intracellular domain (ICN1 renders N1 activation ligand-independent and drives leukemic transformation during β-selection. DN3 progenitors also express Notch3 (N3 mRNA, and over-expression of ligand-independent mutant N3 (ICN3 influences β-selection and drives T cell leukemogenesis. However, the importance of ligand-activated N3 in promoting β-selection and ICN1-induced T cell leukemogenesis has not been examined. To address these questions we generated mice lacking functional N3. We confirmed that DN3 progenitors express N3 protein using a N3-specific antibody. Surprisingly however, N3-deficient DN3 thymocytes were not defective in generating DP thymocytes under steady state conditions or in more stringent competition assays. To determine if N3 co-operates with N1 to regulate β-selection, we generated N1;N3 compound mutants. However, N3 deficiency did not exacerbate the competitive defect of N1⁺/⁻ DN3 progenitors, demonstrating that N3 does not compensate for limiting N1 during T cell development. Finally, N3 deficiency did not attenuate T cell leukemogenesis induced by conditional expression of ICN1 in DN3 thymocytes. Importantly, we showed that in contrast to N1, N3 has a low binding affinity for DL4, the most abundant intrathymic DL ligand. Thus, despite the profound effects of ectopic ligand-independent N3 activation on T cell development and leukemogenesis, physiologically activated N3 is dispensable for both processes, likely because N3 interacts poorly with intrathymic DL4.

  5. Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haitao; Jiang, Bingbing; Li, Bingyun; Li, Zhaoliang; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We

  6. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.

  7. CD4 expression on EL4 cells as an epiphenomenon of retroviral transduction and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grant J; Spinoulas, Afroditi; Alexander, Stephen I; Smythe, Jason A; Alexander, Ian E

    2004-04-01

    The EL4 murine tumour cell line, isolated from a chemically induced lymphoma over 50 years ago, has been extensively exploited in immunological research. The conclusions drawn from many of these studies have been based on the presumption that EL4 cells maintain a stable phenotype during experimental manipulation. To the contrary, we have observed 100-fold greater expression of cell surface CD4 (CD4(high)) on a subpopulation of EL4 cells following retroviral transduction and G418 selection when compared with unmodified populations. Although the mechanism responsible for this effect remains to be elucidated, the unexpected expression of CD4, a molecule that functions as both a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor and ligand for the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-16, has the potential to influence experimental outcomes. Upregulation of CD4 should be excluded when EL4 cells are utilized in experiments requiring a consistent immuno-phenotype.

  8. Criteria of benchmark selection for efficient flexible multibody system formalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection process of benchmarks for testing and comparing efficient flexible multibody formalisms. The existing benchmarks are briefly summarized. The purposes for benchmark selection are investigated. The result of this analysis is the formulation of the criteria of benchmark selection for flexible multibody formalisms. Based on them the initial set of suitable benchmarks is described. Besides that the evaluation measures are revised and extended.

  9. A Blind Antenna Selection Scheme for Single-Cell Uplink Massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2017-02-09

    This paper considers the uplink of a single-cell large-scale multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) system in which m mono-antenna users communicate with a base station (BS) outfitted by n antennas. We assume that the number of antennas at the BS and that of users take large values, as envisioned by large-scale MIMO systems. This allows for high spectral efficiency gains but obviously comes at the cost of higher complexity, a fact that becomes all the more critical as the number of antennas grows large. To solve this issue is to choose a subset of the available n antennas. The subset must be carefully chosen to achieve the best performance. However, finding the optimal subset of antennas is usually a difficult task, requiring one to solve a high dimensional combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we approach this problem in two ways. The first one consists in solving a convex relaxation of the problem using standard convex optimization tools. The second technique solves the problem using a greedy approach. The main advantages of the greedy approach lies in its wider scope, in that, unlike the first approach, it can be applied irrespective of the considered performance criterion. As an outcome of this feature, we show that the greedy approach can be applied even when only the channel statistics are available at the BS, which provides blind way to perform antenna selection.

  10. Induction of rapid and selective cell necrosis in Drosophila using Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin and its silkworm receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Obata, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Shiho; Kashio, Soshiro; Tsujimura, Hidenobu; Sato, Ryoichi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic ablation of target cells is a powerful tool to study the origins and functions of cells, tissue regeneration, or pathophysiology in a human disease model in vivo. Several methods for selective cell ablation by inducing apoptosis have been established, using exogenous toxins or endogenous proapoptotic genes. However, their application is limited to cells with intact apoptotic machinery. Results Herein, we established a method for inducing rapid and selective cell necrosis by...

  11. Multistate and phase change selection in constitutional multivalent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboiu, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Molecular architectures and materials can be constitutionally self-sorted in the presence of different biomolecular targets or external physical stimuli or chemical effectors, thus responding to an external selection pressure. The high selectivity and specificity of different bioreceptors or self-correlated internal interactions may be used to describe the complex constitutional behaviors through multistate component selection from a dynamic library. The self-selection may result in the dynamic amplification of self-optimized architectures during the phase change process. The sol-gel resolution of dynamic molecular/supramolecular libraries leads to higher self-organized constitutional hybrid materials, in which organic (supramolecular)/inorganic domains are reversibily connected.

  12. Selective interactions between epithelial tumour cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hombauer, H; Minguell, J J

    2000-01-01

    This work is a comparative study on the features displayed by an epithelial metastatic breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) when set in co-culture with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or a feeder layer of 3T3 fibroblasts. MSC, a subset of non-haematopoietic cells in the marrow stroma, display a potential for self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation into precursors for bone, cartilage, connective and muscular tissue. Adhesion of MCF-7 cells to monolayers of MSC or 3T3 was high...

  13. Alkali-treated titanium selectively regulating biological behaviors of bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guifang; Wang, Donghui; Wu, Qianju; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-15

    Many attentions have been paid to the beneficial effect of alkali-treated titanium to bioactivity and osteogenic activity, but few to the other biological effect. In this work, hierarchical micro/nanopore films were prepared on titanium surface by acid etching and alkali treatment and their biological effects on bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells were investigated. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and human cholangiocarcinoma cell line RBE were used to investigate whether alkali-treated titanium can influence behaviors of bacteria and cancer cells. Responses of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to alkali-treated titanium were also subsequently investigated. The alkali-treated titanium can potently reduce bacterial adhesion, inhibit RBE and BMMSCs proliferation, while can better promote BMMSCs osteogenesis and angiogenesis than acid-etched titanium. The bacteriostatic ability of the alkali-treated titanium is proposed to result from the joint effect of micro/nanotopography and local pH increase at bacterium/material interface due to the hydrolysis of alkali (earth) metal titanate salts. The inhibitory action of cell proliferation is thought to be the effect of local pH increase at cell/material interface which causes the alkalosis of cells. This alkalosis model reported in this work will help to understand the biologic behaviors of various cells on alkali-treated titanium surface and design the intended biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing the nanobiointerface of fluorescent nanodiamonds: highly selective targeting of glioma cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegerova, Jitka; Hajek, Miroslav; Rehor, Ivan; Sedlak, Frantisek; Stursa, Jan; Hruby, Martin; Cigler, Petr

    2015-01-14

    Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively targeted integrin αvβ3 receptors on glioblastoma cells with high internalization efficacy.

  15. In Vivo Functional Selection Identifies Cardiotrophin-1 as a Cardiac Engraftment Factor for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Francesca; Ruozi, Giulia; Falcione, Antonella; Doimo, Sara; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Zentilin, Lorena; Banks, Lawrence; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2017-10-17

    Transplantation of cells into the infarcted heart has significant potential to improve myocardial recovery; however, low efficacy of cell engraftment still limits therapeutic benefit. Here, we describe a method for the unbiased, in vivo selection of cytokines that improve mesenchymal stromal cell engraftment into the heart both in normal conditions and after myocardial infarction. An arrayed library of 80 secreted factors, including most of the currently known interleukins and chemokines, were individually cloned into adeno-associated viral vectors. Pools from this library were then used for the batch transduction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells ex vivo, followed by intramyocardial cell administration in normal and infarcted mice. Three weeks after injection, vector genomes were recovered from the few persisting cells and identified by sequencing DNA barcodes uniquely labeling each of the tested cytokines. The most effective molecule identified by this competitive engraftment screening was cardiotrophin-1, a member of the interleukin-6 family. Intracardiac injection of mesenchymal stromal cells transiently preconditioned with cardiotrophin-1 preserved cardiac function and reduced infarct size, parallel to the persistence of the transplanted cells in the healing hearts for at least 2 months after injection. Engraftment of cardiotrophin-1-treated mesenchymal stromal cells was consequent to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated activation of the focal adhesion kinase and its associated focal adhesion complex and the consequent acquisition of adhesive properties by the cells. These results support the feasibility of selecting molecules in vivo for their functional properties with adeno-associated viral vector libraries and identify cardiotrophin-1 as a powerful cytokine promoting cell engraftment and thus improving cell therapy of the infarcted myocardium. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. CYT387, a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor: in vitro assessment of kinase selectivity and preclinical studies using cell lines and primary cells from polycythemia vera patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanani, A; Lasho, T; Smith, G; Burns, C J; Fantino, E; Tefferi, A

    2009-08-01

    Somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), including JAK2V617F, result in dysregulated JAK-signal transducer and activator transcription (STAT) signaling, which is implicated in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathogenesis. CYT387 is an ATP-competitive small molecule that potently inhibits JAK1/JAK2 kinases (IC(50)=11 and 18 nM, respectively), with significantly less activity against other kinases, including JAK3 (IC(50)=155 nM). CYT387 inhibits growth of Ba/F3-JAK2V617F and human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells (IC(50) approximately 1500 nM) or Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells (IC(50)=200 nM), but has considerably less activity against BCR-ABL harboring K562 cells (IC=58 000 nM). Cell lines harboring mutated JAK2 alleles (CHRF-288-11 or Ba/F3-TEL-JAK2) were inhibited more potently than the corresponding pair harboring mutated JAK3 alleles (CMK or Ba/F3-TEL-JAK3), and STAT-5 phosphorylation was inhibited in HEL cells with an IC(50)=400 nM. Furthermore, CYT387 selectively suppressed the in vitro growth of erythroid colonies harboring JAK2V617F from polycythemia vera (PV) patients, an effect that was attenuated by exogenous erythropoietin. Overall, our data indicate that the JAK1/JAK2 selective inhibitor CYT387 has potential for efficacious treatment of MPN harboring mutated JAK2 and MPL alleles.

  17. Selective individual primary cell capture using locally bio-functionalized micropores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures.

  18. Selective Individual Primary Cell Capture Using Locally Bio-Functionalized Micropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Bombera, Radoslaw; Leroy, Loïc; Roupioz, Yoann; Baganizi, Dieudonné R.; Marche, Patrice N.; Haguet, Vincent; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Background Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. Conclusions/Significance The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures. PMID:23469221

  19. Novel MUC1 aptamer selectively delivers cytotoxic agent to cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is a primary treatment for cancer, but its efficacy is often limited by the adverse effects of cytotoxic agents. Targeted drug delivery may reduce the non-specific toxicity of chemotherapy by selectively directing anticancer drugs to tumor cells. MUC1 protein is an attractive target for tumor-specific drug delivery owning to its overexpression in most adenocarcinomas. In this study, a novel MUC1 aptamer is exploited as the targeting ligand for carrying doxorubicin (Dox to cancer cells. We developed an 86-base DNA aptamer (MA3 that bound to a peptide epitope of MUC1 with a K(d of 38.3 nM and minimal cross reactivity to albumin. Using A549 lung cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells as MUC1-expressing models, MA3 was found to preferentially bind to MUC1-positive but not MUC1-negative cells. An aptamer-doxorubicin complex (Apt-Dox was formulated by intercalating doxorubicin into the DNA structure of MA3. Apt-Dox was found capable of carrying doxorubicin into MUC1-positive tumor cells, while significantly reducing the drug intake by MUC1-negative cells. Moreover, Apt-Dox retained the efficacy of doxorubicin against MUC1-positive tumor cells, but lowered the toxicity to MUC1-negative cells (P<0.01. The results suggest that the MUC1 aptamer may have potential utility as a targeting ligand for selective delivery of cytotoxic agent to MUC1-expressing tumors.

  20. Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Bradley, Laura C; Veres, Brandon D; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Junyeong; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2011-07-11

    The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in biomass was demonstrated with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. SFG is a second-order nonlinear optical response from a system where the optical centrosymmetry is broken. In secondary plant cell walls that contain mostly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with varying concentrations, only certain vibration modes in the crystalline cellulose structure can meet the noninversion symmetry requirements. Thus, SFG can be used to detect and analyze crystalline cellulose selectively in lignocellulosic biomass without extraction of noncellulosic species from biomass or deconvolution of amorphous spectra. The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass is not readily achievable with other techniques such as XRD, solid-state NMR, IR, and Raman analyses. Therefore, the SFG analysis presents a unique opportunity to reveal the cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Innate-like CD4 T cells selected by thymocytes suppress adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Yu; Gray, Brian M.; Sofi, Mohammed H.; Bauler, Laura D.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; O'Riordan, Mary X. D.; Chang, Cheong-Hee

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a new innate-like CD4 T cell population that expresses cell surface makers of effector/memory cells and produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines immediately upon activation. Unlike conventional CD4 T cells that are selected by thymic epithelial cells, these CD4 T cells, named T-CD4 T cells, are selected by MHC class II expressing thymocytes. Previously, we showed that the presence of T-CD4 T cells protected mice from airway inflammation suggesting an immune regulatory role of T-CD4 T ce...

  2. Evaluation of 'out-of-specification' CliniMACS CD34-selection procedures of hematopoietic progenitor cell-apheresis products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, E.; Schuurhuis, G.J.; Preijers, F.W.M.B.; Voermans, C.; Theunissen, K.; Riet, I. van; Fibbe, W.E.; Slaper-Cortenbach, I.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunomagnetic selection of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) using CliniMACS CD34 selection technology is widely used to provide high-purity HPC grafts. However, the number of nucleated cells and CD34+ cells recommended by the manufacturer for processing in a single procedure

  3. Evaluation of 'out-of-specification' CliniMACS CD34-selection procedures of hematopoietic progenitor cell-apheresis products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, E.; Schuurhuis, G. J.; Preijers, F. W. M. B.; Voermans, C.; Theunissen, K.; van Riet, I.; Fibbe, W. E.; Slaper-Cortenbach, I.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunomagnetic selection of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) using CliniMACS CD34 selection technology is widely used to provide high-purity HPC grafts. However, the number of nucleated cells and CD34+ cells recommended by the manufacturer for processing in a single procedure

  4. Evaluation of 'out-of-specification' CliniMACS CD34-selection procedures of hematopoietic progenitor cell-apheresis products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braakman (Eric); G.J. Schuurhuis (Gerrit Jan); F.W.M.B. Preijers (Frank); C. Voermans; K. Theunissen; I. van Riet; W.E. Fibbe (Willem); I. Slaper-Cortenbach (Ineke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Immunomagnetic selection of CD34+hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) using CliniMACS CD34 selection technology is widely used to provide high-purity HPC grafts. However, the number of nucleated cells and CD34+cells recommended by the manufacturer for processing in a single

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  6. Selective Expansion of Memory CD4+ T cells By Mitogenic Human CD28 Generates Inflammatory Cytokines and Regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Basu, Sreemanti; Camell, Christina; Couturier, Jacob; Nudelman, Rodolfo J.; Medina, Miguel A.; Rodgers, John R.; Lewis, Dorothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Co-stimulatory signals are important for development of effector and regulatory T cells. In this case, CD28 signaling is usually considered inert in the absence of signaling through the TCR. By contrast, mitogenic rat CD28 mAbs reportedly expand regulatory T cells without TCR stimulation. We found that a commercially available human CD28 mAb (ANC28) stimulated PBMCs without TCR co-ligation or cross-linking; ANC28 selectively expanded CD4+CD25+FoxP3−(T effector) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ (Treg) cells. ANC28 stimulated the CD45RO+ CD4+ (memory) population whereas CD45RA+CD4+ (naïve) cells did not respond. ANC28 also induced inflammatory cytokines. Treg induced by ANC28 retain the Treg phenotype longer than did co-stimulated Treg. Treg induced by ANC28 suppressed CD25− T cells through a contact-dependent mechanism. Purity influenced the response of CD4+CD25+ cells because bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells (85–90% pure) responded strongly to ANC28, whereas 98% pure FACS-sorted CD4+CD25 bright (T-reg) did not respond. Purified CD4+CD25int cells responded similarly to the bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells. Thus, pre-activated CD4+ T cells (CD25int) respond to ANC28 rather than Treg (CD25bright). The ability of ANC28 to expand both effectors producing inflammatory cytokines as well as suppressive regulatory T cells might be useful for ex vivo expansion of therapeutic T cells. PMID:18446791

  7. An expert machine tools selection system for turning operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The turning machining process is an important process in the manufacturing industry. It is important to select the right tool for the turning process so that the manufacturing cost will be decreased. The main objective of this research is to select the most suitable machine tools with respect to

  8. Elucidating Duramycin’s Bacterial Selectivity and Mode of Action on the Bacterial Cell Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Hasim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides provides a promising route to selectively target pathogenic agents and to shape microbiome structure. Lantibiotics, such as duramycin, are one class of bacterially produced peptidic natural products that can selectively inhibit the growth of other bacteria. However, despite longstanding characterization efforts, the microbial selectivity and mode of action of duramycin are still obscure. We describe here a suite of biological, chemical, and physical characterizations that shed new light on the selective and mechanistic aspects of duramycin activity. Bacterial screening assays have been performed using duramycin and Populus-derived bacterial isolates to determine species selectivity. Lipidomic profiles of selected resistant and sensitive strains show that the sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria depends on the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE in the cell membrane. Further the surface and interface morphology were studied by high resolution atomic force microscopy and showed a progression of cellular changes in the cell envelope after treatment with duramycin for the susceptible bacterial strains. Together, these molecular and cellular level analyses provide insight into duramycin’s mode of action and a better understanding of its selectivity.

  9. The critical role of ERK in death resistance and invasiveness of hypoxia-selected glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Kim, Yong-Jun; Lee, Sun; Park, Jae-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of tumor parenchyma leads to chronic hypoxia that can result in the selection of cancer cells with a more aggressive behavior and death-resistant potential to survive and proliferate. Thus, identifying the key molecules and molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes associated with chronic hypoxia has valuable implications for the development of a therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular basis of the phenotypic changes triggered by chronic repeated hypoxia. Hypoxia-resistant T98G (HRT98G) cells were selected by repeated exposure to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Cell death rate was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method and protein expression levels were examined by western blot analysis. The invasive phenotype of the tumor cells was determined by the Matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of proteins in the brain tumor samples. The Student T-test and Pearson Chi-Square test was used for statistical analyses. We demonstrate that chronic repeated hypoxic exposures cause T98G cells to survive low oxygen tension. As compared with parent cells, hypoxia-selected T98G cells not only express higher levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X L , and phosphorylated ERK, but they also have a more invasive potential in Matrigel invasion chambers. Activation or suppression of ERK pathways with a specific activator or inhibitor, respectively, indicates that ERK is a key molecule responsible for death resistance under hypoxic conditions and a more invasive phenotype. Finally, we show that the activation of ERK is more prominent in malignant glioblastomas exposed to hypoxia than in low grade astrocytic glial tumors. Our study suggests that activation of ERK plays a pivotal role in death resistance under chronic hypoxia and phenotypic changes related to the invasive phenotype of HRT98G cells compared to parent cells

  10. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  11. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  12. Defining new criteria for selection of cell-based intestinal models using publicly available databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jon

    2012-06-01

    , introducing a rank order of selected features may allow selecting model cell lines that are more adapted and pertinent to the addressed biological question.

  13. Holotransferrin enhances selective anticancer activity of artemisinin against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-rong; Liu, Zhao-xia; Liu, Feng; Pan, Lei; Yu, He-ping; Jiang, Jin-ping; Zhang, Jian-jun; Liu, Li; Yu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Artemisinin, also termed qinghaosu, is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine artemesia annua L. (the blue-green herb) in the early 1970s, which has been confirmed for effectively treating malaria. Additionally, emerging data prove that artemisinin exhibits anti-cancer effects against many types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, etc. Artemisinin becomes cytotoxic in the presence of ferrous iron. Since iron influx is high in cancer cells, artemisinin and its analogs selectively kill cancer cells with increased intracellular iron concentrations. This study is aimed to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and determine the effect of holotransferrin, which increases the concentration of ferrous iron in cancer cells, combined with artemisinin on the anticancer activity. MTT assay was used for assessing the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin. The induction of apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation in SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and colony formation assay, respectively. The results showed that artemisinin at various concentrations significantly inhibited growth, colony formation and cell viability of SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.05), likely due to induction of apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Of interest, it was found that incubation of artemisinin combined with holotransferrin sensitized the growth inhibitory effect of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.01). Our data suggest that treatment with artemisinin leads to inhibition of viability and proliferation, and apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, we observed that holotransferrin significantly enhanced the anti-cancer activity of artemisinin. This study may provide a potential therapeutic choice for liver cancer.

  14. [Gene Expression Profile of Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells Induced by Hsp90 Selective inhibitor 17-AAG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na-Na; Li, Zhi-Heng; Tao, Yan-Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Pan, Jian; Hu, Shao-Yan

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the apoptotic effects of Hsp90 selective inhibitor 17-AAG on human leukemia HL-60 and NB4 cells and analyse its possible mechanism. CCK-8 assay was used to quantify the growth inhibition of cells after exposure to 17-AAG for 24 hours. Flow cytometrve with annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to detect apoptosis of leukemia cells. Then Western blot was used to detect the activation of apoptosis related protein caspase-3 and PARP level. Gene expression profile of NB4 cells treated with 17-AAG was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. The inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation displayed a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis and activation of PARP demonstrate that 17-AAG induced apoptosis leukemia cells. Real-time PCR array analysis showed that expression of 56 genes significantly up-regulated and expression of 23 genes were significantly down-regulated after 17-AAG treatment. The 17-AAG can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells. After leukemia cells are treated with 17-AAG, the significant changes of apoptosis-related genes occured, and the cell apoptosis occurs via activating apoptosis related signaling pathway.

  15. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Sarah E; Gimzewski, James K; Jin Yusheng; Lu Qingyi; Rao Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  17. A novel medium for expression of proteins selectively labeled with {sup 15}N-amino acids in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggert, Michael; Rehm, Till; Shanker, Sreejesh; Georgescu, Julia; Holak, Tad A. [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry (Germany)], E-mail: holak.biochem@mpg.de

    2003-04-15

    Whereas bacterial expression systems are widely used for production of uniformly or selectively {sup 15}N-labeled proteins the usage of the baculovirus expression system for labeling is limited to very few examples in the literature. Here we present the complete formulations of the two insect media, IML406 and 455, for the high-yield production of selectively {sup 15}N-labeled proteins in insect cells. The quantities of {sup 15}N-amino acids utilized in the production of labeled GST were similar in the case of bacterial and viral expression. For the most studied amino acids essential for insect cells the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra, recorded with GST labeled in insect cells, showed no cross labeling and provided therefore spectra of better quality compared to NMR spectra of GST expressed in E. coli. Also in the case of amino acids not essential for Sf9 cells we were able to label a defined number of amino acid species. Therefore the selective labeling using the baculovirus expression vector system represents a complement or even an alternative to the bacterial expression system. Based on these findings we can provide a first simple overview of the network of the amino acid metabolism in E. coli and insect cells focused on nitrogen. For some amino acids the expression of labeled proteins in insect cells can replace the cell-free protein expression.

  18. A novel medium for expression of proteins selectively labeled with 15N-amino acids in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggert, Michael; Rehm, Till; Shanker, Sreejesh; Georgescu, Julia; Holak, Tad A.

    2003-01-01

    Whereas bacterial expression systems are widely used for production of uniformly or selectively 15 N-labeled proteins the usage of the baculovirus expression system for labeling is limited to very few examples in the literature. Here we present the complete formulations of the two insect media, IML406 and 455, for the high-yield production of selectively 15 N-labeled proteins in insect cells. The quantities of 15 N-amino acids utilized in the production of labeled GST were similar in the case of bacterial and viral expression. For the most studied amino acids essential for insect cells the 15 N-HSQC spectra, recorded with GST labeled in insect cells, showed no cross labeling and provided therefore spectra of better quality compared to NMR spectra of GST expressed in E. coli. Also in the case of amino acids not essential for Sf9 cells we were able to label a defined number of amino acid species. Therefore the selective labeling using the baculovirus expression vector system represents a complement or even an alternative to the bacterial expression system. Based on these findings we can provide a first simple overview of the network of the amino acid metabolism in E. coli and insect cells focused on nitrogen. For some amino acids the expression of labeled proteins in insect cells can replace the cell-free protein expression

  19. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  20. [Origins and selection of epidermal progenitors and stem cells: a challenge for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Nathalie; Rathman-Josserand, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The use of epidermal stem cells and their progeny for tissue engineering and cell therapy represents a source of hope and major interest in view of applications such as replacing the loss of functionality in failing tissues or obtaining physiologic skin equivalents for skin grafting. The use of such cells necessitates the isolation and purification of rare populations of keratinocytes and then increasing their numbers by mass culture. This is not currently possible since part of the specific phenotype of these cells is lost once the cells are placed in culture. Furthermore, few techniques are available to unequivocally detect the presence of skin stem cells and/or their progeny in culture and thus quantify them. Two different sources of stem cells are currently being studied for skin research and clinical applications: skin progenitors either obtained from embryonic stem cells (ESC) or from selection from adult skin tissue. It has been shown that "keratinocyte-like" cells can be derived from ESC; however, the culturing processes must still be optimized to allow for the mass culture of homogeneous populations at a controlled stage of differentiation. The functional characterization of such populations must also be more thoroughly achieved. In order to use stem cells from adult tissues, improvements must be made in order to obtain a satisfactory degree of purification and characterization of this rare population. Distinguishing stem cells from progenitor cells at the molecular level also remains a challenge. Furthermore, stem cell research inevitably requires cultivating these cells outside their physiological environment or niche. It will thus be necessary to better understand the impact of this specific environmental niche on the preservation of the cellular phenotypes of interest.

  1. A cationic amphiphilic peptide ABP-CM4 exhibits selective cytotoxicity against leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Qing; Min, Cui; Sang, Ming; Han, Yang Yang; Ma, Xiao; Xue, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-08-01

    Some cationic antibacterial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, which could provide a new class of anticancer drugs. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ABP-CM4, an antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori, against leukemic cell lines THP-1, K562 and U937 was evaluated, and the cytotoxicity compared with the effects on non-cancerous mammalian cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HEK-293 and erythrocytes. ABP-CM4 reduced the number of viable cells of the leukemic cell lines after exposure for 24h. The reduction was concentration dependent, and the IC50 values ranged from 14 to 18 microM. Conversely, ABP-CM4, even at 120 microM, exhibited no cytotoxicity toward HEK-293 or PBMCs, indicating that there was no significant effect on these two types of non-cancer cells. ABP-CM4 at a concentration of 200 microM had no hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. Together, these results suggested a selective cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the binding activity of ABP-CM4 to leukemia cells was much higher than that to HEK-293 or PBMCs, and there was almost no binding to erythrocytes. FITC-labeled ABP-CM4 molecules were examined under a confocal microscope and found to be concentrated at the surface of leukemia cells and changes of the cell membrane were determined by a cell permeability assay, which led us to the conclusion that ABP-CM4 could act at the cell membrane for its anticancer activity on leukemia cells. Collectively, our results indicated that ABP-CM4 has the potential for development as a novel antileukemic agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  3. Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)

  4. Application of bacteriophages to selectively remove Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and wastewater filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hunt, Heather K; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater filtration systems often house pathogenic bacteria, which must be removed to ensure clean, safe water. Here, we determine the persistence of the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two types of filtration systems, and use P. aeruginosa bacteriophages to determine their ability to selectively remove P. aeruginosa. These systems used beds of either anthracite or granular activated carbon (GAC), which were operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 45 min. The clean bed filtration systems were loaded with an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa at a total cell number of 2.3 (± 0.1 [standard deviation]) × 10(7) cells. An immediate dose of P. aeruginosa phages (1 mL of phage stock at the concentration of 2.7 × 10(7) PFU (Plaque Forming Units)/mL) resulted in a reduction of 50% (± 9%) and >99.9% in the effluent P. aeruginosa concentrations in the clean anthracite and GAC filters, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa phages, synthetic stormwater was run through anthracite and GAC biofilters where mixed-culture biofilms were present. Eighty five days after an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa (2.3 × 10(7) cells per filter) on day 1, 7.5 (± 2.8) × 10(7) and 1.1 (± 0.5) × 10(7) P. aeruginosa cells/g filter media were detected in the top layer (close to the influent port) of the anthracite and GAC biofilters, respectively, demonstrating the growth and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in the biofilters. A subsequent 1-h dose of phages, at the concentration of 5.1 × 10(6) PFU/mL and flow rate of 1.6 mL/min, removed the P. aeruginosa inside the GAC biofilters and the anthracite biofilters by 70% (± 5%) and 56% (± 1%), respectively, with no P. aeruginosa detected in the effluent, while not affecting ammonia oxidation or the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community inside the biofilters. These results suggest that phage treatment can selectively remove pathogenic bacteria with minimal impact on beneficial

  5. Cell Adhesion Selectivity of Stent Material to improve Bio-functionality by Ion Beam Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang; Park, JUngchan; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Yongki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junkyu [Bio alpha., Co. Ltd., Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, ion implantation into collagen coated Co-Cr alloy, which is a cheaper material of the artificial stent product comparing with Ti alloy, has been studied to develop small diameter artificial stent by the cell adhesion control. The size of stent was 1.6mm of the diameter and 18mm of the length. The life-time of artificial stent depends on adhesion property of endothelial-cells. We successfully controlled cell adhesion selectivity between endothelial cell and muscle cell by using collagen coated and He{sup +} ion beam irradiated Co-Cr-alloy to apply to artificial stent. But, we did not achieve the inhibition of platelet adhesion, yet by using collagen coating and He{sup +} ion beam irradiation. Based on this study, we have plan to research about separation between collagen coating effect and ion beam effect. Also, we will have more detail analysis of the mechanism of cell attachment. In recent years, ion implantation has been applied to the surface modification of prosthesis to improve blood compatibility and tissue compatibility in field of biomedical application. As well known, bio compatibility was concerned with the cell adhesion selectivity for bio-functionality. The biomedical application of ion beam technology would be used more widely in the future such as catheter and artificial graft.

  6. Cell Adhesion Selectivity of Stent Material to improve Bio-functionality by Ion Beam Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesang; Park, JUngchan; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Yongki; Park, Junkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ion implantation into collagen coated Co-Cr alloy, which is a cheaper material of the artificial stent product comparing with Ti alloy, has been studied to develop small diameter artificial stent by the cell adhesion control. The size of stent was 1.6mm of the diameter and 18mm of the length. The life-time of artificial stent depends on adhesion property of endothelial-cells. We successfully controlled cell adhesion selectivity between endothelial cell and muscle cell by using collagen coated and He + ion beam irradiated Co-Cr-alloy to apply to artificial stent. But, we did not achieve the inhibition of platelet adhesion, yet by using collagen coating and He + ion beam irradiation. Based on this study, we have plan to research about separation between collagen coating effect and ion beam effect. Also, we will have more detail analysis of the mechanism of cell attachment. In recent years, ion implantation has been applied to the surface modification of prosthesis to improve blood compatibility and tissue compatibility in field of biomedical application. As well known, bio compatibility was concerned with the cell adhesion selectivity for bio-functionality. The biomedical application of ion beam technology would be used more widely in the future such as catheter and artificial graft

  7. Mechanistic insights into selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent cancer cells by arctigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Karin; Riebel, Virginie; Couttet, Philippe; Paech, Franziska; Wolf, Armin; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Pognan, Francois; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Uteng, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Arctigenin has previously been identified as a potential anti-tumor treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of how arctigenin kills cancer cells is not fully understood. In the present work we studied the mechanism of toxicity by arctigenin in the human pancreatic cell line, Panc-1, with special emphasis on the mitochondria. A comparison of Panc-1 cells cultured in glucose versus galactose medium was applied, allowing assessments of effects in glycolytic versus oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent Panc-1 cells. For control purposes, the mitochondrial toxic response to treatment with arctigenin was compared to the anti-cancer drug, sorafenib, which is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor known for mitochondrial toxic off-target effects (Will et al., 2008). In both Panc-1 OXPHOS-dependent and glycolytic cells, arctigenin dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was demonstrated to be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial complexes II and IV. However, arctigenin selectively killed only the OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells. This selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells was accompanied by generation of ER stress, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspase activation leading to apoptosis and aponecrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of probiotic bacteria for prevention of allergic diseases: immunomodulation of neonatal dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L. E. M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Timmerman, H. M.; van Uden, N. O.; de Graaf, P. M. A.; Smits, H. H.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of intestinal microbiota early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be a potential approach to prevent allergic disease. To select probiotic bacteria for in vivo purposes, we investigated the capacity of probiotic bacteria to interact with neonatal dendritic cells (DC)

  9. Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K N; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Learn, Gerald H

    2006-01-01

    two principal, diametrically opposed evolutionary pathways that exclusively affect T cell-receptor contact residues. One pathway was characterized by acquisition of CTL escape mutations and the other by selection for wild-type amino acids. The pattern of CTL responses to epitope variants shaped which...

  10. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3......−, and conceptually illustrates the remediation of a waste product for producing valuable chemicals....

  11. Alterations of mitochondrial DNA in CEM cells selected for resistance toward ddC toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, M; Franco, M; Johansson, M; Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A

    2006-01-01

    2 ',3 '-dideoxycytidine (ddC) is a nucleoside analog that has been shown to produce a delayed toxicity which may be due to the depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In order to gain further understanding of the events involved in mitochondrial toxicity, two different CEM cell lines were selected for resistance to the delayed ddC toxicity.

  12. Selective elimination of senescent cells by mitochondrial targeting is regulated by ANT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubackova, Sona; Davidova, Eliska; Rohlenova, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    and development of age-related diseases. We found that the anticancer agent mitochondria-targeted tamoxifen (MitoTam), unlike conventional anticancer agents, kills cancer cells without inducing senescence in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, it also selectively eliminates both malignant and non-cancerous senescent...... cells. In naturally aged mice treated with MitoTam for 4 weeks, we observed a significant decrease of senescence markers in all tested organs compared to non-treated animals. Mechanistically, we found that the susceptibility of senescent cells to MitoTam is linked to a very low expression level...... of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), inherent to the senescent phenotype. Restoration of ANT2 in senescent cells resulted in resistance to MitoTam, while its downregulation in non-senescent cells promoted their MitoTam-triggered elimination. Our study documents a novel, translationally intriguing role...

  13. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-23

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb(2+) cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  14. The Yin and Yang of chromatin dynamics in adult stem cell fate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rene C.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms rely on tissue stem cells for maintenance and repair. During homeostasis, the concerted action of local niche signals and epigenetic regulators establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure that stem cells are not lost over time. However, stem cells also provide host tissues with a remarkable plasticity to respond to perturbations. How adult stem cells choose and acquire new fates is unknown, but the genome-wide mapping of epigenetic landscapes suggests a critical role for chromatin remodeling in these processes. Here, we explore the emerging role of chromatin modifiers and pioneer transcription factors in adult stem cell fate decisions and plasticity, which ensure that selective lineage choices are only made when environmentally cued. PMID:26689127

  15. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  16. Design, building and testing of a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, F.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Department of Electronic, Computer Science and Automatic Engineering, University of Huelva (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper designs, sizes, builds and tests a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system made up of a fuel cell stack and a battery bank. This system has been sized to supply a typical telecommunication load profile, but moreover, the system can supply other profiles. For this purpose, a modular low cost electronic load bank has been designed and built. This load bank allows the power demand to be chosen by selecting different solid state relays. Moreover, a virtual instrument based on NI Labview {sup registered} has been designed to select the load power demand from the computer. (author)

  17. Selective sparing of goblet cells and paneth cells in the intestine of methotrexate-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verburg (Melissa); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); H.P. Meijer; J.A. Taminiau; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Dekker (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProliferation, differentiation, and cell death were studied in small intestinal and colonic epithelia of rats after treatment with methotrexate. Days 1-2 after treatment were characterized by decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased numbers and depths

  18. A Feynman graph selection tool in GRACE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Fukuko; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Kaneko, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We present a Feynman graph selection tool grcsel, which is an interpreter written in C language. In the framework of GRACE, it enables us to get a subset of Feynman graphs according to given conditions

  19. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary

  20. Bioenergy conversion and storage systems: from conventional electrochemical cells to hybrid bioelectronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, Dmitrii; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development and popularization of wearable and implantable self-sustainable electronics has increasingly demanded new-generation miniature and biocompatible power systems that can function under near-neutral pH solution and ambient conditions. Towards this end, enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs......) using biocatalysts can offer an effective alternative to conventional batteries or fuel cells attributed to high biocatalytic activity, substrate specified selectivity, and non-toxic end products with ecofriendly impacts. Newly emerging photobioelectrochemical cells (PBCs), exploiting photosynthetic...

  1. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  2. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Khadivar; Shohreh Nasri Nasr Abadi; Elham Fallah

    2014-01-01

    knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical found...

  3. [Biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cell and hematopoietic stem cell in the co-culture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Xu, Chao; Ye, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jia-En; Ma, Tian-Bao; Lin, Han-Biao; Chen, Xiu-Qiong

    2016-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to obtain the qualified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) and human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro in the co-culture system. Cord blood mononuclear cells were separated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll lymphocyte separation medium, and then CD34 + HSC was collected by MACS immunomagnetic beads. The selected CD34 + HSC/HPC and MSC were transferred into culture flask. IMDM culture medium with 15% AB-type cord plasma supplemented with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L) factors were used as the co-culture system for the amplification of HSC/HPC and MSC. The cellular growth status and proliferation on day 6 and 10 after co-culture were observed by using inverted microscope. The percentage of positive expression of CD34 in HSC/HPC, as well as the percentages of positive expressions of CD105, CD90, CD73, CD45, CD34 and HLA-DR in the 4 th generation MSC, was tested by flow cytometry. Semisolid colony culture was used to test the HSC/HPC colony forming ability. The osteogenic, chondrogenesis and adipogenic ability of the 4 th generation MSC were assessed. The karyotype analysis of MSC was conducted by colchicines. The results demonstrated that the HSC/HPC of co-culture group showed higher ability of amplification, CFU-GM and higher CD34 + percentage compared with the control group. The co-cultured MSC maintained the ability to differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes. And the karyotype stability of MSC remained normal. These results reveal that the appropriate co-culture system for MSC and HSC is developed, and via this co-culture system we could gain both two kinds of these cells. The MSCs under the co-culture system maintain the biological characteristics. The CFU-GM ability, cell counting and the flow cytometry results of HSC/HPC under the co-culture system are conform to the criterion, showing that

  4. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  5. Ion implantation into amorphous Si layers to form carrier-selective contacts for Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Frank; Mueller, Ralph; Reichel, Christian; Hermle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our findings on the boron and phosphorus doping of very thin amorphous silicon layers by low energy ion implantation. These doped layers are implemented into a so-called tunnel oxide passivated contact structure for Si solar cells. They act as carrier-selective contacts and, thereby, lead to a significant reduction of the cell's recombination current. In this paper we address the influence of ion energy and ion dose in conjunction with the obligatory high-temperature anneal needed for the realization of the passivation quality of the carrier-selective contacts. The good results on the phosphorus-doped (implied V oc = 725 mV) and boron-doped passivated contacts (iV oc = 694 mV) open a promising route to a simplified interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell featuring passivated contacts. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  7. Selective susceptibility to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) across different human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Labib, Chantelle; Saulis, Gintautas; Novickij, Vitalij; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2017-05-01

    Tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is an emerging therapeutic modality. We compared nsPEF cytotoxicity for human cell lines of cancerous (IMR-32, Hep G2, HT-1080, and HPAF-II) and non-cancerous origin (BJ and MRC-5) under strictly controlled and identical conditions. Adherent cells were uniformly treated by 300-ns PEF (0-2000 pulses, 1.8 kV/cm, 50 Hz) on indium tin oxide-covered glass coverslips, using the same media and serum. Cell survival plotted against the number of pulses displayed three distinct regions (initial resistivity, logarithmic survival decline, and residual resistivity) for all tested cell types, but with differences in LD 50 spanning as much as nearly 80-fold. The non-cancerous cells were less sensitive than IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells but more vulnerable than the other cancers tested. The cytotoxic efficiency showed no apparent correlation with cell or nuclear size, cell morphology, metabolism level, or the extent of membrane disruption by nsPEF. Increasing pulse duration to 9 µs (0.75 kV/cm, 5 Hz) produced a different selectivity pattern, suggesting that manipulation of PEF parameters can, at least for certain cancers, overcome their resistance to nsPEF ablation. Identifying mechanisms and cell markers of differential nsPEF susceptibility will critically contribute to the proper choice and outcome of nsPEF ablation therapies.

  8. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  9. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  10. The different roles of selective autophagic protein degradation in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-wei; Peng, Zhen-ju; Ren, Guang-fang; Wang, Guang-xin

    2015-11-10

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway for bulk protein degradation and the removal of damaged organelles by lysosomes. Autophagy was previously thought to be unselective; however, studies have increasingly confirmed that autophagy-mediated protein degradation is highly regulated. Abnormal autophagic protein degradation has been associated with multiple human diseases such as cancer, neurological disability and cardiovascular disease; therefore, further elucidation of protein degradation by autophagy may be beneficial for protein-based clinical therapies. Macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) can both participate in selective protein degradation in mammalian cells, but the process is quite different in each case. Here, we summarize the various types of macroautophagy and CMA involved in determining protein degradation. For this summary, we divide the autophagic protein degradation pathways into four categories: the post-translational modification dependent and independent CMA pathways and the ubiquitin dependent and independent macroautophagy pathways, and describe how some non-canonical pathways and modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and arginylation can influence protein degradation by the autophagy lysosome system (ALS). Finally, we comment on why autophagy can serve as either diagnostics or therapeutic targets in different human diseases.

  11. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  12. The Influence of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process Parameters on In-Vitro Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Bartłomiej; Idaszek, Joanna; Zdunek, Joanna; Rożniatowski, Krzysztof; Pisarek, Marcin; Yamamoto, Akiko; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2018-05-30

    The use of laser 3D printers is very perspective in the fabrication of solid and porous implants made of various polymers, metals, and its alloys. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process, in which consolidated powders are fully melted on each layer, gives the possibility of fabrication personalized implants based on the Computer Aid Design (CAD) model. During SLM fabrication on a 3D printer, depending on the system applied, there is a possibility for setting the amount of energy density (J/mm³) transferred to the consolidated powders, thus controlling its porosity, contact angle and roughness. In this study, we have controlled energy density in a range 8⁻45 J/mm³ delivered to titanium powder by setting various levels of laser power (25⁻45 W), exposure time (20⁻80 µs) and distance between exposure points (20⁻60 µm). The growing energy density within studied range increased from 63 to 90% and decreased from 31 to 13 µm samples density and Ra parameter, respectively. The surface energy 55⁻466 mN/m was achieved with contact angles in range 72⁻128° and 53⁻105° for water and formamide, respectively. The human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adhesion after 4 h decreased with increasing energy density delivered during processing within each parameter group. The differences in cells proliferation were clearly seen after a 7-day incubation. We have observed that proliferation was decreasing with increasing density of energy delivered to the samples. This phenomenon was explained by chemical composition of oxide layers affecting surface energy and internal stresses. We have noticed that TiO₂, which is the main oxide of raw titanium powder, disintegrated during selective laser melting process and oxygen was transferred into metallic titanium. The typical for 3D printed parts post-processing methods such as chemical polishing in hydrofluoric (HF) or hydrofluoric/nitric (HF/HNO₃) acid solutions and thermal treatments were used to restore surface

  13. The Influence of Selective Laser Melting (SLM Process Parameters on In-Vitro Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of laser 3D printers is very perspective in the fabrication of solid and porous implants made of various polymers, metals, and its alloys. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM process, in which consolidated powders are fully melted on each layer, gives the possibility of fabrication personalized implants based on the Computer Aid Design (CAD model. During SLM fabrication on a 3D printer, depending on the system applied, there is a possibility for setting the amount of energy density (J/mm3 transferred to the consolidated powders, thus controlling its porosity, contact angle and roughness. In this study, we have controlled energy density in a range 8–45 J/mm3 delivered to titanium powder by setting various levels of laser power (25–45 W, exposure time (20–80 µs and distance between exposure points (20–60 µm. The growing energy density within studied range increased from 63 to 90% and decreased from 31 to 13 µm samples density and Ra parameter, respectively. The surface energy 55–466 mN/m was achieved with contact angles in range 72–128° and 53–105° for water and formamide, respectively. The human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs adhesion after 4 h decreased with increasing energy density delivered during processing within each parameter group. The differences in cells proliferation were clearly seen after a 7-day incubation. We have observed that proliferation was decreasing with increasing density of energy delivered to the samples. This phenomenon was explained by chemical composition of oxide layers affecting surface energy and internal stresses. We have noticed that TiO2, which is the main oxide of raw titanium powder, disintegrated during selective laser melting process and oxygen was transferred into metallic titanium. The typical for 3D printed parts post-processing methods such as chemical polishing in hydrofluoric (HF or hydrofluoric/nitric (HF/HNO3 acid solutions and thermal treatments were used to restore surface

  14. Selective radiolabeling of cell surface proteins to a high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.; Lau, A.L.; Cunningham, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure was developed for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on cells to higher specific activities than possible with available techniques. Cell surface amino groups were derivatized with 125 I-(hydroxyphenyl)propionyl groups via 125 I-sulfosuccinimidyl (hydroxyphenyl)propionate ( 125 II-sulfo-SHPP). This reagent preferentially labeled membrane proteins exposed at the cell surface of erythrocytes as assessed by the degree of radiolabel incorporation into erythrocyte ghost proteins and hemoglobin. Comparison with the lactoperoxidase-[ 125 I]iodide labeling technique revealed that 125 I-sulfo-SHPP labeled cell surface proteins to a much higher specific activity and hemoglobin to a much lower specific activity. Additionally, this reagent was used for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane by blocking exofacial amino groups with uniodinated sulfo-SHPP, lysing the cells, and then incubating them with 125 I-sulfo-SHPP. Exclusive labeling of either side of the plasma membrane was demonstrated by the labeling of some marker proteins with well-defined spacial orientations on erythroctyes. Transmembrane proteins such as the epidermal growth factor receptor on cultured cells could also be labeled differentially from either side of the plasma membrane

  15. Chlorin e6 Conjugated Interleukin-6 Receptor Aptamers Selectively Kill Target Cells Upon Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kruspe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT uses the therapeutic properties of light in combination with certain chemicals, called photosensitizers, to successfully treat brain, breast, prostate, and skin cancers. To improve PDT, current research focuses on the development of photosensitizers to specifically target cancer cells. In the past few years, aptamers have been developed to directly deliver cargo molecules into target cells. We conjugated the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (ce6 with a human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R binding RNA aptamer, AIR-3A yielding AIR-3A-ce6 for application in high efficient PDT. AIR-3A-ce6 was rapidly and specifically internalized by IL-6R presenting (IL-6R+ cells. Upon light irradiation, targeted cells were selectively killed, while free ce6 did not show any toxic effect. Cells lacking the IL-6R were also not affected by AIR-3A-ce6. With this approach, we improved the target specificity of ce6-mediated PDT. In the future, other tumor-specific aptamers might be used to selectively localize photosensitizers into cells of interest and improve the efficacy and specificity of PDT in cancer and other diseases.

  16. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Pilar [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Duran, Assumpta [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caballin, Maria Rosa [Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio de l' Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, Leonardo, E-mail: Lleonard.Barrios@uab.cat [Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-11-02

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of {gamma}-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  17. Cells bearing chromosome aberrations lacking one telomere are selectively blocked at the G2/M checkpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Duran, Assumpta; Caballin, Maria Rosa; Ribas, Montserrat; Barrios, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are part of the cellular mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity. After ionizing radiation exposure, the cells can show delay or arrest in their progression through the cell cycle, as well as an activation of the DNA repair machinery in order to reduce the damage. The G2/M checkpoint prevents G2 cells entering mitosis until the DNA damage has been reduced. The present study evaluates which G0 radiation-induced chromosome aberrations are negatively selected in the G2/M checkpoint. For this purpose, peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 1 and 3 Gy of γ-rays, and lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h. Calyculin-A and Colcemid were used to analyze, in the same slide, cells in G2 and M. Chromosome spreads were consecutively analyzed by solid stain, pancentromeric and pantelomeric FISH and mFISH. The results show that the frequency of incomplete chromosome elements, those lacking a telomeric signal at one end, decreases abruptly from G2 to M. This indicates that cells with incomplete chromosome elements can progress from G0 to G2, but at the G2/M checkpoint suffer a strong negative selection.

  18. Selective degradation of the recalcitrant cell wall of Scenedesmus quadricauda CASA CC202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, Ragini; Arumugam, Muthu

    2017-10-01

    An eco-friendly cell wall digestion strategy was developed to enhance the availability of nutritionally important bio molecules of edible microalgae and exploit them for cloning, transformation, and expression of therapeutic proteins. Microalgae are the source for many nutritionally important bioactive compounds and potential drugs. Even though edible microalgae are rich in nutraceutical, bioavailability of all these molecules is very less due to their rigid recalcitrant cell wall. For example, the cell wall of Scenedesmus quadricauda CASA CC202 is made up of three layers comprising of rigid outer pectin and inner cellulosic layer separated by a thin middle layer. In the present investigation, a comprehensive method has been developed for the selective degradation of S. quadricauda CASA CC202 cell wall, by employing both mechanical and enzymatic treatments. The efficiency of cell wall removal was evaluated by measuring total reducing sugar (TRS), tannic acid-ferric chloride staining, calcoflour white staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. It was confirmed that the yield of TRS increased from 129.82 mg/g in 14 h from pectinase treatment alone to 352.44 mg/g by combined sonication and enzymatic treatment within 12 h. As a result, the combination method was found to be effective for the selective degradation of S. quadricauda CASA CC202 cell wall. This study will form a base for our future works, where this will help to enhance the digestibility and availability of nutraceutically important proteins.

  19. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  20. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-12-21

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy.

  1. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  2. A Novel Inhibitor Of Topoisomerase I is Selectively Toxic For A Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SW044248, identified through a screen for chemicals that are selectively toxic for NSCLC cell lines, was found to rapidly inhibit macromolecular synthesis in sensitive, but not in insensitive cells. SW044248 killed approximately 15% of a panel of 74 NSCLC cell lines and was non-toxic to immortalized human bronchial cell lines.

  3. Real-time operating system for selected Intel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for system development is given along with reasons for not using vendor supplied operating systems. Although many system design and performance goals were dictated by problems with vendor supplied systems, other goals surfaced as a result of a design for a custom system able to span multiple projects. System development and management problems and areas that required redesign or major code changes for system implementation are examined as well as the relative successes of the initial projects. A generic description of the actual project is provided and the ongoing support requirements and future plans are discussed.

  4. Gravisensing in single-celled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    Single-celled systems are favourable cell types for studying several aspects of gravisensing and gravitropic responses. Whether and how actin is involved in both processes in higher plant statocytes is still a matter of intensive debate. In single-celled and tip-growing characean rhizoids and protonemata, however, there is clear evidence that actin is a central keyplayer controlling polarized growth and the mechanisms of gravity sensing and growth reorientation. Both cell types exhibit a unique actin polymerization in the extending tip, strictly colocalized with the prominent ER-aggregate in the center of the Spitzenkoerper. The local accumulation of ADF and profilin in this central array suggest that actin polymerization is controlled by these actin-binding proteins, which can be regulated by calcium, pH and a variety of other parameters. Distinct actin filaments extend even into the outermost tip and form a dense meshwork in the apical and subapical region, before they become bundled by villin to form two populations of thick actin cables that generate rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region. Actomyosin not only mediates the delivery of secretory vesicles to the growing tip and controls the incorporation pattern of cell wall material, but also coordinates the tip-focused distribution pattern of calcium channels in the apical membrane. They establish the tip-high calcium gradient, a prerequisite for exocytosis. Microgravity experiments have added much to our understanding that both cell types use an efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. Actin's involvement in the graviresponses is more indirect. The upward growth of negatively gravitropic protonemata was shown to be preceded by a statolith-induced relocalization the Ca2+-calcium gradient to the upper flank that does not occur in positively gravitropic

  5. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pounded the cell theory with M Schleiden, had diverse interests. ... (Courtesy: Dr. Vanaja Shetty, The Foundation for Medical Research, Mumbai) ... Role of Schwann Cells in Myelination ... arrangement of microvilli extending from the Schwann cell embedded in the gap matrix ... Schwann cells Regulate Nerve Development.

  6. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  7. Tantalum Nitride Electron-Selective Contact for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo

    2018-04-19

    Minimizing carrier recombination at contact regions by using carrier‐selective contact materials, instead of heavily doping the silicon, has attracted considerable attention for high‐efficiency, low‐cost crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar cells. A novel electron‐selective, passivating contact for c‐Si solar cells is presented. Tantalum nitride (TaN x ) thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition are demonstrated to provide excellent electron‐transporting and hole‐blocking properties to the silicon surface, due to their small conduction band offset and large valence band offset. Thin TaNx interlayers provide moderate passivation of the silicon surfaces while simultaneously allowing a low contact resistivity to n‐type silicon. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 20% is demonstrated with c‐Si solar cells featuring a simple full‐area electron‐selective TaNx contact, which significantly improves the fill factor and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and hence provides the higher PCE. The work opens up the possibility of using metal nitrides, instead of metal oxides, as carrier‐selective contacts or electron transport layers for photovoltaic devices.

  8. Selective Modulation of Integrin-mediated Cell Migration by Distinct ADAM Family MembersV⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Bridges, Lance C.; White, Judith M.

    2005-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloprotease (ADAM) family members have been implicated in many biological processes. Although it is recognized that recombinant ADAM disintegrin domains can interact with integrins, little is known about ADAM-integrin interactions in cellular context. Here, we tested whether ADAMs can selectively regulate integrin-mediated cell migration. ADAMs were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express defined integrins (α4β1, α5β1, or both), and cell migration on full-length fibronectin or on its α4β1 or α5β1 binding fragments was studied. We found that ADAMs inhibit integrin-mediated cell migration in patterns dictated by the integrin binding profiles of their isolated disintegrin domains. ADAM12 inhibited cell migration mediated by the α4β1 but not the α5β1 integrin. ADAM17 had the reciprocal effect; it inhibited α5β1- but not α4β1-mediated cell migration. ADAM19 and ADAM33 inhibited migration mediated by both α4β1 and α5β1 integrins. A point mutation in the ADAM12 disintegrin loop partially reduced the inhibitory effect of ADAM12 on cell migration on the α4β1 binding fragment of fibronectin, whereas mutations that block metalloprotease activity had no effect. Our results indicate that distinct ADAMs can modulate cell migration mediated by specific integrins in a pattern dictated, at least in part, by their disintegrin domains. PMID:16079176

  9. Support System Model for Value based Group Decision on Roof System Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A group decision support system is required on a value-based decision because there are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. It is to enable each decision-maker to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with other decision-makers. Stakeholder of multi-criteria decision making problems usually evaluates the alternative solution from different perspective, making it possible to have a dominant solution among the alternatives. Each stakeholder needs to identify the goals that can be optimized and those that can be compromised in order to reach an agreement with other stakeholders. This paper presents group decision model involving three decision-makers on the selection of suitable system for a building’s roof. The objective of the research is to find an agreement options model and coalition algorithms for multi person decision with two main preferences of value which are function and cost. The methodology combines value analysis method using Function Analysis System Technique (FAST; Life Cycle Cost analysis, group decision analysis method based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in a satisfying options, and Game theory-based agent system to develop agreement option and coalition formation for the support system. The support system bridges theoretical gap between automated design in construction domain and automated negotiation in information technology domain by providing a structured methodology which can lead to systematic support system and automated negotiation. It will contribute to value management body of knowledge as an advanced method for creativity and analysis phase, since the practice of this knowledge is teamwork based. In the case of roof system selection, it reveals the start of the first negotiation round. Some of the solutions are not an option because no individual stakeholder or coalition of stakeholders desires to select it. The result indicates

  10. Lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors equipped with novel drug-selectable fluorescent proteins: new building blocks for cell marking and multi-gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K; Mock, U; Petrowitz, B; Bartsch, U; Fehse, B

    2010-04-01

    Vector-encoded fluorescent proteins (FPs) facilitate unambiguous identification or sorting of gene-modified cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Exploiting this feature, we have recently developed lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors (www.LentiGO-Vectors.de) for multi-gene analysis in different target cells. In this study, we extend the LeGO principle by introducing 10 different drug-selectable FPs created by fusing one of the five selection marker (protecting against blasticidin, hygromycin, neomycin, puromycin and zeocin) and one of the five FP genes (Cerulean, eGFP, Venus, dTomato and mCherry). All tested fusion proteins allowed both fluorescence-mediated detection and drug-mediated selection of LeGO-transduced cells. Newly generated codon-optimized hygromycin- and neomycin-resistance genes showed improved expression as compared with their ancestors. New LeGO constructs were produced at titers >10(6) per ml (for non-concentrated supernatants). We show efficient combinatorial marking and selection of various cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, simultaneously transduced with different LeGO constructs. Inclusion of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter into LeGO vectors facilitated robust transgene expression in and selection of neural stem cells and their differentiated progeny. We suppose that the new drug-selectable markers combining advantages of FACS and drug selection are well suited for numerous applications and vector systems. Their inclusion into LeGO vectors opens new possibilities for (stem) cell tracking and functional multi-gene analysis.

  11. Selective activation of TCR-γδ+ cells in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hviid Lars

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overlap in geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL – an aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell tumour occurring almost exclusively in the tropics – strongly suggests a link between the two diseases. It is suspected that the polyclonal B-cell activation in P. falciparum malaria may precipitate a breakdown in homeostatic T-cell control of EBV-immortalized B-cell proliferation. Previous studies have suggested that a particular T-cell subset, characterized by expression of Vδ1+ γδ T-cell receptors, is important for maintaining B-cell homeostasis, both in P. falciparum- exposed populations and in individuals subject to polyclonal B-cell activation of other aetiology. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to characterize lymphocyte phenotypes and to investigate possible differences in T-cell subset composition and activation status in P. falciparum-exposed Ghanaian children with and without eBL. Methods Venous blood samples in heparin from 21 eBL patients (mean age: 7.0 years; range: 3–11 years, referred to the Burkitt's Tumour Centre at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra and 15 healthy, age and sex matched children, were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-, phycoerythrin (PE-, R-phycoerythrin (RPE- and RPE-Cy5-conjugated antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD69, CD95, HLA-DR, TCR-γδ, Vδ1, Vδ3, Vγ9 and B-cells and acquired on a flow cytometer. Results A reduction in the proportion of CD3+ cells in eBL patients, due mainly to perturbations among TCR-γδ+ cells was observed. In contrast, the proportions of CD4+ or CD8+ cells were relatively unaffected, as were the mean numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Selective changes in numbers and activation status of TCR-γδ+ cells occurs in Ghanaian children with eBL, a pattern which is similar to P. falciparum-induced changes. The data supports the hypothesis of

  12. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes 5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Purification-Free, Target-Selective Immobilization of a Protein from Cell Lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaehyun; Kwon, Inchan

    2018-02-27

    Protein immobilization has been widely used for laboratory experiments and industrial processes. Preparation of a recombinant protein for immobilization usually requires laborious and expensive purification steps. Here, a novel purification-free, target-selective immobilization technique of a protein from cell lysates is reported. Purification steps are skipped by immobilizing a target protein containing a clickable non-natural amino acid (p-azidophenylalanine) in cell lysates onto alkyne-functionalized solid supports via bioorthogonal azide-alkyne cycloaddition. In order to achieve a target protein-selective immobilization, p-azidophenylalanine was introduced into an exogenous target protein, but not into endogenous non-target proteins using host cells with amber codon-free genomic DNAs. Immobilization of superfolder fluorescent protein (sfGFP) from cell lysates is as efficient as that of the purified sfGFP. Using two fluorescent proteins (sfGFP and mCherry), the authors also demonstrated that the target proteins are immobilized with a minimal immobilization of non-target proteins (target-selective immobilization). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rhodium metalloinsertor binding generates a lesion with selective cytotoxicity for mismatch repair-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Julie M; Weidmann, Alyson G; Mariano, Natalie F; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2017-07-03

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway recognizes and repairs errors in base pairing and acts to maintain genome stability. Cancers that have lost MMR function are common and comprise an important clinical subtype that is resistant to many standard of care chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. We have identified a family of rhodium metalloinsertors that bind DNA mismatches with high specificity and are preferentially cytotoxic to MMR-deficient cells. Here, we characterize the cellular mechanism of action of the most potent and selective complex in this family, [Rh(chrysi)(phen)(PPO)] 2+ (Rh-PPO). We find that Rh-PPO binding induces a lesion that triggers the DNA damage response (DDR). DDR activation results in cell-cycle blockade and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Significantly, the lesion induced by Rh-PPO is not repaired in MMR-deficient cells, resulting in selective cytotoxicity. The Rh-PPO mechanism is reminiscent of DNA repair enzymes that displace mismatched bases, and is differentiated from other DNA-targeted chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin by its potency, cellular mechanism, and selectivity for MMR-deficient cells.

  15. Isolation of cells for selective treatment and analysis using a magnetic microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2014-05-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a magnetic microfluidic chip (MMC) for trapping and isolating cells tagged with superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) in a microfluidic environment for selective treatment and analysis. The trapping and isolation are done in two separate steps; first, the trapping of the tagged cells in a main channel is achieved by soft ferromagnetic disks and second, the transportation of the cells into side chambers for isolation is executed by tapered conductive paths made of Gold (Au). Numerical simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic flux and force distributions of the disks and conducting paths, for trapping and transporting SPBs. The MMC was fabricated using standard microfabrication processes. Experiments were performed with E. coli (K12 strand) tagged with 2.8 μm SPBs. The results showed that E. coli can be separated from a sample solution by trapping them at the disk sites, and then isolated into chambers by transporting them along the tapered conducting paths. Once the E. coli was trapped inside the side chambers, two selective treatments were performed. In one chamber, a solution with minimal nutrition content was added and, in another chamber, a solution with essential nutrition was added. The results showed that the growth of bacteria cultured in the second chamber containing nutrient was significantly higher, demonstrating that the E. coli was not affected by the magnetically driven transportation and the feasibility of performing different treatments on selectively isolated cells on a single microfluidic platform.

  16. Selected systems engineering process deficiencies and their consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale

    2007-06-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous system failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a systems engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time—an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is systems failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    . Certain protective measures for the general enterprise may not be as efficient within the ground segment. This is what the authors have concluded through observations and analysis of patterns identified from the various security assessments performed on NASA missions such as MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, New Horizons and TESS, to name a few. The security audits confirmed that the framework for managing information system security developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the federal government, and adopted by NASA, is indeed effective. However, the selection of the technical, operational and management security controls offered by the NIST model - and how they are implemented - does not always fit the nature and the environment where the ground system operates in even though there is no apparent impact on mission success. The authors observed that unfit controls, that is, controls that are not necessarily applicable or sufficiently effective in protecting the mission systems, are often selected to facilitate compliance with security requirements and organizational expectations even if the selected controls offer minimum or non-existent protection. This paper identifies some of the standard security controls that can in fact protect the ground system, and which of them offer little or no benefit at all. It offers multiple scenarios from real security audits in which the controls are not effective without, of course, disclosing any sensitive information about the missions assessed. In addition to selection and implementation of controls, the paper also discusses potential impact of recent legislation such as the Federal Information Security Modernization Act (FISMA) of 2014 - aimed at the enterprise - on the ground system, and offers other recommendations to Information System Owners (ISOs).

  18. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  19. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  20. New Molecules and Old Drugs as Emerging Approaches to Selectively Target Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Würth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite relevant progress obtained by multimodal treatment, glioblastoma (GBM, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is still incurable. The most encouraging advancement of GBM drug research derives from the identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs, since these cells appear to represent the determinants of resistance to current standard therapies. The goal of most ongoing studies is to identify drugs able to affect CSCs biology, either inducing selective toxicity or differentiating this tumor cell population into nontumorigenic cells. Moreover, the therapeutic approach for GBM could be improved interfering with chemo- or radioresistance mechanisms, microenvironment signals, and the neoangiogenic process. During the last years, molecular targeted compounds such as sorafenib and old drugs, like metformin, displayed interesting efficacy in preclinical studies towards several tumors, including GBM, preferentially affecting CSC viability. In this review, the latest experimental results, controversies, and prospective application concerning these promising anticancer drugs will be discussed.

  1. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F2 laser surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi; Miyamoto, Iwao; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F 2 laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F 2 laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  2. Diphtheria toxin-induced channels in Vero cells selective for monovalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, K.; Olsnes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ion fluxes associated with translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells were studied. When cells with surface-bound toxin were exposed to low pH to induce toxin entry, the cells became permeable to Na+, K+, H+, choline+, and glucosamine+. There was no increased permeability to Cl-, SO4(-2), glucose, or sucrose, whereas the uptake of 45 Ca2+ was slightly increased. The influx of Ca2+, which appears to be different from that of monovalent cations, was reduced by several inhibitors of anion transport and by verapamil, Mn2+, Co2+, and Ca2+, but not by Mg2+. The toxin-induced fluxes of N+, K+, and protons were inhibited by Cd2+. Cd2+ also protected the cells against intoxication by diphtheria toxin, suggesting that the open cation-selective channel is required for toxin translocation. The involvement of the toxin receptor is discussed

  3. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F{sub 2} laser surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, Yasutaka, E-mail: y-hanada@riken.jp [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sugioka, Koji [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawano, Hiroyuki [RIKEN-Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Electronics, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyawaki, Atsushi [RIKEN-Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Midorikawa, Katsumi [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F{sub 2} laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F{sub 2} laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  4. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid (PDMS/glass) microfluidic cell culture system (MCCS) integrated with the concentration gradient generator (CGG) is presented. PDMS gas permeability enabled cells' respiration in the fabricated microdevices and excellent glass hydrophilicity allowed successful cells' seeding...

  5. Distributed User Selection in Network MIMO Systems with Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed user selection strategy in a network MIMO setting with M base stations serving K users. Each base station is equipped with L antennas, where LM ≪ K. The conventional selection strategy is based on a well known technique called semi-orthogonal user selection when the zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) is adopted. Such technique, however, requires perfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), which might not be available or need large feedback overhead. This paper proposes an alternative distributed user selection technique where each user sets a timer that is inversely proportional to his channel quality indicator (CQI), as a means to reduce the feedback overhead. The proposed strategy allows only the user with the highest CQI to respond with a feedback. Such technique, however, remains collision free only if the transmission time is shorter than the difference between the strongest user timer and the second strongest user timer. To overcome the situation of longer transmission times, the paper proposes another feedback strategy that is based on the theory of compressive sensing, where collision is allowed and all users encode their feedback information and send it back to the base-stations simultaneously. The paper shows that the problem can be formulated as a block sparse recovery problem which is agnostic on the transmission time, which makes it a good alternative to the timer approach when collision is dominant.

  6. Distributed User Selection in Network MIMO Systems with Limited Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2015-09-06

    We propose a distributed user selection strategy in a network MIMO setting with M base stations serving K users. Each base station is equipped with L antennas, where LM ≪ K. The conventional selection strategy is based on a well known technique called semi-orthogonal user selection when the zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) is adopted. Such technique, however, requires perfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), which might not be available or need large feedback overhead. This paper proposes an alternative distributed user selection technique where each user sets a timer that is inversely proportional to his channel quality indicator (CQI), as a means to reduce the feedback overhead. The proposed strategy allows only the user with the highest CQI to respond with a feedback. Such technique, however, remains collision free only if the transmission time is shorter than the difference between the strongest user timer and the second strongest user timer. To overcome the situation of longer transmission times, the paper proposes another feedback strategy that is based on the theory of compressive sensing, where collision is allowed and all users encode their feedback information and send it back to the base-stations simultaneously. The paper shows that the problem can be formulated as a block sparse recovery problem which is agnostic on the transmission time, which makes it a good alternative to the timer approach when collision is dominant.

  7. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.go