WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell phenomenon lysis

  1. Microfluidic device for acoustic cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W.; Cooley, Erika Jane; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe; James, Conrad D.; McClain, Jaime L.

    2015-08-04

    A microfluidic acoustic-based cell lysing device that can be integrated with on-chip nucleic acid extraction. Using a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array, acoustic waves can be coupled into microfluidic cartridges resulting in the lysis of cells contained therein by localized acoustic pressure. Cellular materials can then be extracted from the lysed cells. For example, nucleic acids can be extracted from the lysate using silica-based sol-gel filled microchannels, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, or Nafion-coated electrodes. Integration of cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction on-chip enables a small, portable system that allows for rapid analysis in the field.

  2. Pressure-mediated reduction of ultrasonically induced cell lysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaravino, V.E.; Miller, M.W.; Carstensen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Chinese hamster V-79 cells, exposed in polystyrene tubes for 5 min to 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound, were lysed more by a 10 than a 5 W/cm 2 intensity. Higher atmospheric pressure was needed to eliminate lysis with the former relative to the latter intensity, but lysis by 10 W/cm 2 was completely climinated with 2 atm of hydrostatic pressure. The reduction in lysis per unit increase in atmospheric pressure was comparable for both ultrasound intensities

  3. Urea enhances cell lysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ura4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Kaino, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis. Ten kinds of compounds were detected in OXOID and BD yeast extracts, but not in Kyokuto yeast extract. Among them was urea, which was also present in polypeptone, and it clearly induced cell lysis. Deletion of the ure2 gene, which is responsible for utilizing urea, abolished the lytic effect of urea. The effect of urea was suppressed by deletion of pub1, and a similar phenotype was observed in the presence of polypeptone. Thus, urea is an inducer of cell lysis in S. pombe ∆ura4 cells.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  5. effect of natural blue-green algal cells lysis on freshwater quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compaq

    released into water due to algal cells lysis was performed by placing samples in two ... Keywords; Algae, cells lysis, Fatty acids, gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, water quality ... Factors such as municipal and industrial.

  6. Lab-on-a-Disc Platform for Automated Chemical Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Moo-Jung; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2018-02-26

    Chemical cell lysis is an interesting topic in the research to Lab-on-a-Disc (LOD) platforms on account of its perfect compatibility with the centrifugal spin column format. However, standard procedures followed in chemical cell lysis require sophisticated non-contact temperature control as well as the use of pressure resistant valves. These requirements pose a significant challenge thereby making the automation of chemical cell lysis on an LOD extremely difficult to achieve. In this study, an LOD capable of performing fully automated chemical cell lysis is proposed, where a combination of chemical and thermal methods has been used. It comprises a sample inlet, phase change material sheet (PCMS)-based temperature sensor, heating chamber, and pressure resistant valves. The PCMS melts and solidifies at a certain temperature and thus is capable of indicating whether the heating chamber has reached a specific temperature. Compared to conventional cell lysis systems, the proposed system offers advantages of reduced manual labor and a compact structure that can be readily integrated onto an LOD. Experiments using Salmonella typhimurium strains were conducted to confirm the performance of the proposed cell lysis system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has great potential in realizing chemical cell lysis on an LOD whilst achieving higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA thereby providing a good alternative to conventional cell lysis systems.

  7. Lab-on-a-Disc Platform for Automated Chemical Cell Lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Jung Seo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical cell lysis is an interesting topic in the research to Lab-on-a-Disc (LOD platforms on account of its perfect compatibility with the centrifugal spin column format. However, standard procedures followed in chemical cell lysis require sophisticated non-contact temperature control as well as the use of pressure resistant valves. These requirements pose a significant challenge thereby making the automation of chemical cell lysis on an LOD extremely difficult to achieve. In this study, an LOD capable of performing fully automated chemical cell lysis is proposed, where a combination of chemical and thermal methods has been used. It comprises a sample inlet, phase change material sheet (PCMS-based temperature sensor, heating chamber, and pressure resistant valves. The PCMS melts and solidifies at a certain temperature and thus is capable of indicating whether the heating chamber has reached a specific temperature. Compared to conventional cell lysis systems, the proposed system offers advantages of reduced manual labor and a compact structure that can be readily integrated onto an LOD. Experiments using Salmonella typhimurium strains were conducted to confirm the performance of the proposed cell lysis system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has great potential in realizing chemical cell lysis on an LOD whilst achieving higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA thereby providing a good alternative to conventional cell lysis systems.

  8. Chemical Cell Lysis System Applicable to Lab-on-a-Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dayeseul; Yoo, Jae Chern

    2017-09-01

    The design and fabrication of a heating system has been a significant challenge in implementing chemical lysis on a lab-on-a-disc (LOD). The proposed system contains a sample inlet, phase change material (PCM) array, heating chamber, and valve in a single disc, providing cost-effective, rapid, and fully automated chemical cell lysis. Compared to the conventional cell lysis system, our cell lysis system has many advantages, such as a compact structure that is easily integrated into the LOD and reduced processing time and labor. The experiments are conducted with Salmonella typhimurium strains to demonstrate the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is greatly effective in realizing a chemical cell lysis system on an LOD with higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA.

  9. Reagentless mechanical cell lysis by nanoscale barbs in microchannels for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Jeong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Luke P

    2003-11-01

    A highly effective, reagentless, mechanical cell lysis device integrated in microfluidic channels is reported. Sample preparation, specifically cell lysis, is a critical element in 'lab-on-chip' applications. However, traditional methods of cell lysis require purification steps or complicated fabrication steps that a simple mechanical method of lysis may avoid. A simple and effective mechanical cell lysis system is designed, microfabricated, and characterized to quantify the efficiency of cell lysis and biomolecule accessibility. The device functionality is based on a microfluidic filter region with nanostructured barbs created using a modified deep reactive ion etching process. Mechanical lysis is characterized by using a membrane impermeable dye. Three main mechanisms of micro-mechanical lysis are described. Quantitative measurements of accessible protein as compared to a chemically lysed sample are acquired with optical absorption measurements at 280 and 414 nm. At a flow rate of 300 microL min(-1) within the filter region total protein and hemoglobin accessibilities of 4.8% and 7.5% are observed respectively as compared to 1.9% and 3.2% for a filter without nanostructured barbs.

  10. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    . In this study it is shown that HOBr induces red blood cell lysis at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations than HOCl, whereas with monocyte (THP1) and macrophage (J774) cells HOCl and HOBr induce lysis at similar concentrations. The role of radical formation during lysis has been investigated by EPR spin...... trapping, and it is shown that reaction of both oxidants with each cell type generates cell-derived radicals. Red blood cells exposed to nonlytic doses of HOCl generate novel nitrogen-centered radicals whose formation is GSH dependent. In contrast, HOBr gives rise to nitrogen-centered, membrane......-derived protein radicals. With lytic doses of either oxidant, protein (probably hemoglobin)-derived, nitrogen-centered radicals are observed. Unlike the red blood cells, treatment of monocytes and macrophages with HOCl gives significant radical formation only under conditions where cell lysis occurs concurrently...

  11. Microfluidic systems and methods for transport and lysis of cells and analysis of cell lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Christopher T [Oak Ridge, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; McClain, Maxine A [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic systems and methods are disclosed which are adapted to transport and lyse cellular components of a test sample for analysis. The disclosed microfluidic systems and methods, which employ an electric field to rupture the cell membrane, cause unusually rapid lysis, thereby minimizing continued cellular activity and resulting in greater accuracy of analysis of cell processes.

  12. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  13. Radiation-induced enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Takehisa, M.; Iizuka, H.

    1981-01-01

    The intact cells of M. radiodurans were rendered sensitive to the action of lytic enzyme (P2-2 enzyme) by irradiation. The radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme was completely prevented by the addition of t-butanol and irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature. These results indicate that the enhancement is due to indirect action resulting from OH radicals. Cell lysis by lysozyme was enhanced only when the cells were irradiated under N 2 O. The enhancement of cell lysis with lysozyme was also prevented by adding alcohols. On the other hand, when lipid components in cells were removed by extraction with n-butanol, the radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme and lysozyme was not observed. From these results it is concluded that the enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis by irradiation is attributable to alteration in the lipid-rich layer of the cell wall caused by OH radicals

  14. Radiation-induced enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Takehisa, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (Japan); Iizuka, H.

    1981-10-15

    The intact cells of M. radiodurans were rendered sensitive to the action of lytic enzyme (P2-2 enzyme) by irradiation. The radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme was completely prevented by the addition of t-butanol and irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature. These results indicate that the enhancement is due to indirect action resulting from OH radicals. Cell lysis by lysozyme was enhanced only when the cells were irradiated under N{sub 2}O. The enhancement of cell lysis with lysozyme was also prevented by adding alcohols. On the other hand, when lipid components in cells were removed by extraction with n-butanol, the radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme and lysozyme was not observed. From these results it is concluded that the enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis by irradiation is attributable to alteration in the lipid-rich layer of the cell wall caused by OH radicals.

  15. Micro Corona Ionizer as an Ozone Source for Bacterial Cell Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Chua, Beelee; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    DNA extraction is a critical process of DNA assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, molecular cloning, and DNA hybridization which has been well established and can be implemented by commercial kits. DNA extraction involves cell lysis, precipitation, and purification through the combination of physical and chemical processes. Cell lysis is essential to high DNA recovery yield which can be achieved via a variety of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. However, these methods were originally developed for bioassays that were labor intensive, time consuming, and vulnerable to contamination and inhibition. Here, we proposed to employ a micro corona ionizer as an ozone source to lyse bacterial cells. Ozone has been well known and used as a disinfectant which allows cell lysis and DNA extraction. Previously, we have shown that a micro corona ionizer is capable of generating a significant amount of ozone. In this study, we employed the micro corona ionizer for the bacterial cell lysis which consists of a 50 μm diameter cantilever wire as the discharge cathode and a 50 μm thick copper foil as anode. Applied voltages varied from 1900 to 2200 V with corresponding corona currents from 16 to 28 μA. The resultant ozone (concentration > 0.14 ppm) generated from the micro corona ionizer was bubbled into the sample via a miniature pump. We demonstrated the cell lysis of Pseudomonas putida as the target bacterium using the micro corona ionizer. At a flow rate of 38 ml/min and applied corona voltage of 2000 V, 98.5 ± 0.2% lysis (normalized to sonication result) was achieved after 10 min. In comparison, untreated and air-treated samples showed normalized % lysis of 11.9 ± 2.4 and 36.1 ± 1.7%, respectively. We also showed that the cell lysis efficiency could be significantly increased by increasing the flow rate and the applied corona voltage. By comparing the experimental results for continuous and pulsed treatment, we verified that the percentage of

  16. Cell-density-dependent lysis and sporulation of Myxococcus xanthus in agarose microbeads.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbluh, A; Nir, R; Sahar, E; Rosenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Vegetative cells of Myxococcus xanthus were immobilized in 25-microns-diameter agarose microbeads and incubated in either growth medium or sporulation buffer. In growth medium, the cells multiplied, glided to the periphery, and then filled the beads. In sporulation buffer, up to 90% of the cells lysed and ca. 50% of the surviving cells formed resistant spores. A strong correlation between sporulation and cell lysis was observed; both phenomena were cell density dependent. Sporulation proficie...

  17. Rapid kinetics of lysis in human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.T.; Babbitt, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The entire lytic process of natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity against sensitive target cells can occur rapidly, within minutes. This was demonstrated by 51 chromium release and in single-cell assays. At the cellular level, most of the target cell lysis occurred within 15-30 min after binding to effector cells. The enriched natural killer cell subpopulation of lymphocytes obtained by Percoll density gradient centrifugation (containing greater than 70% large granular lymphocytes (LGL)) was the most rapidly lytic population by 51 chromium release. However, in the single-cell assay, the rate of lysis of bound target cells was quite similar for the LGL-enriched effector subpopulation and the higher density subpopulation of effector cells recognized previously. Both the light and dense effector cells contained similar numbers of target binding cells. Therefore, that the light subpopulation effected lysis more rapidly and to a greater extent than the dense subpopulation suggested that the low-density effector cells probably recycled more rapidly than those of higher density. This was corroborated by the finding that when conjugates were formed at 29 degrees C for the single-cell assay, a significant number of dead unconjugated targets could be observed only on the slides made with the LGL-enriched effector cells but not on those made with dense effector cell. Lysis continued to increase in the chromium-release assay probably because of recycling, recruitment, and/or heterogeneity of the effector cells, and/or because of heterogeneity or delayed death of the target cells

  18. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif; Leung, Siu; Fan, Zhiyong; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2017-01-01

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication

  19. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  20. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G; Hirata, Roli K; Funk, Sarah E; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this 'missing-self' response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8 + T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression.

  1. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G.; Hirata, Roli K.; Funk, Sarah; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S.; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O.; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this ‘missing self’ response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8+ T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies, and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression. PMID:28504668

  2. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss...... and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in the mucus...

  4. Droplet Microfluidics for Compartmentalized Cell Lysis and Extension of DNA from Single-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Philip; Juncker, David; Reisner, Walter

    Current single cell DNA analysis methods suffer from (i) bias introduced by the need for molecular amplification and (ii) limited ability to sequence repetitive elements, resulting in (iii) an inability to obtain information regarding long range genomic features. Recent efforts to circumvent these limitations rely on techniques for sensing single molecules of DNA extracted from single-cells. Here we demonstrate a droplet microfluidic approach for encapsulation and biochemical processing of single-cells inside alginate microparticles. In our approach, single-cells are first packaged inside the alginate microparticles followed by cell lysis, DNA purification, and labeling steps performed off-chip inside this microparticle system. The alginate microparticles are then introduced inside a micro/nanofluidic system where the alginate is broken down via a chelating buffer, releasing long DNA molecules which are then extended inside nanofluidic channels for analysis via standard mapping protocols.

  5. Cell lysis and superoxide dismutase activities of highly radioresistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Taeko; Yano, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The highly radioresistant bacterium, Arthrobacter radiotolerans, has been isolated from the radioactive hot spring of Misasa, and it does not sporulate, it is Gram-positive, and its color is pink to red. This bacterium shows the highest resistance to gamma-ray among Gram-positive resistants, but the lytic enzyme capable of lysing the cells of strong radioresistants and the surface structure of the cells are little known except those about Micrococcus radiodurans. The cells of the M. radiodurans can be lysed by Achramobacter lyticus enzyme, and electron microscopic observation and chemical analysis revealed the mutilayered surface structure of the cells consisting of an inner membrane, a mucopeptide wall layer and a very outer layer. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was studied, and the relatively high SOD activity of the M. radiodurans was found. The SOD function acts against the threat posed by the reactive superoxide radical being generated biologically, photochemically and radiochemically in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this paper, it is reported that the lytic enzyme No.2 obtained from Cytophaga sp., containing N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, peptidase and endopeptidase, and showing broad lytic spectra, was able to lyse the cells of A. radiotolerans and four radioresistant micrococci, and the radioresistant bacteria showed relatively high SOD activity except M. sp. 248. It is well known that superoxide anions are generated by aerobic irradiation, and are toxic to microbial cells. (Kako, I.)

  6. Cell lysis and superoxide dismutase activities of highly radioresistant bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaka, T; Yano, K; Yamaguchi, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1976-01-01

    The highly radioresistant bacterium, Arthrobacter radiotolerans, has been isolated from the radioactive hot spring of Misasa, and it does not sporulate, it is Gram-positive, and its color is pink to red. This bacterium shows the highest resistance to gamma-ray among Gram-positive resistants, but the lytic enzyme capable of lysing the cells of strong radioresistants and the surface structure of the cells are little known except those about Micrococcus radiodurans. The cells of the M. radiodurans can be lysed by Achramobacter lyticus enzyme, and electron microscopic observation and chemical analysis revealed the mutilayered surface structure of the cells consisting of an inner membrane, a mucopeptide wall layer and a very outer layer. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was studied, and the relatively high SOD activity of the M. radiodurans was found. The SOD function acts against the threat posed by the reactive superoxide radical being generated biologically, photochemically and radiochemically in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this paper, it is reported that the lytic enzyme No.2 obtained from Cytophaga sp., containing N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, peptidase and endopeptidase, and showing broad lytic spectra, was able to lyse the cells of A. radiotolerans and four radioresistant micrococci, and the radioresistant bacteria showedrelatively high SOD activity except M. sp. 248. It is well known that superoxide anions are generated by aerobic irradiation, and are toxic to microbial cells.

  7. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  8. Normal human serum (HS) prevents oxidant-induced lysis of cultured endothelial cells (ECs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, K.S.; Harlan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Most studies demonstrating oxidant lysis of cultured ECs are performed in serum-free media or media containing low concentrations of bovine serum. The authors found that HS protects human and bovine ECs from lysis caused by reagent H 2 O 2 or glucose/glucose oxidase (GO)-generated H 2 O 2 . EC injury was assessed by 51 Cr release, cell detachment, or trypan blue dye exclusion. Protective HS activity was dose-dependent with concentrations greater than or equal to 25% preventing lethal injury. Cytotoxicity at 24 hrs, induced by 20 mU/ml GO, was 90.1 +/- 5.2% without HS vs 1.7 +/- 4.6% with 25% HS present (20 exp). Similar protection was observed with heparinized plasma. Of note, comparable concentrations of bovine serum were devoid of protective activity. Addition of fatty acid-free albumin to the media was also without protective effect. Preliminary characterization showed HS activity was stable to 60 0 C for 30 min, non-dialyzable at 25,000 MW cutoff, and retained in delipidated serum. The HS protection was not merely due to scavenging of exogenous H 2 O 2 as A23187-induced EC lysis was also prevented by HS. Protective activity was not reproduced by purified cerruloplasmin or transferrin. In conclusion, unidentified factor(s) present in HS protect cultured ECs from oxidant-induced lysis. Since endothelium is normally exposed to 100% plasma, the authors suggest that in vitro studies of oxidant-mediated injury be performed in the presence of HS. Factor(s) in HS may play an important role in modulating oxidant-induced vascular injury in vivo

  9. Resistance of some leukemic blasts to lysis by lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotides, P; Sjoegren, A -M; Reizenstein, P; Porwit, A. Immunopathology Lab., Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm; Wasserman, J

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and AML patients in remission were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). These stimulated cells (lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells) showed increased DNA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake. A synergistic effect of PHA and IL-2 was found. LAK cells' ability to kill acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts was investigated by the /sup 51/Cr release assay. LAK cells showed a cytotoxicity (over 10% specific /sup 51/Cr release) against 9/12 leukemic blasts, even at effector/target (E/T) ratios as low as 5:1. However, on average only 22.2% (SD 11.8) and 36.5% (SD 12.5) /sup 51/Cr release were obtained in 4- and 18-hour cytotoxicity assays, respectively, at an E/T ratio of 20:1. Leukemic blasts in 3/12 AML cases and normal PBMC were entirely resistant to lysis, even at an E/T ratio of 80:1. Susceptibility to lysis was not correlated to peanut-agglutinin receptor expression. LAK cells were more cytotoxic towards the K-562 cell line (natural killer activity) than unstimulated PBMC.

  10. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.; Robinson, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by natural killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma

  11. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schäfer

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  12. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  13. Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; van de Guchte, Adriana; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm-associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation. Impaired respiration led to increased cell lysis via divergent regulation of two processes: increased expression of the AtlA murein hydrolase and decreased expression of wall-teichoic acids. The AltA-dependent release of cytosolic DNA contributed to increased biofilm formation. Further, cell lysis and biofilm formation were governed by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system. Data presented support a model wherein SrrAB-dependent biofilm formation occurs in response to the accumulation of reduced menaquinone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23845.001 PMID:28221135

  14. Investigation of an optimal cell lysis method for the study of the zinc metalloproteome of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Anna M; Lewis, Stephanie; Abraham, Sami; Subramanian, Kavitha; Figueroa, Julio Landero; Deepe, George S; Vonderheide, Anne P

    2017-10-01

    This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals. Many of the conventional cell lysis, separation, and identification techniques in proteomics are carried out under conditions that could lead to protein denaturation. Various cell lysis techniques were investigated in an effort to both maintain the metalloproteins during lysis and subsequent analysis while, at the same time, serving to be strong enough to break the cell wall, allowing access to cytosolic metalloproteins. The addition of 1% Triton x-100, a non-ionic detergent, to the lysis buffer was also studied. Seven lysis methods were considered and these included: Glass Homogenizer (H), Bead Beater (BB), Sonication Probe (SP), Vortex with 1% Triton x-100 (V, T), Vortex with no Triton x-100 (V, NT), Sonication Bath, Vortex, and 1% Triton x-100 (SB, V, T) and Sonication Bath, Vortex, and no Triton x-100 (SB, V, NT). A Qubit® Assay was used to compare total protein concentration and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized for total metal analysis of cell lysates. Size exclusion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS (SEC-HPLC-ICP-MS) was used for separation of the metalloproteins in the cell lysate and the concentration of Zn over a wide molecular weight range was examined. Additional factors such as potential contamination sources were also considered. A cell lysis method involving vortexing H. capsulatum yeast cells with 500 μm glass beads

  15. Continuous nucleus extraction by optically-induced cell lysis on a batch-type microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Hung, Lien-Yu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-21

    The extraction of a cell's nucleus is an essential technique required for a number of procedures, such as disease diagnosis, genetic replication, and animal cloning. However, existing nucleus extraction techniques are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Therefore, this study presents an innovative, microfluidics-based approach featuring optically-induced cell lysis (OICL) for nucleus extraction and collection in an automatic format. In comparison to previous micro-devices designed for nucleus extraction, the new OICL device designed herein is superior in terms of flexibility, selectivity, and efficiency. To facilitate this OICL module for continuous nucleus extraction, we further integrated an optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) module with the OICL device within the microfluidic chip. This on-chip integration circumvents the need for highly trained personnel and expensive, cumbersome equipment. Specifically, this microfluidic system automates four steps by 1) automatically focusing and transporting cells, 2) releasing the nuclei on the OICL module, 3) isolating the nuclei on the ODEP module, and 4) collecting the nuclei in the outlet chamber. The efficiency of cell membrane lysis and the ODEP nucleus separation was measured to be 78.04 ± 5.70% and 80.90 ± 5.98%, respectively, leading to an overall nucleus extraction efficiency of 58.21 ± 2.21%. These results demonstrate that this microfluidics-based system can successfully perform nucleus extraction, and the integrated platform is therefore promising in cell fusion technology with the goal of achieving genetic replication, or even animal cloning, in the near future.

  16. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-11-24

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  17. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Lee, Kunwoo; Murthy, Niren; Pisano, Albert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  18. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  19. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional 51 Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism

  20. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell dea...... protein was the killing agent. In both cases, cell death occurred as a result of impaired respiration, altered membrane permeability, and the release of some cytoplasmic contents to the extracellular medium.......Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  1. Study of a novel cell lysis method with titanium dioxide for Lab-on-a-Chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a novel method is proposed and demonstrated to be able to lyse gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria cells for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. The proposed method incorporates using titanium dioxide particles as photocatalysts and a miniaturized UV LED array as an excitation light source to perform cell lysis on microchips. The experimental result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed prototype device. The working device suggests an inexpensive, easy to be fabricated and effective way for microchip cell lysis. The miniaturized UV LED array and the microchip with a reaction chamber can be easily integrated with other functional components to form a customized whole Lab-on-a-Chip system.

  2. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  3. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced lysis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected mouse cell lines by NC and NK effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenares, C.; Lopez, C.

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously cytotoxic murine lymphocytes lysed certain cell types infected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) better than uninfected cells. Although HSV-1 adsorbed to the surface of all the target cells, those in which the virus replicated more efficiently were lysed to a greater extent. As targets, the authors used cell lines that, when uninfected, were spontaneously lysed by NK cells (YAC-1) or by NC cells (WEHI-164). They also used a fibroblastoid cell line (M50) and a monocytic tumor line (PU51R), which were not spontaneously killed. NK cells lysed HSV-1-infected YAC cells better than uninfected cells, and an NC-like activity selectively lysed HSV-1-infected WEHI cells. These findings were consistent with the results of experiments performed to define the role of interferon in induction of virus-augmented cytolysis. Increased lysis of YAC-HSV and PU51R-HSV was entirely due to interferon activation and was completely abolished by performing the /sup 51/Cr-release assay in the presence of anti-interferon serum. The data show that HSV-1 infection of NK/NC targets induces increased cytotoxity, but the effector cell responsible for lysis is determined by the uninfected target, or by an interaction between the virus and target cell, rather than by a viral determinant alone.

  5. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Maíra; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L M; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-07-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive. A 1.3 h exposure to a low dose of 0.5 mg l -1 chitosan already almost completely killed these cultures resulting in release of cell contents. After 24 h, reductions in PSII efficiencies of all cyanobacteria tested were observed. EC50 values varied from around 0.5 mg l -1 chitosan for the two sensitive strains, via about 5 mg l -1 chitosan for an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain, a toxic P. agardhii strain and two Anabaena cylindrica cultures, to more than 8 mg l -1 chitosan for a Microcystis aeruginosa strain and another A. flos-aquae strain. Differences in sensitivity to chitosan might be related to polymeric substances that surround cyanobacteria. Rapid lysis of toxic strains is likely and when chitosan flocking and sinking of cyanobacteria is considered in lake restoration, flocculation efficacy studies should be complemented with investigation on the effects of chitosan on the cyanobacteria assemblage being targeted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  7. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto; Tomasetti, Marco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-10-13

    Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention.

  8. Mingled Mortality: the Interplay Between Protist Grazing and Viral Lysis on Emiliania huxleyi Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Bidle, K. D.; Johnson, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi plays a prominent role in global carbon cycling, as their calcite coccoliths account for a third of all oceanic calcite production. Mortality due to grazing by microzooplankton is the largest contributor to phytoplankton loss in the marine environment. However, viral infection of E. huxleyi is now thought to be as important as grazing pressure in contributing to its mortality. To understand the influence of viral infection on grazing dynamics, we examined the response of the dinoflagellate predator, Oxyrrhis marina to E. huxleyi infected with four different strains of the E. huxleyi virus (EhV). Grazing rate was significantly slower on E. huxleyi cultures that had been infected for 48 h compared to an uninfected control and this reduction in grazing rate was dependent on the strain identity of infecting EhVs. Additional experimentation indicated that grazing was the primary source of E. huxleyi loss ( 78-98%) during the first 24 h of exposure to both predator and virus. However, as viral infection progressed into the late lytic phase (48 h hour post infection), the relative contribution of grazing to total E. huxleyi mortality decreased ( 5-60%). These results suggest that mortality is partitioned along a gradient between predator-based consumption and virus-induced cell lysis, dependent on the timing of infection. Deciphering the relative importance and interactive nature of these alga-predator-viral interactions will help to elucidate the mechanisms that drive bulk measurements of phytoplankton loss, a necessary understanding to interpret and predict phytoplankton population dynamics and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  9. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Impact Chlorella variabilis Productivity and Host Quality for Viral Production and Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Labavitch, John; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a potential feedstock for biofuel production; however, cell disruption is usually required for collection and utilization of cytoplasmic polysaccharides and lipids. Virus infection might be one approach to disrupt the cell wall. The concentration of yeast extract and presence of KNO3 in algae cultivation media were investigated to observe their effects on Chlorella variabilis NC64A physiology and composition and the subsequent effect on production of Chlorella virus and disruption of infected cells. Cytoplasmic starch accumulation increased from 5% to approximately 35% of the total dry weight when yeast extract decreased from 1 to 0.25 g L(-1). When cells were cultured with the lowest nitrogen levels, the total polysaccharide accounted for more than 50% of the cell wall, which was 1.7 times higher than the content in cells cultured with the highest nitrogen levels. The C/N ratio of the algal biomass decreased by a factor of approximately 2 when yeast extract increased from 0.25 to 1 g L(-1). After virus infection, cells with a low C/N ratio produced a 7.6 times higher burst size than cells with a high C/N ratio, suggesting that the nitrogen content in C. variabilis has a large influence on viral production and cell lysis. The results have implications on management of nitrogen for both the synthesis of products from algae and product recovery via viral lysis.

  10. Cell Competition: Roles and Importance as a Central Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Antala, Bhavesh; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Cell competition is a type of short-range cell-cell interaction first observed in Drosophila melanogaster. In two heterogeneous cell populations, cells that have a higher fitness level would have a competitive advantage and grow at the cost of neighbor cells that have comparatively lower fitness. This interaction is due to differences in expression levels of a specific protein in the two cell populations, and it is known as cell competition. In this review, we have studied recent findings of cell competition in different biological processes in Drosophila as well as mammalian systems. The purpose of this review is to collate important studies of competitive cell interactions, and to understand its roles and importance as a central phenomenon. This review provides evidence of the relevance of cell competition in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as size control in organ development, stem cell maintenance, tissue repair, organ regeneration, aging, formation of memory, and cancer.

  11. Lysis of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts by rIL-2 activated autologous natural killer cells from HIV-infected viremic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fogli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular mechanisms that ensure an appropriate innate immune response against viral pathogens is an important challenge of biomedical research. In vitro studies have shown that natural killer (NK cells purified from healthy donors can kill heterologous cell lines or autologous CD4+ T cell blasts exogenously infected with several strains of HIV-1. However, it is not known whether the deleterious effects of high HIV-1 viremia interferes with the NK cell-mediated cytolysis of autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we stimulate primary CD4+ T cells, purified ex vivo from HIV-1-infected viremic patients, with PHA and rIL2 (with or without rIL-7. This experimental procedure allows for the significant expansion and isolation of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts detected by intracellular staining of p24 HIV-1 core antigen. We show that, subsequent to the selective down-modulation of MHC class-I (MHC-I molecules, HIV-1-infected p24(pos blasts become partially susceptible to lysis by rIL-2-activated NK cells, while uninfected p24(neg blasts are spared from killing. This NK cell-mediated killing occurs mainly through the NKG2D activation pathway. However, the degree of NK cell cytolytic activity against autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cell blasts that down-modulate HLA-A and -B alleles and against heterologous MHC-I(neg cell lines is particularly low. This phenomenon is associated with the defective surface expression and engagement of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs and with the high frequency of the anergic CD56(neg/CD16(pos subsets of highly dysfunctional NK cells from HIV-1-infected viremic patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the chronic viral replication of HIV-1 in infected individuals results in several phenotypic and functional aberrancies that interfere with the NK cell-mediated killing of autologous p24(pos blasts derived from primary T cells.

  12. Very High Throughput Electrical Cell Lysis and Extraction of Intracellular Compounds Using 3D Carbon Electrodes in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Renaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an electrical lysis throughput of 600 microliters per minute at high cell density (108 yeast cells per ml with 90% efficiency, thus improving the current common throughput of one microliter per minute. We also demonstrate the extraction of intracellular luciferase from mammalian cells with efficiency comparable to off-chip bulk chemical lysis. The goal of this work is to develop a sample preparation module that can act as a stand-alone device or be integrated to other functions already demonstrated in miniaturized devices, including sorting and analysis, towards a true lab-on-a-chip.

  13. Lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae by a human cytotoxic T cell clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Robbins, F.; Hartzman, R.J.; Dasch, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytolytic human T cells clones generated in response to the intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi were characterized. Growing clones were tested for their ability to proliferate specifically in response to antigens derived from typhus group rickettsiae or to lyse targets infected with R. typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii, as measured by 51 Cr-release from target cells. Two clones were able to lyse targets infected with typhus group rickettsiae. One of these clones was more fully characterized because of its rapid growth characteristics. This cytolytic clone was capable of lysing an autologous infected target as well as a target matched for class I and II histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA). It was not capable, however, of lysing either a target mismatched for both class I and II HLA or a target partially matched for class I HLA. In addition, the clone exhibited specificity in that it was able to lyse an autologous target infected with typhus group rickettsiae, but did not lyse an autologous target infected with an antigenically distinct rickettsial species, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cells infected with intracellular bacteria can be lysed by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  14. Lysis from without

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary I consider use of the term “lysis from without” (LO) along with the phenomenon's biological relevance. LO originally described an early bacterial lysis induced by high-multiplicity virion adsorption and that occurs without phage production (here indicated as LOV). Notably, this is more than just high phage multiplicities of adsorption leading to bacterial killing. The action on bacteria of exogenously supplied phage lysin, too, has been described as a form of LO (here, LOL). LOV has been somewhat worked out mechanistically for T4 phages, has been used to elucidate various phage-associated phenomena including discovery of the phage eclipse, may be relevant to phage ecology, and, with resistance to LO (LOR), is blocked by certain phage gene products. Speculation as to the impact of LOV on phage therapy also is fairly common. Since LOV assays are relatively easily performed and not all phages are able to induce LOV, a phage's potential to lyse bacteria without first infecting should be subject to at least in vitro experimental confirmation before the LOV label is applied. The term “abortive infection” may be used more generally to describe non-productive phage infections that kill bacteria. PMID:21687534

  15. Phenomenon of adaptive response of cells in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillipovich, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to various adaptive reactions to low-level radiation, their association with an absorbed dose, dose rate, radiation quality and time-interval between exposures, as well as with a cell cycle phase. Possible mechanisms of the adaptive response and the character and role of DNA damages, that can induce gene expression of the adaptive response, are discussed. The data on the influence of a preliminary long-term exposure to low-level radiation on the radiosensitivity of biological objects are analyzed with due regard for the adaptive cell response. It is concluded that the adaptive response of cells to ionizing radiation is a particular case of the phenomenon of cell adaptation of the effect of genotoxic factors of the environment

  16. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2014-09-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CD3-positive B cells: a storage-dependent phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nagel

    Full Text Available The majority of clinical studies requires extensive management of human specimen including e.g. overnight shipping of blood samples in order to convey the samples in a central laboratory or to simultaneously analyze large numbers of patients. Storage of blood samples for periods of time before in vitro/ex vivo testing is known to influence the antigen expression on the surface of lymphocytes. In this context, the present results show for the first time that the T cell antigen CD3 can be substantially detected on the surface of human B cells after ex vivo storage and that the degree of this phenomenon critically depends on temperature and duration after blood withdrawal. The appearance of CD3 on the B cell surface seems to be a result of contact-dependent antigen exchange between T and B lymphocytes and is not attributed to endogenous production by B cells. Since cellular subsets are often classified by phenotypic analyses, our results indicate that ex vivo cellular classification in peripheral blood might result in misleading interpretations. Therefore, in order to obtain results reflecting the in vivo situation, it is suggested to minimize times of ex vivo blood storage after isolation of PBMC. Moreover, to enable reproducibility of results between different research groups and multicenter studies, we would emphasize the necessity to specify and standardize the storage conditions, which might be the basis of particular findings.

  18. Tumor lysis syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Amaranto

    2004-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency characterized by electrolyte alteration with or without acute renal failure. It occurs mainly in patients with malignant tumors that have a high growth fraction, or after cytotoxic therapy, as a result of the massive degradation of malignant cells and the release of high amounts of intracellular elements that exceed the capacity of renal excretion. The objective of the treatment is the prevention of nephropathy due to uric acid deposits, and the correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte alterations. This paper reviews the incidence, the physiopathology, and the treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in children

  19. Evaluation of cell lysis procedures and use of a micro fluidic system for an automated DNA-based cell identification in interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. A.; Felnagle, E.; Fries, M.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.

    2006-12-01

    A Modular Assay System for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) is being developed to include sample handling, pre-treatment, separation and analysis of biological target compounds by both DNA and protein microarrays. To better design sensitive and accurate initial upstream sample handling of the MASSE instrument, experiments investigating the sensitivity and potential extraction bias of commercially available DNA extraction kits between classes of environmentally relevant prokaryotes such as gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus megatarium), and Archaea ( Haloarcula marismortui) were performed. For extractions of both planktonic cultures and spiked Mars simulated regolith, FTA ® paper demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with detection as low as ˜1×10 1 cells and ˜3.3×10 2 cells, respectively. In addition to the highest sensitivity, custom modified application of FTA ® paper extraction protocol is the simplest in terms of incorporation into MASSE and displayed little bias in sensitivity with respect to prokaryotic cell type. The implementation of FTA paper for environmental microbiology investigations appears to be a viable and effective option potentially negating the need for other pre-concentration steps such as filtration and negating concerns regarding extraction efficiency of cells. In addition to investigations on useful technology for upstream sample handling in MASSE, we have also evaluated the potential for μTAS to be employed in the MASSE instrument by employing proprietary lab-on-a-chip development technology to investigate the potential for microfluidic cell lysis of different prokaryotic cells employing both chemical and biological lysis agents. Real-time bright-field microscopy and quantitative PMT detection indicated that that gram positive, gram negative and archaeal cells were effectively lyzed in a few seconds using the microfluidic chip protocol developed. This included employing a lysis buffer with

  20. Daratumumab-mediated lysis of primary multiple myeloma cells is enhanced in combination with the human anti-KIR antibody IPH2102 and lenalidomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijhof, I. S.; Lammerts van Bueren, J. J.; van Kessel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent treatment improvements, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Since antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is an important effector mechanism of daratumumab, we explored the possibility of improving daratumumab-mediated cell-mediated cytotoxicity by blocking natural...... killer cell inhibitory receptors with the human monoclonal anti-KIR antibody IPH2102, next to activation of natural killer cells with the immune modulatory drug lenalidomide. In 4-hour antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, IPH2102 did not induce lysis of multiple myeloma cell lines...... effective treatment strategies can be designed for multiple myeloma by combining daratumumab with agents that independently modulate natural killer cell function....

  1. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes mediate lysis of autologous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jeppe; Rasmussen, N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1995-01-01

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumours from six patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) were investigated. The six tumours all expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens both in vivo and as tumor cell lines grown in vitro. In addition...

  2. Prevention of red cell lysis in artesunate-treated rats: A role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... mice caused a decrease in the nucleated cell counts in the peripheral blood, the .... Society of hematology, annual meeting abstracts; abstract 1049: p. 106. Salman 141. Leopold J ... Trans Res. Soc. London B. Biol. Sci. 354:.

  3. Soil pretreatment and fast cell lysis for direct polymerase chain reaction from forest soils for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0 removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.

  4. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of polymer architecture on antigens camouflage, CD47 protection and complement mediated lysis of surface grafted red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Rossi, Nicholas A A; Medvedev, Nadia; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-11-01

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers with similar hydrodynamic sizes in solution were grafted to red blood cells (RBCs) to investigate the impact of polymer architecture on the cell structure and function. The hydrodynamic sizes of polymers were calculated from the diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. The hydration of the HPG and PEG was determined by differential scanning calorimetry analyses. RBCs grafted with linear PEG had different properties compared to the compact HPG grafted RBCs. HPG grafted RBCs showed much higher electrophoretic mobility values than PEG grafted RBCs at similar grafting concentrations and hydrodynamic sizes indicating differences in the structure of the polymer exclusion layer on the cell surface. PEG grafting impacted the deformation properties of the membrane to a greater degree than HPG. The complement mediated lysis of the grafted RBCs was dependent on the type of polymer, grafting concentration and molecular size of grafted chains. At higher molecular weights and graft concentrations both HPG and PEG triggered complement activation. The magnitude of activation was higher with HPG possibly due to the presence of many hydroxyl groups per molecule. HPG grafted RBCs showed significantly higher levels of CD47 self-protein accessibility than PEG grafted RBCs at all grafting concentrations and molecular sizes. PEG grafted polymers provided, in general, a better shielding and protection to ABO and minor antigens from antibody recognition than HPG polymers, however, the compact HPGs provided greater protection of certain antigens on the RBC surface. Our data showed that HPG 20 kDa and HPG 60 kDa grafted RBCs exhibited properties that are more comparable to the native RBC than PEG 5 kDa and PEG 10 kDa grafted RBCs of comparable hydrodynamic sizes. The study shows that small compact polymers such as HPG 20 kDa have a greater potential in the generation of functional RBC for therapeutic

  6. Cell Lysis and Detoxification of Cyanotoxins Using a Novel Combination of Microbubble Generation and Plasma Microreactor Technology for Ozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagroop Pandhal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products. However, most ozonation technologies have challenges for scale up including high costs and sub-optimum efficiencies, hence, a low cost and scalable ozonation technology is needed. Here we designed a low temperature plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor with an incorporated fluidic oscillator for microbubble delivery of ozone. Both technologies have the potential to drastically reduce the costs of ozonation at scale. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed very rapid (<2 min destruction of two pure microcystins (MC-LR and MC-RR, together with removal of by-products even at low flow rate 1 L min−1 where bubble size was 0.56–0.6 mm and the ozone concentration within the liquid was 20 ppm. Toxicity levels were calculated through protein phosphatase inhibition assays and indicated loss of toxicity as well as confirming the by-products were also non-toxic. Finally, treatment of whole Microcystis aeruginosa cells showed that even at these very low ozone levels, cells can be killed and toxins (MC-LR and Desmethyl MC-LR removed. Little change was observed in the first 20 min of treatment followed by rapid increase in extracellular toxins, indicating cell lysis, with most significant release at the higher 3 L min−1 flow rate compared to 1 L

  7. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  8. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  9. CD20-Specific Immunoligands Engaging NKG2D Enhance γδ T Cell-Mediated Lysis of Lymphoma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peipp, M.; Wesch, D.; Oberg, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    Human γδ T cells are innate-like T cells which are able to kill a broad range of tumour cells and thus may have potential for cancer immunotherapy. The activating receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) plays a key role in regulating immune responses driven by γδ T cells. Here, we explor...

  10. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  11. Type i CD20 antibodies recruit the B cell receptor for complement-dependent lysis of malignant B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelberts, P. J.; Voorhorst, M.; Schuurman, J.

    2016-01-01

    . We hypothesized that CD20 Ab-induced clustering of the IgM or IgG BCR was involved in accessory CDC. Indeed, accessory CDC was consistently observed in B cell lines expressing an IgM BCR and in some cell lines expressing an IgG BCR, but it was absent in BCR- B cell lines. A direct relationship...... between BCR expression and accessory CDC was established by transfecting the BCR into CD20+ cells: OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC in the CD20+BCR+ cell population, but not in the CD20+BCR- population. Importantly, OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC ex vivo in malignant B cells...... isolated from patients with mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. In summary, accessory CDC represents a novel effector mechanism that is dependent on type I CD20 Ab-induced BCR clustering. Accessory CDC may contribute to the excellent capacity of type I CD20 Abs to induce CDC...

  12. Dextran sulphate crowding and sodium deoxycholate lysis of primary breast fibroblast cells achieve extracellular matrix deposition and decellularization for breast cancer stem cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroem Naruni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Lingkungan mikro yaitu sel stromal dam matriks ekstraseluler saat ini dinyatakansebagai kontributor dalam perkembangan tumor. Beberapa penelitian telah mengembangkan matriksekstraseluler yang mendukung perkembangan sel in vitro. Matriks ekstraseluler adalah suatu komplekssusunan supramolekuler dari berbagai macam glycoprotein dan proteoglycan. Matriks ekstraselulermenyediakan integritas jaringan, bertindak sebagai scaffold alami tempat sel melekat dan berinteraksiserta berperan sebagai reservoir pertumbuhan sel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan deposisidan deselularisasi yang optimal pada matriks ekstraseluler.Metode: Dalam penelitian ini, kami mengembangkan cells crowder untuk meningkatkan deposit matriksekstraseluler dari kultur sel primer fibroblast payudara yang diperoleh dari spesimen hasil operasimammoplasty. Dextran 500 kDa ditambahkan dalam media kultur DMEM lengkap yang telah ditambahkan0.5% FBS dan 100μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Setelah tujuh hari, sel dilisis dengan menggunakanSodium Deoxycolate (DOC.Hasil: Deposisi matriks ekstraseluler dan proses deselulerisasi dari sel primer fibroblas payudara dapatterdeteksi dengan menggunakan antibodi Rabbit anti human fibronectin yang selanjutnya ditambahkandengan anti rabbit IgG yang telah dikonjugasi dengan Alexa Fluor 488.Kesimpulan: Penambahan dextran sulfat dan prosesing lysis dengan sodium deoxycolate dapatmeningkatkan deposisi dan menghasilkan deselularisasi matriks ekstraseluler. (Health Science Journalof Indonesia 2015;6:43-7Kata kunci: matriks ekstra selular, kanker mammae, stem cell, sel fibroblast AbstractBackground: The microenvironment including stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM is now consideredan active contributor to tumor progression. Certain studies have developed ECM which supports a suitable cellulargrowth in vitro. The ECM is a complex supramolecular assembly of a variety of glycoproteins and proteoglycans

  13. Diphtheria toxin- and Pseudomonas A toxin-mediated apoptosis. ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 is required for DNA fragmentation and cell lysis and synergy with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, H; Bonavida, B

    1992-09-15

    We have reported that diphtheria toxin (DTX) mediates target cell lysis and intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) and also synergizes with TNF-alpha. In this paper, we examined which step in the pathway of DTX-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was important for induction of cytolytic activity and for synergy. Using a DTX-sensitive tumor cell line, we first examined the activity of the mutant CRM 197, which does not catalyze the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 (EF-2). CRM 197 was not cytolytic for target cells and did not mediate intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation of viable cells. The failure of CRM 197 to mediate target cell lysis suggested that the catalytic activity of DTX is prerequisite for target cell lysis. This was corroborated by demonstrating that MeSAdo, which blocks the biosynthesis of diphthamide, inhibited DTX-mediated protein synthesis inhibition and also blocked target cell lysis. Furthermore, the addition of nicotinamide, which competes with NAD+ on the DTX action site of EF-2, also blocked DTX-mediated lysis. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 may be a necessary step in the pathway leading to target cell lysis. In contrast to the sensitive line, the SKOV-3 tumor cell line is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition by DTX but is not susceptible to cytolysis and apoptosis by DTX. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition by DTX is not sufficient to mediate target cell lysis. The synergy in cytotoxicity obtained with the combination of DTX and TNF-alpha was examined in order to determine the pathway mediated by DTX in synergy. Like the direct lysis by DTX, synergy was significantly reduced by MeSAdo and by nicotinamide. Furthermore, synergy was not observed with combination of CRM 197 and TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that, in synergy, DTX may utilize the same pathway required for its cytolytic activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin shared most the properties shown for DTX. Altogether, these findings

  14. Type I CD20 Antibodies Recruit the B Cell Receptor for Complement-Dependent Lysis of Malignant B Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelberts, Patrick J.; Voorhorst, Marleen; Schuurman, Janine; van Meerten, Tom; Bakker, Joost M.; Vink, Tom; Mackus, Wendy J. M.; Breij, Esther C. W.; Derer, Stefanie; Valerius, Thomas; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Beurskens, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Human IgG1 type I CD20 Abs, such as rituximab and ofatumumab (OFA), efficiently induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of CD20(+) B cells by binding of C1 to hexamerized Fc domains. Unexpectedly, we found that type I CD20 Ab F(ab ')2 fragments, as well as C1q-binding-deficient IgG mutants,

  15. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  16. Electrical lysis: dynamics revisited and advances in On-chip operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical lysis (EL) is the process of breaking the cell membrane to expose the internal contents under an applied high electric field. Lysis is an important phenomenon for cellular analysis, medical treatment, and biofouling control. This paper aims to review, summarize, and analyze recent advancements on EL. Major databases including PubMed, Ei Engineering Village, IEEE Xplore, and Scholars Portal were searched using relevant keywords. More than 50 articles published in English since 1997 are cited in this article. EL has several key advantages compared to other lysis techniques such as chemical, mechanical, sonication, or laser, including rapid speed of operation, ability to control, miniaturization, low cost, and low power requirement. A variety of cell types have been investigated for including protoplasts, E. coli, yeasts, blood cells, and cancer cells. EL has been developed and applied for decontamination, cytology, genetics, single-cell analysis, cancer treatment, and other applications. On-chip EL is a promising technology for multiplexed automated implementation of cell-sample preparation and processing with micro- or nanoliter reagents.

  17. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidania Munoz, R. de; Garces, F.; Davila, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of λvir andλ clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C 6 00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and (he bacterial burst side, we have finder that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs

  18. Anti-PD-L1/TGFβR2 (M7824) fusion protein induces immunogenic modulation of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune-mediated recognition and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Gargulak, Morgan L; Lepone, Lauren M; Roselli, Mario; Bilusic, Marijo; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Avelumab has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. M7824 is a novel first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein comprising a monoclonal antibody against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, avelumab), fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor 2, which functions as a TGFβ "trap." Advanced urothelial tumors have been shown to express TGFβ, which possesses immunosuppressive properties that promote cancer progression and metastasis. The rationale for a combined molecule is to block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction between tumor cells and immune cell infiltrate and simultaneously reduce or eliminate TGFβ from the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we explored the effect of M7824 on invasive urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Human urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma cell lines HTB-4, HTB-1, and HTB-5 were treated with M7824, M7824mut (M7824 that is mutated in the anti-PD-L1 portion of the molecule and thus does not bind PD-L1), anti-PD-L1 (avelumab), or IgG1 isotype control monoclonal antibody, and were assessed for gene expression, cell-surface phenotype, and sensitivity to lysis by TRAIL, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. M7824 retains the ability to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of tumor cells, although in some cases to a lesser extent than anti-PD-L1. However, compared to anti-PD-L1, M7824 increases (A) gene expression of molecules involved in T-cell trafficking in the tumor (e.g., CXCL11), (B) TRAIL-mediated tumor cell lysis, and (C) antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell-mediated lysis of tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the immunomodulatory properties of M7824 on both tumor cell phenotype and immune-mediated lysis. Compared to anti-PD-L1 or M7824mut, M7824 induces immunogenic modulation of urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune

  19. Permeabilization and lysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes cells by triton X-100 for efficient production of D-malate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Hartmans, S.; Tweel, W.J.J. van den

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes can only form d-malate from maleate after incubation of the cells with a solvent or a detergent. The effect of the detergent Triton X-100 on d-malate production was studied in more detail. The longer the cells were incubated with Triton X-100, the higher was the

  20. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Carsten; Kis, Zoltán; Leuchs, Barbara; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2017-10-17

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  1. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Geiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  2. Use of conivaptan to allow aggressive hydration to prevent tumor lysis syndrome in a pediatric patient with large-cell lymphoma and SIADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Cain, Joan P; Turman, Martin A

    2008-08-01

    The available treatment options for hyponatremia secondary to SIADH are limited and not completely effective. Conivaptan is a vasopressin 1a and 2 receptor antagonist recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia in adult patients. However, data on efficacy and safety of conivaptan in pediatrics are limited. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with extensively metastasized anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. He also developed hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) prior to chemotherapy initiation. SIADH management in this case was complicated when fluid restriction was not safely attainable. Conivaptan played a significant role in this situation by allowing provision of a large amount of intravenous fluid prior to and during induction chemotherapy. It proved to be an important component in preventing uric acid nephropathy/tumor lysis syndrome. Conivaptan induced free-water clearance as indicated by increased urine output and decreased urine osmolality. The patient responded to conivaptan without any adverse effects.

  3. Kinetics of cell lysis for Microcystis aeruginosa and Nitzschia palea in the exposure to β-cyclocitral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, De-Wei; Hsieh, Meng-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of an algal metabolite, β-cyclocitral, on the cell integrity of two cyanobacteria and one diatom was investigated. The cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7005 and PCC 7820, and the diatom, Nitzschia palea, were exposed to various concentrations of β-cyclocitral. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results indicate that the cells of tested species were greatly altered after being exposed to β-cyclocitral. A flow cytometer coupled with the SYTOX stain and chlorophyll-a auto-fluorescence was used to quantify the effect of β-cyclocitral on cell integrity for the tested cyanobacteria and diatom. Kinetic experiments show that about 5-10 mg L -1 of β-cyclocitral for the two M. aeruginosa strains and a much lower concentration, 0.1-0.5 mg L -1 , for N. palea were needed to cause 15-20% of cells to rupture. When the β-cyclocitral concentration was increased to 200-1000 mg L -1 for M. aeruginosa and 5-10 mg L -1 for N. palea, almost all the cells ruptured between 8 and 24 h. A first-order kinetic model is able to describe the data of cell integrity over time. The extracted rate constant values well correlate with the applied β-cyclocitral dosages. The obtained kinetic parameters may be used to estimate β-cyclocitral dosage and contact time required for the control of cyanobacteria and diatoms in water bodies.

  4. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Geiss; Zoltán Kis; Barbara Leuchs; Monika Frank-Stöhr; Jörg R. Schlehofer; Jean Rommelaere; Christiane Dinsart; Jeannine Lacroix

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts...

  5. Alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from aged mice express increased lysis of autologous and third-party target cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Steinmeier, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Much data support the notion that with increasing age a decline in T cell effector function occurs. In the present study, qualitative rather than quantitative age-related changes in vitro alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses were observed. The level of specific alloreactive CTL

  6. Application of Doehlert experimental design in the optimization of experimental variables for the Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Reges de Sena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of pH and temperature on the lysis of yeast using experimental design. In this study, the enzymatic extract containing β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, obtained from the micro-organism Moniliophthora perniciosa, was used. The experiment showed that the best conditions for lysis of Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 by lytic enzyme were pH 4.9 at 37 ºC and pH 3.9 at 26.7 ºC, respectively. The lytic enzyme may be used for obtaining various biotechnology products from yeast.

  7. The study of sheath flow dark zone phenomenon in dynamic individual cells scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Weiguang

    2008-09-01

    Dynamic cells scattering is one of the most efficient approaches exploring in measurements of cells size, morphology and growth states. This technique can be widely applied in real-time detection for pharmaceutical industry, food industry, liquor industry and other biological fields. A novel method named dynamic individual cells scattering measurement is designed in this paper, which can make cells pass through quartz glass measurement zone one by one with sheath flow driving force. During the experiments, an obvious phenomenon has been found which is called sheath flow dark zone phenomenon (SFDZ). Under the influence of SFDZ, sheath flow forming detection becomes very difficult. In this paper, the causes giving rise to SFDZ have been analyzed. And an improved method is put forward, in which the orifice inside the measurement zone is set as an optical system. Then the illuminating system is redesigned. In this way, almost all the illuminating light can enter orifice so that the total reflection energy decreases substantially. A comparison experiments have been done, which proves the efficiency of this redesigned optical system and its sound effects on SFDZ avoiding.

  8. Prevalence of Complement-Mediated Cell Lysis-like Gene (sicG) in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolates From Japan (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takashi; Fujita, Tomohiro; Shibayama, Akiyoshi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Yoshida, Haruno

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE; a β-hemolytic streptococcus of human or animal origin) infections are emerging worldwide. We evaluated the clonal distribution of complement-mediated cell lysis-like gene (sicG) among SDSE isolates from three central prefectures of Japan. Group G/C β-hemolytic streptococci were collected from three institutions from April 2014 to March 2016. Fifty-five strains (52 from humans and three from animals) were identified as SDSE on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing data.; they were obtained from 25 sterile (blood, joint fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid) and 30 non-sterile (skin-, respiratory tract-, and genitourinary tract-origin) samples. emm genotyping, multilocus sequence typing, sicG amplification/sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of sicG-positive strains were performed. sicG was detected in 30.9% of the isolates (16 human and one canine) and the genes from the 16 human samples (blood, 10; open pus, 3; sputum, 2; throat swab, 1) and one canine sample (open pus) showed the same sequence pattern. All sicG-harboring isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 17, and the most prevalent emm type was stG6792 (82.4%). There was a significant association between sicG presence and the development of skin/soft tissue infections. CC17 isolates with sicG could be divided into three subtypes by RAPD analysis. CC17 SDSE harboring sicG might have spread into three closely-related prefectures in central Japan during 2014-2016. Clonal analysis of isolates from other areas might be needed to monitor potentially virulent strains in humans and animals. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  9. Synthesis and functioning of the colicin E1 lysis protein: Comparison with the colicin A lysis protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.

    1991-01-01

    The colicin E1 lysis protein, CelA, was identified as a 3-kDa protein in induced cells of Escherichia coli K-12 carrying pColE1 by pulse-chase labeling with either [ 35 S]cysteine or [ 3 H]lysine. This 3-kDa protein was acylated, as shown by [2- 3 H]glycerol labeling, and seemed to correspond to the mature CelA protein. The rate of modification and processing of CelA was different from that observed for Cal, the colicin A lysis protein. In contrast to Cal, no intermediate form was detected for CelA, no signal peptide accumulated, and no modified precursor form was observed after globomycin treatment. Thus, the rate of synthesis would not be specific to lysis proteins. Solubilization in sodium dodecyl sulfate of the mature forms of both CelA and Cal varied similarly at the time of colicin release, indicating a change in lysis protein structure. This particular property would play a role in the mechanism of colicin export. The accumulation of the signal peptide seems to be a factor determining the toxicity of the lysis proteins since CelA provoked less cell damage than Cal. Quasi-lysis and killing due to CelA were higher in degP mutants than in wild-type cells. They were minimal in pldA mutants

  10. β-1,3 Glucanases e quitinases: aplicação na lise de leveduras e inibição de fungos β-1,3 glucanases and chitinases: application in the yeast cell lysis and fungi inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Francisco Fleuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, a aplicação de β-1,3 glucanases e quitinases da linhagem Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191 na lise de leveduras e inibição de fungos, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental mostrou que as melhores condições para a lise de Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 pela β-1,3 glucanase foi pH 6,5 e 35ºC. As células de leveduras incubadas por 10 h em frascos sem agitação mostraram-se mais susceptíveis à lise pela ação da enzima. Foi obtido maior lise da levedura quando a suspensão de células foi submetida ao tratamento com β-1,3 glucanase e cisteína 1mM. A enzima invertase intracelular ou ligada à célula de S. cerevisiae KL-88 e K. marxianus NCYC 587 foi extraída após tratamento da suspensão celular com β-1,3 glucanase, sendo que o tratamento prévio das leveduras com a enzima aumentou a susceptibilidade das células à lise com ultra-som. A preparação de quitinase foi capaz de formar halos de inibição de alguns fungos.The aim of this work was the application of β-1,3 glucanases and chitinases by Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191 strain on yeast cell lysis and fungi inhibition, respectively. The experimental design study showed that the best conditions to Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 lysis by β-1,3 glucanase extract were pH 6,5 and 35ºC. This study also demonstrated that the yeast cells were more susceptible to lysis after 10 h of cultivation in flasks without agitation. Lysis activity was increased when S. cerevisiae KL-88 cell suspension was treated with β-1,3 glucanase and cystein 1mM. The enzyme invertase of S. cerevisiae KL-88 and Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 was extracted after treatment of cell suspension with β-1,3 glucanase and the previous treatment of yeasts with the enzyme, increased the susceptibility to lysis when ultrasonic treatment was used. The chitinase presented growth inhibition halos for some of the fungi.

  11. Lysis of autologous human macrophages by lymphokine-activated killer cells: interaction of effector cell and target cell conjugates analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, R J; Helinski, E H; Ovak, G M; Pauly, J L

    1990-09-01

    Lymphokine (i.e., interleukin 2; IL-2)-activated killer (LAK) cells derived from normal human blood are known to destroy human tumor target cells. Accordingly, immunotherapy modalities using IL-2, either alone or in combination with LAK cells, have been evaluated for eradicating metastatic cancer. In studies conducted to characterize receptors on LAK cell membrane ultrastructures, we observed that LAK cells kill autologous human monocyte-derived macrophages (M phi). In these experiments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy adult donor were cultured to generate LAK cells and autologous non-adherent M phi. Thereafter, conjugates were prepared by incubating for 3 h autologous populations of LAK cells and M phi. Examination of the conjugates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified LAK cell-mediated killing of M phi. Moreover, SEM analysis of the LAK cell membrane architecture identified microvilli-like ultrastructures that provided a physical bridge that joined together the LAK cell and M phi. The immunological mechanism(s) underling LAK cell killing of autologous M phi is not known; nevertheless, these conjugates will provide a useful model to study membrane receptors on ultrastructures that mediate the initial stages of cytolysis that include target cell recognition and cell-to-cell adhesion. The results of our observations and the findings of other investigators who have also demonstrated LAK cell killing of autologous normal human leukocytes are discussed in the context of the association of IL-2 and IL-2-activated killer cells with side effects observed in ongoing clinical trials and with autoimmune disorders.

  12. Produção de protoplastos e lise da parede celular de leveduras utilizando β-1,3 glucanase Protoplasts production and yeast cell wall lysis using β-1,3 glucanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Francisco Fleuri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou a aplicação da β-1,3 glucanase lítica, obtida do microrganismo Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191, na produção de protoplastos e na lise da parede celular de leveduras. A preparação bruta da enzima foi capaz de lisar as leveduras Kluyveromyces lodderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann e Itaiquara, S. cerevisiae KL-88, S. diastaticus NCYC 713, S. cerevisiae NCYC 1001, Candida glabrata NCYC 388, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 e Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500. A β-1,3 glucanase purificada foi capaz de lisar as leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88, Saccharomyces capensis, Debaromyces vanriji, Pachysolen tannophillus, Kluyveromyces drosophilarum, Candida glabrata, Hansenula mrakii e Pichia membranaefaciens e formar protoplastos de Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88.The aim of this work was the application of lytic β-1,3 glucanase obtained from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans strain 191 in the production of protoplasts and lysis of yeast cell walls. The crude extract demonstrated lysis activity against the yeasts Kluyveromyces lodderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann and Itaiquara, S. cerevisiae KL-88, S. diastaticus NCYC 713, S. cerevisiae NCYC 1001, Candida glabrata NCYC 388, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587, and Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500. The purified β-1,3 glucanase demonstrated lysis activity against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88, Saccharomyces capensis, Debaromyces vanriji, Pachysolen tannophillus, Kluyveromyces drosophilarum, Candida glabrata, Hansenula mrakii, and Pichia membranaefaciens, and it was able to produce Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 protoplasts.

  13. Elucidating the phenomenon of HESC-derived RPE: anatomy of cell genesis, expansion and retinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony; Carr, Amanda-Jayne; Lawrence, Jean; Chen, Li Li; Burrell, Kelly; Wright, Andrew; Lundh, Peter; Semo, Ma'ayan; Ahmado, Ahmad; Gias, Carlos; da Cruz, Lyndon; Moore, Harry; Andrews, Peter; Walsh, James; Coffey, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Healthy Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells are required for proper visual function and the phenomenon of RPE derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) holds great potential for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, little is known about formation, expansion and expression profile of RPE-like cells derived from HESC (HESC-RPE). By studying the genesis of pigmented foci we identified OTX1/2-positive cell types as potential HESC-RPE precursors. When pigmented foci were excised from culture, HESC-RPE expanded to form extensive monolayers, with pigmented cells at the leading edge assuming a precursor role: de-pigmenting, proliferating, expressing keratin 8 and subsequently re-differentiating. As they expanded and differentiated in vitro, HESC-RPE expressed markers of both developing and mature RPE cells which included OTX1/2, Pax6, PMEL17 and at low levels, RPE65. In vitro, without signals from a developing retinal environment, HESC-RPE could produce regular, polarised monolayers with developmentally important apical and basal features. Following transplantation of HESC-RPE into the degenerating retinal environment of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats, the cells survived in the subretinal space, where they maintained low levels of RPE65 expression and remained out of the cell cycle. The HESC-RPE cells responded to the in vivo environment by downregulating Pax6, while maintaining expression of other markers. The presence of rhodopsin-positive material within grafted HESC-RPE indicates that in the future, homogenous transplants of this cell type may be capable of supporting visual function following retinal dystrophy.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  15. Evaluation of Lysis Methods for the Extraction of Bacterial DNA for Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gill

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others. This study aimed to compare the results of vaginal microbiota profiling using four different pretreatment methods for the lysis of bacterial samples (30 min of lysis with lysozyme, 16 hours of lysis with lysozyme, 60 min of lysis with a mixture of lysozyme, mutanolysin and lysostaphin and 30 min of lysis with lysozyme followed by bead beating prior to chemical and enzyme-based DNA extraction with a commercial kit.After extraction, DNA yield did not significantly differ between methods with the exception of lysis with lysozyme combined with bead beating which produced significantly lower yields when compared to lysis with the enzyme cocktail or 30 min lysis with lysozyme only. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the observed alpha diversity of samples. The beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between different lysis methods was statistically significantly different, but this difference was small compared to differences between samples, and did not affect the grouping of samples with similar vaginal bacterial community structure by hierarchical clustering.An understanding of how laboratory methods affect the results of microbiota studies is vital in order to accurately interpret the results and make valid comparisons between studies. Our results indicate that the choice of lysis method does not prevent the detection of effects relating to the type of vaginal bacterial community one of the main outcome measures of

  16. Evaluation of Lysis Methods for the Extraction of Bacterial DNA for Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Blow, Frances; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others. This study aimed to compare the results of vaginal microbiota profiling using four different pretreatment methods for the lysis of bacterial samples (30 min of lysis with lysozyme, 16 hours of lysis with lysozyme, 60 min of lysis with a mixture of lysozyme, mutanolysin and lysostaphin and 30 min of lysis with lysozyme followed by bead beating) prior to chemical and enzyme-based DNA extraction with a commercial kit. After extraction, DNA yield did not significantly differ between methods with the exception of lysis with lysozyme combined with bead beating which produced significantly lower yields when compared to lysis with the enzyme cocktail or 30 min lysis with lysozyme only. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the observed alpha diversity of samples. The beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) between different lysis methods was statistically significantly different, but this difference was small compared to differences between samples, and did not affect the grouping of samples with similar vaginal bacterial community structure by hierarchical clustering. An understanding of how laboratory methods affect the results of microbiota studies is vital in order to accurately interpret the results and make valid comparisons between studies. Our results indicate that the choice of lysis method does not prevent the detection of effects relating to the type of vaginal bacterial community one of the main outcome measures of epidemiological studies

  17. The madness of crowds phenomenon in the collective decision-making by the cells, the cell's metacognition and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.

    2018-02-01

    Recently it has been found that the collective decision-making in the group is efficient only when the confidences (a version of metacognition) of the members are similar, and it has been assumed that the metacognition (self-reference) in general is crucial for the human cooperation. Our goal is to map the decision making by the cells to decision making by humans, looking the analog of metacognition in the cells, accurately calculate the collective sensing of chemical gradients by the cells, and apply our results to cancer. We formulated the model for the chemeosensing by the cells with different diameters, solved it accurately and found that the collective chemosensing is very similar to the collective decision making by humans. We found that the collective sensing of the ligand concentration can be worse than for the most sensitive cell. We introduced the metacognition of the cells, and verify that the metacognition is impaired for the cancer case. We assume as a hypothesis that the impaired cell metacognition in case of cancer does not allow normal multi-cellularity, and cancer can arise when the "two heads are better than one" principle fails, and there is a "madness of crowds" phenomenon instead.

  18. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001. E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and

  19. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes; Estudio del rendimiento en fagos para los procesos de lisis bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidania Munoz, R de; Garces, F; Davila, C A

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of {lambda}vir and{lambda} clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C{sub 6}00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and the bacterial burst side, we have found that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Raynaud's phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Christensen, N J; Olsen, N

    1980-01-01

    . The forearm venous concentration of noradrenaline was lower and adrenaline concentration higher in the sympathectomized patients than in the other groups (p less than 0,05). Noradrenaline showed a significant increase during body cooling in normals and primary Raynaud's (p less than 0......The reaction to body and finger cooling was recorded in seven patients with relapse of primary Raynaud's phenomenon after sufficiently performed bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy and for comparison in eight young women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon as well as in seven normal women......,05). There was no significant correlation between the vasoconstrictor response to cooling of a finger and the noradrenaline concentration probably due to the fact that skin vasoconstriction impeded release of noradrenaline from the skin. The relapse of Raynaud's phenomenon after surgically sufficient sympathectomy could...

  1. Rare incidence of tumor lysis syndrome in metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sharonlin; Varma, Seema

    2018-03-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and sometimes lethal complication of cancer treatment that is comprised of a set of metabolic disturbances along with clinical manifestations. Initiating chemotherapy in bulky, rapidly proliferating tumors causes rapid cell turnover that in turn releases metabolites into circulation that give rise to metabolic derangements that can be dangerous. This syndrome is usually seen in high-grade hematological malignancies. Less commonly, tumor lysis syndrome can present in solid tumors and even rarely in genitourinary tumors. In this report, the authors describe a specific case of tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

  2. Nucleation of holin domains and holes optimizes lysis timing of E. coli by phage λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gillian; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Holin proteins regulate the precise scheduling of Escherichia coli lysis during infection by bacteriophage λ. Inserted into the host bacterium's inner membrane during infection, holins aggregate to form rafts and then holes within those rafts. We present a two-stage nucleation model of holin action, with the nucleation of condensed holin domains followed by the nucleation of holes within these domains. Late nucleation of holin rafts leads to a weak dependence of lysis timing on host cell size, though both nucleation events contribute equally to timing errors. Our simulations recover the accurate scheduling observed experimentally, and also suggest that phage-λ lysis of E.coli is optimized.

  3. The Adder Phenomenon Emerges from Independent Control of Pre- and Post-Start Phases of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Brown, Devon; Schmoller, Kurt M; Winetraub, Yonatan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-09-25

    Although it has long been clear that cells actively regulate their size, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have remained poorly understood. In budding yeast, cell size primarily modulates the duration of the cell-division cycle by controlling the G1/S transition known as Start. We have recently shown that the rate of progression through Start increases with cell size, because cell growth dilutes the cell-cycle inhibitor Whi5 in G1. Recent phenomenological studies in yeast and bacteria have shown that these cells add an approximately constant volume during each complete cell cycle, independent of their size at birth. These results seem to be in conflict, as the phenomenological studies suggest that cells measure the amount they grow, rather than their size, and that size control acts over the whole cell cycle, rather than specifically in G1. Here, we propose an integrated model that unifies the adder phenomenology with the molecular mechanism of G1/S cell-size control. We use single-cell microscopy to parameterize a full cell-cycle model based on independent control of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods. We find that our model predicts the size-independent amount of cell growth during the full cell cycle. This suggests that the adder phenomenon is an emergent property of the independent regulation of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods rather than the consequence of an underlying molecular mechanism measuring a fixed amount of growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete blood cell count components and coronary slow-flow phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjmand N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasim Arjmand, Mohammad Reza Dehghani Department of Cardiology, Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IranDespite the implementation of preventive strategies, ischemic heart disease and stroke remain the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.1,2 Of the cardiovascular diseases, coronary slow-flow phenomenon (CSFP, with a prevalence rate of 1%–7% among patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, has been found to be associated with cardiovascular events, including cardiac arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome.3–5 However, the potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CSFP remain unknown. Microvascular and endothelial dysfunctions, inflammation, diffuse atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregability have been reported to be the main possible etiologies for CSFP.6,7View original paper by Atlas and colleagues.

  5. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Chavarria, Krystle L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tom, Lauren M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  6. Cytogenetic Effects of Low Dose Radiation in Mammalian Cells Analysis of the Phenomenon Hypersensitivity and Induced Radioresistence

    CERN Document Server

    Shmakova, N L; Nasonova, E A; Krasavin, E A; Rsjanina, A V

    2001-01-01

    The induction of cytogenetic damage after irradiation of chinese hamster cells and human melanoma cells within dose range 1-200 cGy was studied. The anaphase and metaphase analysis of chromosome damage and micronuclei test were applied. The hypersensitivity (HRS) at doses below 20 cGy and the increased radioresistence at higher doses (IR) were shown with all cytogenetic criteria for both cell lines. The phenomenon of HRS/IR was reproduced in synchronic as well as in asynchronic population of chinese hamster cells. This fact shows that HRS was caused by high radiosensitivity of all cells and can not be explained by any differential sensitivity of cells in different phases of the cell cycle. So it was supposed that the increasing radioresistence is determined by the inclusion of the inducible repair processes in all cells. This conclusion agress with the fact that there was no evidence of HRS on dose-effect curves and that some part of pre-existent damage was repaired after preliminary irradiation with low dose...

  7. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  8. Microcalcifications in breast cancer: an active phenomenon mediated by epithelial cells with mesenchymal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Giannini, Elena; Antonacci, Chiara; Pistolese, Chiara Adriana; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Bonanno, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Mammary microcalcifications have a crucial role in breast cancer detection, but the processes that induce their formation are unknown. Moreover, recent studies have described the occurrence of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, but its role is not defined. In this study, we hypothesized that epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics and become capable of producing breast microcalcifications. Breast sample biopsies with microcalcifications underwent energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to better define the elemental composition of the microcalcifications. Breast sample biopsies without microcalcifications were used as controls. The ultrastructural phenotype of breast cells near to calcium deposits was also investigated to verify EMT in relation to breast microcalcifications. The mesenchymal phenotype and tissue mineralization were studied by immunostaining for vimentin, BMP-2, β2-microglobulin, β-catenin and osteopontin (OPN). The complex formation of calcium hydroxyapatite was strictly associated with malignant lesions whereas calcium-oxalate is mainly reported in benign lesions. Notably, for the first time, we observed the presence of magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite, which was frequently noted in breast cancer but never found in benign lesions. Morphological studies demonstrated that epithelial cells with mesenchymal characteristics were significantly increased in infiltrating carcinomas with microcalcifications and in cells with ultrastructural features typical of osteoblasts close to microcalcifications. These data were strengthened by the rate of cells expressing molecules typically involved during physiological mineralization (i.e. BMP-2, OPN) that discriminated infiltrating carcinomas with microcalcifications from those without microcalcifications. We found significant differences in the elemental composition of calcifications between benign and malignant lesions. Observations of cell phenotype led us to

  9. "The Lower Threshold" phenomenon in tumor cells toward endogenous digitalis-like compounds: Responsible for tumorigenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Weidemann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their first discovery as potential anti-cancer drugs decades ago, there is increasing evidence that digitalis-like compounds (DLC have anti-tumor effects. Less is known about endogenous DLC (EDLC metabolism and regulation. As stress hormones synthesized in and secreted from the adrenal gland, they likely take part in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. In a previous study, we revealed reduced EDLC concentrations in plasma and organs from immune-compromised animals and proposed that a similar situation of a deregulated HPA axis with "adrenal EDLF exhaustion" may contribute to tumorigenesis in chronic stress situations. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that a lowered EDLC response threshold of tumor cells as compared with normal cells increases the risk of tumorigenesis, especially in those individuals with reduced EDLC plasma concentrations after chronic stress exposure. We will evaluate this hypothesis by (a summarizing the effects of different DLC concentrations on tumor as compared with normal cells and (b reviewing some essential differences in the Na/K-ATPase of tumor as compared with normal cells (isoform pattern, pump activity, mutations of other signalosome receptors. We will conclude that (1 tumor cells, indeed, seem to have their individual "physiologic" EDLC response range that already starts at pmolar levels and (2 that individuals with markedly reduced (pmolar EDLC plasma levels are predisposed to cancer because these EDLC concentrations will predominantly stimulate the proliferation of tumor cells. Finally, we will summarize preliminary results from our department supporting this hypothesis.

  10. Primary Phenomenon in the Network Formation of Endothelial Cells: Effect of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Shunto

    2015-12-07

    Blood vessels are essential organs that are involved in the supply of nutrients and oxygen and play an important role in regulating the body's internal environment, including pH, body temperature, and water homeostasis. Many studies have examined the formation of networks of endothelial cells. The results of these studies have revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects the interactions of these cells and modulates the network structure. Though almost all previous simulation studies have assumed that the chemoattractant VEGF is present before network formation, vascular endothelial cells secrete VEGF only after the cells bind to the substrate. This suggests VEGF is not essential for vasculogenesis especially at the early stage. Using a simple experiment, we find chain-like structures which last quite longer than it is expected, unless the energetically stable cluster should be compact. Using a purely physical model and simulation, we find that the hydrodynamic interaction retard the compaction of clusters and that the chains are stabilized through the effects of charge. The charge at the surface of the cells affect the interparticle potential, and the resulting repulsive forces prevent the chains from folding. The ions surrounding the cells may also be involved in this process.

  11. The Fc-receptor III of cultured human monocytes. Structural similarity with FcRIII of natural killer cells and role in the extracellular lysis of sensitized erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R. J.; Ouwehand, W. H.; Huizinga, T. W.; Engelfriet, C. P.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    FcRIII is not present on peripheral blood monocytes, but becomes expressed upon culturing and can be demonstrated on tissue macrophages. We studied the expression of FcRIII of cultured monocytes in detail and compared its structure with FcRIII of neutrophils and NK cells. The cell density of FcRIII

  12. Lysis of fresh human solid tumors by autologous lymphocytes activated in vitro with lectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, A.; Grimm, E.A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with a variety of cancers, were incubated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The lectin-activated PBL of nine patients were capable of lysing fresh autologous tumor during a 4-hr 51Cr release assay. Multiple metastases from the same patient were equivalently lysed by these activated autologous PBL. No lysis of fresh PBL or lectin-induced lymphoblast cell targets was seen, although tumor, PBL, and lymphoblast cells were shown to be equally lysable using allosensitized cells. The activated cells could be expanded without loss of cytotoxicity in crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The generation of cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor was dependent on the presence of adherent cells, although the lytic cell itself was not adherent. Proliferation was not involved in the induction of lytic cells since equal lysis was induced in irradiated and nonirradiated lymphocytes. Lectin was not required in the lytic assay, and the addition of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside to concanavalin A-activated lymphoid cells did not increase the lysis of fresh tumor cells. Activation by lectin for 3 days appears to be an efficient and convenient method for generating human cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor. These lytic cells may be of value for studies of the cell-mediated lysis of human tumor and possibly for tumor immunotherapy as well

  13. Immunosuppression by hypoxic cell radiosensitizers: a phenomenon of potential clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.; Kapp, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The nitroimidazoles metronidazole, misonidazol, and desmethyl misonidazole are currently undergoing clinical trials as possible adjuncts to radiotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effectiveness of these agents and also documenting the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of radiosensitizing doses of these drugs in man. A variety of toxic effects have been noted in man, including anorexia, nausea and vomiting, peripheral neuropathy, central nervous system symptoms, ototoxicity, allergy, and fear. Laboratory studies have also suggested that these agents have potential to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. In the editorial presented, the author attempts to draw attention to an additional toxic effect of nitroimidazoles - the inhibition of cell-mediated immune responses

  14. Chimeric bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody mediates lysis of tumor cells expressing the folate-binding protein (MOv18) and displays decreased immunogenicity in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, R. M.; Warnaar, S. O.; Sanborn, D.; Lamers, C. H.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Litvinov, S. V.; Zurawski, V. R.; Coney, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody (mAb) cross-links the CD3 molecule on T cells with the human folate-binding protein (FBP), which is highly expressed on nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. Clinical trials of patients with ovarian carcinoma with the OC/TR mAb have shown some complete and partial

  15. Inactivation of the Autolysis-Related Genes lrgB and yycI in Staphylococcus aureus Increases Cell Lysis-Dependent eDNA Release and Enhances Biofilm Development In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ossaille Beltrame

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus ica-independent biofilms are multifactorial in nature, and various bacterial proteins have been associated with biofilm development, including fibronectin-binding proteins A and B, protein A, surface protein SasG, proteases, and some autolysins. The role of extracellular DNA (eDNA has also been demonstrated in some S. aureus biofilms. Here, we constructed a Tn551 library, and the screening identified two genes that affected biofilm formation, lrgB and yycI. The repressive effect of both genes on the development of biofilm was also confirmed in knockout strains constructed by allelic recombination. In contrast, the superexpression of either lrgB or yycI by a cadmium-inducible promoter led to a decrease in biofilm accumulation. Indeed, a significant increase in the cell-lysis dependent eDNA release was detected when lrgB or yycI were inactivated, explaining the enhanced biofilm formed by these mutants. In fact, lrgB and yycI genes belong to distinct operons that repress bacterial autolysis through very different mechanisms. LrgB is associated with the synthesis of phage holin/anti-holin analogues, while YycI participates in the activation/repression of the two-component system YycGF (WalKR. Our in vivo data suggest that autolysins activation lead to increased bacterial virulence in the foreign body animal model since a higher number of attached cells was recovered from the implanted catheters inoculated with lrgB or yycI knockout mutants.

  16. Comparison of Different Sample Preparation Protocols Reveals Lysis Buffer-Specific Extraction Biases in Gram-Negative Bacteria and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Timo; Ahrné, Erik; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-11-06

    We evaluated different in-solution and FASP-based sample preparation strategies for absolute protein quantification. Label-free quantification (LFQ) was employed to compare different sample preparation strategies in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), and organismal-specific differences in general performance and enrichment of specific protein classes were noted. The original FASP protocol globally enriched for most proteins in the bacterial sample, whereas the sodium deoxycholate in-solution strategy was more efficient with HEK cells. Although detergents were found to be highly suited for global proteome analysis, higher intensities were obtained for high-abundant nucleic acid-associated protein complexes, like the ribosome and histone proteins, using guanidine hydrochloride. Importantly, we show for the first time that the observable total proteome mass of a sample strongly depends on the sample preparation protocol, with some protocols resulting in a significant underestimation of protein mass due to incomplete protein extraction of biased protein groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that some of the observed abundance biases can be overcome by incorporating a nuclease treatment step or, alternatively, a correction factor for complementary sample preparation approaches.

  17. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  18. Increased Resistance to osmotic lysis of sickled erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated with CNw had significantly reduced osmotic lysis when compared with the untreated set (P<0.05, respectively) at various hypotonic NaCl concentrations. Various Hb genotypes exhibited a graded increase in osmotic pressure lysis in ...

  19. Model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy array due to oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, Satoshi; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in a 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJ) array and investigated the interference effect between a program cell and unselected cells due to the oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells by Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert micromagnetic simulation. We found that interference brings about a switching delay in a program cell and excitation of magnetization precession in unselected cells even when no programing current passes through. The origin of interference is ferromagnetic resonance between neighboring cells. During the interference period, the precession frequency of the program cell is 20.8 GHz, which synchronizes with that of the theoretical precession frequency f = γH eff in unselected cells. The disturbance strength of unselected cells decreased to be inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the program cell, which is in good agreement with the dependence of stray field on the distance from the program cell calculated by the dipole approximation method.

  20. Comprehensive Cross-Clade Characterization of Antibody-Mediated Recognition, Complement-Mediated Lysis, and Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity of HIV-1 Envelope-Specific Antibodies toward Eradication of the HIV-1 Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujib, Shariq; Liu, Jun; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Schwartz, Jordan A; Bonner, Phil; Yue, Feng Yun; Ostrowski, Mario A

    2017-08-15

    Immunotherapy with passive administration of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies (bnAbs) in the setting of established infection in vivo has yielded mixed results. The contribution of different antibodies toward the direct elimination of infected cells is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the ability of 12 well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies to recognize and eliminate primary CD4 T cells infected with HIV-1 belonging to clades A, B, C, and D, via antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), in vitro We further tested unique combinations of these antibodies to determine the optimal antibody cocktails to be tested in future clinical trials. We report that antibody binding to infected CD4 T cells is highly variable and correlates with ADCML and ADCC processes. Particularly, antibodies targeting the envelope glycan shield (2G12) and V1/V2 site (PG9, PG16, and PGT145) are best at recognizing HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells. However, only PG9 and PG16 and their combinations with other bnAbs sufficiently induced the elimination of HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells by ADCML, ADCC, or both. Notably, CD4 binding site antibodies VRC01, 3BNC117, and NIH45-46 G54W did not exhibit recognition of infected cells and were unable to induce their killing. Future trials geared toward the development of a cure for HIV/AIDS should incorporate V1/V2 antibodies for maximal clearance of infected cells. With the use of only primary immune cells, we conducted a comprehensive cross-clade physiological analysis to aid the direction of antibodies as therapeutics toward the development of a cure for HIV/AIDS. IMPORTANCE Several antibodies capable of neutralizing the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains have been identified to date and have been shown to prevent infection in animal models. However, the use of combinations of such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) for the treatment and

  1. Miniature acoustic wave lysis system and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W.; Vreeland, Erika Cooley; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe

    2016-12-06

    The present invention relates to an acoustic lysis system including a disposable cartridge that can be reversibly coupled to a platform having a small, high-frequency piezoelectric transducer array. In particular, the system releases viable DNA, RNA, and proteins from human or bacterial cells, without chemicals or additional processing, to enable high-speed sample preparation for clinical point-of-care medical diagnostics and use with nano/microfluidic cartridges. Also described herein are methods of making and using the system of the invention.

  2. Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with lysis-filtration and a conventional unvented bottle for blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, V J; Zierdt, C H; Wu, T C; Stock, F; Pizzo, P A; MacLowry, J D

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of a commercially available lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, DuPont Co., Wilmington, Del.) and a lysis-filtration blood culture system for 3,111 cultures showed that both methods had comparable recoveries (73 and 68%, respectively) of significant aerobic and facultatively anaerobic isolates. The unvented conventional blood culture bottle had a recovery rate of 59%. Although the lysis-centrifugation and lysis-filtration systems had comparable recoveries of pathog...

  3. Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempashanaiah Nanjundappa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy. Results We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80. Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection. Conclusions A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host

  4. Aggregate Formation During the Viral Lysis of a Marine Diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamada

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that the viral lysis of microbes not only facilitates the conversion of particulate organic matter into dissolved organic matter, but also promotes the formation of organic aggregates, which enhance the export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to the deep sea. However, experimental data supporting this proposition are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the viral infection of marine diatoms enhances aggregate formation. We used a model system consisting of Chaetoceros tenuissimus, a bloom-forming diatom with an approximate cell size of 3–10 μm, and a DNA virus, CtenDNAV type II, which replicates in the nucleus of C. tenuissimus. The volume of large particles (50–400 μm in equivalent spherical diameters, determined from photographic images was measured over time (up to 15 days in the diatom-alone control and a virus-added diatom culture. We also determined the concentrations of Coomassie-stainable particles (CSP, proteinaceous particles and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP, acid-polysaccharide-rich particles with colorimetric methods. The total volume of large particles was significantly higher (5–59 fold in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control during the period in which the viral lysis of the diatoms proceeded. One class of large particles produced in the virus-added diatoms was flake-shaped. The flakes were tightly packed and dense, and sank rapidly, possibly playing an important role in the vertical delivery of materials from the surface to the deep sea. The bulk CSP concentrations tended to be higher in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control, whereas the reverse was true for the TEP. These results suggest that proteinaceous polymers are involved in aggregate formation. Our data support the emerging notion that the viral lysis of microbes facilitates aggregate formation and the export of organic carbon in the ocean.

  5. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Weitz, Joshua S; Nelson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics

  6. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

    2010-10-04

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  7. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr 51 -release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK

  8. A mechanism of acquired resistance to complement-mediated lysis by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L; Cabrera, N; Pérez-Montfort, R

    1997-04-01

    Some Entamoeba histolytica strains resist complement-mediated lysis by serum. Susceptible and resistant strains activate the complement system equivalently, but resistant amebas evade killing by membrane attack complexes. Our objective was to determine the mechanism by which trophozoites of E. histolytica resist lysis by human serum. Amebas were made resistant to lysis by incubation with increasing concentrations of normal human serum. The possibility that resistant cells ingest membrane attack complexes was explored by subcellular fractionation of susceptible and resistant trophozoites treated with sublytic concentrations of human serum containing radiolabeled C9. In both cases, most of the label was in the fractions containing plasma membrane. The susceptible strain consistently showed more label associated with these fractions than the resistant strain. Thus, the possibility that the membrane attack complexes were released to the medium was explored. Both resistant and susceptible trophozoites release to the medium similar amounts of material excluded by Sepharose CL-2B in the presence or absence of normal human serum. Labeled C9 elutes together with the main bulk of proteins from the medium: this indicates that it is not in vesicles or high molecular weight aggregates. Coincubation of susceptible amebas with lysates of resistant trophozoites confers resistance to susceptible cells within 30 min. Resistance to lysis by serum can also be acquired by susceptible amebas after coincubation with lysates from human erythrocytes or after feeding them with whole human red blood cells. Resistant but not susceptible trophozoites show intense immunofluorescent staining on their surface with anti-human erythrocytic membrane antibody. These results suggest that amebas acquire resistance to lysis by serum by incorporating into their membranes complement regulatory proteins.

  9. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  10. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torpey, D.J. III.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with 51 Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant

  11. 21 CFR 864.7275 - Euglobulin lysis time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euglobulin lysis time tests. 864.7275 Section 864.7275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7275 Euglobulin lysis...

  12. A self-lysis pathway that enhances the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kirsty A; Dolben, Emily L; LeRoux, Michele; Kambara, Tracy K; Ramsey, Kathryn M; Kirkpatrick, Robin L; Mougous, Joseph D; Hogan, Deborah A; Dove, Simon L

    2015-07-07

    In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in fighting bacterial infections. Although widespread among multicellular organisms, there are relatively few documented instances of PCD in bacteria. Here we describe a potential PCD pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that enhances the ability of the bacterium to cause disease in a lung infection model. Activation of the system can occur in a subset of cells in response to DNA damage through cleavage of an essential transcription regulator we call AlpR. Cleavage of AlpR triggers a cell lysis program through de-repression of the alpA gene, which encodes a positive regulator that activates expression of the alpBCDE lysis cassette. Although this is lethal to the individual cell in which it occurs, we find it benefits the population as a whole during infection of a mammalian host. Thus, host and pathogen each may use PCD as a survival-promoting strategy. We suggest that activation of the Alp cell lysis pathway is a disease-enhancing response to bacterial DNA damage inflicted by the host immune system.

  13. Design and Modelling of a Microfluidic Electro-Lysis Device with Controlling Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A.; Chen, C. P.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L. A.; Steele, A.; Flores, G.

    2006-04-01

    Many Lab-on-Chip applications require sample pre-treatment systems. Using electric fields to perform cell lysis in bio-MEMS systems has provided a powerful tool which can be integrated into Lab-on-a- Chip platforms. The major design considerations for electro-lysis devices include optimal geometry and placement of micro-electrodes, cell concentration, flow rates, optimal electric field (e.g. pulsed DC vs. AC), etc. To avoid electrolysis of the flowing solution at the exposed electrode surfaces, magnitudes and the applied voltages and duration of the DC pulse, or the AC frequency of the AC, have to be optimized for a given configuration. Using simulation tools for calculation of electric fields has proved very useful, for exploring alternative configurations and operating conditions for achieving electro cell-lysis. To alleviate the problem associated with low electric fields within the microfluidics channel and the high voltage demand on the contact electrode strips, two ''control plates'' are added to the microfluidics configuration. The principle of placing the two controlling plate-electrodes is based on the electric fields generated by a combined insulator/dielectric (glass/water) media. Surface charges are established at the insulator/dielectric interface. This paper discusses the effects of this interface charge on the modification of the electric field of the flowing liquid/cell solution.

  14. Thymic lymphocytes. III. Cooperative phenomenon in the proliferation of thymocytes under Con A stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiernik, M; Jacobson, J B

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper, the response of thymocytes to Con A is analyzed in terms of a cooperative phenomenon between medullary thymocytes, cortical thymocytes, thymic accessory cells, and interleukin 2. Medullary thymocytes respond spontaneously to Con A and produce IL-2. The addition of exogenously produced IL-2 enhances their proliferation. Small numbers of cortical (PNA+) thymocytes do not respond to Con A, even in the presence of IL-2-containing supernatant. By increasing the number of PNA+ cells per well, sensitivity to Con A and IL-2 appears. This response may be linked either to the increase in a minor PNA+-responding population and/or to the enhanced contamination by medullary thymocytes and macrophages in non-responding PNA+ thymocyte population. In this hypothesis, either the contaminating cells respond by themselves and/or cooperate with PNA+ cells to induce their proliferation. Coculture of non-responding low numbers of PNA+ thymocytes with Con A- and IL-2-containing supernatant in the presence of PNA- cells containing thymic medullary thymocytes and macrophages always produces a higher response than that of each individual population. These results show that a cooperative phenomenon occurs in the cocultures of PNA+ and PNA- thymic cells. We can show using PNA+ and PNA- thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and populations participate PNA-thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and PNA- populations participate in the generation of proliferating cells. We can demonstrate, by lysis experiments with monoclonal antibodies and complement that at the end of coculture, most of the proliferating cells are Lyt 1+, and part are Lyt 2+ or L3T4+. We discuss the fact that the phenotype of the cells after activation does not allow us to deduce the phenotype of their precursors. Lysis of Ia+ cells prior to coculture, reduces the level of the proliferative response but does not modify the percentage of cooperation produced

  15. Koebner Phenomenon and Mycosis Fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Lebas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most frequent type of primary cutaneous T-cell/NK-cell lymphoma. The Koebner phenomenon is defined as the appearance of cutaneous lesions on previously noninvolved skin following trauma and is observed in a series of cutaneous diseases including psoriasis, lichen planus, viral warts, molluscum contagiosum, etc. In this case report, 3 patients with longstanding MF are presented, the 1st with the appearance of a circumscribed early-stage type MF lesion rapidly following a surgical excision of an infundibular cyst, the 2nd with the appearance of a unique unilateral palmar tumoral MF lesion at the pressure site of a crutch, and the 3rd presented localized MF early stage lesions at the friction site of a belt. This report suggests that some MF patients may experience Koebner phenomenon-induced MF lesions and that MF should be added to the long list of skin diseases potentially exhibiting the Koebner phenomenon.

  16. The Effect of the Microstructure on Trap-Assisted Recombination and Light Soaking Phenomenon in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Shuyan; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Sherkar, Tejas S.; Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rich experience gained in controlling the microstructure of perovskite films over the past several years, little is known about how the microstructure affects the device properties of perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). In this work, the effects of the perovskite film microstructure on the

  17. Subacute Cerebellar Degeneration due to a Paraneoplastic Phenomenon Associated with Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Sharobeam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to illustrate the diagnostic challenges and management of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes in Merkel cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We describe a previously functionally independent 85-year-old woman who presented with subacute onset of dizziness and gait ataxia in the setting of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Results: Diagnosis was made on biopsy after positron emission tomography imaging revealed increased metabolic activity in 2 left inguinofemoral lymph nodes. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was positive for anti-Hu on subsequent admission. Her functional status improved with methylprednisolone treatment and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The case highlights the challenge of the evaluation of patients who present with progressive cerebellar signs and the need to consider a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially in the setting of previous malignancy.

  18. The impostor phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Bønnelykke, Helle

    Persons suffering from the impostor phenomenon often fail to thrive and might be in danger of dropping out of studies. The impostor-phenomenon relates to people who are both skillful and capable, but sees themselves as frauds and as someone who is not worthy of good grades, appraisal for their work...

  19. The crossed phrenic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki

    2017-06-01

    The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C 1 -hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury.

  20. Role of the SRRz/Rz1 lambdoid lysis cassette in the pathoadaptive evolution of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Pasqua, Martina; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2017-06-01

    Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz 1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E. coli K12 by virtue of its beneficial effect on cell physiology, has undergone a significant decay in Shigella. Moreover, we show the antivirulence nature of the SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette in Shigella. In fact, by restoring the SRRz/Rz 1 expression in this pathogen, we observe an increased release of peptidoglycan fragments, causing an unbalance in the fine control exerted by Shigella on host innate immunity and a mitigation of its virulence. This strongly affects the virulence of Shigella and allows to consider the loss of SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette as another pathoadaptive event in the life of Shigella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. NO REFLOW PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Hashemifard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Definition No reflow is a phenomenon in which myocardial ischemia and reduced antegrade flow occur despite the absence of proximal stenosis, spasm, dissection, or embolic cut off of major distal branches.1 In another word no reflow phenomenon means failure of restoration of myocardial flow despite removal of epicardial coronary obstruction.2 The incidence is 2% with plain balloon angioplasty (PTCA, 7% in patients undergoing rotational atherectomy, 12% for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and much higher at 42% for PCI of degenerated Saphenous Vein Graft (SVG.3 No reflow is a strong predictor of mortality after PCI. The mortality of patients who developed no reflow has been estimated to be 8% Predictors of no reflow include a higher plaque burden, thrombus, lipid pools by intra vascular ultra sonography (IVUS, higher lesion elastic membrane cross sectional area, preinfarction angina and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI flow grade 0 on the initial coronary angiogram. Mechanism The cause is mainly embolization of atheromatous material (gruel. Particles are composed of cholesterol clefts, lipid rich macrophages, fragments of fibrous cap, necrotic lesion core and fibrin. This is aggravated by microembolization of platelet-rich thrombi that release vasoactive agents (e.g., serotonin and thromboxane A2, leading to intense arteriolar vasopasm in the distal vasculature. In the animal laboratory, experimental no reflow has been shown to be due to the plugging of capillaries by red blood cells and neutrophils, myocyte contracture and local intracellular and interstitial edema.4,5      A loss of capillary autoregulation and severe microvascular dysfunction are the ultimate physiologic consequences of these microscopic anatomic alterations. Debris of varying sizes of particulate has variable effects on microcirculatory plugging. The effect of particle size on microvascular dysfunction has been mostly investigated during

  2. Interfacial phenomenon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    2000-02-01

    This book is composed of 8 chapters. It tells what interfacial phenomenon is by showing interfacial energy, characteristic of interface and system of interface from chapter 1. It also introduces interfacial energy and structure theory, molecular structure and orientation theory, and interfacial electricity phenomenon theory in the following 3 chapters. It still goes on by introducing super molecule cluster, disequilibrium dispersion, and surface and film through 3 chapters. And the last chapter is about colloid and application of interface.

  3. Lysis of Gymnodinium breve by cultures of the green alga Nannochloris eucaryotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E; Sawyers, W G; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of Florida's red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve, were killed by the green alga Nannochloris eucaryotum. Studies involved organism-organism interaction as well as organism-cell-free culture (N. eucaryotum) interaction. Both studies demonstrated that N. eucaryotum adversely affected Florida's red tide organism. The lysis has been attributed to compounds called APONINs (apparent oceanic naturally occurring cytolins). N. eucaryotum crude APONIN was extracted from cell-free cultures, partially purified and fractionated. The fractions were bioassayed against G. breve, and 'fingerprints' of the deleterious fractions were obtained.

  4. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  5. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  6. Polymer Coatings in 3D-Printed Fluidic Device Channels for Improved Cellular Adherence Prior to Electrical Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bethany C; Anderson, Kari B; Meisel, Jayda E; McNitt, Megan I; Spence, Dana M

    2015-06-16

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a polyjet-based three-dimensional (3D)-printed fluidic device where poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) or polystyrene (PS) were used to coat the sides of a fluidic channel within the device to promote adhesion of an immobilized cell layer. The device was designed using computer-aided design software and converted into an .STL file prior to printing. The rigid, transparent material used in the printing process provides an optically transparent path to visualize endothelial cell adherence and supports integration of removable electrodes for electrical cell lysis in a specified portion of the channel (1 mm width × 0.8 mm height × 2 mm length). Through manipulation of channel geometry, a low-voltage power source (500 V max) was used to selectively lyse adhered endothelial cells in a tapered region of the channel. Cell viability was maintained on the device over a 5 day period (98% viable), though cell coverage decreased after day 4 with static media delivery. Optimal lysis potentials were obtained for the two fabricated device geometries, and selective cell clearance was achieved with cell lysis efficiencies of 94 and 96%. The bottleneck of unknown surface properties from proprietary resin use in fabricating 3D-printed materials is overcome through techniques to incorporate PDMS and PS.

  7. Inhibition of pneumococcal autolysis in lysis-centrifugation blood culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, O P

    1986-01-01

    The recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture has been low in many studies. The poor survival of pneumococci was not due to toxicity of the Isolator medium but to autolysis before plating. This autolysis was completely inhibited by adding 10 mM phosphorylcholine to the Isolator medium.

  8. Phenomenon detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo.

    1994-01-01

    Detection signals for a specific phenomenon outputted from any of detectors are distributed by way of half mirrors and inputted to a logic discrimination circuit by way of a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor detects the quantity of light corresponding to the optical signals from more than two detectors which detected the phenomenon, and outputs detection signals to the logic discrimination circuit. If the phenomenon is detected, since both inputs turn ON in the logic discrimination circuit in accordance with the predetermined logical sum, the occurrence of a specific phenomenon is detected. Thus, an optical system substantially comprises half mirrors, reflection mirrors and photoelectric convertor in combination provides a logic circuit. Since the circuit which transmits signals of the detectors is constituted with an optical system using the half mirrors, the number of parts constituting the logic circuit can greatly be saved. In addition, since the optical system comprises mirrors or half mirrors which have been used so far, they can be used, once assembled, quasipermanently, and the reliability can be enhanced greatly. (N.H.)

  9. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  10. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  11. Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS following intrathecal chemotherapy in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana L. Glasser, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS is a well-known complication of induction therapy for hematologic malignancies. It is characterized by rapid breakdown of malignant white blood cells (WBCs leading to metabolic derangements and serious morbidity if left untreated. Most commonly, TLS is triggered by systemic chemotherapy, however, there have been case reports of TLS following intrathecal (IT chemotherapy, all in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL/lymphoma. Here, we report the first case of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML who developed TLS following a single dose of IT cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C.

  12. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  13. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system desc...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.......Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...

  14. Bacterial Infochemicals are Drivers of Algal Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, K.; Deering, R.; Rowley, D. C.; El Gamal, A.; Schorn, M.; Moore, B. S.; Johnson, M. D.; Mincer, T. J.; Harvey, E.

    2016-02-01

    Processing of organic matter by bacteria forces oceanic biogeochemical cycles, food web structure and ultimately environmental stoichiometry. A newly emerging picture of the microbial loop suggests that bacteria are not merely passive recipients of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from phytoplankton exudate. Rather, heterotrophic bacteria can mediate the flow of DOM by actively producing soluble algicidal compounds. However, deciphering those chemical signals that determine these interactions has remained a challenge. Here, we report the isolation of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), released by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, a marine gamma-proteobacteria isolated from plastic debris in the North Atlantic. Both 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone and its immediate precursor, HHQ are known to function as antibiotics and quorum sensing signaling molecules with crucial roles in virulence, and apoptosis in eukaryotic cells (e.g. fungi and mammalian cells). Our ecologically-relevant screening of live cells and filtrate from P. piscicida cultures caused a significant decrease in the growth rate of the bloom-forming coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi. Bioassay-guided fraction of P. piscicida extracellular crude extracts identified HHQ, which induced mortality in three strains of E. huxleyi with an IC50 in the nanomolar range. In contrast, the marine chlorophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were unaffected by HHQ exposures (IC50 > 10 micromolar), but were susceptible to extracts of P. piscicida, indicating this bacterium may produce a cocktail of algicidal compounds specific to different phytoplankton guilds. The ability of HHQ to influence phytoplankton growth suggests that alkylquinolone-signaling molecules play a fundamental role in interkingdom interactions, ultimately influencing shifts in phytoplankton population dynamics. This study implicates a new role for HHQ beyond its importance in quorum sensing.

  15. Tumour lysis syndrome: A rare acute presentation of locally advanced testicular cancer – Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially fatal complication of malignancy or its treatment. This uncommon syndrome comprises laboratory findings of hyperuricaemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperkalaemia and hyperphosphataemia. A literature search revealed a total of eight patients, with testicular cancer, who had TLS. All these patients had metastatic disease. We present a unique case of a 47-year-old gentleman we saw in clinic, who presented with a rapidly growing right groin mass and acute breathlessness, and discuss the diagnosis and management of TLS. TLS is extremely rare in testicular cancer but necessitates the awareness of urologists. TLS can occur spontaneously in testicular malignancy. Cell lysis in a rapidly proliferating germ cell tumour is a possible mechanism. The prompt identification and institution of management for TLS is crucial to improve clinical outcomes.

  16. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-01-01

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain χ8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis a...

  17. Clotrimazole enhances lysis of human erythrocytes induced by t-BHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskaya, Irene L; Shcherbachenko, Irina M; Volkova, Rimma I; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I

    2009-08-14

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is an antifungal and antimalarial agent also effective as a Gardos channel inhibitor. In addition, CLT possesses antitumor properties. Recent data provide evidence that CLT forms a complex with heme (hemin), which produces a more potent lytic effect than heme alone. This study addressed the effect of CLT on the lysis of normal human erythrocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). For the first time, it was shown that 10 microM CLT significantly enhanced the lytic effect of t-BHP on erythrocytes in both Ca(2+)-containing and Ca(2+)-free media, suggesting that the effect is not related to Gardos channels. CLT did not affect the rate of free radical generation, the kinetics of GSH degradation, methemoglobin formation and TBARS generation; therefore, we concluded that CLT does not cause additional oxidative damage to erythrocytes treated with t-BHP. It is tempted to speculate that CLT enhances t-BHP-induced changes in erythrocyte volume and lysis largely by forming a complex with hemin released during hemoglobin oxidation in erythrocytes: the CLT-hemin complex destabilizes the cell membrane more potently than hemin alone. If so, the effect of CLT on cell membrane damage during free-radical oxidation may be used to increase the efficacy of antitumor therapy.

  18. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed.

  19. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  20. WORKPLACE HARASSMENT. MOBBING PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ezer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.

  1. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  2. NK cells and T cells: mirror images?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules protects cells against lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. It is possible that NK cells are 'educated' to recognize self MHC class I molecules and that the combination of self peptide and MHC class I molecule blocks NK-mediated lysis. Here, Rogier Versteeg

  3. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae Induces Cytopathic Effects in Infected Cells Cultured In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrilakshmi Hegde

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae is the etiological agent of the contagious agalactia syndrome in sheep and goats and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Yet the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Even whole-genome sequence analysis of its pathogenic type strain did not lead to any conclusions regarding its virulence or pathogenicity factors. Although inflammation and tissue destruction at the local site of M. agalactiae infection are largely considered as effects of the host immune response, the direct effect of the agent on host cells is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of M. agalactiae infection on the quality and viability of host cells in vitro. Changes in cell morphology including cell elongation, cytoplasm shrinkage and membrane blebbing were observed in infected HeLa cells. Chromatin condensation and increased caspase-3 cleavage in infected HeLa cells 48 h after infection suggests an apoptosis-like phenomenon in M. agalactiae-infected cells. In compliance with these results, decreased viability and cell lysis of M. agalactiae-infected HeLa cells was also observed. Measurement of the amount of LDH released after M. agalactiae infection revealed a time- and dose-dependent increase in HeLa cell lysis. A significant decrease in LDH released after gentamicin treatment of infected cells confirmed the major role of cytadherent M. agalactiae in inducing host cell lysis. This is the first study illustrating M. agalactiae's induction of cytopathic effects in infected HeLa cells. Further detailed investigation of infected host tissue for apoptotic markers might demonstrate the association between M. agalactiae-induced host cell lysis and the tissue destruction observed during M. agalactiae natural infection.

  5. A novel clot lysis assay for recombinant plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Fazeli, Ahmad; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA, reteplase) is an engineered variant of alteplase. When expressed in E. coli, it appears as inclusion bodies that require refolding to recover its biological activity. An important step following refolding is to determine the activity of refolded protein. Current methods for enzymatic activity of thrombolytic drugs are costly and complex. Here a straightforward and low-cost clot lysis assay was developed. It quantitatively measures the activity of the commercial reteplase and is also capable of screening refolding conditions. As evidence for adequate accuracy and sensitivity of the current assay, r-PA activity measurements are shown to be comparable to those obtained from chromogenic substrate assay.

  6. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse® with those of an alleged biosimilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner eKliche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse® and TNKase®, a ‘biosimilar’ tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim® in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a ‘biosimilar’ of Metalyse, i.e. whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  7. Raynaud’s phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ingegnoli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP is a vasospastic disorder characterized by episodic color changes of blanching, cyanosis, and hyperemia in response to cold and/or emotional stress. Although most typically noted in the fingers, the circulation of the toes, ears, nose and tongue is also frequently affected. Population studies have shown that RP in adults is more common in women than men, with prevalence estimates ranging from 4% to 30%. Geographic variations in the prevalence reflect differences in climate. RP may be a primary or a secondary process. LeRoy and Medsger suggested criteria for primary RP: symmetric attacks, the absence of tissue necrosis, ulceration or gangrene, the absence of a secondary cause, negative antinuclear antibodies, normal nailfold capillaroscopy and a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Secondary RP is characterized by an age of onset of more than 30 years, painful and asymmetric attacks, ischemic skin lesions, positive autoautoantibodies, capillaroscopic abnormalities and/or clinical features suggestive of connective tissue diseases (CTDs. Among the CTDs, systemic sclerosis has the highest frequency of RP. Finding a cause for RP requires a knowledge of the patient’s occupational, smoking, drug history, physical examination, nailfold capillaroscopy, routine laboratory tests and autoantibodies. Furthermore, RP should be distinguished from acrocyanosis, a condition characterized by continuous cyanosis of the hands or feet that is aggravated by cold temperature. The most important instruction to the patient is abstinence from any smoking, offending drugs should be discontinued, and abrupt changes in temperature. If these measures are inadequate, calcium-channel blockers are the most widely used (nifedipine 30 mg up to 90 mg daily. Alternatively, sympatholytic agent (prazosin, angiotensin II -receptor type I antagonist (losartan, selective sertonin-reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine may be useful. In the severe cases the role of

  8. The tsunami phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röbke, B. R.; Vött, A.

    2017-12-01

    With human activity increasingly concentrating on coasts, tsunamis (from Japanese tsu = harbour, nami = wave) are a major natural hazard to today's society. Stimulated by disastrous tsunami impacts in recent years, for instance in south-east Asia (2004) or in Japan (2011), tsunami science has significantly flourished, which has brought great advances in hazard assessment and mitigation plans. Based on tsunami research of the last decades, this paper provides a thorough treatise on the tsunami phenomenon from a geoscientific point of view. Starting with the wave features, tsunamis are introduced as long shallow water waves or wave trains crossing entire oceans without major energy loss. At the coast, tsunamis typically show wave shoaling, funnelling and resonance effects as well as a significant run-up and backflow. Tsunami waves are caused by a sudden displacement of the water column due to a number of various trigger mechanisms. Such are earthquakes as the main trigger, submarine and subaerial mass wastings, volcanic activity, atmospheric disturbances (meteotsunamis) and cosmic impacts, as is demonstrated by giving corresponding examples from the past. Tsunamis are known to have a significant sedimentary and geomorphological off- and onshore response. So-called tsunamites form allochthonous high-energy deposits that are left at the coast during tsunami landfall. Tsunami deposits show typical sedimentary features, as basal erosional unconformities, fining-upward and -landward, a high content of marine fossils, rip-up clasts from underlying units and mud caps, all reflecting the hydrodynamic processes during inundation. The on- and offshore behaviour of tsunamis and related sedimentary processes can be simulated using hydro- and morphodynamic numerical models. The paper provides an overview of the basic tsunami modelling techniques, including discretisation, guidelines for appropriate temporal and spatial resolution as well as the nesting method. Furthermore, the

  9. PP composites with Hybrid Nanofillers: NTC phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlin, Juha; Immonen, Kirsi

    2010-01-01

    Electric conductive plastic composites have a wide potential for commercial applications, some examples are EMI shielding housings and components in automotive industry and in consumer electronics, equipments in health care sector and fuel cell components. A phenomenon in conductive composites, especially in composites with carbon based fillers, is change of thermal induced change in conductivity as a result of morphological transitions. Usually the observed changes are practically irreversible. The phenomenon may cause increasing resistivity, usually called as 'positive temperature coefficient' (PTC) or decreasing resistivity, called 'negative temperature coefficient' (NTC), where the new morphology created by heat treatment is more favorable for electric conductivity compared to the original state. The existence of NTC is a sing of the lost potential in material design and processing. Therefore detailed information about the phenomenon gives us tools to develop high performance conductive materials. It this paper we discuss about NTC phenomenon observed in PP composites with CNT or in-situ synthesized CNT-PANi hybrid nanofiller with an amphiphilic dispersing agent. The goal of the paper is not to present a comprehensive model of this phenomenon; we present some experimental results which may be related to polymer-filler interactions. These details are a part of this complicated phenomenon.

  10. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...... number of protocols for preparation of tissue lysates has been published, so far no single recipe is able to provide a "one-size fits all" solubilization procedure that can be used to analyse the same lysate using different proteomics technologies. Here we present evidence showing that cell lysis buffer...

  11. Lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by high-intensity focused ultrasound as a function of exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A; Xu, Jin; Stessman, Dan J; Yao, Linxing; Spalding, Martin H; Wang, Tong

    2014-05-01

    Efficient lysis of microalgae for lipid extraction is an important concern when processing biofuels. Historically, ultrasound frequencies in the range of 10-40 kHz have been utilized for this task. However, greater efficiencies might be achievable if higher frequencies could be used. In our study, we evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound to lyse microalgae for biofuel production while using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and an active diameter of 6.36 cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz (3.6% duty cycle). The time-average acoustic power output was 26.2 W while the spatial-peak-pulse-average intensity (ISPPA) for each tone burst was 41 kW/cm(2). The peak compressional and rarefactional pressures at the focus were 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The exposure time was varied for the different cases in the experiments from 5s to 9 min and cell lysis was assessed by quantifying the percentage of protein and chlorophyll release into the supernate as well as the lipid extractability. Free radical generation and lipid oxidation for the different ultrasound exposures were also determined. We found that there was a statistically significant increase in lipid extractability for all of the exposures compared to the control. The longer exposures also completely fragmented the cells releasing almost all of the protein and chlorophyll into the supernate. The cavitation activity did not significantly increase lipid oxidation while there was a minor trend of increased free radical production with increased ultrasound exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HOOLIGANISM – CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed scientific theme is going to approach and study the hooliganism phenomenon as a contemporary social matter, in terms of conceptual and etiological. The present work has four main purposes: (1- that of explaining the meaning of hooliganism social phenomenon; (2- that of discovering the origins of hooliganism; (3- that of knowing which are the causes that encourages the occurence of the hooliganism; (4- that of knowing how to control and minimize this phenomenon.

  13. Role of adrenal hormones and prostaglandins in the control of mouse thymocytes lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, S; Seillan, C; Duval, D; Homo-Delarche, F

    1984-01-01

    The cytolytic actions of glucocorticoids and of agents increasing cyclic AMP were studied in vitro in thymocyte suspensions isolated from adrenalectomized or hydrocortisone-treated mice. Although considered as corticoresistant cells, the thymocytes isolated from hydrocortisone-treated mice were lysed to the same extent although more slowly in vitro by dexamethasone than whole thymocyte populations (i.e. corticosensitive cells). Moreover, these two cell populations were shown to contain comparable amounts of glucocorticoid receptors and to be almost equally sensitive to the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when measured by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis. Studies performed with corticosensitive cells showed that prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyrilcyclic AMP were also able to induce cell lysis and that, isoproterenol and dexamethasone exerted additive cytolytic action in vitro. In vivo experiments showed also an additive effect of steroids and isoproterenol on thymus atrophy. In contrast, cells isolated from hydrocortisone-treated animals were not sensitive to the cytotoxic action of prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyril cyclic AMP. This difference between the two populations was not associated with any difference in the responsiveness of adenylate cyclase as determined following isoproterenol-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP. The cytolytic action of dexamethasone but also that of prostaglandin E2 and isoproterenol, could be blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, thus suggesting that glucocorticoids and agents increasing cyclic AMP control the synthesis of some proteins involved in the triggering of cell lysis. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain the differences between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of lymphoid cell to glucocorticoids, it was suggested that the drug may in vivo indirectly control the viability or the proliferation of thymocytes through the release of other mediators. We have

  14. Isolation of Mycobacterium chelonei with the lysis-centrifugation blood culture technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtasek, M F; Kelly, M T

    1982-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonei was isolated from a patient by the lysis-centrifugation and the conventional two-bottle blood culture methods. The lysis-centrifugation method was significantly more sensitive and rapid than the conventional method in detecting and isolating this organism; quantitations done by this method were useful for monitoring response to therapy.

  15. The crossed phrenic phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki

    2017-01-01

    The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the “crossed phrenic phenomenon”, wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C1-hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury PMID:28761411

  16. The crossed phrenic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael George Zaki Ghali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the “crossed phrenic phenomenon”, wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C1-hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury

  17. Hyperphosphatemia during spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome culminate in severe hyphosphatemia at the time of blast crisis of Phneg CML to acute myelomoncytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Ophira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme swing of phosphor from severe hyperphosphatemia to severe hypophosphatemia in a patient with blast crisis of myeloid origin was the result of imbalance between massive apoptosis of leukemic cells in the context of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and massive production of leukemic cells with only 1% of blast in peripheral blood. The mutated p53 protein suggested acting as oncogene in the presented case and possibly affecting phosphor status.

  18. Clot formation and lysis in platelet rich plasma of healthy donors and patients with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Patalakh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.

  19. Viral lysis of Phaeocystis pouchetii: implications for algal population dynamics and heterotrophic C, N and P cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Middelboe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    in the microbial food web was associated with significant N and P mineralization, supporting the current view that viral lysates can be an important source of inorganic nutrients in marine systems. In the presence of R. salina, the generated NH(4)(+) supported 11% of the observed R. salina growth. Regrowth...... of virus-resistant P. pouchetii following cell lysis was observed in long-term incubations (150 days), and possibly influenced by nutrient availability and competition from R. salina. The observed impact of viral activity on autotrophic and heterotrophic processes provides direct experimental evidence...

  20. Tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic colon cancer after treatment with oxaliplatin and 5-Fu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Han Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome in solid tumors is a rare occurrence, with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a patient of recurrent colon cancer who received chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen (lencovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin with subsequent tumor lysis. We present a recurrent rectal cancer patient suffered from tumor lysis syndrome after salvage FOLFOX regimen. After treat with CVVH with improved conscious status. In this case report, we had review the tumor lysis in solid tumor.

  1. THE ROMANIAN MIGRATIONAL EVOLUTION PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Raluca

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In our contemporary democratic society the migration phenomenon meets unknown valences in any previous societies. Free will and right to self-determination, much exploited by the XX century society., raised the possibility of interpretation of migration

  2. Application of Doehlert experimental design in the optimization of experimental variables for the Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 cell lysis Aplicação do modelo Doehlert na otimização das variáveis experimentais para a lise de Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 e Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Reges de Sena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of pH and temperature on the lysis of yeast using experimental design. In this study, the enzymatic extract containing β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, obtained from the micro-organism Moniliophthora perniciosa, was used. The experiment showed that the best conditions for lysis of Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 by lytic enzyme were pH 4.9 at 37 ºC and pH 3.9 at 26.7 ºC, respectively. The lytic enzyme may be used for obtaining various biotechnology products from yeast.O presente trabalho visou verificar a influência do pH e temperatura na lise de leveduras utilizando planejamento experimental. No estudo, foi utilizado o extrato enzimático, contendo β-1,3-glucanase e quitinase líticas, obtidas do micro-organismo Moniliophthora perniciosa. O delineamento experimental mostrou que as melhores condições para a lise de Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 e Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300, pelas enzimas líticas, foram pH 4,9 a 37 ºC, pH 3,9 a 26,7 ºC, respectivamente. As enzimas líticas podem ser utilizadas para a obtenção de vários produtos biotecnológicos a partir de leveduras.

  3. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  4. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent lysis of Fas+ (CD95+/Apo-1+) innocent bystanders by antigen-specific CD8+ CTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Eshima, K; Takayama, H; Sitkovsky, M V

    1997-09-15

    Exquisite specificity toward Ag-bearing cells (cognate targets) is one of the most important properties of CD8+ CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Using highly Ag-specific CD8+ CTL lines and clones, which spare noncognate, Ag-free targets, we found that in the presence of Ag-bearing targets the CTL acquire the ability to lyse noncognate target cells (bystanders). It is shown that the unexpectedly rapid and efficient lysis of bystanders by Ag-activated CTL is mediated by a Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-based mechanism and does not depend on perforin. The CTL lysed Fas-expressing bystanders, but spared the Fas-negative or anti-Fas mAb-resistant bystander cells. Accordingly, the FasL-deficient gld/gld CTL did not kill bystanders, while perforin-deficient CTL did. Unlike anti-Fas mAb-induced cell death, the lysis of bystanders was not only FasL/Fas dependent but also required adhesion molecule LFA-1 on the surface of the activated CTL. Lysis of bystanders is viewed as acceptable "collateral" damage, but the persistent presence of activated CTL could result in immunopathologies involving functional Fas-expressing tissues.

  5. HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Tachedjian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proline repeat motif (PxxP of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell.

  6. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehn, T E; Gold, J W; Brannon, P; Timberger, R J; Armstrong, D

    1985-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system from the blood of a patient with tuberculosis of the breast. The organism also grew on conventional laboratory media inoculated with pleural fluid from the patient.

  8. DISLOCATIONS STRUCTURE AND SCATTERING PHENOMENON IN CRYSTALLINE CELL SIZE OF 2024 AL ALLOY DEFORMED BY ONE PASS OF ECAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Goodarzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in microstructural features of 2024 aluminum alloy plastically deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature, was investigated by X-Ray diffraction in this work. These include dislocation density dislocation characteristic and the cell size of crystalline domains. Dislocations contrast factor was calculated using elastic constants of the alloy such as C 11, C 22 and C 44 . The effect of dislocations contrast factor on the anisotropic strain broadening of diffraction profiles was considered for measuring the microstructural features on the base of the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods. Results showed that the dislocations density of the solution annealed sample increased from 4.28×10 12m-2 to 2.41×10 14m-2 after one pass of cold ECAP and the fraction of edge dislocations in the solution annealed sample increased from 43% to 74% after deformation. This means that deformation changed the overall dislocations characteristic more to edge dislocations. Also the crystalline cell size of the solution annealed sample decreased from 0.83μm to about 210nm after one pass of ECAP process at room temperature

  9. Effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    宮地,芳之

    1987-01-01

    The effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes were examined. Copper ion and organic mercury (EMP; ethylmercury phosphate, and PCMB; sodium p-chloromercuricbenzoate) inhibited glycerol lysis of erythrocytes. The inhibitory effects was dependent on the incubation period. An equimolor solution of copper ion and EMP showed between copper ion and EMP. Similar results were obtained with copper and PCMB.

  10. Studies on cytotoxic and clot lysis activity of probiotically fermented cocktail juice prepared using Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ananya; Deori, Meenakshi; Nivetha, A.; Mohansrinivasan, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the current research the effect of probiotic microorganisms viz; Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation of Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum was studied. In vitro test were done to analyze the anticancer, antioxidant and atherosclerosis (clot lysis) properties of fermented juice. The juice was fermented for 48 and 96h, during which concentration of phenolic content, total acid content and free radical scavenging activity of the sample was analyzed by DPPH assay (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl). Dropping of pH was observed after 48 h of fermentation. The clot lysis activity was found to be 80 % in 100μl concentration of fermented cocktail juice. The 96 h fermented sample has shown around 70% inhibition against colon cancer cell lines. Analytical study of HPLC proves the organic acid production such as ascorbic acid in superior amount for 96h of fermented sample, Based on the retention time, the corresponding peaks were detected at 4.919 and 4.831 min.

  11. Rescuing--a universal phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2014-12-01

    Rescuing, where the person is delivered from the immediacy of their conundrum by another, complicates management. The object of this paper is to understand the difficulty in relinquishing the rescuing role. Rescuing is a universal phenomenon in parenting, teaching and therapy that has developed over time through a variety of interwoven social, economic, psychological and clinical variables. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  12. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-07-08

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain chi8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis and additional mutations to enhance complete lysis and antigen delivery. The second component is plasmid pYA3681, which encodes arabinose-regulated murA and asdA expression and C2-regulated synthesis of antisense asdA and murA mRNA transcribed from the P22 P(R) promoter. An arabinose-regulated c2 gene is present in the chromosome. chi8937(pYA3681) exhibits arabinose-dependent growth. Upon invasion of host tissues, an arabinose-free environment, transcription of asdA, murA, and c2 ceases, and concentrations of their gene products decrease because of cell division. The drop in C2 concentration results in activation of P(R), driving synthesis of antisense mRNA to block translation of any residual asdA and murA mRNA. A highly antigenic alpha-helical domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Rx1 PspA was cloned into pYA3681, resulting in pYA3685 to test antigen delivery. Mice orally immunized with chi8937(pYA3685) developed antibody responses to PspA and Salmonella outer membrane proteins. No viable vaccine strain cells were detected in host tissues after 21 days. This system has potential applications with other Gram-negative bacteria in which biological containment would be desirable.

  13. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  14. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  15. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  16. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Valentine, E-mail: valentine.minet@unamur.be; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC) (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), Namur Nanosafety Center NNC, NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie, E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  17. [Treatment of surface burns with proteolytic enzymes: mathematic description of lysis kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domogatskaia, A S; Domogatskiĭ, S P; Ruuge, E K

    2003-01-01

    The lysis of necrotic tissue by a proteolytic enzyme applied to the surface of a burn wound was studied. A mathematical model was proposed, which describes changes in the thickness of necrotic tissue as a function of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The model takes into account the inward-directed diffusion of the enzyme, the counterflow of interstitial fluid (exudates) containing specific inhibitors, and the extracellular matrix proteolysis. It was shown in terms of the quasi-stationary approach that the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases exponentially with time; i.e., the lysis slows down as the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases. The dependence of the characteristic time of this decrease on enzyme concentration was obtained. It was shown that, at high enzyme concentrations (more than 5 mg/ml), the entire time of lysis (after the establishment of quasi-stationary equilibrium) is inversely proportional to the concentration of the enzyme.

  18. Fibrin-specific and effective clot lysis requires both plasminogen activators and for them to be in a sequential rather than simultaneous combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, R; Li, S; Gurewich, V

    2017-08-01

    Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been a disappointment and has now been replaced by an endovascular procedure whenever possible. Nevertheless, thrombolysis remains the only means by which circulation in a thrombosed artery can be restored rapidly. In contrast to tPA monotherapy, endogenous fibrinolysis uses both tPA and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), whose native form is a proenzyme, prouPA. This combination is remarkably effective as evidenced by the fibrin degradation product, D-dimer, which is invariably present in plasma. The two activators have complementary mechanisms of plasminogen activation and are synergistic in combination. Since tPA initiates fibrinolysis when released from the vessel wall and prouPA is in the blood, they induce fibrinolysis sequentially. It was postulated that this may be more effective and fibrin-specific. The hypothesis was tested in a model of clot lysis in plasma in which a clot was first exposed to tPA for 5 min, washed and incubated with prouPA. Lysis was compared with that of clots incubated with both activators simultaneously. The sequential combination was almost twice as effective and caused less fibrinogenolysis than the simultaneous combination (p < 0.0001) despite having significantly less tPA, as a result of the wash. A mechanism is described by which this phenomenon can be explained. The findings are believed to have significant therapeutic implications.

  19. FOREIGN FIGHTERS PHENOMENON IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alexandru LUCA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid war is a reality; war does not depend only on conventional means, but includes communication and propaganda strategies whose role is increasingly important. In the last few years, terrorist cells have spent and keep spending many energies in a global propaganda business. This activity is a fundamental aspect of the conflict. This promotion campaign serves several purposes: legitimating its authority, recruiting militants and motivating sympathizers, and intimidating and conditioning those whose cells they consider enemies. What draws our attention is the sophisticated level of professionalism they demonstrate in managing propaganda and terror. This paper seeks to provide a broader view of the European Foreign Fighters (FF phenomenon by analyzing this target group from a marketing point of view in order to lay the foundations for a strategy to counteract them.

  20. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  1. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  2. TNF induction of EL4 hyposensitivity to lysis by recombinant (soluble) and membrane-associated TNFs: TNF binding, internalization, and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M; Costlow, M

    1994-04-01

    EL4 mouse thymoma cells sensitive to TNF-mediated lysis only in the presence of cycloheximide (S-EL4) or in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (N-EL4) were used in these experiments. Murine tumor cell line (S-EL4) sensitivity to TNF cytotoxicity is augmented when cycloheximide is added together with TNF or when cycloheximide is added 1 hr before or after TNF. No enhanced sensitivity is observed when target cells are incubated with cycloheximide 2-4 hr before or after the addition of TNF. In the absence of cycloheximide, S-EL4 cells preexposed to murine TNF are less susceptible to lysis by TNF and TNF receptor-conjugated TNF but are lysed by integral membrane TNF. TNF-induced hyposensitivity is partially reversed by actinomycin D or by culturing the preexposed cells for 4 hr prior to TNF lytic assay. TNF preincubation of N- and S-EL4 cells results in an immediate decrease in 125I-TNF binding due to TNF receptor occupancy. Recovery of TNF-R occupancy and TNF internalization were subsequently noted.

  3. A review of CCFL phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Issa, S.; Macian, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CCFL mechanisms, correlations, parameters and related variables were reviewed extensively. → Consideration of geometrical effects is crucial for meaningful comparison and review. → Differentiation between 'onset of CCFL' and 'deflooding/partial delivery' data is required. → Following 2+3, new correlations for onset of CCFL according to liquid velocity ranges were suggested. → Large number of correlations was compared against large data bank that considers points 2+3. - Abstract: Counter current flow limitation CCFL is an important phenomenon for numerous engineering applications and safety of light water reactors. In particular, the possible occurrence of CCFL in the hot-leg of a PWR during SBLOCA or LOCA accidents is of special interest for nuclear safety research. A review of the related literature has made in order to present the most important studies about the phenomenon and to reach common general understanding of the different factors that govern CCFL. Eventually this will allow explaining contradictions among different explanations provided by different authors. Most important factors were geometrical characteristics, liquid superficial velocity, and physical properties. The review shows that despite numerous experimental works, many scaling and geometrical effects are still not fully understood. For Instance there exist no consistent explanation of the channel diameter and inclined riser length effect upon results. The same can be stated-though to a minimum extent - for the inclination angle while channel length (or channel to diameter ratio) effect was clear and consistent. Since most experimental work was done in down-scaled hot-leg simulators, it becomes interesting to build a coherent knowledge about these effects and to explain arising contradictions in order to safely extrapolate results to full-scale hot-leg. The review has shown that many differences were simply due to geometrical effects, this leads to the need to

  4. The Phenomenon of Dental Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle...... of dental fear (see fig. 1). The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists (see table 1 for examples). The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2......) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has...

  5. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  6. Vascular diagnostics for Raynaud's phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsdale G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Graham Dinsdale, Ariane L Herrick Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK Abstract: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP is common, and in most patients is primary (idiopathic when due to reversible vasospasm and does not progress to irreversible tissue injury. However, in those patients for whom RP is secondary to an underlying disease (eg, systemic sclerosis or atherosclerosis, progression to digital ulceration or critical ischemia can occur. Therefore, the key question for the clinician is “Why does this patient have RP?” Vascular diagnostics play a key role in answering this. In this review, we firstly discuss the different vascular investigations relevant to clinical practice: nail fold capillaroscopy (including the different methodologies for examining the nail fold capillaries, and the role of capillaroscopy in helping to differentiate between primary and systemic sclerosis-related RP, thermography (available in specialist centers, and evaluation of large vessel disease (for example, due to atherosclerosis. We then discuss research tools, mainly laser Doppler methods, including laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging. These are commercially available as complete imaging systems and are (relatively easy to use. The main current goal in vascular imaging research is to validate these novel state-of-the-art techniques as outcome measures of digital vascular disease, and then apply them in early and later phase studies of new treatment approaches, thus facilitating drug development programs. Keywords: Raynaud's phenomenon, systemic sclerosis, nail fold capillaroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler, angiography

  7. Viral lysis of photosynthesizing microbes as a mechanism for calcium carbonate nucleation in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Removal of carbon through the precipitation and burial of calcium carbonate in marine sediments constitutes over 70% of the total carbon on Earth and is partitioned between coastal and pelagic zones. The precipitation of authigenic calcium carbonate in seawater, however, has been hotly debated because despite being in a supersaturated state, there is an absence of persistent precipitation. One of the explanations for this paradox is the geochemical conditions in seawater cannot overcome the activation energy barrier for the first step in any precipitation reaction; nucleation. Here we show that virally induced rupturing of photosynthetic cyanobacterial cells releases cytoplasmic-associated bicarbonate at concentrations ~23-fold greater than in the surrounding seawater, thereby shifting the carbonate chemistry toward the homogenous nucleation of one or more of the calcium carbonate polymorphs. Using geochemical reaction energetics, we show the saturation states (Ω) in typical seawater for calcite (Ω = 4.3), aragonite (Ω = 3.1), and vaterite (Ω = 1.2) are significantly elevated following the release and diffusion of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate (Ωcalcite = 95.7; Ωaragonite = 68.5; Ωvaterite = 25.9). These increases in Ω significantly reduce the activation energy for nuclei formation thresholds for all three polymorphs, but only vaterite nucleation is energetically favored. In the post-lysis seawater, vaterite's nuclei formation activation energy is significantly reduced from 1.85 × 10−17 J to 3.85 × 10−20 J, which increases the nuclei formation rate from highly improbable (nucleation of calcium carbonate in seawater describes a mechanism through which the initial step in the production of carbonate sediments may proceed. It also presents an additional role of photosynthesizing microbes and their viruses in marine carbon cycles and reveals these microorganisms are a collective repository for concentrated and reactive dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC

  8. Phenotypic variations in osmotic lysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes in non-ionic glucose media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbokwe, Nanacha Afifi; Igbokwe, Ikechukwu Onyebuchi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrocyte osmotic lysis in deionised glucose media is regulated by glucose influx, cation efflux, and changes in cell volume after water diffusion. Transmembrane fluxes may be affected by varied expression of glucose transporter protein and susceptibility of membrane proteins to glucose-induced glycosylation and oxidation in various physiologic states. Variations in haemolysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes after incubation in hyposmotic non-ionic glucose media, associated with sex, age, late pregnancy, and lactation, were investigated. The osmotic fragility curve in glucose media was sigmoidal with erythrocytes from goats in late pregnancy (PRE) or lactation (LAC) or from kid (KGT) or middle-aged (MGT) goats. Non-sigmoidal phenotype occurred in yearlings (YGT) and old (OGT) goats. The composite fragility phenotype for males and non-pregnant dry (NPD) females was non-sigmoidal. Erythrocytes with non-sigmoidal curves were more stable than those with sigmoidal curves because of inflectional shift of the curve to the left. Erythrocytes tended to be more fragile with male than female sex, KGT and MGT than YGT and OGT, and LAC and PRE than NPD. Thus, sex, age, pregnancy, and lactation affected the haemolytic pattern of goat erythrocytes in glucose media. The physiologic state of the goat affected the in vitro interaction of glucose with erythrocytes, causing variations in osmotic stability with variants of fragility phenotype. Variations in the effect of high extracellular glucose concentrations on the functions of membrane-associated glucose transporter, aquaporins, and the cation cotransporter were presumed to be relevant in regulating the physical properties of goat erythrocytes under osmotic stress.

  9. Viral lysis of photosynthesizing microbes as a mechanism for calcium carbonate nucleation in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Removal of carbon through the precipitation and burial of calcium carbonate in marine sediments constitutes over 70% of the total carbon on Earth and is partitioned between coastal and pelagic zones. The precipitation of authigenic calcium carbonate in seawater, however, has been hotly debated because despite being in a supersaturated state, there is an absence of persistent precipitation. One of the explanations for this paradox is the geochemical conditions in seawater cannot overcome the activation energy barrier for the first step in any precipitation reaction; nucleation. Here we show that virally induced rupturing of photosynthetic cyanobacterial cells releases cytoplasmic-associated bicarbonate at concentrations ~23-fold greater than in the surrounding seawater, thereby shifting the carbonate chemistry toward the homogenous nucleation of one or more of the calcium carbonate polymorphs. Using geochemical reaction energetics, we show the saturation states (Ω) in typical seawater for calcite (Ω = 4.3), aragonite (Ω = 3.1), and vaterite (Ω = 1.2) are significantly elevated following the release and diffusion of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate (Ωcalcite = 95.7; Ωaragonite = 68.5; Ωvaterite = 25.9). These increases in Ω significantly reduce the activation energy for nuclei formation thresholds for all three polymorphs, but only vaterite nucleation is energetically favored. In the post-lysis seawater, vaterite's nuclei formation activation energy is significantly reduced from 1.85 × 10−17 J to 3.85 × 10−20 J, which increases the nuclei formation rate from highly improbable (seawater describes a mechanism through which the initial step in the production of carbonate sediments may proceed. It also presents an additional role of photosynthesizing microbes and their viruses in marine carbon cycles and reveals these microorganisms are a collective repository for concentrated and reactive dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) that is currently not accounted for

  10. Mechanisms of fever production and lysis: lessons from experimental LPS fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim; Blatteis, Clark M

    2014-10-01

    Fever is a cardinal symptom of infectious or inflammatory insults, but it can also arise from noninfectious causes. The fever-inducing agent that has been used most frequently in experimental studies designed to characterize the physiological, immunological and neuroendocrine processes and to identify the neuronal circuits that underlie the manifestation of the febrile response is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our knowledge of the mechanisms of fever production and lysis is largely based on this model. Fever is usually initiated in the periphery of the challenged host by the immediate activation of the innate immune system by LPS, specifically of the complement (C) cascade and Toll-like receptors. The first results in the immediate generation of the C component C5a and the subsequent rapid production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The second, occurring after some delay, induces the further production of PGE2 by induction of its synthesizing enzymes and transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines. The Kupffer cells (Kc) of the liver seem to be essential for these initial processes. The subsequent transfer of the pyrogenic message from the periphery to the brain is achieved by neuronal and humoral mechanisms. These pathways subserve the genesis of early (neuronal signals) and late (humoral signals) phases of the characteristically biphasic febrile response to LPS. During the course of fever, counterinflammatory factors, "endogenous antipyretics," are elaborated peripherally and centrally to limit fever in strength and duration. The multiple interacting pro- and antipyretic signals and their mechanistic effects that underlie endotoxic fever are the subjects of this review.

  11. Plasma Clot Lysis Time and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Black Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); M. Pieters (Marlien); J.C. Jerling (Johann); A. Kruger (Annamarie); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStudies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid

  12. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannen, E.J. van; Zwart, G.; Agterveld, M.P. van; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles,

  13. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Zwart, G.; Van Agterveld, M.P.; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles, we

  14. Electrochemical lysis at the stage of endoresection for large posterior intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design the new combined technique of endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis at the tumor destruction stage for large posterior intraocular tumors.Methods: 3 patients (3 eyes with large choroidal melanomas t3N0M0 (tumor thickness — 8-10 mm, base diameter — 13-15 mm, juxtapapillary localization. Mean age was 55.4 years old. Endoresection with intraoperational intraocular electrochemical lysis of the tumor was performed. Electrochemical lysis was performed with use of the technical unit ECU 300 (Soering, Germany and the original method of combined intratumoral positioning of two platinum electrodes: anode and cathode.Results: the tumor was removal completely in all 3 cases. the anatomical retinal reattachment was reached in all patients. Sclera was safe in all 3 cases. Visual acuity was not changed (NLP. At the place of the removal tumor a surgical choroidal coloboma without pigmentation all over scleral bed and periphery was shown in all cases in distant postoperative period (from 1.5 to 3 years. No local recurrences or metastasis were revealed in all patients.Conclusion: Further investigations in clinical group are necessarily to determinate the real possibilities of the combined method and the indications for endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis for large intraocular tumors. 

  15. Influence of environmental variation on the bacterioplankton community and its loss to viral lysis in the Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulčius, Sigitas; Reunamo, Anna; Paškauskas, Ričardas; Leskinen, Piia

    2018-05-01

    Coastal lagoons are continuously exposed to strong environmental gradients that determine the distribution and trophic interactions of microbial communities. Therefore, in this study we assessed whether and how environmental changes influence the bacterial community and its vulnerability to viral infection and lysis along the major environmental gradient in the Curonian Lagoon. We found significant differences in bacterial community profiles, their richness and evenness between the riverine, freshwater southern part and the Baltic Sea water intrusion-influenced northern part of the lagoon, suggesting strong environmental control of the structure of bacterial communities. Viruses were found to be play an important role in bacterial mortality in the Curonian Lagoon, being responsible for the removal of 20-50% of the bacterial standing stock. We observed differences in virioplankton decay rates and virus burst sizes between the northern and southern parts of the lagoon. However, no relationships were found between viral activity and bacterial communities within the lagoon ecosystem. The frequency of infected cells and virus-mediated bacterial mortality (VMBM) remained constant among the sampling sites irrespective of differences in bacteria community assemblages and environmental conditions. The results indicate that factors determining changes in bacterial diversity are different from the factors limiting their vulnerability to viral infection and lysis. This study also suggests that under changing environmental conditions, virus-bacteria interactions are more stable than the interacting viral and bacterial communities themselves. These findings are important for understanding the functioning of the coastal ecosystems under the rapidly changing local (spatial and temporal) and global (e.g. eutrophication, climate change) conditions.

  16. Leidenfrost phenomenon on conical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Caballero, S.; Escobar-Ortega, Y.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.

    2016-09-01

    The Leidenfrost state is typically studied by placing droplets on flat or slightly curved surfaces. Here this phenomenon is investigated by depositing water in hot conical bowls. We found that this phase exists even for large amounts of liquid in very narrow cones without considerable effect of the confinement on the Leidenfrost transition temperature TL. At a fixed temperature, T >TL , the total evaporation time τ has a nonmonotonic dependence on the angle of confinement θ : for large volumes (˜20 ml) on flat surfaces (θ ˜0∘ ), vapor chimneys appear and accelerate the evaporation rate, their frequency diminishes as θ augments and becomes zero at a certain angle θc, at which τ reaches its maximum value; then, τ decreases again at larger angles because the vapor layer holding up the water becomes thinner due to the increase of hydrostatic pressure and because the geometry facilitates the vapor expulsion along the conical wall. For small volumes (˜1 ml), surface tension mainly determines the drop curvature and the lifetime is practically independent of θ . Different chimney regimes and oscillation patterns were observed and summarized in a phase diagram. Finally, we developed a simple model to decipher the shape adopted by the liquid volume and its evolution as a function of time, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Melting phenomenon and laser annealing in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.

    1981-03-01

    The work on annealing of displacement damage, dissolution of boron precipitates, and the broadening of dopant profiles in semiconductors after treating with ruby and dye laser pulses is reviewed in order to provide convincing evidence for the melting phenomenon and illustrate the mechanism associated with laser annealing. The nature of the solid-liquid interface and the interface instability during rapid solidification is considered in detail. It is shown that solute concentrations after pulsed laser annealing can far exceed retrograde maxima values. However, there is a critical solute concentration above which a planar solid-liquid interface becomes unstable and breaks into a cellular structure. The solute concentrations and cell sizes associated with this instability are calculated using a perturbation theory, and compared with experimental results

  18. CTL lysis: there is a hyperbolic relation of killing rate to exocytosable granzyme A for highly cytotoxic murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, M; Wu, J K; Talento, A; Koo, G C

    1996-06-10

    The lysis of susceptible targets by efficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) increases both with time and with the ratio of CTL to target. Simple methods for calculating a killing rate constant from the time dependence of killing and for calculating the relation of the killing rate constant to the concentration of exocytosable granzyme A are given. Application of these methods to the killing of target cells by the highly efficient mouse CTL AR1 is presented. AR1 needed granzyme A for efficient killing. AR1 contained sufficient exocytosable granzyme A to kill at about 80% of the rate possible at infinite exocytosable granzyme A.

  19. Síndrome de lise tumoral: uma revisão abrangente da literatura Acute tumor lysis syndrome: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Darmon

    2008-09-01

    égias baseadas no risco dos pacientes são necessários para limitar a alta morbidade e mortalidade desta complicação.Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by the massive destruction of malignant cells and the release in the extra-cellular space of their content. While Tumor lysis syndrome may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms with development of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypocalcaemia. These biological manifestations may lead to clinical manifestations including, acute kidney injury, seizure, or sudden death that require intensive care. Since clinical tumor lysis syndrome is associated with a poor prognosis both prevention of tumor lysis syndrome and prevention of clinical consequences of tumor lysis syndrome are mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms, biological and clinical manifestations of tumor Lysis syndrome, and to provide upto-date guidelines to ensure prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. Review of selected studies on tumor lysis syndrome published at the PubMed database www.pubmed.gov during the last 20 years. Additional references were retrieved from the studies initially selected. Tumor lysis syndrome is a frequent and life-threatening complication of the newly diagnosed malignancies. Preventive measures, including hydration, uricolytic agents, eviction of factors predisposing to acute kidney injury and, in the more severe patients, on prophylactic renal replacement therapy, are required to prevent or limit clinical consequences of Tumor lysis syndrome. However optimal timing and modalities of prevention remains unknown and may be modified by the changing spectrum of patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Development and validation of risk based strategies is required to limit the high morbidity and mortality of this complication.

  20. Controlled vesicle deformation and lysis by single oscillating bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2003-05-01

    The ability of collapsing (cavitating) bubbles to focus and concentrate energy, forces and stresses is at the root of phenomena such as cavitation damage, sonochemistry or sonoluminescence. In a biomedical context, ultrasound-driven microbubbles have been used to enhance contrast in ultrasonic images. The observation of bubble-enhanced sonoporation-acoustically induced rupture of membranes-has also opened up intriguing possibilities for the therapeutic application of sonoporation as an alternative to cell-wall permeation techniques such as electroporation and particle guns. However, these pioneering experiments have not been able to pinpoint the mechanism by which the violently collapsing bubble opens pores or larger holes in membranes. Here we present an experiment in which gentle (linear) bubble oscillations are sufficient to achieve rupture of lipid membranes. In this regime, the bubble dynamics and the ensuing sonoporation can be accurately controlled. The use of microbubbles as focusing agents makes acoustics on the micrometre scale (microacoustics) a viable tool, with possible applications in cell manipulation and cell-wall permeation as well as in microfluidic devices.

  1. The phenomenon of retarded potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The logic simulation of process of time delay of potential on a moved body - recipient resulted in the deduction about cyclic irregularity of time delay, that means, that the moved body makes longitudinal vibrations. A conclusion is drawn that length of longitudinal vibrations depending from three variable: the law of interaction, spacing interval between bodies of interaction and phase velocity looks like: λ=Hv ph /R·F(R) (1), where λ- length of oscillations; H- factor of proportionality; v ph - phase velocity of a body; R - distance between test and central bodies R(t); F(R) - law of interaction. So far as λ=v ph /v, and R·F(R)=∫ ∞ R F(R)dR=E move , then formula (1) will be transformed into: E move =Hv pv /λ=Hv. Thus, the energy of radiating having the similar law is only reflex of motion of a matter. The energy of oscillating motion can be expressed through linear maximal velocity. It is established, that different expressions of the same energy, result in the law of a view of a proportion for lengths of de Broglie's waves: It shows that de Broglie's waves - the actual oscillating motions of bodies, as demonstrate interference and diffraction pictures at a dissipation of the accelerated particles on crystalline gratings. This deduction has far-reaching consequences for finding - out of the cause bases of the laws of a nature. So, the quantum mechanics becomes partition of mechanics of solids and is comprises all interactions. The nuclear energy is not 'defect of mass', but is 'defect' of energy of oscillating motion: ΔE=H v1 -H v2 . Definition of real cause of nuclear energy is very important for construction of model of nuclei and for development of physics as the whole. The interconnection of the phenomenon of longitudinal vibrations of moved bodies, as result of irregularity of time delay of potential, with many other natural phenomena is looked through. By such, as: motion of planets and electrons on elliptical orbits, oscillating of dipping drips

  2. Risk as a social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Wesley V

    2003-01-01

    What do nuclear power, smoking, and eating beef have in common? The answer is multifaceted. They all share aspects of mass production and consumption, and therefore consumer confidence comes into play in evaluating each of the products' merits. They all produce some level of anxiety--be it in response to adverse media coverage, or the successes of adversarial interest groups in publicizing those products' weaknesses--among consumers who wonder what if any level of the product should be consumed. Finally, nuclear power, smoking, and eating beef all share risk; that is, the perceived and real detriments of producing and consuming those products. Whether or not the associated risks--from increased cancer to increased heart disease--are real is beside the point. When talking about risk, scientific education must deal with the perception of risk as much as its reality. Risk is a socially defined phenomenon, and as such, the successful scientists/communicator must understand the social evaluations of it. While many scientists take a rational view of risk evaluation and consumers often make rational decisions about technological and scientific risk based upon the costs and benefits of that technology, this approach is problematic for three reasons. First, the nature of modern risks has changed in that risk is complex, incomprehensible and uncontrollable to the average person. Second, the rational approach assumes that all costs and benefits of a technology, both real and potential, both current and future, can be known and therefore rationally evaluated. This is not the case. Third, evidence from Europe indicates that trust in information sources about risk has fallen, and thus classic scientific education campaigns that rely upon increasing public knowledge and acceptance of technological and scientific risk are problematic. Because of these factors we argue that effective scientific response must begin to understand the social components of risk if campaigns to shape

  3. Superiority of SDS lysis over saponin lysis for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottle by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Garnaud, Cécile; Raykova, Mariya; Bailly, Sébastien; Bidart, Marie; Maubon, Danièle

    2017-05-01

    Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here, a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures is proposed. Four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by MS directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating two lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and two protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP) are compared. One hundred and sixty-eight identification tests are carried out on 42 strains. Overall, there are correct identifications to the species level in 90% samples for the SDS-LP, 60% for the SDS-FP, 48% for the saponin LP, and 43% for the saponin FP. Adapted scores allowed 92, 86, 72, and 53% identification for SDS-LP, SDS-FP, saponin LP, and saponin FP, respectively. Saponin lysis is associated with a significantly lower score compared to SDS (0.87 [0.83-0.92], p-value saponin lysis and the application of this rapid and cost-effective protocol in daily routine for microbiological agents implicated in septicemia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An improved in-house lysis-filtration protocol for bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles with high identification rates by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sachio; Murata, Syota; Miyabe, Akiko; Satoh, Mamoru; Takiwaki, Masaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now a well-established method for identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures. Pretreatments to effectively remove non-bacterial proteins are a prerequisite for successful identification, and a variety of protocols have been reported. Although commercially available kits, mainly the Sepsityper Kit, are increasingly used, the identification rates reported often are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. We developed a new, in-house lysis-filtration protocol and prospectively evaluated its performance compared to the Sepsityper kit. The in-house protocol consists of three simple steps: lysis by ammonium chloride, aspiration with a syringe fitted with a 0.45-μm membrane, and centrifugation to collect microbes. The novel protocol requires only 20 min. Performance of the in-house protocol was evaluated using a total of 117 monomicrobial cases of positive blood culture. Medium from blood culture bottles was pretreated by the in-house protocol or the commercial kit, and isolated cells were subjected to direct identification by mass spectrometry fingerprinting in parallel with conventional subculturing for reference identification. The overall MALDI-TOF MS-based identification rates with score > 1.7 and > 2.0 obtained using the in-house protocol were 99.2% and 85.5%, respectively, whereas those obtained using the Sepsityper Kit were 85.4% and 61.5%, respectively. For Gram-positive cases, the in-house protocol yielded scores >1.7 and > 2.0 at 98.5% and 76.1%, respectively, whereas the commercial kit yielded these scores at 76.1% and 43.3%, respectively. Although these are preliminary results, these values suggest that this easy lysis-filtration protocol deserves assessment in a larger-scale test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in a case of multiple myeloma – A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Saravu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was found to have multiple myeloma with spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome (TLS, following a compression fracture of the L–2 vertebrae. Multiple myeloma was confirmed by bone marrow analysis and the M–band on serum protein electrophoresis. Hyperuricaemia (26.2 mg/dL, hyperkalaemia (> 7.0 mEq/L, hyperphosphatemia (16.2 mg of phosphorus/dL, normocalcemia and acute kidney injury, prior to anticancer treatment suggested spontaneous TLS. Inciting events for tumour lysis, such as chemotherapy, dehydration and exposure to steroids were absent. Patient received hydration, hypourecemic drugs and haemodialysis. This case report highlights the rare presentation of multiple myeloma with spontaneous TLS.

  6. A case of cetuximab-related tumour lysis syndrome in metastatic rectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Muhammad; Kwong, Whye Yan; Cantwell, Brian; Walker, Frank

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in November 2006. The computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-body positron emission tomography–CT (PET–CT) scan showed the presence of multiple liver metastases which were confined to its right lobe. He had the first session of a combined therapy with cetuximab and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in March 2009; however, soon afterwards, he presented with the symptoms, signs and biochemistry suggestive of tumour lysis syndrome. Our unusual case highlights that tumour lysis syndrome can also develop in ‘low risk’ category tumours, and that clinicians should be vigilant in identifying at-risk patients. PMID:28657052

  7. [Rhytidectomy and Raynaud's phenomenon: about two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, J; Labbé, D

    2004-12-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is a currently vascular syndrome (8 to 10% of women and 3 to 5% of men). It was defined as episodic ischaemia of the fingers, toes, nose, ears and nipples, which presents clinically as pallor, cyanosis, and often rubor of the skins, in response to cold, emotional stimuli and vasoconstriction agents. The phenomenon is caused by a vasoconstriction of arterials skin. In severe forms of the phenomenon, we can see ulcerations and necrosis. We report here two cases of rhytidectomy flap necrosis in Raynaud's Phenomenon. After review of literature, we explain the elements of physiopathology whose can explain these complications and we try to establish recommendations to these complications.

  8. [Intraoperative lysis and neurostimulation as added therapy in surgery of popliteal artery aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Heye, K; Ktenidis, K; Horsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Additional therapy of symptomatic popliteal artery aneurysm includes intraoperative lysis for the treatment of the descending thrombosis and spinal cord stimulation for cases of chronic deterioration of the peripheral perfusion state. Between 1989 and 1996, we treated 50 patients with 55 symptomatic aneurysms using this concept, 18 of them as emergency cases. We reached a postoperative amputation rate of 12.7% and good long-term functional results in 34 of 37 patients.

  9. Arthroscopic lysis and lavage in patients with temporomandibular anterior disc displacement without reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machoň, V.; Šedý, Jiří; Klíma, K.; Hirjak, D.; Foltán, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2012), s. 109-113 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : temporomandibular joint * arthroscopic lysis * arthroscopic lavage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2012

  10. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  11. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on the mechanism of formic acid sono-lysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.; Nikitenko, S.I.; Navarro, N.M.; Pochon, P.; Bisel, I.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of formic acid sono-chemical degradation were studied at ultrasonic frequencies of 20, 200, and 607 kHz under argon atmosphere. Total yield of HCOOH sono-chemical degradation increases approximately 6-8-fold when the frequency increased from 20 to 200 or to 607 kHz. At low ultrasonic frequencies, HCOOH degradation has been attributed to oxidation with OH . radicals from water sono-lysis and to the HCOOH decarboxylation occurring at the cavitation bubble-liquid interface. With high-frequency ultrasound, the sono-chemical reaction is also influenced by HCOOH dehydration. Whatever the ultrasonic frequency, the sono-lysis of HCOOH yielded H 2 and CO 2 in the gas phase as well as trace, amounts of oxalic acid and formaldehyde in the liquid phase. However, CO and CH 4 formations were only detected under high frequency ultrasound. The most striking difference between low frequency and high frequency ultrasound is that the sono-lysis of HCOOH at high ultrasonic frequencies initiates Fischer-Tropsch hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. (authors)

  12. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : IX. EVIDENCE OF HYDROLYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN DURING LYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1928-07-31

    1. During the process of lysis by bacteriophage, there is an appreciable increase in the amount of free amino acid present in the culture. 2. The increase of free amino acid is due to hydrolysis of bacterial protein.

  13. Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siersema, P D; de Marie, S; van Zeijl, J H; Bac, D J; Wilson, J H

    1992-01-01

    The conventional method of ascitic fluid culturing was compared with the bedside inoculation of ascites into blood culture bottles and into lysis-centrifugation tubes. The conventional culture method was compared with the blood culture bottle method in 31 episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cultures were positive with the conventional culture method in 11 (35%) episodes and with the blood culture bottle method in 26 (84%) episodes (P less than 0.001). The lysis-centrifugation...

  14. Kierkegaard and the Sheer Phenomenon of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2013-01-01

    In this article we will argue that Kierkegaard has a positive view of love as a sheer natural and universal phenomenon. This sheer phenomenon of love is rooted in God’s love and is implanted in human nature by its Creator. Therefore this natural urge to love, that manifests itself both as a lack...

  15. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  16. MOBBING PHENOMENON - FACTORS OF DISCRIMINATION AND STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU MARCEL LAURENTIU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on exemplifying the features of discrimination phenomenon in the workplace, a phenomenon that has appeared in the Romanian social studies only in the last 4 years. Mobbing phenomenon has been analyzed by several countries in Europe such as England, France, Germany; after these analyzes it has been found that this phenomenon refers only to actions of intense psychological pressure. Actions are geared to a single employee, in order to cause it to leave its job. Without these measures, dismissal of the employee would lead to numerous legal problems on the employer. In conclusion, employee who is the subject of mobbing phenomenon must endure a long period of time a series of injustices focused on himself, but also extremely high humiliation, which determines him to mentally give up and take the decision to resign.

  17. Chitinase and chitin synthase 1: counterbalancing activities in cell separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, E; Silverman, S J; Shaw, J A

    1992-01-01

    Previous results [E. Cabib, A. Sburlati, B. Bowers & S. J. Silverman (1989) Journal of Cell Biology 108, 1665-1672] strongly suggested that the lysis observed in daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) was caused by a chitinase that partially degrades the chitin septum in the process of cell separation. Consequently, it was proposed that in wild-type cells, Chs1 acts as a repair enzyme by replenishing chitin during cytokinesis. The chitinase requirement for lysis has been confirmed in two different ways: (a) demethylallosamidin, a more powerful chitinase inhibitor than the previously used allosamidin, is also a much better protector against lysis and (b) disruption of the chitinase gene in chs1 cells eliminates lysis. Reintroduction of a normal chitinase gene, by transformation of those cells with a suitable plasmid, restores lysis. The percentage of lysed cells in strains lacking Chs1 was not increased by elevating the chitinase level with high-copy-number plasmids carrying the hydrolase gene. Furthermore, the degree of lysis varied in different chs1 strains; lysis was abolished in chs1 mutants containing the scs1 suppressor. These results indicate that, in addition to chitinase, lysis requires other gene products that may become limiting.

  18. Atomistic understanding of hydrogen loading phenomenon into ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IASBS), ... ically through various electrochemical methods and high-level quantum ... ton) by applying a constant anodic voltage. .... phenomenon being occurred at metal | solution inter- .... cationic form and extra energy is released by occupying.

  19. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Job Insecurity as a Social Psychological Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykova T.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a relatively new phenomenon of job insecurity. It provides an analysis of the various interpretations of the phenomenon given by Russian and foreign researchers, focuses on its social economical determinants and consequences for individuals and organizations. The paper concludes with an outline of some possible ways of overcoming the negative consequences of job insecurity — as for individuals, as for organizations, as for the society as a whole.

  2. Open source innovation phenomenon, participant behaviour, impact

    CERN Document Server

    Herstatt, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Open Source Innovation (OSI) has gained considerable momentum within the last years. Academic and management practice interest grows as more and more end-users consider and even participate in Open Source product development like Linux, Android, or Wikipedia. Open Source Innovation: Phenomenon, Participant Behaviour, Impact brings together rigorous academic research and business importance in scrutinizing OCI from three perspectives: The Phenomenon, Participants' Behavior, and Business Implications. The first section introduces OCI artefacts, including who is participating and why, and provide

  3. Validation of the Impostor Phenomenon among Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sonja; Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Leonhardt, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Following up on earlier investigations, the present research aims at validating the construct impostor phenomenon by taking other personality correlates into account and to examine whether the impostor phenomenon is a construct in its own right. In addition, gender effects as well as associations with dispositional working styles and strain are examined. In an online study we surveyed a sample of N = 242 individuals occupying leadership positions in different sectors. Confirmatory factor analyses provide empirical evidence for the discriminant validity of the impostor phenomenon. In accord with earlier studies we show that the impostor phenomenon is accompanied by higher levels of anxiety, dysphoric moods, emotional instability, a generally negative self-evaluation, and perfectionism. The study does not reveal any gender differences concerning the impostor phenomenon. With respect to working styles, persons with an impostor self-concept tend to show perfectionist as well as procrastinating behaviors. Moreover, they report being more stressed and strained by their work. In sum, the findings show that the impostor phenomenon constitutes a dysfunctional personality style. Practical implications are discussed.

  4. Surgical treatment of bilateral nondisplaced isthmic lysis by interlaminar fixation device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Mostofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Spondylolysis is a defect in the portion of pars interarticularis. The latter affects approximately 6% of the population. It is caused by repetitive trauma in hyperextension. Low back pain is the most common symptom. Methods: We implanted interspinous process devices in 12 patients with isthmic lysis without spondylolisthesis for low back pain. The purpose of the surgery was to conduct a minimally invasive procedure. Results: In eight cases, patients became asymptomatic. In two cases, there has been a considerable improvement. In two cases, no change had been noted. Conclusion: This good result motivates us to consider this approach a part of therapeutic arsenal for some cases of spondylolysis.

  5. DNA fragmentation: manifestation of target cell destruction mediated by cytotoxic T-cell lines, lymphotoxin-secreting helper T-cell clones, and cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, D.S.; Tite, J.P.; Ruddle, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    A Lyt-2 + , trinitrophenyl-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting, cytotoxic T-cell line, PCl 55, mediates the digestion of target cell DNA into discretely sized fragments. This phenomenon manifests itself within 30 min after effector cell encounter as measured by the release of 3 H counts from target cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]deoxythymidine and occurs even at very low effector to target cell ratios (0.25:1). A Lyt-1 + , ovalbumin-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting T-helper cell clone, 5.9.24, is also able to mediate fragmentation of target cell DNA over a time course essentially indistinguishable from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated hit. Cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatants also cause release of DNA from targets, although they require a longer time course, on the order of 24 hr. In contrast, lysis of cells by antibody plus complement or Triton X-100 does not result in DNA release even after extended periods of incubation (24 hr). All three treatments that result in the release of DNA from cells cause fragmentation of that DNA into discretely sized pieces that are multiples of 200 base pairs. The results thus suggest that cytotoxic T cells, lymphotoxin-secreting helper clones with cytolytic activity, and lymphotoxin all effect target cell destruction by means of a similar mechanism and that observed differences in time course and the absence of target cell specificity in killing mediated by lymphotoxin may simply reflect differences in the mode of toxin delivery

  6. Biological activity analysis of native and recombinant streptokinase using clot lysis and chromogenic substrate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Sadjady, Seyyed Kazem; Mirzaei Saleh Abadi, Mohammad; Azadi, Saeed; Solaimanian, Roya

    2012-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF STREPTOKINASE ACTIVITY IS USUALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH TWO ASSAY METHODS: a) Clot lysis, b) Chromogenic substrate assay. In this study the biological activity of two streptokinase products, namely Streptase®, which is a native product and Heberkinasa®, which is a recombinant product, was determined against the third international reference standard using the two forementioned assay methods. The results indicated that whilst the activity of Streptase® was found to be 101 ± 4% and 97 ± 5% of the label claim with Clot lysis and Chromogenic substrate assay respectively, for Heberkinasa® the potency values obtained were 42 ± 5% and 92.5 ± 2% of the label claim respectively. To shed some light on the reason for this finding, the n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecules present in the two products was determined. The results showed slight differences in the amino acid sequence of the recombinant product in comparison to the native one at the amino terminus. This finding supports those of other workers who found that n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecule can have significant effect on the activity of this protein.

  7. Isolation and Expression of the Lysis Genes of Actinomyces naeslundii Phage Av-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Allan L.; Barcak, Gerard J.; Guo, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Like most gram-positive oral bacteria, Actinomyces naeslundii is resistant to salivary lysozyme and to most other lytic enzymes. We are interested in studying the lysins of phages of this important oral bacterium as potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To identify the Actinomyces phage genes encoding these species-specific enzymes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a new cloning vector, pAD330, that can be used to enrich for and isolate phage holin genes, which are located adjacent to the lysin genes in most phage genomes. Cloned holin insert sequences were used to design sequencing primers to identify nearby lysin genes by using whole phage DNA as the template. From partial digestions of A. naeslundii phage Av-1 genomic DNA we were able to clone, in independent experiments, inserts that complemented the defective λ holin in pAD330, as evidenced by extensive lysis after thermal induction. The DNA sequence of the inserts in these plasmids revealed that both contained the complete lysis region of Av-1, which is comprised of two holin-like genes, designated holA and holB, and an endolysin gene, designated lysA. We were able to subclone and express these genes and determine some of the functional properties of their gene products. PMID:16461656

  8. Historical Aspects in Tolerance Phenomenon Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janat A. Karmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the historical aspect of the tolerance phenomenon research, particularly the study of tolerance in the age of Antiquity, Middle Ages, New Times, Enlightenment. It is remarkable that the problem of tolerance, emerged in Western civilization on religious grounds, laid the foundation for all other freedoms, attained in many countries. Besides, the article attaches special attention to the researchers of the East, such as Abu Nasr al-Farabi, Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, studies the historical aspect of works by Kazakhstan thinkers A. Kunanbayev, C. Valikhanova, K.B. Zharikbayev, S.K. Kaliyev, A.N. Nysanbayev, A.I. Artemev and others. The analysis of historical research of the tolerance phenomenon brings the author to the conclusion that religious freedom was the starting point for the emergence of new areas of tolerance display. The content of this phenomenon changed according to the historical peculiarities of the societies’ development

  9. Hysteresis phenomenon in nuclear reactor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirayesh, Behnam; Pazirandeh, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Akbari, Monireh [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics

    2017-05-15

    This paper applies a nonlinear analysis method to show that hysteresis phenomenon, due to the Saddle-node bifurcation, may occur in the nuclear reactor. This phenomenon may have significant effects on nuclear reactor dynamics and can even be the beginning of a nuclear reactor accident. A system of four dimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equations was considered to study the hysteresis phenomenon in a typical nuclear reactor. It should be noted that the reactivity was considered as a nonlinear function of state variables. The condition for emerging hysteresis was investigated using Routh-Hurwitz criterion and Sotomayor's theorem for saddle node bifurcation. A numerical analysis is also provided to illustrate the analytical results.

  10. Social Media: A Phenomenon to be Analyzed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    danah boyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of “social media” has more to do with its cultural positioning than its technological affordances. Rooted in the broader “Web 2.0” landscape, social media helped engineers, entrepreneurs, and everyday people reimagine the role that technology could play in information dissemination, community development, and communication. While the technologies invoked by the phrase social media have a long history, what unfolded in the 2000s reconfigured socio-technical practices in significant ways. Reflecting on the brief history of social media, this essay argues for the need to better understand this phenomenon.

  11. Mesoscale Phenomenon Revealed by an Acoustic Sounder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Jensen, Niels Otto

    1976-01-01

    A particular phenomenon observed on an acoustic sounder record is analyzed, and is interpreted as being associated with the passing of a land breeze front. A simple physical explanation of the frontal movements is suggested. The actual existence of the land breeze is demonstrated by examination...

  12. Methods to Minimize Zero-Missing Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing use of high-voltage AC cables at transmission levels, phenomena such as current zero-missing start to appear more often in transmission systems. Zero-missing phenomenon can occur when energizing cable lines with shunt reactors. This may considerably delay the opening of the ci...

  13. Key-Phenomenon and Religious Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomuscio Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I develop a phenomenology of religious experience through the notion of keyphenomenon. My analysis moves from a general phenomenology of situation, in which we have to relate different phenomena according to a sense. What does “according to a sense” mean? My suggestion is that we should look for a relationship among these data when we find a key-phenomenon (among a series of phenomena that would enlighten all the others. This key-phenomenon would show a non-phenomenal meaning which would make all the others understandable. Each other datum, therefore, becomes the witness of invisible meaning through a key-witness. The key-phenomenon we choose determines the role (i.e., the truth of each datum within its situation. This phenomenological relationship belongs to both the sense of day-life situations, and that one of possible religious situations. If the religious interpretation of a situation depends on our choice of key-phenomenon, or key-witness, we have to define what kind of keyphenomenon constitutes a religious intuition.

  14. Concept "Medical Museum" as a Sociocultural Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, Nina V.; Slyshkin, Gennady G.; Zheltukhina, Marina R.; Privalova, Irina V.; Kravchenko, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the concept "medical museum" as a sociocultural phenomenon. The register of medical museums in Russia makes the material of research. The complex methods of analysis of the concept "medical museum" are used. The philosophical, historical, cultural, structural, communicative and semantic analysis is carried…

  15. Geometrical optics and the diffraction phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Aleksandr V

    2005-01-01

    This note outlines the principles of the geometrical optics of inhomogeneous waves whose description necessitates the use of complex values of the wave vector. Generalizing geometrical optics to inhomogeneous waves permits including in its scope the analysis of the diffraction phenomenon. (methodological notes)

  16. Laser Sintering Technology and Balling Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the balling phenomenon which occurs typically in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). The balling phenomenon is a typical SLS defect, and observed in laser sintered powder, significantly reduces the quality of SLS, and hinders the further development of SLS Technology. Electronic database searches were performed using Google Scholar. The keywords "laser sintering, selective laser sintering, direct metal laser melting, and balling phenomenon" were searched in title/abstract of publications, limited to December 31, 2016. The inclusion criteria were SLS, balling phenomenon, some alloys (such as Cr-Co, iron, stainless steel, and Cu-based alloys) mechanical properties, microstructure and bond strength between metal-ceramic crown, laboratory studies, full text, and in English language. A total of 100 articles were found the initial search and yielded a total of 50 studies, 30 of which did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and were therefore excluded. In addition, 20 studies were found by screening the reference list of all included publications. Finally, 40 studies were selected for this review. The method in question is regulated by powder material characteristics and the conditions of laser processing. The procedure of formation, affecting factors, and the mechanism of the balling effect are very complex.

  17. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testing of the brain revealed no structural abnormality. His blood examination findings were ... A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports ... seizures cause great personal distress and significantly affect marital relationships. Though ...

  18. Analysis of five streptokinase formulations using the euglobulin lysis test and the plasminogen activation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto L.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase, a 47-kDa protein isolated and secreted by most group A, C and G ß-hemolytic streptococci, interacts with and activates human protein plasminogen to form an active complex capable of converting other plasminogen molecules to plasmin. Our objective was to compare five streptokinase formulations commercially available in Brazil in terms of their activity in the in vitro tests of euglobulin clot formation and of the hydrolysis of the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Euglobulin lysis time was determined using a 96-well microtiter plate. Initially, human thrombin (10 IU/ml and streptokinase were placed in individual wells, clot formation was initiated by the addition of plasma euglobulin, and turbidity was measured at 340 nm every 30 s. In the second assay, plasminogen activation was measured using the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Streptase(TM was used as the reference formulation because it presented the strongest fibrinolytic activity in the euglobulin lysis test. The Unitinase(TM and Solustrep(TM formulations were the weakest, showing about 50% activity compared to the reference formulation. All streptokinases tested activated plasminogen but significant differences were observed. In terms of total S-2251(TM activity per vial, Streptase(TM (75.7 ± 5.0 units and Streptonase(TM (94.7 ± 4.6 units had the highest activity, while Unitinase(TM (31.0 ± 2.4 units and Strek(TM (32.9 ± 3.3 units had the weakest activity. Solustrep(TM (53.3 ± 2.7 units presented intermediate activity. The variations among the different formulations for both euglobulin lysis test and chromogenic substrate hydrolysis correlated with the SDS-PAGE densitometric results for the amount of 47-kDa protein. These data show that the commercially available clinical streptokinase formulations vary significantly in their in vitro activity. Whether these differences have clinical implications needs to be investigated.

  19. Molecular bases of cellular senescence: Hayflick phenomenon 50 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Sosińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal human somatic cells have strictly limited proliferative capacity and reach a state of senescence when it becomes exhausted. It is believed that senescence is a response to extensive and irreparable DNA injury, localized in telomeric and/or non-telomeric regions of the genome. Main cause of this damage is oxidative stress, increasing due to deteriorated function of mitochondria. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues during aging, which is causatively linked with the development of various pathologies in elderly individuals, including cancer. This paper, prepared exactly 50 years after Leonard Hayflick’s discovery of the relationship between cellular senescence and organismal aging is aimed at presenting the current knowledge about molecular determinants of senescence, with particular emphasis paid to the role of oxidative stress, effectors of senescence at the level of cell cycle, markers of this phenomenon, and the effect of senescent cells on the development of certain age-related diseases.

  20. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traby, Ludwig; Kollars, Marietta; Eischer, Lisbeth; Eichinger, Sabine; Kyrle, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT]) and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs) with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19%) patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR) of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02) and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13) after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22) for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th) quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st) quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04). No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  1. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  2. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, Simone; Malfliet, Joyce J M C; Rudež, Goran; Spronk, Henri M H; Janssen, Nicole A H; Meijer, Piet; Kluft, Cornelis; de Maat, Moniek P M; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-10-01

    Hypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Sufficient information about assay variation and biological variation in CLT is not yet available. Thus, this study aimed to determine the analytical, within-subject and between-subject variation in CLT. We collected blood samples from 40 healthy individuals throughout a period of one year (average 11.8 visits) and determined the CLT of each plasma sample in duplicate. The mean (± SD) CLT was 83.8 (± 11.1) minutes. The coefficients of variation for total variation, analytical variation, within-subject variation and between-subject variation were 13.4%, 2.6%, 8.2% and 10.2%, respectively. One measurement can estimate the CLT that does not deviate more than 20% from its true value. The contribution of analytical variation to the within-subject variation was 5.0%, the index of individuality was 0.84 and the reference change value was 23.8%. The CLT was longer in the morning compared to the afternoon and was slightly longer in older individuals (> 40 years) compared to younger (≤40 years) individuals. There was no seasonal variation in CLT and no association with air pollution. CLT correlated weakly with fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time and thrombin generation. This study provides insight into the biological variation of CLT, which can be used in future studies testing CLT as a potential risk factor for thrombosis.

  3. A new apparatus to induce lysis of planktonic microbial cells by shock compression, cavitation and spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, A.; Gardner, M. N.; Lynn, R. H.; Tagarielli, V. L.

    2017-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on an aqueous growth medium containing cultures of Escherichia coli (E. coli) XL1-Blue, to investigate, in a single experiment, the effect of two types of dynamic mechanical loading on cellular integrity. A bespoke shock tube was used to subject separate portions of a planktonic bacterial culture to two different loading sequences: (i) shock compression followed by cavitation, and (ii) shock compression followed by spray. The apparatus allows the generation of an adjustable loading shock wave of magnitude up to 300 MPa in a sterile laboratory environment. Cultures of E. coli were tested with this apparatus and the spread-plate technique was used to measure the survivability after mechanical loading. The loading sequence (ii) gave higher mortality than (i), suggesting that the bacteria are more vulnerable to shear deformation and cavitation than to hydrostatic compression. We present the results of preliminary experiments and suggestions for further experimental work; we discuss the potential applications of this technique to sterilize large volumes of fluid samples.

  4. Role of cell surface composition and lysis in static biofilm formation by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Smid, Eddy J.; Hols, Pascal; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Abee, Tjakko

    2018-01-01

    Next to applications in fermentations, Lactobacillus plantarum is recognized as a food spoilage organism, and its dispersal from biofilms in food processing environments might be implicated in contamination or recontamination of food products. This study provides new insights into biofilm

  5. Study on improvement of sludge dewaterability with H2O2 cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qiongfang; Yi, Hao; Zhang, Zhengke; Wang, Ji; Feng, Lishi; Xu, Zhencheng; Guo, Qingwei; Jin, Zhong; Lan, Yongzhe

    2017-12-01

    Excess sludge is the product of sewage treatment plants. With continuous perfection of municipal sewage treatment facilities in China, sludge output increases as a result of the growth of sewage treatment plants. Excess sludge has complicated compositions, including heavy metals, PPCPs, persistent organic pollutants. It owns high contents of organic matters and water. High-efficiency and low-cost dehydration of sludge is the key of sludge disposal. How to improve sludge dehydration efficiency is the research hotspot in the world. In this study, effects of hydrogen peroxide content and pH on sludge dehydration were discussed by chemical disintegration technique. The optimal hydrogen peroxide content and pH were discussed, aiming to search a high-efficiency sludge conditioner.

  6. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Oosterhout, van Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  7. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhaes, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iame Alves; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  8. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  9. The veining phenomenon in unalloyed plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the veining phenomenon in unalloyed plutonium. The surface markings, or veins, which are sometimes seen on α-phase plutonium samples, arise as a result of the β→α transformation. As far as is known, this veining is unrivalled in its scale and form as compared with the solid state surface transformation effects shown by any other metal. The phenomenon has been explained by the application of the Le Chatelier principle to the phase change. In this instance, the large (10%) volume contraction associated with the β→α reaction and the anisotropy of the nonoclinic α-phase structure, account for the fact that the veins are so prominent in plutonium. On the basis of the proposed model, the veins can only form at temperatures where the transformation mechanism is non-martensitic. (Auth.)

  10. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove the diffusion phenomenon for the linear wave equation. To derive the diffusion phenomenon, a new method is used. In fact, for initial data in some weighted spaces, we prove that for {equation presented} decays with the rate {equation presented} [0,1] faster than that of either u or v, where u is the solution of the linear wave equation with initial data {equation presented} [0,1], and v is the solution of the related heat equation with initial data v 0 = u 0 + u 1. This result improves the result in H. Yang and A. Milani [Bull. Sci. Math. 124 (2000), 415-433] in the sense that, under the above restriction on the initial data, the decay rate given in that paper can be improved by t -γ/2. © European Mathematical Society.

  11. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  12. Multiplayer computer games as youth's leisure phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    HADERKOVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to multiplayer computer games as youth's leisure phenomenon of this time. The theoretical part is focused on computer games history, multiplayer computer games and their types, gaming platforms, community of multiplayer games players and potential negatives and positives, which follows from playing this type of games. The practical part contains a qualitative survey using interviews with multiplayer computer games players aged from 15 to 26 years from city of České Bud...

  13. THE PHENOMENON OF MIGRATION. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration is not a new phenomenon, neither for Europe, nor for the entire world and it exists since the beginning of mankind. Over time, this kind of international mobility generated many opportunities, but many challenges as well. Being an extremely important and complex phenomenon, both in economic terms and mostly from the social perspective, mass emigration has never been more intense as nowadays. Together with this particular complexity, the intensity of the migration phenomenon reveals each individual’s profound freedom desire, but also the acute need to ensure a better future for himself and especially for his family. Currently, an ever increasing number of individuals migrate in search of a better place, changing regions, countries or even continents. Witnessing the events that transcend the people all around the world, we consider that migration generates economic, social and cultural, but also political profound changes. These major changes require the involvement of the political actors, namely the governments, in creating a favorable and reliable framework so as the society and decision makers to understand that immigrants represent an opportunity for the emerging economies and not a phenomenon that should be criticized. In this paper we aim to follow the theories regarding the migration process, as well as the changes it generates, taking into consideration that of the 507 million current inhabitants of the EU, approximately 20 million are from countries outside the EU. We consider this research to be underlain, taking into consideration that regardless of the form it takes, in Europe immigration is and will remain a difficult to manage reality.

  14. Phenomenon of political actionism in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bavykina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political actionism is the fenomen in social and art space, that appeared in middle of XX century as the practice of critic and protest with using different artistic methods and techniques. Political actionism as art and political tradition exist in postsoviet space, especially in Russia where actionism appeared in 1990 years and develops for actually days. In other countries this phenomenon not such systematic.  But analyze and compare actions in different countries appears the possibility to understand social and cultural context, their difference and similarity. Actionism is a reaction to external public, social and political situation, but its appearance more like the symptom of some problem than its critic or display – traditional approaches in art.  Appearance of actionism also connected with inability of manifestation of personal and civil liberty, that’s why in actions liberty affairs in such radical and hyperbolized forms. First volume of Russian political actionism began in 1990 years (Oleg Kulik, Alexander Brener, Anatoly Osmolovsky etc. and Second volume in 2010 (art-group Voina, Pussy Riot, Pyotr Pavlensky. This process not only a transformation of artistic and traditional space, but also modification of reaction on social and political situation. Actionism becomes a source of new type of knowledge, that give a possibility to see the habitual reality from another side and find in it new pointes and concepts. Political actionism contracting own interpretation of already well-established phenomenon. Usual concepts of liberty, authority, social control are deconstructed in actions. Those destructions of reality and cultural reorientation destroys traditional imposed patterns of interaction and social structure. But new views, that appeared in daily life from actions, often has mistaken interpretations. Exist a problem about identification of actions, its correct interpretations and understanding of its causes. In article was

  15. The Overshoot Phenomenon in Geodynamics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommu, R. K.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bangerth, W.; Heister, T.; Studley, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The overshoot phenomenon is a common occurrence in numerical software when a continuous function on a finite dimensional discretized space is used to approximate a discontinuous jump, in temperature and material concentration, for example. The resulting solution overshoots, and undershoots, the discontinuous jump. Numerical simulations play an extremely important role in mantle convection research. This is both due to the strong temperature and stress dependence of viscosity and also due to the inaccessibility of deep earth. Under these circumstances, it is essential that mantle convection simulations be extremely accurate and reliable. CitcomS and ASPECT are two finite element based mantle convection simulations developed and maintained by the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics. CitcomS is a finite element based mantle convection code that is designed to run on multiple high-performance computing platforms. ASPECT, an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code built on the Deal.II library, is also a finite element based mantle convection code that scales well on various HPC platforms. CitcomS and ASPECT both exhibit the overshoot phenomenon. One attempt at controlling the overshoot uses the Entropy Viscosity method, which introduces an artificial diffusion term in the energy equation of mantle convection. This artificial diffusion term is small where the temperature field is smooth. We present results from CitcomS and ASPECT that quantify the effect of the Entropy Viscosity method in reducing the overshoot phenomenon. In the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method, the test functions used in the method are continuous within each element but are discontinuous across inter-element boundaries. The solution space in the DG method is discontinuous. FEniCS is a collection of free software tools that automate the solution of differential equations using finite element methods. In this work we also present results from a finite element mantle convection

  16. Nothingness and the placebo effect phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine

    The placebo effect is a pharmacological conundrum, since it is a medical effect that is produced by “nothing” because no pharmacologically active substance is present in placebo. Placebo has, among other things, been defined as an inert substance, often a calcium pill. Simultaneously it presents...... a posthuman angle, applying Karen Barad’s concept of agential realism to tackle the issue of nothingness. I argue that the placebo effect produces specific agencies in the placebo effect phenomenon – that is, both the subject under treatment and the placebo emerge in the placebo effect in the act of measuring it...

  17. Earnings Management: Obvious Phenomenon in Albanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Llukani

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on reviewing the existing literature with regard to the Earnings Management in response to the growing pressure of investors, policy makers, and companies’ governance reform mechanisms to curb opportunistic behavior of the managers of these companies. It also examines the existence of this phenomenon in Albanian context as well as tests the importance of Modified Jones Model as an efficient tool for detection of abnormal accruals, used as a proxy for earnings management. The results show that firms in the Albanian market are engaged in earnings management initiatives.

  18. Memoirs as Cultural Phenomenon and Historical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Георгиевна Георгиева

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of memoirs as the native culture phenomenon, process and means of introducing memoirs to the social and scientific and educational practice. The author considers the Russian historians' views development on theoretical and methodological problems of memoirs studies. There are shown the offered variants and achieved results of development of defining «memoirs», studies of their specific peculiarities, principles and schemes of memoirs systematization as well as the criteria of defining their scientific and educational value as historical sources.

  19. Magnetic poles and a still unexplained phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trower, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of ideas about magnetic monopoles. Attention is drawn to the still unexplained observations of Schein, Haskin and Glasser (1954), in which electron-positron pairs were produced in large numbers by a cosmic-ray interaction. Their experiment has been simulated in 300 GeV pN interactions at Fermilab, giving a production limit of 10 -7 per proton interaction. The explanation for this phenomenon may lie in magnetic monopoles, or it may be similar to that invoked to explain the so-called Centauro events. (A.W.)

  20. Tyrosine isomers mediate the classical phenomenon of concomitant tumor resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Raúl A; Bruzzo, Juan; Chiarella, Paula; di Gianni, Pedro; Isturiz, Martín A; Linskens, Susana; Speziale, Norma; Meiss, Roberto P; Bustuoabad, Oscar D; Pasqualini, Christiane D

    2011-11-15

    Concomitant tumor resistance (CR) is a phenomenon originally described in 1906 in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. Although recent studies have indicated that T-cell-dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, manifestations of CR induced by immunogenic and nonimmunogenic large tumors have been associated with an elusive serum factor. In this study, we identify this serum factor as tyrosine in its meta and ortho isoforms. In three different murine models of cancer that generate CR, both meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine inhibited tumor growth. In addition, we showed that both isoforms of tyrosine blocked metastasis in a fourth model that does not generate CR but is sensitive to CR induced by other tumors. Mechanistic studies showed that the antitumor effects of the tyrosine isoforms were mediated, in part, by early inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and inactivation of STAT3, potentially driving tumor cells into a state of dormancy. By revealing a molecular basis for the classical phenomenon of CR, our findings may stimulate new generalized approaches to limit the development of metastases that arise after resection of primary tumors, an issue of pivotal importance to oncologists and their patients. ©2011 AACR

  1. [Virchowian Hansen's disease, Lucio's phenomenon, cryptococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    A 75 years old white male, for 3 years on treatment for virchowian hanseniasis, was admitted with active HD lesions, infiltration on the base of right lung, leg ulcer and malaise. After two days he developed purpura and hemorrhagic blisters in the limbs. The biopsy of these lesions revealed Lucio phenomenon. The patient worsened with mental confusion, psychomotor agitation and anisocoric pupils. In the 18th day of internation the patient died. Necropsy revealed virchowian infiltration plenty of bacilli in the skin and viscera as well as tuberculoid granuloma with acid-fast bacilli in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. These findings lead us to review the patient's classification from virchowian to borderline. In the lungs, leptomeninge, renal papile, prostate and thyroid it was found loose tuberculoid granuloma with a great amount of fungi surrounded by a gelly halo resembling Criptococcus neoformans. These findings and the onset of Lucio phenomenon are discussed in a patient that has been treated for 3 years and still having several virchowian lesions and a great amount of acid-fast bacilli.

  2. Color doppler imaging of subclavian steal phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nari Ya; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Jai Keun

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic color doppler imaging of vertebral artery flow in the subclavian steal phenomenon. The study group consisted of eight patients with reversed vertebral artery flow proved by color Doppler imaging. We classified this flow into two groups:(1) complete reversal;(2) partial reversal, as shown by Doppler velocity waveform. Vertebral angiography was performed in six of eight patients;color Doppler imaging and angiographic findings were compared. On color Doppler imaging, all eight cases with reversed vertebral artery flow showed no signal at the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. We confirmed shunting of six cases by performing angiography from the contralateral vertebral and basilar artery to the ipsilateral vertebral artery. On the Doppler spectrum, six cases showed complete reversal and two partial reversal. On angiography, one partial reversal case showed complete occlusion of the subclavian artery with abundant collateral circulation of muscular branches of the vertebral artery. On color Doppler imaging, a reversed vertebral artery suggests the subclavian steal phenomenon. In particular, partial reversal waveform may reflect collateral circulation

  3. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Not found here

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s attribution of emotions to a moral transgressor is an important research topic in the psychology of moral and emotional development. This is especially because of the so-called Happy Victimizer Phenomenon (HVP where younger children attribute positive emotions to a moral transgressor described in a story. In the two studies that we have conducted (children aged 5, 7 and 9, 20 of each age; 10 of each age in the second study we have tested the possible influence of the fear of sanctions and the type of transgression (stealing and inflicting body injuries on the attribution of emotions. Children were presented with stories that described transgressions and they were asked to answer how the transgressor felt. The fear of sanctions did not make a significant difference in attribution but the type of transgression did - more negative emotions were attributed for inflicting body injuries than for stealing. Positive emotions were explained with situational-instrumental explanations in 84% of cases while negative emotions were explained with moral explanations in 63,5%. Girls attributed more positive emotions (61% than boys (39%. However, our main finding was that, for the aforementioned age groups, we did not find the HVP effect although it has regularly been registered in foreign studies. This finding denies the generalizability of the phenomenon and points to the significance of disciplining styles and, even more so, culture for children’s attribution of emotions to moral transgressors.

  4. Turnpike phenomenon and infinite horizon optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the turnpike phenomenon and describes the existence of solutions for a large variety of infinite horizon optimal control classes of problems.  Chapter 1 provides introductory material on turnpike properties. Chapter 2 studies the turnpike phenomenon for discrete-time optimal control problems. The turnpike properties of autonomous problems with extended-value intergrands are studied in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on large classes of infinite horizon optimal control problems without convexity (concavity) assumptions. In Chapter 5, the turnpike results for a class of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum game are proven. This thorough exposition will be very useful  for mathematicians working in the fields of optimal control, the calculus of variations, applied functional analysis, and infinite horizon optimization. It may also be used as a primary text in a graduate course in optimal control or as supplementary text for a variety of courses in other disciplines. Resea...

  5. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act, BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  6. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán Navas, Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen Piccolo de

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of infection secondary to pulpal or periodontal pathology of the anterior teeth. After a thorough clinical and radiographic examination, odontogenic infection was discarded and the diagnosis of floor of the nose mucosal lysis and lip abscess secondary to a bee sting was made. This case was successfully managed with adequate incision, drainage and antibiotics without any further complication. There are several reports of unusual reactions following hymenoptera stings. However, just a few of them referred to infections of local reactions and none of them related to the anatomic location affected in the patient of the present case. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented infection dissemination and the likelihood of tissue necrosis as in previously reported cases of Necrotizing fasciitis.

  7. Large-scale clinical comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and radiometric systems for blood culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.; Kiehn, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Isolator 10 lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.) was compared with the BACTEC radiometric method (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) with 6B and 7D broth media for the recovery of bacteria and yeasts. From 11,000 blood cultures, 1,174 clinically significant organisms were isolated. The Isolator system recovered significantly more total organisms, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp., and yeasts. The BACTEC system recovered significantly more Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., and anaerobes. Of the Isolator colony counts, 87% measured less than 11 CFU/ml of blood. Organisms, on an average, were detected the same day from each of the two culture systems. Only 13 of the 975 BACTEC isolates (0.01%) were recovered by subculture of growth-index-negative bottles, and 12 of the 13 were detected in another broth blood culture taken within 24 h. Contaminants were recovered from 4.8% of the Isolator 10 and 2.3% of the BACTEC cultures

  8. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien; Jerling, Johann C; Kruger, Annamarie; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-01-01

    Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years) were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act), BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  9. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  10. Phenomenon of Uncertainty as a Subjective Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifintseva A.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of uncertainty in illness of patients is discussed and analyzed in this article. Uncertainty in illness is a condition that accompanies the patient from the moment of appearance of the first somatic symptoms of the disease and could be strengthened or weakened thanks to many psychosocial factors. The level of uncertainty is related to the level of stress, emotional disadaptation, affective states, coping strategies, mechanisms of psychological defense, etc. Uncertainty can perform destructive functions, acting as a trigger for stressful conditions and launching negative emotional experiences. As a positive function of uncertainty, one can note a possible positive interpretation of the patient's disease. In addition, the state of uncertainty allows the patient to activate the resources of coping with the disease, among which the leading role belongs to social support.

  11. [Electroencephalographic characteristics of the deja vu phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, P N; Cherviakov, A V; Gnezdinsiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    Déjà vu (DV, from French "already seen") is an aberration of psychic activity associated with transitory erroneous perception of novel circumstances, objects, or people as already known. An aim of the study was to investigate EEG characteristics of DV in patients with epilepsy. We studied 166 people (63.2% women, mean age 25.17±9.19 years). The DV phenomenon was studied in patients (27 people) and in a control group (139 healthy people). Patients were interviewed for DV characteristics and underwent a long (12-16 h) ambulatory EEG-monitoring study. In EEG, DV episodes in patients began with polyspike activity in the right temporal lobe and, in some cases, ended with the slow-wave theta-delta activity in the right hemisphere.

  12. Physics of cryogenics an ultralow temperature phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2018-01-01

    Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics.

  13. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  14. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  15. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  16. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  17. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  18. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  19. Relative efficacy of the argon green, argon blue-green, and krypton red lasers for 10-0 nylon subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; To, K W; Balachandran, R M; Janigian, R H; Tsiaras, W G

    1999-01-01

    To determine the optimal wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis. 130 black monofilament 10-0 nylon sutures were sewn subconjunctivally into the bare sclera of enucleated rabbit globes. The lowest energy levels facilitating laser suture lysis were determined for the argon green (514.5 NM), argon blue-green (488.0 NM, 514.5 NM), and krypton red (647.1 NM) wavelengths. In addition, absorption spectroscopy was performed on the suture material and conjunctiva using the Perkin Elmer W/VIS Lambda 2 spectrometer. Krypton red produced the fewest buttonhole defects, and it was also the most efficient energy source for suture lysis (P = 0.0001) under nontenectomized conjunctiva. Absorbance spectra studies revealed peak absorbance at 628 NM for the 10-0 nylon suture material. Based on animal and absorption spectroscopy studies, krypton red may be a safer and more efficient wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

  20. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  1. Local lysis with Alteplase for the treatment of acute embolic leg ischemia following the use of the Duett trademark closure device: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Wingen, M.; Tacke, J.; Wein, B.; Guenther, R.W.; Janssens, U.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the result of the alteplase lysis therapy of embolic complications following the use of the Duett closure device. Methods and Materials: For 3.5 years, the Duett closure device was used in 1,398 angiographies to close the femoral puncture site. The Duett device consists of a balloon and a liquid procoagulant containing collagen and thrombin, which is injected into the puncture tract under endovascular balloon protection of the arterial puncture site. In 9 patients (0.64%), the procoagulant was incidentally injected into the femoral artery causing acute leg ischemia. Eight patients received local lysis therapy with alteplase via a contralateral femoral access. One patient underwent surgery. On average, 21 mg alteplase (4-35 mg) were administered within 14 h (4-21 h). The course of the lysis was followed angiographyically and clinically. All patients were inteerviewed by telephone 23 months (4-35 months) later.Results: In 3 patients, lysis was complete. In 5 patients, only little thrombotic material remained. In all patients, symptoms of ischemia resolved completely within the first hours after initiation of lysis. In 5 cases, bleeding occurred at the puncture site closed with the Duett device during lysis, including development of a false aneurysm in 2 cases. Complications led to premature termination (n=2) or interruption of the lysis (n=3). All complications were treated conservatively. Clinically, long-term sequelae were paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the lower leg and foot in 2 patients treated with lysis, and in the patient who underwent surgery. (orig.) [de

  2. Comparison of Yeast Cell Protein Solubilization Procedures for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, A; Wildgruber, R; Nawrocki, A

    1999-01-01

    Three different procedures for the solubilization of yeast (S. cerevisiae) cell proteins were compared on the basis of the obtained two-dimensional (2-D) polypeptide patterns. Major emphasis was laid on minimizing handling steps, protein modification or degradation, and quantitative loss of high...... with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, consisting of 1% SDS and 100 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-HCl, pH 7.0, followed by dilution with "standard" lysis buffer, and (iii) boiling the sample with SDS during cell lysis, followed by dilution with thiourea/urea lysis buffer (2 M thiourea/ 7 M urea...

  3. Constitutive Activation of NF-KB in Prostate Carcinoma Cells Through a Positive Feedback Loop: Implication of Inducible IKK-Related Kinase (IKKi)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budunova, Irina V

    2005-01-01

    .... During FYO2 we developed the conditions for RNA isolation from OCT-embedded frozen PC and BPH samples, developed conditions for cell lysis and IKKi immunoprecipitation from transfected cells using FLAG antibody...

  4. Large Gastric Perforation Sealed by Splenic Lysis: Emphasis on Indirect Signs – A Rare Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Lalit; Jain, Mansi; Taori, Kishor; Patil, Ajinky; Hatgaonkar, Anand; Rathod, Jawhar; Shah, Swenil; Patwa, Darshan; Kasat, Akshat

    2015-01-01

    Gastric perforation is a life-threatening condition, requiring early and reliable discovery. The delay before surgical treatment is a strong determinant of poor outcome, associated complications and hospitalization costs. By using ultrasound and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) we can further evaluate undiagnosed cases of silent gastric perforations presenting with non-specific acute abdomen. Here we bring forth the role of a radiologist in cases of perforation which present with indirect signs involving the organs forming the stomach bed, like the spleen, pancreas and kidney. A 25-year-old male patient presented with an acute onset of severe upper abdominal pain radiating to the back and vomiting. MDCT of the abdomen was done which revealed atrophic pancreas with organized collection in the sub-capsular location indenting the superior pole of the left kidney. Spleen was not visualized. The most striking imaging finding in that case was destruction of the splenic parenchyma with protrusion of the remaining tissue into the stomach lumen. The hypothesis behind this was a cascade of events which started with gastric perforation, spillage of highly destructive gastric juice over the stomach bed and finally becoming silent with rapid sealing of the defect by the omentum and the spleen. Acute abdomen is a diagnostic challenge to a clinician and radiologist with gastric perforation being a great mimicker of other urgent abdominal pathologies. To avoid a delayed diagnosis or a misdiagnosis, familiarity with typical and atypical imaging features is essential as in our case of splenic lysis. It acted as the 2 nd policeman and provided a great clue to solve the diagnostic dilemma

  5. Development of Augmented Leukemia/Lymphoma-Specific T-Cell Immunotherapy for Deployment with Haploidentical, Hematompoietic Progenitor-Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    cells exhibited redirected specific lysis of a genetically modified EL4 target expressing 92% human CD19 (Figure 6a). T cells not genetically modified...but propagated by crosslinking CD3 using g-irradiated aAPC loaded with OKT3 did not appreciably lyse CD19 EL4 cells (Figure 6b). DISCUSSION We and...by genetically modified T cells. Lysis by chromium release assay of CD19+ EL4 tumor cells compared with CD19 parental EL4 cells by (a) T cells

  6. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  7. Informal worker phenomenon in housing construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayaningtyas, Maranatha; Sipan, Ibrahim; Lukiyanto, Kukuh

    2017-11-01

    The informal workers phenomenon on housing construction projects in Indonesia is different from workers in other sectors who would always request as permanent employees. Substantively, the informal workers are disinclined to be bound as permanent employees which different from the general labor paradigm. Hence, the objective of this study is to find out how the labour selection process, the factors that affected their performance, and the suitable wage system to achieve the target completion of housing construction project. The qualitative method is used to uncover and understand the meaning behind the phenomena (numina) of informal workers action and their influence on housing construction project which called phenomenological approach. Five informal workers and two project managers were selected as informants based on predetermined criteria with in-depth interviews. The results showed that the informal worker were more satisfied with the wage based on unit price while working in the housing construction project for the flexibility in working hours. In addition, the developer was also relieved because they only control the quality and the achievement of the project completion time which supported by informal worker leader. Therefore, these findings are beneficial for both of developer and government as policy maker to succeed the housing program in Indonesia.

  8. Virtual reality as a social phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova T. V.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the study of virtual reality as a social phenomenon. Through an appeal to the past, its genesis is analyzed, as well as its significance in modern realities. The latter is viewed from both a social and a personal point of view. Comparing the number of supporters of virtual communication with the number of people of conservative views, conclusions are drawn about the tendency to depart from the usual communication. It allows to assert that the problem of the termination of live communication is relevant to this day. Inferences allow us to assert that the problem of replacing real communication is different. After looking at the positive consequences, the introduction of the mind into virtual reality, it is affirmed that there are good sides to this action. Through analysis, the causes of entering the World Wide Web are generated. In conclusion, the question is raised about the need for virtual reality in everyday life, its problems, as well as the prospects for development.

  9. The keloid phenomenon: progress toward a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Louise

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, keloids have been an enigma and despite considerable research to unravel this phenomenon no universally accepted treatment protocol currently exists. Historically, the etiology of keloids has been hypothesized by multiple different theories; however, a more contemporary view postulates a multifactoral basis for this disorder involving nutritional, biochemical, immunological, and genetic factors that play a role in this abnormal wound healing. Critical to the process of preventing or managing keloids is the need to locally control fibroblasts and their activities at the wound site. In recent years, considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating the importance of fatty acids and bioactive lipids in health and disease, especially those involving inflammatory disorders or immune dysfunction. If hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation can be argued to have significant inflammatory histories, then it is possible to postulate a role for lipids in their etiology and potentially in their treatment. This report briefly visits past views and theories on keloid formation and treatment, and offers a theoretical rationale for considering adjuvant fatty acid therapy for keloid management. Sufficient scientific evidence in support of fatty acid strategies for the prevention and treatment of keloids currently exists, which offer opportunities to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the clinic. The intent of this paper is to serve as a basic guideline for researchers, nutritionists, and clinicians interested in keloids and to propose new directions for keloid management.

  10. Klein tunneling phenomenon with pair creation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Fu, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Klein tunneling phenomenon with electron-positron pair creation process. Pairs can be created from the vacuum by a supercritical single-well potential (for electrons). In the time region, the time-dependent growth pattern of the created pairs can be characterized by four distinct regimes which can be considered as four different statuses of the single well. We find that if positrons penetrate the single well by Klein tunneling in different statuses, the total number of the tunneling positrons will be different. If Klein tunneling begins at the initial stage of the first status i.e. when the sing well is empty, the tunneling process and the total number of tunneling positrons are similar to the traditional Klein tunneling case without considering the pair creation process. As the tunneling begins later, the total tunneling positron number increases. The number will finally settle to an asymptotic value when the tunneling begins later than the settling-down time t s of the single well which has been defined in this paper.

  11. The Sexting Phenomenon in Spanish Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Puertas, Vanesa; Gutiérrez-Puertas, Lorena; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Baños-Martín, María Del Mar; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V

    2017-08-01

    One of the adverse effects arising among young people who engage in various social practices is the phenomenon of sexting. Sexting involves the production and delivery of sexual content voluntarily and freely and, in many cases, without the consent of the recipient. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of sexting in undergraduate students at the College of Nursing of the University of Almeria in Spain. It is a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study. A total of 105 undergraduate nursing students completed the sexuality and technology questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of seven dimensions with 59 items. Depending on size, statistically significant differences between the use of social networks and the dimension "sexting actions completed" and the dimension "position on statements about sexting" were found. No statistically significant differences between gender and the practice of sexting were found. The three main reasons for sexting match in both genders, these being "to draw attention," "as a sexy gift," and "to feel sexy." Nursing students associated behaviors to show sexting, being a standard practice, common in both genders. Future research should consider the possible influence of this behavior on future professionals and on the field of nursing.

  12. The Outsider Phenomenon in Teenage Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuminskya E.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of outsidership in groups of younger and older adolescents. We assumed that there are personal qualities that distinguish outsiders from other students, which allows us to speak of outsidership as a separate group and personal phenomenon. The study involved 246 students of Moscow schools of younger and older adolescents, 60 of whom took an outsider position in the group. To test the hypothesis were used: a personal questionnaire for adolescents HSPQ (R. Cattell, questionnaire Emin to determine the level of emotional intelligence (D.V. Lyusin, the technique of " Suggestibility " (O.E. Rybakov. To identify statistical differences, the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used, p ≤ 0.05. The results of the study showed that outsiders of adolescence are indeed characterized by a number of personal characteristics that distinguish them from their peers. Differences in personal characteristics of outsiders at different stages of adolescence have their own characteristics.

  13. Lung tissue mechanics as an emergent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of lung parenchymal tissue are both elastic and dissipative, as well as being highly nonlinear. These properties cannot be fully understood, however, in terms of the individual constituents of the tissue. Rather, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue emerges as a macroscopic phenomenon from the interactions of its microscopic components in a way that is neither intuitive nor easily understood. In this review, we first consider the quasi-static mechanical behavior of lung tissue and discuss computational models that show how smooth nonlinear stress-strain behavior can arise through a percolation-like process in which the sequential recruitment of collagen fibers with increasing strain causes them to progressively take over the load-bearing role from elastin. We also show how the concept of percolation can be used to link the pathologic progression of parenchymal disease at the micro scale to physiological symptoms at the macro scale. We then examine the dynamic mechanical behavior of lung tissue, which invokes the notion of tissue resistance. Although usually modeled phenomenologically in terms of collections of springs and dashpots, lung tissue viscoelasticity again can be seen to reflect various types of complex dynamic interactions at the molecular level. Finally, we discuss the inevitability of why lung tissue mechanics need to be complex.

  14. Empirical Study on the Creative Accounting Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernusca Lucian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the accounting professionals’ point of view as opposed to the students and master students’ one, regarding the creative accounting phenomenon existence and manifestation forms. In order to accomplish this objective, there has been used the poll/investigation, as a research method and the questionnaire, as a research instrument. Within the study, there is suggested the testing of more hypotheses that contribute to the clarifying of the aspects wished to be analyzed through the research. These hypotheses’ acceptance or rejection is based on the „chi-square“ (Karl Pearson statistical test and rank ordering method. Trying to elaborate a global conclusion of the questionnaire, there could be noticed the fact that over 50% from the questioned accounting students are not tempted to use the creative accounting practices and techniques in order to optimize the taxation without breaking the actual law regulations. At the opposite side, more than a half from the questioned accounting professionals would use these practices without breaking the law regulations that lead to the taxation’s optimization. The creative accounting has a negative connotation if the accurate image of the financial position and of the performance is not targeted because it represents the essential factor for elaborating and grounding the accounting policies. However, the positive side of the creative accounting is not excluded, given that one appeals to the „fair“ professional judgment of the accounting professionals and to the good faith of managers.

  15. Mapping The Phenomenon Of Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yud Buana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research mapped the phenomena that occured in students who are taking classes entrepreneurship that was limited by entrepreneurial knowledge, personal attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. Using descriptive statistics on the answers of 794 respondents, who were students of Bina Nusantara University, produced a variety of results. Based on entrepreneurial knowledge, students still felt hesitant to be able to start and run the entrepreneurial process. On the other hand, self-efficacy and personal attitude reflect a positive thing associated, while the support of family and the environment around where they livevalued invariety. Although this research discovered phenomenon using all the attributes having impacts on entrepreneurship intention, potential students who are properly trained have a probability of playing a leading role in this regard. The benefits that can be expected from this research are useful in identifying suitable students for any entrepreneurial activity in the future with the support of educational institutions, families, and the government as a whole to form the atmosphere of an entrepreneurial culture.

  16. Evolution as a molecular cooperative phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1991-06-01

    We discuss an hypothesis according to which microscopic mechanisms due to cooperation, at the molecular level, may have been key factors in the evolution of life on Earth. We view our hypothesis as a natural extension to the molecular level of viewing cooperation (symbiosis) as an evolutionary driving force; this does not restrict the interpretation of the evolutionary process to be the result of slow accumulation of mutations in the DNA. Some evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed: (a) The Salam enhancement factor. This molecular phenomenon was recently introduced in order to understand the bases of the first unifying principle of biochemistry, namely that transcription of all known genes in prokaryotes, protists, metazoan, and metaphytes are translated into L-amino acids, except for some bacterial membrane proteins. (b) The role that cooperative phenomena may have played in the origin of evolution itself, i.e., in the resolution of Sagan's ultraviolet paradox. (c) The relationship between evolution and the constraints imposed by embryonic development. This is considered from the point of view of molecular cooperative phenomena. (author). Refs

  17. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  18. Vacuum phenomenon in the metatarsophalangeal joint of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, T.E.; Poulos, P.W.; Metcalf, M.R.; Robertson, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Vacuum phenomenon was induced inadvertently during radiographic examination of a metatarsophalangeal joint of a lame horse. The phenomenon was recreated in a sound horse when a metacarpophalangeal joint was radiographed in a stress-flexed position. Distraction of apposing articular surfaces may induce the vacuum phenomenon, which could result in misdiagnosis of an osteochondral defect or fracture

  19. A suspicious reason for Raynaud's phenomenon: Intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Adem I; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Aksoy, Eray; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Çağlı, Kerim

    2015-06-01

    Primary Raynaud's phenomenon may be insistent in patients under medical therapy, and intrauterine devices may be an unnoticed reason in these patients. Fluctuations in female sex hormone status were reported to be associated with the emergence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms. The use of intrauterine devices was not reported to be associated with Raynaud's phenomenon previously. Intrauterine device may stimulate vascular hyperactivity regarding hormonal or unknown mechanisms that result in Raynaud's phenomenon. We present a postmenopausal patient who complained of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and had recovery after the removal of her copper intrauterine device. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Cognitive approach in studying of entrepreneur phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakovsky T.Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research indicates that there is no prospect of searching specific entrepreneurial traits that are necessary for conducting successful entrepreneurial activity. It is pointed on the impossibility to fully explain the negative state of domestic business exclusively by the influence of environmental factors. The paper points on the necessity of concentrating the scientific search on the cognitive features of personality, as factors that contribute to success of entrepreneurial activities. It is revealed that the decision-making process directed on problem-solving in entrepreneurial activity, from an entrepreneurial idea to obtaining an appropriate result, cannot be algorithmized. The author points out on the insufficiency of attempts to model cognitive processes of entrepreneurs, in which their cognitive activity is regarded as an information processing system that resembles a computer. The results obtained in the framework of the cognitive approach in studying the phenomenon of the entrepreneur are analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on the features of heuristics and cognitive biases. It is stated that the high levels of uncertainty, novelty, time deficit, information overload and emotional tension facilitate influence of cognitive biases on the cognitive processes of the entrepreneur. The role of «availability heuristic», «anchoring and adjustment heuristic», «confirmation bias», «hindsight bias» and self-efficacy in making decisions about starting an entrepreneurial activity are considered. The article points to the role of «belief in the law of small numbers» and the illusion of control in establishing optimistic bias (overly positive self-esteem, excessive optimism about future plans and events that lead to reducing the subjective perception of entrepreneurial risk.

  1. Electron string phenomenon: physics and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, Evgeny D.

    2004-01-01

    Electron string phenomenon arises as a result of phase transition of a state of multiply reflected electron beam to this new discovered state of one component electron plasma and can be easily observed in the reflex mode of EBIS operation. The transition goes via a strong instability, which causes considerable electron energy spread, which in its turn suppresses the instability. Electron string state is a stationary state of hot pure electron plasma, which is heated by injected electron beam and cooled because of electron loses. Electron string is quiet in broad regions of experimental parameters, so that it is used for confinement and ionization of positive ions by electron impact to highly charge states similar to electron beams in EBIS. Application of electron strings instead of electron beams for ion production allows to save about 99% of electric power of electron beam and simultaneously to improve reliability of an ion source considerably. The JINR EBIS `Krion-2' in the string mode of operation is used for production of N7+, Ar16+ and Fe24+ ion beams and their acceleration to relativistic energies on the facility of the JINR super conducting one turn injection synchrotron `Nuklotron'. The tubular electron string possibly can exist and it is under study now theoretically and experiments are prepared now. Estimations show that a Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) could have up to three orders of magnitude higher ion output then a Linear one (LESIS). In frames of nuclear astrophysics electron strings can be used for research of fusion nuclear reactions at low energies in conditions when both beam and target nuclei do not carry orbital electrons. The project NARITA — Nuclear Astrophysics Researches in an Ion Trap Apparatus is proposed. Polarization effects also can be studied.

  2. Electron string phenomenon: physics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, Evgeny D

    2004-01-01

    Electron string phenomenon arises as a result of phase transition of a state of multiply reflected electron beam to this new discovered state of one component electron plasma and can be easily observed in the reflex mode of EBIS operation. The transition goes via a strong instability, which causes considerable electron energy spread, which in its turn suppresses the instability. Electron string state is a stationary state of hot pure electron plasma, which is heated by injected electron beam and cooled because of electron loses. Electron string is quiet in broad regions of experimental parameters, so that it is used for confinement and ionization of positive ions by electron impact to highly charge states similar to electron beams in EBIS. Application of electron strings instead of electron beams for ion production allows to save about 99% of electric power of electron beam and simultaneously to improve reliability of an ion source considerably. The JINR EBIS 'Krion-2' in the string mode of operation is used for production of N 7+ , Ar 16+ and Fe 24+ ion beams and their acceleration to relativistic energies on the facility of the JINR super conducting one turn injection synchrotron 'Nuklotron'. The tubular electron string possibly can exist and it is under study now theoretically and experiments are prepared now. Estimations show that a Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) could have up to three orders of magnitude higher ion output then a Linear one (LESIS). In frames of nuclear astrophysics electron strings can be used for research of fusion nuclear reactions at low energies in conditions when both beam and target nuclei do not carry orbital electrons. The project NARITA - Nuclear Astrophysics Researches in an Ion Trap Apparatus is proposed. Polarization effects also can be studied

  3. Shifted identical bands: A new phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.F.; Lima, A.P. de; Gore, P.M.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Dodder, R.S.; Kormicki, J.; Hwang, J.K.; Beyer, C.J.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zhu, S.J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Daniel, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Lee, I.Y.; Cole, J.D.; Drigert, M.W.; Ma, W.-C.

    2001-01-01

    The levels in 162 Gd were identified in spontaneous fission studies. Its transition energies are remarkably similar to those in 160 Gd. From that work, an analysis of yrast bands in even-even proton to neutron-rich Ba to Pb nuclei led to the discovery of a new phenomenon, shifted identical bands (SIB). SIBs are yrast bands in neighboring nuclei (a, b) with moments of inertia which are identical when shifted by a constant amount κ, so J 1a (1 + κ) = J 1b , from 2 + to 8 + and higher to 16 + . Out of over 700 comparisons, 55 SIBs were found from stable to the most neutron-rich Ce-W nuclei with |κ-bar| between 1.5% and 13%, where the spread in κ is less than ± 1%, and only four identical bands (κ-bar congruent with 0). As examples, we found for 158 Sm- 160 Gd, κ-bar (-3.2 +0.1 -0.2 )% (where the ± is the total spread in κ from -3.1 to -3.4); 156 Nd- 160 Gd, (-10.6 +0.4 -0.2 )%; 158 Sm- 160 Sm, (3.4 +0.5 -0.3 )%. The J 1 values were fitted to a variable moment of inertia model with parameters J 0 and C whose values correlate with the SIB J 1 values. The SIBs are not correlated either with deformation or with the N p N n product of the IBA model

  4. Weight-based discrimination: an ubiquitary phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, C; Spahlholz, J; Hartlev, M; Riedel-Heller, S G

    2016-02-01

    Despite strong indications of a high prevalence of weight-related stigmatization in individuals with obesity, limited attention has been given to the role of weight discrimination in examining the stigma obesity. Studies, up to date, rely on a limited basis of data sets and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings of previous studies. In particular, data for Europe are lacking, and are needed in light of a recent ruling of the European Court of Justice that addressed weight-based discrimination. The data were derived from a large representative telephone survey in Germany (n=3003). The dependent variable, weight-based discrimination, was assessed with a one-item question. The lifetime prevalence of weight discrimination across different sociodemographic variables was determined. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of independent and dependent variables. A sub-group analysis was conducted analyzing all participants with a body mass index ⩾25 kg m(-)(2). The overall prevalence of weight-based discrimination was 7.3%. Large differences, however, were observed regarding weight status. In normal weight and overweight participants the prevalence was 5.6%, but this number doubled in participants with obesity class I (10.2%), and quadrupled in participants with obesity class II (18.7%) and underweight (19.7%). In participants with obesity class III, every third participant reported accounts of weight-based discrimination (38%). In regression models, after adjustment, the associations of weight status and female gender (odds ratio: 2.59, PDiscrimination seems to be an ubiquitary phenomenon at least for some groups that are at special risk, such as heavier individuals and women. Our findings therefore emphasize the need for research and intervention on weight discrimination among adults with obesity, including anti-discrimination legislation.

  5. The Trump phenomenon: An explanation from sociophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2017-04-01

    The Trump phenomenon is argued to depart from current populist rise in Europe. According to a model of opinion dynamics from sociophysics the machinery of Trump’s amazing success obeys well-defined counter-intuitive rules. Therefore, his success was in principle predictable from the start. The model uses local majority rule arguments and obeys a threshold dynamics. The associated tipping points are found to depend on the leading collective beliefs, cognitive biases and prejudices of the social group which undertakes the public debate. And here comes the open sesame of the Trump campaign, which develops along two successive steps. During a first moment, Trump’s statement produces a majority of voters against him. But at the same time, according to the model the shocking character of the statement modifies the prejudice balance. In case the prejudice is present even being frozen among voters, the tipping point is lowered at Trump’s benefit. Nevertheless, although the tipping point has been lowered by the activation of frozen prejudices it is instrumental to preserve enough support from openly prejudiced people to be above the threshold. Then, as infuriated voters launch intense debate, occurrence of ties will drive progressively hostile people to shift their voting intention without needing to endorse the statement which has infuriated them. The ongoing debate does drive towards a majority for Trump. The possible Trump victory at November Presidential election is discussed. In particular, the model shows that to eventually win the Presidential election, Trump must not modify his past shocking attitude but to appeal to a different spectrum of frozen prejudices, which are common to both Democrats and Republicans.

  6. INDUCIBLE CELL LYSIS SYSTEM IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND TRANSFORMATION BY DNA RELEASED FROM LYSED CELLS. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  8. An optimized protocol for isolating primary epithelial cell chromatin for ChIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Browne

    Full Text Available A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1 Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature for no longer than 5 min. (2 Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3 The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4 Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green. This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types.

  9. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: a Brief Review of the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Fardoun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud's phenomenon (RP is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR. In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand. Different parameters are involved in this spatial and functional rescue of α2C-AR. Of notable relevance is the female hormone, 17β-estradiol, or estrogen. This is consistent with the high prevalence of RP in pre-menopausal women compared to age-matched males. In addition to dissecting the role of these various players, the contribution of pollution as well as genetic background to the onset and prevalence of RP are also discussed. Different therapeutic approaches employed as treatment modalities for this disease are also highlighted and analyzed. The lack of an appropriate animal model for RP mandates that more efforts be undertaken in order to better understand and eventually treat this disease. Although several lines of treatment are utilized, it is important to note that precaution is often effective in reducing severity or frequency of RP attacks.

  11. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Ahamed, Anis; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Al Sadoon, Mohammad; Bahkali, Ali H.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae) and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lithium chloride (LiCl) with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M) in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification. PMID:20957085

  12. [A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Axel Rodolfo; Hernández, Betsy; Rodríguez, Marina; Romero, Hilda

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique. Out of 450 blood specimens received in one year, 100 where chosen for this comparative study: 60 from patients with AIDS, 15 from leukemic patients, ten from febrile neutropenic patients, five from patients with respiratory infections, five from diabetics and five from septicemic patients. The specimens were processed, simultaneously, according to the above mentioned methodologies with daily inspections searching for fungal growth in order to obtain the final identification of the causative agent. The number (40) of isolates recovered was the same using both methods, which included; 18 Candida albicans (45%), ten Candida spp. (25%), ten Histoplasma capsulatum (25%), and two Cryptococcus neoformans (5%). When the fungal growth time was compared by both methods, growth was more rapid when using the modified lysis/centrifugation technique than when using the conventional method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (pcentrifugation technique showed to be more efficacious than the conventional one, and therefore the implementation of this methodology is highly recommended for the isolation of fungi from blood.

  13. Moe fenomen. The Phenomenon of Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Piibeleht

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last quarter of the 20th century, particularly after the “cultural turn”, the interest in fashion has been increasing in a variety of different disciplines. Fashion has begun to be investigated in many different contexts, using new theoretical approaches. Fashion can be regarded as a social phenomenon, a sign system, as art, myth, or the product of the fashion industry. The purpose of this article is not to provide a definition of fashion, but rather to raise the question of how to approach the experience of fashion analytically. The methodological issues discussed here emerged in the course of preparing for empirical research on fashion. The observations and comparisons that constitute the core of this article are the result of efforts to juxtapose different methods. The traditional history of fashion used a historical-epistemological strategy but, depending on how one defines culture, the meaning of fashion can also be analysed using methods based on different epistemological strategies. The phenomenological method elaborated by Edmund Husserl, which I have chosen for my analysis of the experience of fashion, defines culture through the experiential acts of individuals. Simply stated, phenomenology considers the world as it is given to us in our consciousness. What is most important for empirical research is that the phenomenological method makes it possible to study the structure of a concrete experience and to focus on the mechanisms of the subjective creation of meaning. Thus this article has two main foci: a theoretical analysis of how the experience of fashion can be analytically revealed using the phenomenological method, and a comparison of the phenomenological approach with methods based on other strategies. The analysis of descriptions in the first person makes it possible to highlight how experience has been constructed. People “see” fashion based on structures of meaning; when they describe their own experience

  14. Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumour lysis syndrome in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Kl; Chiang, Alan Ks; Chan, Godfrey Cf; Ha, Shau Yin

    2017-03-08

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a serious complication of malignancies and can result in renal failure or death. Previous reviews did not find clear evidence of benefit of urate oxidase in children with cancer. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. To assess the effects and safety of urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of TLS in children with malignancies. In March 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. In addition, we searched the reference lists of all identified relevant papers, trials registers and other databases. We also screened conference proceedings and we contacted experts in the field and the manufacturer of rasburicase, Sanofi-aventis. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) of urate oxidase for the prevention or treatment of TLS in children under 18 years with any malignancy. Two review authors independently extracted trial data and assessed individual trial quality. We used risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We included seven trials, involving 471 participants in the treatment groups and 603 participants in the control groups. No new studies were identified in the update. One RCT and five CCTs compared urate oxidase and allopurinol. Three trials tested Uricozyme, and three trials tested rasburicase for the prevention of TLS.The RCT did not evaluate the primary outcome (incidence of clinical TLS). It showed no clear evidence of a difference in mortality (both all-cause mortality (Fisher's exact test P = 0.23) and mortality due to TLS (no deaths in either group)), renal failure (Fisher's exact test P = 0.46), and adverse effects between the treatment and the control groups (Fisher's exact test P = 1.0). The frequency of normalisation of uric acid at four hours (10 out of 10 participants in the treatment group versus zero out of nine participants in the control group, Fisher's exact test P oxidase (RR 9.10, 95

  15. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  16. El Nino phenomenon, effects on the tree of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro; Baldion Rincon, Jose Vicente; Guzman Martinez, Orlando

    1998-01-01

    El Nino phenomenon is manifested in the coffee by a deficiency of water in the plant, that which affects its normal development in its fruits; the author describes other alterations that affect the plants of coffee due to El Nino phenomenon

  17. Chinchirisi: The Phenomenon of "Spirit Children" Among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what others say or do, 'it is in our blood', they say. This raises concerns. In what ways and to what extent is this religio-cultural phenomenon a challenge to euthanasia, human rights and rural development in the contemporary society? This paper examines the phenomenon of 'spirit children' from an insider perspective.

  18. An Evaluation of the 'New History' Phenomenon | Moyo | Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the 'New History' approach. This paper explores the argument that the new 'New History' phenomenon was an attempt to rejuvenate an interest in History. The 'New History' phenomenon was launched because of the fear that History was in danger as it faced possible extinction ...

  19. Phenomenon of isomorphic provoking responses in cases of limited scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talnikova Е.Е.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the historical origin of the term "Koebner phenomenon". The literature data reflect the etiology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of isomorphic mechanisms provoking responses in lichen planus, psoriasis, scleroder-ma, syphilis. Variants of the Koebner phenomenon's classifications are given. The clinical cases of limited scleroderma after mechanical injury are described.

  20. Can people with Raynaud's phenomenon travel to high altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Grissom, Colin K; Jean, Dominique; Swenson, Erik R

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether high altitude travel adversely affects mountain enthusiasts with Raynaud's phenomenon. Volunteers with Raynaud's phenomenon were recruited using announcements disseminated by organizations dedicated to climbing or wilderness travel and Internet discussion boards dedicated to mountain activities to complete an online, anonymous survey. Survey questions addressed demographic variables, aspects of their Raynaud's phenomenon, and features of their mountain activities. Respondents compared experiences with Raynaud's phenomenon between high (>2440 m; 8000 feet) and low elevations and rated agreement with statements concerning their disease and the effects of high altitude. One hundred forty-two people, 98% of whom had primary Raynaud's phenomenon, completed the questionnaire. Respondents spent 5 to 7 days per month at elevations above 2440 m and engaged in 5.4 +/- 2.0 different activities. Eighty-nine percent of respondents engaged in winter sports and only 22% reported changing their mountain activities because of Raynaud's phenomenon. Respondents reported a variety of tactics to prevent and treat Raynaud's attacks, but only 12% used prophylactic medications. Fifteen percent of respondents reported an episode of frostbite following a Raynaud's phenomenon attack at high altitude. There was considerable heterogeneity in participants' perceptions of the frequency, duration, and severity of attacks at high altitude compared to their home elevation. Motivated individuals with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, employing various prevention and treatment strategies, can engage in different activities, including winter sports, at altitudes above 2440 m. Frostbite may be common in this population at high altitude, and care must be taken to prevent its occurrence.

  1. Evidence that pulsed electric field treatment enhances the cell wall porosity of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeva, Valentina; Galutzov, Bojidar; Teissie, Justin

    2014-02-01

    The application of rectangular electric pulses, with 0.1-2 ms duration and field intensity of 2.5-4.5 kV/cm, to yeast suspension mediates liberation of cytoplasmic proteins without cell lysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field with similar parameters on cell wall porosity of different yeast species. We found that electrically treated cells become more susceptible to lyticase digestion. In dependence on the strain and the electrical conditions, cell lysis was obtained at 2-8 times lower enzyme concentration in comparison with control untreated cells. The increase of the maximal lysis rate was between two and nine times. Furthermore, when applied at low concentration (1 U/ml), the lyticase enhanced the rate of protein liberation from electropermeabilized cells without provoking cell lysis. Significant differences in the cell surface of control and electrically treated cells were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Data presented in this study allow us to conclude that electric field pulses provoke not only plasma membrane permeabilization, but also changes in the cell wall structure, leading to increased wall porosity.

  2. Radiation Recall Reaction: Two Case Studies Illustrating an Uncommon Phenomenon Secondary to Anti-Cancer Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Su-yu; Yuan, Yuan; Xi, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of certain drugs. Radiation recall is uncommon and easily neglected by physicians; hence, this phenomenon is underreported in literature. This manuscript reports two cases of radiation recall. First, a 44-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with radiotherapy in 2010 and subsequently developed multi-site bone metastases. A few days after the docetaxel-based chemotherapy, erythema and papules manifested dermatitis, as well as swallowing pain due to pharyngeal mucositis, developed on the head and neck that strictly corresponded to the previously irradiated areas. Second, a 19-year-old man with recurrent nasal NK/T cell lymphoma initially underwent radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy after five weeks. Erythema and edema appeared only at the irradiated skin. Both cases were considered chemotherapeutic agents that incurred radiation recall reactions. Clinicians should be knowledgeable of and pay attention to such rare phenomenon

  3. Myeloproliferative Disease: An Unusual Cause of Raynaud’s Phenomenon and Digital Ischaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Beynon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 59-year-old female who presented with ischaemic digits, preceded by a 6-month history of Raynaud’s phenomenon affecting her fingers and toes. There were no clinical or laboratory features of primary vasculitis or connective tissue disease, Doppler imaging was normal, and bloods were unremarkable aside from a platelet count of 786 × 109/L (150–400 and white cells of 16 × 109/L (4–11. In view of the thrombocytosis a JAK2 mutation assay was requested which confirmed a JAK2 V617F mutation, suggesting essential thrombocytosis (ET as the cause. She received treatment with hydroxycarbamide which normalised her platelet count and led to a complete resolution of her Raynaud’s symptoms. Raynaud’s phenomenon is a rare manifestation of ET. Myeloproliferative disorders such as ET should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud’s phenomenon and vasculitis.

  4. Current pathophysiological views on vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyneva, Z; Lyapina, M; Tzvetkov, D; Vodenicharov, E

    2003-03-01

    This review attempts to summarize and discuss contemporary pathogenetic views on vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon assuming its multifactorial etiology. An increase in central and peripheral sympathetic nervous activity is discussed based on different physiological indicators of autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic hyperactivity. Local acral vasodysregulation is considered. Receptor and nerve endings dysfunction presented with predominance of alpha(2)-receptor function in the digital arteries and neuronal loss in those digital cutaneous perivascular nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide result in deficiency of endogenous release of this powerful vasodilator. Endothelial damage and dysregulation induced by vibration and increased shear stresses are demonstrated by the elevated plasma level of thrombomodulin and of von Willebrand factor and reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses. The concentrations of endothelin-1 are high, the highest being in most advanced stages. Decreased plasma thiol level, indicating increased production and activity of free radicals, contribute to vasospastic paroxysms in vibration white finger patients. Dysbalance of local vasoactive factors with opposing effects on vascular smooth muscle like endothelin and nitric oxide, endothelin and calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide and superoxide anion are discussed. Disturbed smooth muscle response is supposed. Changes in hemostasis, fibrinolysis and hemorrheology, activation of blood cells with erythrocyte hyperaggregation and red cell hypodeformability, platelet aggregation with increased release of vasoconstricting thromboxane A(2) and serotonin as well as leukocyte activation, entrapment within capillaries and post-capillary venules and increased reactive oxygen species and lysosomal lytic enzymes release might also contribute to digital vasospasms and tissue damage. Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels involved in the adherence of

  5. Identification and prevention of antibody disulfide bond reduction during cell culture manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Sargis, Sandy; Chiu, Jason; Sze-Khoo, Stefanie; Mun, Melissa; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Laird, Michael W

    2010-06-15

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are primarily produced in mammalian cell culture systems. During the scale-up of a monoclonal antibody production process, we observed excessive mechanical cell shear as well as significant reduction of the antibody's interchain disulfide bonds during harvest operations. This antibody reduction event was catastrophic as the product failed to meet the drug substance specifications and the bulk product was lost. Subsequent laboratory studies have demonstrated that cells subjected to mechanical shear release cellular enzymes that contribute to this antibody reduction phenomenon (manuscript submitted; Kao et al., 2009). Several methods to prevent this antibody reduction event were developed using a lab-scale model to reproduce the lysis and reduction events. These methods included modifications to the cell culture media with chemicals (e.g., cupric sulfate (CuSO(4))), pre- and post-harvest chemical additions to the cell culture fluid (CCF) (e.g., CuSO(4), EDTA, L-cystine), as well as lowering the pH and air sparging of the harvested CCF (HCCF). These methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in preventing disulfide bond reduction and their impact to product quality. Effective prevention methods, which yielded acceptable product quality were evaluated for their potential to be implemented at manufacturing-scale. The work described here identifies numerous effective reduction prevention measures from lab-scale studies; several of these methods were then successfully translated into manufacturing processes. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  7. Tip chip : Subcellular sampling from single cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, Jos; Sarajlic, Edin; Lai, Stanley C.S.; Lemay, Serge G.

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the molecular content of single cells, cell lysis is typically required, yielding a snapshot of cell behavior only. To follow complex molecular profiles over time, subcellular sampling methods potentially can be used, but to date these methods involve laborious offline analysis. Here we

  8. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  9. Detection of fungal DNA in lysis-centrifugation blood culture for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in neonatal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, L; Betta, P; Romeo, M G; Oliveri, S

    2012-03-01

    We report data concerning the detection of fungal DNA directly from lysis-centrifugation blood culture to assess its value in the detection of fungaemia in 86 of the 347 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit between January 2009 and December 2010. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were 87.5% and 98.5%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 93.3% and a negative predictive value of 97.1%. Detection of fungal DNA directly from blood culture Isolator 1.5 microbial tubes, without prior cultivation, is a promising approach for the rapid detection of Candida spp. in neonates with suspected candidaemia. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. The phenomenon of domestic servants in the State of Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Alshafai, Nedham

    2015-01-01

    Of new phenomena that emerged in the State of Qatar, and on a large scale in the post-oil era (after 1950) is domestic servant's phenomenon. Historically, the phenomenon was presented in the pre-oil and limited to the homes of the royal families, pearls' merchants, senior traders and tribal leaders. However, today the phenomenon exists in all Qatari families, under the name of maids, drivers, educators, nurses and others, recently; it began spreading in non-citizenship families as well. Base...

  11. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  12. APPLICATION OF THE ANOMIC THEORY ON THE PHENOMENON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    public service is the most potent organ for the implementation of the policies .... To what extent does the anomic theory explain the social phenomenon of ..... This tends to agree with Merton's postulation that innovation in particular is a.

  13. Various manifestations of stratification phenomenon during intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, S; Nanjo, M; Kino, M; Sekiya, T; Harada, J; Kuroda, T; Anno, I [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1979-07-01

    A classification has been made of various types of stratification phenomenon during intravenous cholangiography. The stage of gallbladder opacification in the recumbent position has been classified as (I) mottled, (II) dendritic, (III) ring-like, and (IV) homogeneous. 'Dendritic' type of stratification phenomenon has never been reported in the literature to our knowledge. At 20 min following infusion of contrast material homogeneous opacification of the gallbladder was noticed in only 14% of patients. The others fell into types I, II or III of stratification phenomenon. In contrast, 87% of the opacified gallbladders were homogeneous on the after fatty meal film. It is therefore mandatory for diagnosis that either a 24 h film or a fatty meal film be taken to avoid the stratification phenomenon.

  14. Various manifestations of stratification phenomenon during intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, S.; Nanjo, M.; Kino, M.; Sekiya, T.; Harada, J.; Kuroda, T.; Anno, I.

    1979-01-01

    A classification has been made of various types of stratification phenomenon during intravenous cholangiography. The stage of gallbladder opacification in the recumbent position has been classified as (I) mottled, (II) dendritic, (III) ring-like, and (IV) homogeneous. 'Dendritic' type of stratification phenomenon has never been reported in the literature to our knowledge. At 20 min following infusion of contrast material homogeneous opacification of the gallbladder was noticed in only 14% of patients. The others fell into types I, II or III of stratification phenomenon. In contrast, 87% of the opacified gallbladders were homogeneous on the after fatty meal film. It is therefore mandatory for diagnosis that either a 24 h film or a fatty meal film be taken to avoid the stratification phenomenon. (author)

  15. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soft spectral evolution, indicating that this spectral softening is not a rare phenomenon .... of time, there exists a temporal steep decay phase accompanied by spectral softening. (d) In most cases, the temporal power law index α and the spectral.

  16. Rock’n’Roll as a Local Musical Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the process of localization of a pop cultural and musical phenomenon – rock ’n’ roll. My basic premise is that rock ’n’ roll as a global music genre can be perceived as local, and hence represents a recognizable identification element for the local population. In this case the label r ’n’ r pertain to the phenomenon of Belgrade "new wave" music, which was popular during the 1980’s. Based on the analysis of narratives from relevant documentary films, it is my intention to find out whether "new wave" was initially perceived as a local phenomenon, and what the means of constructing this image are, as well as what it is that gives this phenomenon local legitimacy and credibility.

  17. Radical Right and Radical Left Euroscepticism. A Dynamic Phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Euroscepticism is often regarded as a monolithic, unitary political phenomenon. After all, Eurosceptic parties, movements and voters are united in voicing their opposition to European integration. This, however, is a serious misconception: Eurosceptic politics in Western Europe is heterogeneous

  18. Negative luminescence and devices based on this phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov-Omskii, V. I.; Matveev, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications concerned with infrared emitters whose electrical modulation results in absorption of radiation detected as negative luminescence are reviewed. The main properties of the devices based on this phenomenon are analyzed

  19. Negative luminescence and devices based on this phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov-Omskii, V I; Matveev, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)], E-mail: bmat@iropt3.ioffe.rssi.ru

    2007-03-15

    Recent publications concerned with infrared emitters whose electrical modulation results in absorption of radiation detected as negative luminescence are reviewed. The main properties of the devices based on this phenomenon are analyzed.

  20. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  1. Tourism Development and the ‘Hidden’ Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo ASERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on ‘hidden’ tourism phenomenon, that is the touristdemand that in many destinations eludes the official survey system. Estimationof hidden tourism requires information drawn from tourism demand and supply,using different indicators. The critical points are: the availability and validity ofdata, the data collection time and the application of the analysis models todifferent non-homogeneous areas. Economic value of the phenomenon relies onan estimate of consumption.

  2. The Diagnostic Value of the Vacuum Phenomenon during Hip Arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Ehud; Gortzak, Yair; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Benkovich, Vadim; Cohen, Eugene; Atar, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the vacuum phenomenon between the femoral head and the acetabulum, and time frame of its occurrence after application of traction is an important clinical question. The resulting arthrogram may outline the shape, location, and extent of cartilage lesions prior to arthroscopy of the hip joint. The presence, duration, and diagnostic information of the vacuum phenomenon were evaluated in 24 hips that underwent arthroscopy. The operative diagnosis was compared to the results of imaging studies and to findings obtained during a traction trial prior to arthroscopy. Indications for arthroscopy included avascular necrosis, labral tears, loose bodies, osteoarthrosis, and intractable hip pain. In 22 hips the vacuum phenomenon developed within 30 seconds after application of traction. The most important data obtained from the vacuum phenomenon was the location and extent of femoral head articular cartilage detachment and the presence of nonossified loose bodies. The vacuum phenomenon did not reveal labral or acetabular cartilage pathology in any of these patients. The vacuum phenomenon obtained during the trial of traction can add valuable information prior to hip arthroscopy. Femoral head articular cartilage detachment was best documented by this method. The hip arthroscopist should utilize this diagnostic window routinely prior to hip arthroscopy. PMID:24977068

  3. VALUE OF THE PHENOMENON OF DEJA VU IN HEALTHY EXAMINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nikolaevich Vlasov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to study the clinical value of the deja vu phenomenon in healthy examinees as it may occur in healthy individuals, on the one hand, and is a symptom of a number of psychoneurological diseases, on the other. One hundred and twenty-nine subjects, mean age 25,2±4,4 years, were examined. All the examinees were questioned by the original questionnaire developed by the authors, which was to reveal the characteristics of the phenomenon, and the Cambridge depersonalization questionnaire; standard electroencephalography was also performed. The deja vu phenomenon was detected in 97% of the respondents. In healthy individuals, the phenomenon was most common at the age of 21-25 years; 52,2% experienced deja vu several times a year; 64,5% of the respondents reported the 10-sec state; 85% did not associate the occurrence of the phenomenon with any provoking factor; 66% perceived deja vu with a positive emotional tinge, and only 4% of the respondents were afraid of the onset of this phenomenon. These criteria may be used to rule out pathological deja vu

  4. Study of the dark pause phenomenon in a low cost exploding wire experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, R.; Chatelain, G.; Lester, M.; Pouzo, J.

    1988-01-01

    A low cost exploding wire experiment is described and several aspects of the phenomenology in this type of plasmas are researched. Plasma photographies with high time resolution are obtained with a non-expensive Kerr cell switching system. The research is centered in the study of the dark pause phenomenon and the experimental results are interpreted using a very simple model. (author). 3 refs, 12 figs

  5. Effects of ultrasound, cysteamine, and x-rays on V79 Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.K.

    1978-01-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were exposed to different intensities and durations of 1 MHz ultrasound and were studied for cell lysis and colony-forming ability. The threshold for cell lysis and loss of viability (reduction in colony-forming ability) were found to be ultrasonic intensity, sonication duration, and energy dependent. Above the threshold there was an initial correlation between ultrasound intensity and biological effect: the higher the intensity, the greater the amount of cell lysis and reduction in colony-forming ability. These effects were maximal at an intensity of 10-20 W/cm 2 , and were less at 30 W/cm 2 . Cells were also exposed to ultrasound in the presence of cysteamine and results are compared with the effects of x radiation on cells exposed in the presence of cysteamine or methionine

  6. An investigation for identification of factors governing F and P phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.K.S.; Saini, R.D.; Kutty, K.K.; Das, D.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in divided electrolytic cells in an attempt to identify factors governing the occurence of Fleischmann and Pons (F and P) phenomenon. Despite wide variation in operating parameters (cathode characteristics, type and concentration of electrolyte) and perturbation of deuterated cathodes and sharp change in their temperatures, experiments yielded no evidence of the phenomenon even though high loading (sometimes upto D/Pd ∼2) could be achieved repeatedely. However, large excess heat liberation, not accountable by probable physicochemical processes, was observed following perturbation of the state of equilibrium of a deuterated cathode (having a portion of it free of scale and bright in appearance) by air. Instances of anomalies in tritium distribution between gas and liquid phase resulting from such perturbation were also noticed. These observations, when analysed in global perspective, clearly indicate the essentiality of oxygen and scale free surface for occurrence of the phenomenon. Study of desorption dynamics and related parameters revealed that the overall effect of oxygen is to enhance the escaping tendency of deuterium from Pd lattice and that the phenomenon is in someway related to desorption. Significant increase in tritium activity in gas phase observed following repeated perturbation of deuterated cathode by induced pulsed magnetic field is suggestive of a possible mechanism in which strong electron affinity of oxygen is of paramount importance. (author). 53 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs., 4 appendixes

  7. Role of Catecholamine in Tumor Angiogenesis Linked to Capacitance Relaxation Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyue SHI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the CgA level during metastasis linked with Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in cancer cell. CgA co-stored and correlated by exocytosis with catecholamines is a precursor to peptides that exert feedback regulatory control on catecholamine secretion. It is to be noted that CgA was the most sensitive marker for detecting patients with tumor angiogenesis. The progressive rise in CgA increases with the tumor size and this fact has been correlated with the Capacitance relaxation phenomenon (T. K. Basak, US patent No. 5691178, 1997 in different stages. The experimental results of Capacitance relaxation phenomenon were given as inputs to a model for correlation with the CgA level. This model is a control system model, the output of which is the CgA level. It is to be noted that the model is simulated in MATLAB. The expression of tumorogenisis in prostate and liver is also linked to Capacitance relaxation phenomenon in respect of its correlation with the CgA level.

  8. Cell Lysis and Detoxification of Cyanotoxins Using a Novel Combination of Microbubble Generation and Plasma Microreactor Technology for Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Siswanto, Anggun; Kuvshinov, Dmitriy; Zimmerman, William B; Lawton, Linda; Edwards, Christine

    2018-01-01

    There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products. However, most ozonation technologies have challenges for scale up including high costs and sub-optimum efficiencies, hence, a low cost and scalable ozonation technology is needed. Here we designed a low temperature plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with an incorporated fluidic oscillator for microbubble delivery of ozone. Both technologies have the potential to drastically reduce the costs of ozonation at scale. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed very rapid (cyanotoxins.

  9. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  10. Raynaud's phenomenon: peripheral catecholamine concentration and effect of sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S L; Christensen, N J; Olsen, N; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The reaction to body and finger cooling was recorded in seven patients with relapse of primary Raynaud's phenomenon after sufficiently performed bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy and for comparison in eight young women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon as well as in seven normal women. The forearm venous concentration of noradrenaline was lower and adrenaline concentration higher in the sympathectomized patients than in the other groups (p less than 0,05). Noradrenaline showed a significant increase during body cooling in normals and primary Raynaud's (p less than 0,05). There was no significant correlation between the vasoconstrictor response to cooling of a finger and the noradrenaline concentration probably due to the fact that skin vasoconstriction impeded release of noradrenaline from the skin. The relapse of Raynaud's phenomenon after surgically sufficient sympathectomy could not be treated by reserpine or alfa-adrenergic receptor blockers in two patients in whom this was tried.

  11. The role of ocean phenomenon in music compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Min

    2016-04-01

    This is a preliminarily interdisciplinary study for exploring the elements of ocean phenomenon appearing in some compositions of classical music. The so-called ocean phenomenon contain wave conditions, climate change, coastal landform, and other natural events around or over the sea. In some music compositions, it is apparent that natural phenomenon over the sea influence the composers' moods and the music pieces they composed. In this poster, some music compositions in the 19th and the early 20th centuries will be introduced to demonstrate the relation between ocean and music works. These works include Meeresstille by Schubert, Étude Op.25 No.12 by Chopin, Fingal's Cave Overture by Mendelssohn, Der Fliegende Holländer by Wagner and La Mer by Debussy. In addition, present idea may give a novel way for music teachers to elucidate the knowledge of ocean science in classes.

  12. Statistical Agent Based Modelization of the Phenomenon of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Clemente, Riccardo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.

  13. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  14. The ferro-resonance, a phenomenon sometimes chaotic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, P; Kieny, J C; Riouai, M [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1996-04-01

    The ferro-resonance is a resonance phenomenon involving the saturation of the magnetic core in transformers; in particular, it is generated by the energization of that equipment during a power system restoration. It exhibits classical periodic regimes, but also more complex ones, as harmonic, pseudo-periodic, even chaotic, which have been measured on site or during laboratory tests. The mathematical analysis of this phenomenon belongs to the theory of bifurcations; the use of a program solving non linear systems may lead to a better understanding of the observed overvoltages. (authors). 14 figs., 2 photos.

  15. What types of investors generate the two-phase phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Doojin

    2013-12-01

    We examine the two-phase phenomenon described by Plerou, Gopikrishnan, and Stanley (2003) [1] in the KOSPI 200 options market, one of the most liquid options markets in the world. By analysing a unique intraday dataset that contains information about investor type for each trade and quote, we find that the two-phase phenomenon is generated primarily by domestic individual investors, who are generally considered to be uninformed and noisy traders. In contrast, our empirical results indicate that trades by foreign institutions, who are generally considered informed and sophisticated investors, do not exhibit two-phase behaviour.

  16. Systemic sclerosis without antinuclear antibodies or Raynaud's phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneeberger, D.; Tyndall, A.; Walker, U.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess patients with SSc who present without circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). Methods: 5390 patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for SSc and were enrolled in the EULAR Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) database were screened for the ab......Objective: To assess patients with SSc who present without circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). Methods: 5390 patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for SSc and were enrolled in the EULAR Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) database were screened...

  17. The Stokes Phenomenon, Borel Summation and Mellin-Barnes Regularisation

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalenko, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The Stokes phenomenon refers to the emergence of jump discontinuities in asymptotic expansions at specific rays in the complex plane. This book presents a radical theory for the phenomenon by introducing the concept of regularization. Two methods of regularization, Borel summation and Mellin-Barnes regularization, are used to derive general expressions for the regularized values of asymptotic expansions throughout the complex plane. Though different, both yield identical values, which, where possible, agree with the original functions. Consequently, asymptotics has been elevated to a true disc

  18. How to measure RNA expression in rare senescent cells expressing any specific protein such as p16Ink4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Sedivy, John M

    2013-02-01

    Here we describe a carefully optimized method for the preparation of high quality RNA by flow sorting of formaldehyde fixed senescent cells immunostained for any intracellular antigen. Replicative cellular senescence is a phenomenon of irreversible growth arrest triggered by the accumulation of a discrete number of cell divisions. The underlying cause of senescence due to replicative exhaustion is telomere shortening. We document here a spontaneous and apparently stochastic process that continuously generates senescent cells in cultures fully immortalized with telomerase. In the course of studying this phenomenon we developed a preparative fluorescence activated flow sorting method based on immunofluorescent staining of intracellular antigens that can also deliver RNA suitable for quantitative analysis of global gene expression. The protocols were developed using normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) and up to 5x107 cells could be conveniently processed in a single experiment. The methodology is based on formaldehyde crosslinking of cells, followed by permeabilization, antibody staining, flow sorting, reversal of the crosslinks, and recovery of the RNA. We explored key parameters such as crosslink reversal that affect the fragmentation of RNA. The recovered RNA is of high quality for downstream molecular applications based on short range sequence analysis, such qPCR, hybridization microarrays, and next generation sequencing. The RNA was analyzed by Affymetrix Gene Chip expression profiling and compared to RNA prepared by the direct lysis of cells. The correlation between the data sets was very high, indicating that the procedure does not introduce systematic changes in the mRNA transcriptome. The methods presented in this communication should be of interest to many investigators working in diverse model systems.

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to illustrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24 ± 5% of the sonication power without droplets. Recanalization occurred in 71% of rabbits that received 1-ms pulsed sonications during continuous intravascular droplet infusion (p = 0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments indicated that damage was confined to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that tolerable treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispheric array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and clot lysis time in pregnant patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: relationship with pregnancy outcome and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Zamora, Maria Angeles; Tassies, Dolors; Carmona, Francisco; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Balasch, Juan

    2009-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) pregnancies are associated with thrombotic obstetric complications, despite treatment. This study evaluated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) levels, TAFI gene polymorphisms and Clot Lysis Time (CLT) in pregnant patients with APS in relation to pregnancy outcome and thrombosis. Group 1 consisted of 67 pregnant patients with APS. Group 2 included 66 pregnant patients with uneventful term pregnancies and delivery. Patients were sampled during each trimester and at baseline. TAFI antigen and CLT and two polymorphisms of the TAFI gene, Ala147Thr and +1542C/G, were determined. Significantly prolonged CLT was found at baseline in Group 1. Allele distribution of the TAFI gene polymorphisms was similar in both groups. Basal TAFI and CLT in patients with APS having an adverse or a good obstetrical outcome were similar. Comparison of TAFI and CLT baseline levels in patients with APS with or without previous thrombosis showed no statistical differences. Patients with APS have impairment in fibrinolysis evidenced by prolonged CLT at baseline. TAFI and CLT do not seem to be useful as markers of obstetric outcome or risk of thrombosis in patients with APS.

  1. Genome scan of clot lysis time and its association with thrombosis in a protein C deficient kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, M.E.; Hasstedt, S.J.; Vossen, C.Y.; Callas, P.W.; de Groot, Ph.G.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Lisman, T.; Bovill, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Previously we found increased clot lysis time (CLT), as measured with a plasma-based assay, to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in two population-based case-control studies. Genes influencing CLT are yet unknown. Objectives and Patients/Methods We tested CLT as risk factor for venous thrombosis in Kindred Vermont II (n=346), a pedigree suffering from a high thrombosis risk, partially attributable to a type I protein C deficiency. Furthermore we tested for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for CLT using variance component linkage analysis. Results Protein C deficient family members had shorter CLT than non-deficient members (median CLT 67 versus 75 minutes). One standard deviation increase in CLT increased risk of venous thrombosis 2.4-fold in non-deficient family members. Protein C deficiency without elevated CLT increased risk 6.9-fold. Combining both risk factors yielded a 27.8-fold increased risk. Heritability of CLT was 42-52%. We found suggestive evidence of linkage on chromosome 11 (62 cM), partly explained by the prothrombin 20210A mutation, and on chromosome 13 (52 cM). Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor genotypes did not explain the variation in CLT. Conclusion Hypofibrinolysis appears to increase thrombosis risk in this family especially in combination with protein C deficiency. Protein C deficiency is associated with short CLT. CLT is partly genetically regulated. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosome 11 and 13. PMID:21575129

  2. Development and implementation of tPA clot lysis activity assay using ACL TOP™ hemeostasis testing system in QC laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the design, development, validation and long-term performance of tPA clot lysis activity assay using Advanced Chemistry Line Total Operational Performance (ACL TOP™ Homeostasis Testing System. The results of the study demonstrated robust and stable performance of the analytical method. The accuracy of the assay, expressed by percent recovery is 98–99%. The intermediate precision and repeatability precision, expressed as Relative Standard Deviation (RSD, was 3% and less than 2% respectively. The validated range is from 70% to 130% of the target potency of 5.8 × 105 IU/mg. The linearity of this range, expressed in correlation coefficient, is 0.997. After the assay is transferred to a QC laboratory, the assay retained high accuracy and precision with a success rate of >99%. Keywords: Potency assay, Clot lysis, Comparability, Automation

  3. Freezing of gait: moving forward on a mysterious clinical phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hallett, M.; Horak, F.B.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability

  4. The Game "Pokemon Go" as a Crosscultural Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, D. O.; Kochervey, A. I.; Nasonova, K. M.; Shibeko, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The gaming culture of modern childhood takes place not only in real space, but in a virtual one too. These two components (two planes of development) are often viewed in isolation from one another. This study investigates the completely new phenomenon of augmented reality gaming through the lens of "Pokemon Go," and it describes how the…

  5. The E-Book Phenomenon: A Disruptive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The e-book and its associated technology have emerged as a disruptive technology over the past ten years. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the consequences of this development, based on the work of the e-books in Sweden research projects. Argument: To explain the impact of the e-book phenomenon we use Winston's theory of…

  6. Presenteeism – (Not new phenomenon in the occupational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wężyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenteeism, understood as being at work while ill, is not a new phenomenon. However, not long ago it has become an object of researchers' interest. Formerly, they focused mainly on absenteeism. In general, presenteesim is perceived as negative and very costly for employers. The majority of scientific studies refer to the problem of employees' productivity reduced due to their attending work despite being ill, but the knowledge about presenteeism's causes and effects (other than decreased productivity for both, the employee and the organisation, is still very limited. Especially in Poland there are very few scientific reports on this issue. However, the paper on presenteeism published recently (the 3/2013 issue of this Journal defined this phenomenon as a noneffective presence at work. The authors postulate to avoid pejorative connotation of this term by equating presenteeism with loss of productivity, and to separate this phenomenon from its possible negative and positive consequences. Thus, this paper aims at presenting current state of the art on this phenomenon, including such issues as definitional problems, measures and frequency of presenteeism, as well as its causes and consequences. In this paper presenteeism is presented in a wider perspective of its individual and contextual determinants. Med Pr 2013;64(6:847–861

  7. Multichannel customer management : Understanding the research-shopper phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Neslin, Scott A.; Vroomen, Bjorn

    This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the causes of research shopping, and investigates potential strategies for managing it. The research-shopper phenomenon is the tendency of customers to use one channel for search and another for purchase. We hypothesize three fundamental

  8. Phenomenon of mucous retention in the incisive canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D A

    1979-11-01

    Mucous glands are rarely found in the anterior palate but may be observed in the incisive canal. A case history is presented of a lesion that resembled a nasopalatine cyst both clinically and radiographically but which was in fact an intra-bony extravasation phenomenon.

  9. The Hammer-and-Nail Phenomenon in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the hammer-and-nail metaphor to highlight the rigidity and impulsiveness that can be found in student mathematical behaviour. The hammer-and-nail phenomenon can be attributed to two plausible causes: (1) the way the human mind works; and (2) the way mathematics is traditionally taught in school. In this paper, the following aspects…

  10. APPLICATION OF THE ANOMIC THEORY ON THE PHENOMENON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    According to Coser and Rosenberg (1976), scientific theories are general statements or set of statements that ... Commission (CSC). 6. NJOKU, K. C.: Application of the Anomic Theory on the Phenomenon of Disengagement Lethargy ...... Igbo, E.M. (2007). Introduction to criminology (Rvd Ed), Nsukka: University of Nigeria.

  11. Three aspects of critical phenomenons: fundamental, hydrodynamic, conceptual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beysens, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a recall of the leading results relative to the universality class of fluids, examples of how well known universal prevision are held in check by fluids specificities, especially hydrodynamics. Applications of critical phenomenons tool to damping, hydrodynamic instabilities, turbulence are described. (A.B.). 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FRETTING PHENOMENON USING LEAF SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan GHIMIȘI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fretting phenomenon represents particulary and complex form of wear who is; generaly, and/or weary of fretting who is produced on the load contact in a relative oscialatory movement lay small amplitude.A simultaneoustly applied tangential force and normal into contact appears a adhesion force

  13. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is ...

  14. Academic Resistance in the University: Conceptualizing the Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbut, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the phenomenon and concept of "academic resistance." Several aspects are identified: resistance as an integral part of power relations in university education, the pragmatic nature of resistance, and the impossibility of constructing an overarching conception of resistance. The author concludes that researching…

  15. Unfolding the phenomenon of inter-rater agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaug, Bjørn; Schilling, Oliver; Helle, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The overall objective was to unfold the phenomenon of inter-rater agreement: to identify potential sources of variation in agreement data and to explore how they can be statistically accounted for. The ultimate aim was to propose recommendations for in-depth examination of agreement, i...

  16. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height

  17. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height.

  18. Psoriatic Pseudobalanitis Circinata as a Post-Viral Koebner Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zampetti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of any other lesions on the body, the diagnosis of localized genital psoriasis can be difficult, requiring further examinations including a biopsy. We report a case of psoriatic pseudobalanitis circinata triggered by a herpes virus infection, and we discuss the Koebner phenomenon and the therapeutic management of psoriasis of the genital area.

  19. Raynaud\\'s Phenomenon in a Black African Woman | Oguntona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scleroderma is the commonest autoimmune disease associated with Raynaud's phenomenon. The presence of Raynaud's is synonymous with tissue ischaemia. It is a multi-systemic disorder and the clinical manifestations are as a result of excessive proliferation and accumulation of collagen. Definitive management of ...

  20. Quantum walk on the line as an interference phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Peter L.; Roldan, Eugenio; Sipe, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the coined quantum walk on a line can be understood as an interference phenomenon, can be classically implemented, and indeed already has been. The walk is essentially two independent walks associated with the different coin sides, coupled only at initiation. There is a simple analogy between the evolution of walker positions and the propagation of light in a dispersive optical fiber

  1. Exploring Fourier Series and Gibbs Phenomenon Using Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory module on Fourier series and Gibbs phenomenon which was undertaken by 32 Year 12 students. It shows how the use of CAS played the role of an "amplifier" by making higher level mathematical concepts accessible to students of year 12. Using Mathematica students were able to visualise Fourier series of…

  2. A Study of the Impostor Phenomenon among Male Nurse Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie S.

    2011-01-01

    The Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale continue to be used to measure impostor characteristics and levels of self-esteem in aggregate populations in corporate and academic environments. Previous studies have focused on females or female dominate populations. A correlational study of nursing educators that are male…

  3. Breast Cancer a Multifaceted Phenomenon in Older Women in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a look at Breast Cancer a Multifaceted Phenomenon in Older Women. The risk factors, screening, therapy and diagnosis, some forms of modern treatment were mentioned and described, their effects on victims enumerated and possible remedies spelt out for the management, reduction or eradication of the ...

  4. A Modular Approach for Teaching Partial Discharge Phenomenon through Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2011-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) monitoring is an effective predictive maintenance tool for electrical power equipment. As a result, an understanding of the theory related to PD and the associated measurement techniques is now necessary knowledge for power engineers in their professional life. This paper presents a modular course on PD phenomenon in which…

  5. DEPENDENCE BETWEEN ACYLATION DEGREE AND SPECIFIC LYSIS ACTITIVY OF THE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA М6 BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various degrees of protein’s acylation on lytic activity and other biological properties of Pseudomonas M6 bacteriophage. Materials and methods. The subject of the study were samples of the Pseudomonas O 12 bacteriophage, hereinafter named the M6 phage. Pure phage lines were obtained from individual standard-morphology phage plaques (plaque-forming units, or PFUs after ten passes over the indicator strain. In subsequent experiments, M6 phage samples were selected that had a sufficient level of purity (homogeneous in the morphology of virions that inactivated the homologic antiphage serum by no less than 99.0% and the heterologic antibacterial serum by no more than 1%, and a titer no lower than 10 PFU per ml (PFU/ml. Titration of the phages was conducted using the standard bilayer agar. The crude protein content in the phage suspensions was determined using the spectroscopic method (at 280 and 260 nm. Succinylation of the phage samples was conducted according to the method developed by T.J. Molenaar. The phage’s lytic activity spectrum was determined through spot tests on 224 strains of the Pseudomonas genus and 106 strains of other genera (correspondingly, of strains Enterobacter -40, Escherichia -10, Citrobacter -8, Hafnia -7, Serratia -6, Shigella -10, Salmonella -8, Proteus -7 through the use of a phage suspension containing 10 5 - 10 6 PFU/ml. (This concentration of infectious phage corpuscles corresponds with the critical distribution of the M6 phage. The results of the research were subjected to statistical processing using single-factor dispersion analysis. Results and discussion. One hundred percent phage protein acylation leads to a loss of adsorption ability on sensitive cells and is accompanied by a significant (more than 103 times decrease in the level of specific lytic activity in the phage preparations. The succinylation type being studied does not cause

  6. Modeling the scooping phenomenon for the heat transfer in liquid–gas horizontal slug flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, Carlos L.; Pereira, Fernando H.G.; Barbuto, Fausto A.A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A low computational tool for heat transfer prediction on slug flows is presented. • The scooping phenomenon is modeled on a stationary approach. • The scooping phenomenon improved in 8% the heat transfer results. - Abstract: The heat transfer between the deep sea waters and the oil and gas mixtures flowing through production lines is a common situation in the petroleum industry. The optimum prediction of the liquid–gas flow parameters along those lines, when the intermittent flow pattern known as slug flow is dominant, has extreme importance in facilities' design. The mixture temperature drop caused by the colder sea waters, which can be regarded as an infinite medium with constant temperature, directly affects physical properties of the fluids such as the viscosity and specific mass. Gas expansion may also occur due to pressure and temperature gradients, thus changing the flow hydrodynamics. Finally, the temperature gradient affects the thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases, favoring wax deposition and thus increasing pressure drops or even blocking the production line. With those issues in mind, the present work proposes a stationary model to predict the mixture temperature distribution and the two-phase flow heat transfer coefficient based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations applied to different unit cell regions. The main contribution of the present work is the modeling of the thermal scooping phenomenon, i.e., the heat transfer between two adjacent unit cells due to the mass flux known as scooping. The model was implemented as a structured Fortran95 code with an upwind difference scheme. The results were compared to experimental data and presented good agreement. The analysis showed that the inclusion of the scooping phenomenon into the model resulted in an averaged 8% improvement in the temperature gradient calculation and heat transfer coefficient prediction for the flowing mixture.

  7. Comparison of the Lysis Centrifugation Method with the Conventional Blood Culture Method in Cases of Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. Objectives: To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ...

  8. Carcinogenesis-relevant biological events in the pathophysiology of the efferocytosis phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Sachin Sarode

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective removal of cells undergoing programmed cell death, which is referred to as efferocytosis, prevents the leakage of intracellular contents into the surrounding tissue, which could lead to tissue damage and inflammation. Efferocytosis involves a coordinated orchestration of multiple steps that lead to a swift, coherent and immunologically silent removal of dying cells. The release of wound healing cytokines, which resolve inflammation and enhance tissue repair, is an important feature of efferocytosis. However, in addition to the healing cytokines released during efferocytosis, the immunosuppressive action of cytokines promotes the tumor microenvironment, enhances the motility of cancer cells and promotes the evasion of antitumor immunity. The aim of the present review was to comprehensively discuss the efferocytosis phenomenon, the important players associated with this process and their role in cancer-related biological events.

  9. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  10. Clot lysis time in platelet-rich plasma: method assessment, comparison with assays in platelet-free and platelet-poor plasmas, and response to tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Olga; Padilla, Oslando; Matus, Valeria; Sáez, Claudia G; Berkovits, Alejandro; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Fibrinolysis dysfunctions cause bleeding or predisposition to thrombosis. Platelets contain several factors of the fibrinolytic system, which could up or down regulate this process. However, the temporal relationship and relative contributions of plasma and platelet components in clot lysis are mostly unknown. We developed a clot lysis time (CLT) assay in platelet-rich plasma (PRP-CLT, with and without stimulation) and compared it to a similar one in platelet-free plasma (PFP) and to another previously reported test in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We also studied the differential effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) on these tests in healthy subjects. PFP- and PPP-CLT were significantly shorter than PRP-CLT, and the three assays were highly correlated (p plasma PAI-1, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p platelet aggregation/secretion, platelet counts, and pro-coagulant tests to explore factor X activation by platelets, PRP clotting time, and thrombin generation in PRP. Among all the studied variables, PFP-CLT was independently associated with plasma PAI-1, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and, additionally, stimulated PRP-CLT was also independently associated with plasma fibrinogen. A single 1 g dose of TXA strikingly prolonged all three CLTs, but in contrast to the results without the drug, the lysis times were substantially shorter in non-stimulated or stimulated PRP than in PFP and PPP. This standardized PRP-CLT may become a useful tool to study the role of platelets in clot resistance and lysis. Our results suggest that initially, the platelets enmeshed in the clot slow down the fibrinolysis process. However, the increased clot resistance to lysis induced by TXA is overcome earlier in platelet-rich clots than in PFP or PPP clots. This is likely explained by the display of platelet pro-fibrinolytic effects. Focused research is needed to disclose the mechanisms for the relationship between CLT and plasma

  11. Hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome in children with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Sevinir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS in children with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included data from 327 patients (113 NHL and 214 ALL.Results: Hyperuricemia occurred in 26.5% and 12.6% of the patients with NHL and ALL, respectively. The corresponding figures for TLS were 15.9% and 0.47% (p=0.001. All hyperuricemic NHL patients had advanced disease and renal involvement was present in 53%. All hyperuricemic ALL patients had a leukocyte count >50,000 mm3 at the time of diagnosis. Among the hyperuricemic NHL and ALL patients, 96.6% and 66.6% had LDH ≥500 UI/L, respectively. Treatment consisted of hydration and allopurinol; none of the patients received urate oxidase. Among the patients that developed TLS, 26.3% had laboratory TLS, 42.1% had grade I or II TLS, and 31.6% had grade III or IV TLS. Uric acid levels returned to normal after a mean period of 3.5±2.5 and 3.05±0.8 d in NHL and ALL groups, respectively. In all, 7% of the patients with hyperuricemia required hemodialysis. None of the patients died.Conclusion: In this series the factors associated with a high-risk for TLS were renal involvement in NHL and high leucocyte count in ALL. Management with allopurinol and hydration was effective in this group of patients with high tumor burden.

  12. Genome scan of clot lysis time and its association with thrombosis in a protein C-deficient kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, M E; Hasstedt, S J; Vossen, C Y; Callas, P W; DE Groot, Ph G; Rosendaal, F R; Lisman, T; Bovill, E G

    2011-07-01

     Previously, we found increased clot-lysis time (CLT), as measured with a plasma-based assay, to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in two population-based case-control studies. The genes influencing CLT are as yet unknown.  We tested CLT as risk factor for venous thrombosis in Kindred Vermont II (n = 346), a pedigree suffering from a high thrombosis risk, partially attributable to a type I protein C deficiency. Furthermore, we tested for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CLT, using variance component linkage analysis.  Protein C-deficient family members had shorter CLTs than non-deficient members (median CLT 67 min vs. 75 min). One standard deviation increase in CLT increased the risk of venous thrombosis 2.4-fold in non-deficient family members. Protein C deficiency without elevated CLT increased the risk 6.9-fold. Combining both risk factors yielded a 27.8-fold increased risk. The heritability of CLT was 42-52%. We found suggestive evidence of linkage on chromosome 11 (62 cM), partly explained by the prothrombin 20210A mutation, and on chromosome 13 (52 cM). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor genotypes did not explain the variation in CLT. Hypofibrinolysis appears to increase thrombosis risk in this family, especially in combination with protein C deficiency. Protein C deficiency is associated with short CLT. CLT is partly genetically regulated. Suggestive QTLs were found on chromosomes 11 and 13. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Host lysozyme-mediated lysis of Lactococcus lactis facilitates delivery of colitis-attenuating superoxide dismutase to inflamed colons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Sonia A.; Veiga, Patrick; Fenn, Kathrin; Michaud, Monia; Kim, Jason H.; Gallini, Carey Ann; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; Béal, Chloé; Derrien, Muriel; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes that target molecules and pathways, such as oxidative stress, which can negatively affect both host and microbiota, may hold promise as an inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Prior work showed that a five-strain fermented milk product (FMP) improved colitis in T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mice. By varying the number of strains used in the FMP, we found that Lactococcus lactis I-1631 was sufficient to ameliorate colitis. Using comparative genomic analyses, we identified genes unique to L. lactis I-1631 involved in oxygen respiration. Respiration of oxygen results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, ROS are produced at high levels during intestinal inflammation and cause tissue damage. L. lactis I-1631 possesses genes encoding enzymes that detoxify ROS, such as superoxide dismutase (SodA). Thus, we hypothesized that lactococcal SodA played a role in attenuating colitis. Inactivation of the sodA gene abolished L. lactis I-1631’s beneficial effect in the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− model. Similar effects were obtained in two additional colonic inflammation models, Il10−/− mice and dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. Efforts to understand how a lipophobic superoxide anion (O2−) can be detoxified by cytoplasmic lactoccocal SodA led to the finding that host antimicrobial-mediated lysis is a prerequisite for SodA release and SodA’s extracytoplasmic O2− scavenging. L. lactis I-1631 may represent a promising vehicle to deliver antioxidant, colitis-attenuating SodA to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and host antimicrobials may play a critical role in mediating SodA’s bioaccessibility. PMID:26056274

  14. Study on Boiling Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Micro-channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Namgyun [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Recently, efficient heat dissipation has become necessary because of the miniaturization of devices, and research on boiling on micro-channels has attracted attention. However, in the case of micro-channels, the friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are different from those in macro-channels. This leads to large errors in the micro scale results, when compared to correlations derived from the macro scale. In addition, due to the complexity of the mechanism, the boiling phenomenon in micro-channels cannot be approached only by experimental and theoretical methods. Therefore, numerical methods should be utilized as well, to supplement these methods. However, most numerical studies have been conducted on macro-channels. In this study, we applied the lattice Boltzmann method, proposed as an alternative numerical tool to simulate the boiling phenomenon in the micro-channel, and predicted the bubble growth process in the channel.

  15. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  16. Mindfulness as a booming, diverse and (non) religious phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has become a phenomenon with widespread appeal in many Western countries. Like yoga, it has an Eastern religious origin, but through a long history it has been transformed and adapted to new cultural and social contexts. While the majority of research on mindfulness has been conducted...... within the health sciences, the aim of this article is to investigate the distribution, meaning and function of this practice through quantitative mapping and qualitative interviews with 16 mindfulness providers in the city of Aarhus in Denmark. The analysis reveals not just a booming phenomenon......, but also a field characterized by diversity in terms of authority claims, motivations and uses. The discussion focuses on whether mindfulness can be seen as a religious practice or as a typical expression of an individualized and secularized technique....

  17. Paradoxical, Cupping-Induced Localized Psoriasis: A Koebner Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Reid; Vender, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Cupping therapy is a traditional Chinese medicine used to heal psoriasis. The Koebner phenomenon is the occurrence of psoriatic lesions at the site of cutaneous injury. To describe the first case of biopsy-proven cupping-induced localized psoriasis, an example of the Koebner phenomenon. The histopathology of the lesions is described. A brief review of the literature regarding cupping therapy and its efficacy are discussed. A 45-year-old Asian male presented himself to the dermatology clinic for further treatment of his psoriasis. Four unusually circular plaques on the lower back were discovered. Pathologic diagnosis revealed an early lesion of psoriasis. on further inquiry, the patient admitted to undergoing a recent "cupping" procedure in an attempt to cure his condition. The efficacy of cupping therapy is controversial, and psoriatic patients may develop localized psoriasis through koebnerization as a result of cupping therapy rather than achieve desirable therapeutic benefits. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  18. (Redefining tradition: the example of the world music phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper problematizes the understanding of the concept of tradition in the context of the world music phenomenon. Marketed as a hybrid music genre, from the perspective of anthropological theory, the world music genre is a complex cultural phenomenon, the result of mixing global and local influences which are reflected not only in the creation of a specific sound, but through different perceptions of music itself (the audience, musicians, producers, creators of cultural policies etc. By analyzing the Serbian world music scene as exemplified by the work of the World Music association of Serbia, as well as the Serbia World Music Festival in Takovo, I will attempt to determine the way in which the concept of world music is perceived in local narratives, whether it is experienced as a form of musical tradition and if so, what is signified and represented as tradition in this context.

  19. “Love” Phenomenon and Neurobiology of Love Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Evren Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology; especially the neurobiological features of the “love” phenomenon has recently started to attract attention. Love relations and attachment, which is closely related with them, are known to be important in health and disease. Love and love relations are found to be complex neurobiological phenomena based on activation of the limbic system of the brain. Those processes involve oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine and serotonergic functions. Additionally, endorphine and endogenous opiate systems as well as nitrous oxide play role in those processes. The stages of love and love relations may demonstrate different neurochemical and neurophysiological features and may partially overlap with m aternal, romantic and sexual love and attachments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the common neurobiological pathways underlying the “love” phenomenon as well as their importance in medicine and health.

  20. Peripheral Sympathectomy for Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Salvage Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Her Wang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of peripheral sympathectomy for severe Raynaud's phenomenon. In this study, a total of 14 digits from six patients with chronic digital ischemic change were included. All patients had pain, ulcer, or gangrenous change in the affected digits and were unresponsive to pharmacologic or other nonsurgical therapies. In all cases, angiography showed multifocal arterial lesions, so microvascular reconstruction was unfeasible. Peripheral sympathectomy was performed as a salvage procedure to prevent digit amputation. The results were analyzed according to reduction of pain, healing of ulcers, and prevention of amputation. In 12 of the 14 digits, the ulcers healed and amputation was avoided. In the other two digits, the ulcers improved and progressive gangrene was limited. As a salvage procedure for Raynaud's phenomenon recalcitrant to conservative treatment, peripheral sympathectomy improves perfusion to ischemic digits and enables amputation to be avoided.

  1. Study on the Temperature Separation Phenomenon in a Vortex Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, A Ran; Guang, Zhang; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    A vortex chamber is a simple device that separates compressed gas into a high-temperature stream and a low-temperature stream. It is increasing in popularity as a next-generation heat exchanger, but the flow physics associated with it is not yet well understood. In the present study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed to investigate the temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber. Static pressures and temperatures were measured using high-sensitivity pressure transducers and thermocouples, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics was applied to simulate 3D unsteady compressible flows. The simulation results showed that the temperature separation is strongly dependent on the diameter of the vortex chamber and the supply pressure at the inlet ports, where the latter is closely related to the viscous work. The previous concept of a pressure gradient wave may not be a reasoning for temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber.

  2. Raynaud's phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic findings in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martinis, Massimo; Sirufo, Maria Maddalena; Ginaldi, Lia

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral vascular abnormalities caused by a dysregulation between peripheral vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, clinically appearing with Raynaud's phenomenon, have been described in anorexia nervosa but specific characteristics of microcirculation in anorexic patients have not yet been studied. We performed nailfold videocapillaroscopy to assess microcirculatory alteration in anorexic patients and found three different patterns: normal, aspecific and early scleroderma pattern. We also evaluated several laboratory and clinical parameters to better assess our capillaroscopic findings. None of the clinical parameters examined correlated with specific capillaroscopic findings. An increased risk of autoimmune diseases in eating disorder patients has been described. Our results evidenced an association between early scleroderma capillaroscopic pattern and Raynaud's phenomenon that occurs in anorexia nervosa patients, whereas no significant association was found between all three capillaroscopic patterns and the presence of autoantibodies, as well as ESR and CRP values. Our study reveals that patients with AN suffering from RP exhibit NVC findings typical of connective tissue diseases.

  3. A system view of the No Fault Found (NFF) phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Peter

    2007-01-01

    When a unit is tested outside a technical system, it has normally been removed due to a fault. However, in some cases the external test may not discover any fault and a No Fault Found (NFF) event may occur. The NFF phenomenon is a major problem when dealing with complex technical systems, and its consequences may be manifested in decreased safety and dependability and increased life cycle costs. There are multiple interacting causes of NFF, demanding tough requirements for successful solutions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of NFF and to highlight possible improvements for the prevention of causes of NFF and the reduction of its consequences. The study was performed as an explorative literature study, and the analysis was based on a holistic system view. The identified causes and solutions are related to life cycle stages, availability performance factors, and system stakeholders

  4. Conventional political participation and unconventional: two phenomenon contradictory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Selayaran Nicoletti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the theoretical work in the gym and the recent popular protests erupted in the country in recent months, the present article is to conduct essential reflective exercise on the phenomenon of political participation, seeking theoretical elements that can help you understand how to establish the participatory dynamics in complex societies. For this, we analyze about the main analytical perspectives on this issue to collaborate with the discussion without any pretense of exhausting it.

  5. Talbot self-imaging phenomenon under Bessel beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rijuparna; Chowdhury, Subhajit Dutta; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our theoretical studies on the phenomenon of self-imaging of periodic object under the illumination of zero-order Bessel beam. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the self-images are visible only after the walk-off distance of the Bessel beam used. It is also observed that the self-images bend around the optical axis of the setup. Besides, the present study justifies the importance of the conditions stipulated by Montgomery.

  6. Committees State Health and Facing the Phenomenon of Health Judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Lamarão Neto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for consensus methods of conflict resolution is not much explored in claims involving the public sector. The State Health Committees, created by determining the CNJ, with remarkable goal of consensual resolution on public health issues, have dialogue and academic discussion of evidence-based medicine as guidelines for a bold stance on the rights assurance, innovating behavior the judiciary in coping with the legalization of health phenomenon.

  7. Insights into cheating in sports: students’ attitude towards the phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Radikienė, Evelina; Bobrova, Laimutė; Grabauskas, Arūnas

    2015-01-01

    Review of theoretical works on cheating in sports allows the authors to state that the phenomenon, its spread and the attitude of athletes, administrative staff, coaches, referees towards it have been insufficiently researched. The research problem is relevant and should be analysed. Research object: cheating in sports. Research aim: To identify students’ in the Physical Education study programme attitude towards cheating in sports and its spread. Research objectives: 1. To review the concept...

  8. The WhatsApp phenomenon in the context of

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Romero, Juana; Perlado Lamo de Espinosa, Juana

    2016-01-01

    This paper pretends to understand the success of the WhatsApp phenomenon among the university youths, exploring the keys of its conquest, and also the attitudes provoked by its use when compared with other commonly used virtual communication systems. In order to do that, apart from carrying out a review of reports and studies on this issue, this study is based on the results obtained from the qualitative Observatory Youth and Communication at Nebrija University and on a research ad hoc based ...

  9. Shinsengumi - a historical and modern popular culture phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkevičiūtė, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shinsengumi - a Historical and Modern Popular Culture Phenomenon Shinsengumi was a special police force, which existed between 1864 and 1869 years. Shinsengumi means „Newly selected troops“. Nowadays they get a lot of attention in popular culture – films, shows, documentary, books, manga and anime. Because of it's existence in late Tokugawa period, Shinsengumi is often called „the last samurais“. They have become the object of various screening since the middle of twentieth century. After NHK...

  10. Competitors' Cluster - A Phenomenon in the Field of Retail Locating

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Libo (Michael); Zhu, Bo (Pritt)

    2005-01-01

    Cluster is a common phenomenon in developed countries. Horizontal clusters and vertical clusters are often seen in these countries. In the domestic retailing, a particular type of cluster—competitors’ cluster plays an important role in the past, nowadays and in the future. Though many researchers have investigated into clusters and talked a lot about the benefits firms could share by clustering together, few of them explained directly why the competitors of the same trade cluster together for...

  11. Perspectives for research of the procrastination phenomenon in professional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Barabanshchikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the current state of the procrastination phenomenon in professional work, reviews the basic unexplored aspects in this area, and highlights the promising areas of scientific analysis. The survey of the existing literature periodization shows that the quantity of researches devoted to procrastination is growing exponentially every year. In spite of a pronounced research interest in this construct, in native and foreign psychological science procrastination phenomenon in the professional work is represented insufficiently. Firstly, there is no common and generally accepted definition of procrastination (Corkin, Yu, Lindt, 2011; Steel, 2010; Krause, Freund, 2014, that suggests that there is a deep terminological crisis in this area. Secondly, the characteristic of delaying the implementation of the elements of workload is represented only by the example of a fairly narrow range of professional activities, which makes it relevant to study the specificity of the differentiated functioning of the phenomenon on the material of a wide range of professions. Thirdly, in psychology there are no information about the peculiarities of the so-called “active” procrastination manifestations in professional activity, which is the tendency of conscious assignments delaying to achieve the optimum final result (Chu, Choi, 2005; Choi, Moran, 2009. Fourthly, there is an acute shortage of standardized psychodiagnostic tools to evaluate this phenomenon in work (most of the existing methods have been tested on samples of students and are aimed at identifying academic procrastination. In the fifth place, there are no science-based allocation of methods of coping with destructive manifestations of the psychological strategy of the job functions postponement in a professional work.

  12. Use of Unlabeled Samples for Mitigating the Hughes Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, David A.; Shahshahani, Behzad M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of unlabeled samples in improving the performance of classifiers is studied. When the number of training samples is fixed and small, additional feature measurements may reduce the performance of a statistical classifier. It is shown that by using unlabeled samples, estimates of the parameters can be improved and therefore this phenomenon may be mitigated. Various methods for using unlabeled samples are reviewed and experimental results are provided.

  13. ACTIVITY-BASED ANOREXIA AS A THERMOREGULATION PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity Based Anorexia (ABA is a phenomenon that results from exposing rats to a feeding program of about 1 to 1.5 h per day, giving them free access to an activity wheel the rest of the time. The reported effects are high levels of activity without a visible compensation in food intake, and in consequence a low body weight. There is a variety of interpretations about the causes of this phenomenon. However, there are two main theories: one of them says that ABA is a product of adaptive failure to the new feeding regime and that the activity in the wheel interferes with such adaptation. The second theoretical position says that the activity acquires reinforcing properties due to feeding restrictions which causes body weight loss and, in turn, more activity. At present, both theories have been interpreted as contradictory. Nevertheless, a series of studies have revealed that the temperature of the environment and in consequence the subjects’ body tem-perature play an essential role in the findings of the field, giving sense to both theories and evidencing their complementariness. The aim of this paper is to re-view the empirical evidence that supports the hypothesis of ABA as a thermoregu-lation phenomenon.

  14. The emerging magnetic flux and the elementary eruptive phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouradian, Z.; Martres, M.J.; Soru-Escaut, I.

    1983-01-01

    Observational studies before and during the flare start were made in Hα(3-lambda heliograph at Meudon Observatory) on a large sample of ''elementary'' flares, both on the disk and along the limb of the Sun. The concept of elementary eruptive phenomenon (EEP) is proposed to describe these observational data. The EEP may be considered as the basic element of complex flares which, then, are built up by the juxtaposition of several EEP. In the inferred scenario, the chromospheric eruptive phenomenon consists of two systems of loops: one cold - the surging arch - Tapprox.=10 4 K, the other hot - the flaring arch -, covering a temperature range up to 10 7 K. The footpoints of the two systems remain differentiated until extinction of the phenomenon; their behaviour over time differs also. The surging arch (the magnetic flux emergence) rises first progressively in the solar atmosphere and the upper part of the loop is heated to coronal temperatures. The classical surge which is observed in the center of the Hα line, after the flash phase of the flare, is only the late development of the surging arch. The flaring arch originates from a pre-existing low loop, which is also to rise in the solar atmosphere. These two systems coexist and may combine to form such physical characteristics as mass motion, expansion and post-flash phase. (orig.)

  15. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  16. Facial dysmorphopsia: a notable variant of the "thin man" phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganssauge, Martin; Papageorgiou, Eleni; Schiefer, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the facial distortion (dysmorphopsia) experienced by patients with homonymous paracentral scotomas and to analyze the interrelationship with the previously described "thin man" phenomenon. Routine neuro-ophthalmological examination and brain MRI in three patients who suffered from small homonymous paracentral scotomas due to infarction or arteriovenous malformations of the occipital lobe. They all complained of distortion and shrinkage of their interlocutor's face contralateral to the brain lesion. The phenomenon appeared some seconds after steady fixation on the interlocutor's nose and was evident with both left and right homonymous scotomas. The patients did not notice a gap in the area corresponding to the scotoma and objects other than faces were perceived normally. Homonymous paracentral scotomas can lead to focal displacement of facial features towards the center of the field defect with resulting distortion of the face on the affected side. This so-called "dysmorphopsia" makes faces appear regionally narrower than they are in reality and may be induced even by visual field defects that remain undetected by conventional perimetry using 6° × 6° grids. Predilection for faces is probably associated with the superior location of scotomas or specific impairment of face processing abilities related to the lesion site. Facial dysmorphopsia is most probably associated with cortical "filling-in" and spatial distortion, and can hence be regarded as a special entity of the "thin man" phenomenon.

  17. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A; Catana, I; Magheti, I; Savu, M

    2010-01-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  18. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  19. ABOUT POTENTIALLY ACCEPTABLE TRACTION OF THE UNEXPECTED PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOL’SHAKOV V. I.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. The article notes that constructive denial of traditional beliefs is often a powerful source of scientific discoveries. However, the absence of a constructive negation of the diva phenomenon can not be perceived as a lack of an adequate interpretation of it. It is assumed that the interpretation of Diva phenomena can be based on the definition of the area of their existence, which is computationally irreducible within the boundaries of existing methods of identification. The definition of such an area initiates. The formation of hypotheses that interpret the assumptions about its existence. An example of the origin of one of the hypotheses is considered in this essay. Drawing on relativistic physics and cosmology, the authors put forward a hypothesis about the possibility of the existence of a parallel space-time continuum to the existing one. This allows us to assume the existence of fragments of diva-type phenomena shifted in time to the main such continuum. The presence of such a phenomenon allows one to assume a mental connection of the percipient to a parallel space-time continuum and to implement time-shifted predictions. As an example, the existence of a computationally irreducible region of a concrete psychophysical phenomenon (sculptural portraying is given.

  20. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  1. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

    1995-01-01

    Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

  2. Simulation of the AC corona phenomenon with experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Andrea; Barbieri, Luca; Marco, Gondola; Malgesini, Roberto; Leon-Garzon, Andres R

    2017-01-01

    The corona effect, and in particular the Trichel phenomenon, is an important aspect of plasma physics with many technical applications, such as pollution reduction, surface and medical treatments. This phenomenon is also associated with components used in the power industry where it is, in many cases, the source of electro-magnetic disturbance, noise and production of undesired chemically active species. Despite the power industry to date using mainly alternating current (AC) transmission, most of the studies related to the corona effect have been carried out with direct current (DC) sources. Therefore, there is technical interest in validating numerical codes capable of simulating the AC phenomenon. In this work we describe a set of partial differential equations that are comprehensive enough to reproduce the distinctive features of the corona in an AC regime. The model embeds some selectable chemical databases, comprising tens of chemical species and hundreds of reactions, the thermal dynamics of neutral species and photoionization. A large set of parameters—deduced from experiments and numerical estimations—are compared, to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (paper)

  3. Myeloproliferative Disease: An Unusual Cause of Raynaud’s Phenomenon and Digital Ischaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Beynon, Celia; Huws, Gwenan; Lawson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 59-year-old female who presented with ischaemic digits, preceded by a 6-month history of Raynaud's phenomenon affecting her fingers and toes. There were no clinical or laboratory features of primary vasculitis or connective tissue disease, Doppler imaging was normal, and bloods were unremarkable aside from a platelet count of 786 ? 109/L (150?400) and white cells of 16 ? 109/L (4?11). In view of the thrombocytosis a JAK2 mutation assay was requested which confirmed a JAK2 V617F ...

  4. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex

    2014-03-14

    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  5. UV-C irradiation of HSV-1 infected fibroblasts (HSV-FS) enhances human natural killer (NK) cell activity against these targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettera, L.; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P.

    1991-01-01

    Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early gene products has been bound to be sufficient for NK cell mediated lysis of HSV-1 infected FS. To block the targets at various stages in the infectious cycle, HSV-FS were irradiated with UV light for 1 min at 2, 6, and 20 hr post-infection. NK mediated lysis of 2 hr and 5 hr UV treated HSV-FS was 2-fold higher than non-UV treated HSV-FS despite a >99% inhibition in virus yield. In contrast, 20 hr infected targets were lysed less well than 2 and 6 hr targets despite strong glycoprotein expression and induction of high levels of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production by effector PBMC's; this lysis was not enhanced by UV treatment. Since NK lysis of HSV-FS has been found to be dependent on an HLA-DR + accessory cell (AC), lysis of irradiated HSV-FS by PBMC's depleted of AC was measured. Such depletion eradicated NK lysis of the UV treated HSV-FS indicating that irradiation does not overcome the AC requirement for NK lysis. UV irradiation of another HLA-DR + dependent target, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infected FS led to a dramatic reduction in both NK lysis and IFN-α induction. HSV-1 is a DNA virus whose genes are expressed in a cascade fashion whereas VSV is an RNA virus. The authors hypothesize that the enhancement in AC dependent NK activity observed for UV irradiated HSV-FS, but not VSV-FS, targets is due to overproduction of either a cellular or viral gene product which specifically occurs early in the HSV-1 infectious cycle and is downregulated by 20 hr post-infection

  6. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. II. Evidence for a memory-dependent phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Meima, F.; Meulen, G.M. van der

    1974-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity in a primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while PFC activity in the secondary response to SRBC can be clearly demonstrated. This phenomenon was studied by means of cell transfer experiments. T cells, which are involved in an anti-SRBC PFC response, were shown to be very scarce in normal mouse bone marrow. This is considered to be the cause of the low PFC activity in the marrow during the primary response to SRBC. In normal mouse bone marrow precursors of IgM-PFC but not of IgG- and IgA-PFC could be found. Priming with SRBC induced the appearance of IgM-, IgG-, IgA- and T-memory cells in the marrow. These B- and T-memory cells were shown to be specific for the antigen which induced their appearance. It is thought that after a second injection of SRBC the IgM-, IgG- and IgA-memory cells can differentiate with the help of the T-memory cells within the bone marrow into IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC respectively. The sequence of appearance of the B-memory cells in the bone marrow was shown to be IgM--IgG--IgA. Six months after the intravenous injection of SRBC, the presence of B-memory cells could be demonstrated not only in spleen and bone marrow, but also in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus and blood. The increase in amount of B-memory cells was most prominent in the spleen

  7. Phenomenon of primary and secondary extinction in textured material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtab, T.G.; Palacios G, J.; Mazin, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A new X-ray diffraction method is proposed for a more exact calculation of pole figures to determine the crystallite orientation distribution function (CODF) in textured materials, by the introduction of a correction of the integrated intensity of the diffracted beam due to the phenomenon of extinction. Besides, for the case of a symmetrical Bragg reflection from an ''infinitely thick'' flat parallel plate textured sample a simple solution is developed for the problem of separation and determination of primary and secondary extinction parameters, which can be present simultaneously. The determination of these parameters gives additional information about crystallite structure and allows us to evaluate the average subgrains size and their disorientation, respectively. In this work according to the dynamic diffraction theory, it is shown that the extinction length, which is directly connected with the phenomenon of primary extinction, in the Bragg geometry for σ polarization (perpendicular) is independent on the wavelength used for a given reflection. On the other hand, the additional contribution from secondary extinction depends on X-ray wavelength due to the change of effective absorption coefficient. Considering this fact, the calculations of pole density and the parameters of primary and secondary extinction are performed using the same strong reflection for two different wavelengths and, for one of these wavelengths, a second order of reflection. For confirmation of the proposed method a partially cold rolled aluminium sample and an aluminium powder standard sample were measured. The corrected pole densities, the values of primary and secondary extinction and the average sizes of perfect coherent areas and average angle of disorientation of subgrains in the selected directions were obtained. The obtained results show that the precise X-ray diffraction characterization of textured materials requires the consideration, in general, of primary as well as secondary

  8. The Hurst Phenomenon in Error Estimates Related to Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nelson Luís; Crivellaro, Bianca Luhm; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    The Hurst phenomenon is a well-known feature of long-range persistence first observed in hydrological and geophysical time series by E. Hurst in the 1950s. It has also been found in several cases in turbulence time series measured in the wind tunnel, the atmosphere, and in rivers. Here, we conduct a systematic investigation of the value of the Hurst coefficient H in atmospheric surface-layer data, and its impact on the estimation of random errors. We show that usually H > 0.5 , which implies the non-existence (in the statistical sense) of the integral time scale. Since the integral time scale is present in the Lumley-Panofsky equation for the estimation of random errors, this has important practical consequences. We estimated H in two principal ways: (1) with an extension of the recently proposed filtering method to estimate the random error (H_p ), and (2) with the classical rescaled range introduced by Hurst (H_R ). Other estimators were tried but were found less able to capture the statistical behaviour of the large scales of turbulence. Using data from three micrometeorological campaigns we found that both first- and second-order turbulence statistics display the Hurst phenomenon. Usually, H_R is larger than H_p for the same dataset, raising the question that one, or even both, of these estimators, may be biased. For the relative error, we found that the errors estimated with the approach adopted by us, that we call the relaxed filtering method, and that takes into account the occurrence of the Hurst phenomenon, are larger than both the filtering method and the classical Lumley-Panofsky estimates. Finally, we found that there is no apparent relationship between H and the Obukhov stability parameter. The relative errors, however, do show stability dependence, particularly in the case of the error of the kinematic momentum flux in unstable conditions, and that of the kinematic sensible heat flux in stable conditions.

  9. Modeling the Pineapple Express phenomenon via Multivariate Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G.; Cooley, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    The pineapple express (PE) phenomenon is responsible for producing extreme winter precipitation events in the coastal and mountainous regions of the western United States. Because the PE phenomenon is also associated with warm temperatures, the heavy precipitation and associated snowmelt can cause destructive flooding. In order to study impacts, it is important that regional climate models from NARCCAP are able to reproduce extreme precipitation events produced by PE. We define a daily precipitation quantity which captures the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation events produced by the PE phenomenon. We then use statistical extreme value theory to model the tail dependence of this quantity as seen in an observational data set and each of the six NARCCAP regional models driven by NCEP reanalysis. We find that most NCEP-driven NARCCAP models do exhibit tail dependence between daily model output and observations. Furthermore, we find that not all extreme precipitation events are pineapple express events, as identified by Dettinger et al. (2011). The synoptic-scale atmospheric processes that drive extreme precipitation events produced by PE have only recently begun to be examined. Much of the current work has focused on pattern recognition, rather than quantitative analysis. We use daily mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) fields from NCEP to develop a "pineapple express index" for extreme precipitation, which exhibits tail dependence with our observed precipitation quantity for pineapple express events. We build a statistical model that connects daily precipitation output from the WRFG model, daily MSLP fields from NCEP, and daily observed precipitation in the western US. Finally, we use this model to simulate future observed precipitation based on WRFG output driven by the CCSM model, and our pineapple express index derived from future CCSM output. Our aim is to use this model to develop a better understanding of the frequency and intensity of extreme

  10. The language phenomenon human communication from milliseconds to millennia

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains a contemporary, integrated description of the processes of language. These range from fast scales (fractions of a second) to slow ones (over a million years). The contributors, all experts in their fields, address language in the brain, production of sentences and dialogues, language learning, transmission and evolutionary processes that happen over centuries or millenia, the relation between language and genes, the origins of language, self-organization, and language competition and death. The book as a whole will help to show how processes at different scales affect each other, thus presenting language as a dynamic, complex and profoundly human phenomenon.

  11. Nursing care systematization as a multidimensional and interactive phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Koerich, Magda Santos; Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane do; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the meaning of Nursing Care Systematization (NCS) for multiprofessional health team professionals based on the relationships, interactions and associations of Complex thought. This qualitative study uses Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data were obtained through interviews with three sample groups, totaling 15 professionals from different institutions. Simultaneous data codification and analysis identified the central theme: 'Glimpsing nursing care systematization as an interactive and multidimensional phenomenon' and the respective reference model. NCS appoints, in addition to interactivity and professional complementarity, the importance of dialog and connection between the academy, health practices and regulatory offices, based on new reference frameworks for the organization of health practices.

  12. THE SOCIAL PHENOMENON IN PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES OF COMMUNITY COUNCILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to interpret the social phenomenon in participatory processes of Community Councils of Carabobo State, centering participation within these organizations is an indispensable condition to conceive citizens as active subjects in management public affairs. It is inserted into a document type from the qualitative approach. Eventually you will reach a reflection that the success of citizen participation in these organizations rely on training, degree of commitment, teamwork, sense of belonging, responsibility and communication from their cultural worldview.

  13. The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchenová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This master´s thesis is called The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing. It presents Youtubers as idols of today´s young people and introduces options of utilization of their power for marketing purposes. The first chapter introduces the reader to the general matters of online marketing and offers basic knowledge about this area. The second chapter is dedicated to social networks and their utilisation in marketing field. The third chapter introduces the topic YouTube. It...

  14. The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject Abstract The goal of the submitted thesis is the study of the company Apple Inc. in the context of how it is percieved by subjects. After a brief introduction of the company Apple Inc. we will focus on semiotic analysis of the brand Apple, its products and marketing strategies. The object of study will be also a present society, whose distinguishing feature is a consumption, and brand perception of a subject in connection with...

  15. Motor operated valve testing and the 'rate of loading' phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses valve design features which affect the ability to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance and reviews factors which should be considered when selecting switch settings to limit stem loads. Considerable attention is given to the rate of loading phenomenon which affects the relationship between valve stem thrust and actuator spring pack deflection. Equations are developed, and testing is discussed which permit the construction of an MOV dynamic model. Factors which must be considered when maintaining switch settings correct throughout the life of the plant are discussed. And switch setting acceptance criteria for use with baseline Static and Design Basis testing are suggested

  16. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Minjin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  17. Interaction phenomenon to dimensionally reduced p-gBKP equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runfa; Bilige, Sudao; Bai, Yuexing; Lü, Jianqing; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    Based on searching the combining of quadratic function and exponential (or hyperbolic cosine) function from the Hirota bilinear form of the dimensionally reduced p-gBKP equation, eight class of interaction solutions are derived via symbolic computation with Mathematica. The submergence phenomenon, presented to illustrate the dynamical features concerning these obtained solutions, is observed by three-dimensional plots and density plots with particular choices of the involved parameters between the exponential (or hyperbolic cosine) function and the quadratic function. It is proved that the interference between the two solitary waves is inelastic.

  18. What Variables Are Associated With the Outcome of Arthroscopic Lysis and Lavage Surgery for Internal Derangement of the Temporomandibular Joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffs, Tyler H; D'Amato, Lindsay N; Khawaja, Shehryar N; Keith, David A; Scrivani, Steven J

    2018-04-26

    Arthroscopic lysis and lavage surgery (AS) is an effective modality that can decrease pain and increase maximum interincisal opening (MIO) in patients with internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, some patients remain in pain or have limited mandibular range of motion despite AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness, prevalence of adverse effects, and predictors of response to TMJ AS in patients with TMJ arthralgia and ID. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data of patients who had undergone AS by a single surgeon (D.A.K.) from September 2010 to April 2015 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). Variables, including demographic data, medical history, and clinical presentation, were extracted and analyzed. Criteria for surgical success were defined as a postoperative MIO of at least 35 mm and a postoperative pain level no higher than 3 on an 11-point Likert-type numeric verbal pain rating scale. Appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics were computed and significance was set at a P value less than .05. Of the 247 participants, 226 (91.5%) were women. The mean age of the sample was 38 ± 15.4 years. Successful surgical outcome was achieved in 62.3% of patients. Based on logistic regression analysis, higher initial mean pain score and concurrent use of benzodiazepines were the only variables that predicted an unsuccessful surgical outcome (P < .001; P = .005). Adverse effects were reported by 13.4% of patients, the most common being postoperative increase in pain (13.4%), temporary malocclusion (1.2%), and temporary paresthesia in the preauricular region (0.4%). The results from this study indicate that in patients with ID of the TMJ unresponsive to noninvasive treatments, high initial pain scores and concurrent use of benzodiazepines are correlated with an unsuccessful outcome after AS. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  19. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto‑antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which ...

  20. New phenomenon in early development of sporelings in Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjuan; Wang, Aihua; Liu, Jidong; Duan, Delin

    2006-12-01

    Study on the early development of sporelings from carpospores of Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia was conducted indoors under controlled culture conditions. Besides normal development of sporelings, a new developmental phenomenon of filamentous frond was observed. It was composed of one or two rows of cells, and took place from the outmost brim of the basal disc. During the early disc stage of germinated carpospores, one or two filamentous fronds formed on about 10% basal discs. Simultaneously, young fronds began to arch slightly from the centers of single and coalescent discs; lately more filamentous fronds up to 80% appeared on the brims of basal discs. Meanwhile one or more upright fronds protuberated on the basal discs. Generally, filamentous fronds exhibited in self-existence or co-existence forms with normal young sporelings on the same basal disc, and single cell detached from filamentous fronds developed into a new filamentous frond. This new phenomenon exhibited a unique differentiation pathway during the early development of G. asiatica, which would be potential for the application in artificial sporelings nursery.

  1. Effects of AC magnetic field and carboxymethyldextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles on mice peritoneal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Guedes, Maria Helena; Sadeghiani, Neda; Lima Guedes Peixoto, Danielle; Poubel Coelho, Julia; Santos Barbosa, Luzirlane; Bentes Azevedo, Ricardo; Kueckelhaus, Selma; Silva, Maria de Fatima da; Morais, Paulo Cesar; Guerrero Marques Lacava, Zulmira

    2005-01-01

    A portable apparatus was developed to perform magnetohyperthermia (MHT) assays. In order to investigate its efficiency on cell lysis, biological effects of the AC magnetic field exposure after carboxymethyldextran-coated magnetite-nanoparticles (CMDC) treatment were investigated. Phagocyte capacity, cell viability, and morphology data evidenced that the CMDC sample and the apparatus are useful to further investigate MHT in cancer therapy

  2. Application of mitomycin C after endoscopic lysis of congenital laryngeal web combined with epiglottic hypoplasia in a middle-aged man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2006-04-01

    Laryngeal webs and epiglottic hypoplasias are uncommon congenital anomalies. Anterior glottic web combined with epiglottic hypoplasia was found in a middle-aged man presenting with hoarseness and dyspnea on exertion. This can be considered as a unique isolated defect of the larynx during early fetal development. The laryngeal web can be successfully treated in a single stage with endoscopic lysis and topical application of mitomycin C for prevention of anterior glottic restenosis. This case and prior reports suggest that the novel approach may be effective in the treatment of laryngeal webs.

  3. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  4. Transcatheter arterial embolization with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere®) leads to life-threatening tumor lysis syndrome in a rectal carcinoid patient with hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Yuan-Hao; Tsai, Ming-Tsun; Kuo, Chen-Yu; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Li, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Chao, Yee

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal carcinoids appears to be increasing, and the rectum is the third most common location. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere ® ) has been reported as an effective method for hepatic metastases of rectal carcinoids. Complications are uncommon and usually of minor consequence. We report an unusual case of a 34-year-old man with tumor lysis syndrome following TAE with Embosphere ® in a patient with multiple hepatic metastases of a rectal carcinoid. Early detection and effective treatment are essential for this rare but potentially catastrophic complication

  5. Ecological interactions among Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: insight into the dominance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Perrone, Benedeta; Navarro-Tapia, Elisabeth; Querol, Amparo; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-03-07

    This study investigates the behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in order to obtain insight into the intraspecies competition taking place in mixed populations of this species. Two strains of S. cerevisiae, one dominant and one non-dominant, were labelled and mixed, and individual fermentations were set up to study the transcriptomes of the strains by means of RNA-seq. The results obtained suggest that cell-to-cell contact and aggregation, which are driven by the expression of genes that are associated with the cell surface, are indispensable conditions for the achievement of dominance. Observations on mixed aggregates, made up of cells of both strains, which were detected by means of flow cytometry, have confirmed the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, overexpression of the SSU1 gene, which encodes for a transporter that confers resistance to sulphites, provides an ecological advantage to the dominant strain. A mechanistic model is proposed that sheds light on the dominance phenomenon between different strains of the S. cerevisiae species. The collected data suggest that cell-to-cell contact, together with differential sulphite production and resistance is important in determining the dominance of one strain over another.

  6. Preventing Instability Phenomenon in Gas-lift Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahdiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems that sometimes occur in gas allocation optimization is instability phenomenon. This phenomenon reduces the oil production and damages downhole and surface facilities. Different works have studied the stability and suggested some solutions to override it, but most of them (such as making the well intelligent are very expensive and thus they are not applicable to many cases. In this paper, as a new approach, the stability has been studied in gas allocation optimization problems. To prevent the instability, instability has been assumed as a constraint for the optimizer and then the optimizer has been run. For the optimization, first a genetic algorithm and then a hybrid of genetic algorithm and Newton-Quasi have been used, and their results are compared to ensure the good performance of the optimizer; afterwards, the effect of adding the instability constraint to the problem on production reduction have been discussed. The results show that the production loss with adding this constraint to the system is very small and this method does not need any additional and expensive facilities for preventing the instability. Therefore, the new method is applicable to different problems.

  7. Raynaud’s phenomenon in the rheumatologist’s practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Alekperov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP is a common condition that predominantly occurs among women. The onset age in most cases is under 30 years. The phenomenon was first described by M. Raynaud over 150 years ago. Primary (Raynaud’s disease and secondary RP were subsequently distinguished. Pathophysiology of RP has not been fully elucidated yet; RP seems to be a multifactor disease. A pronounced vasospasm in response to stimuli is believed to be caused by disruption in the central and local mechanisms of regulation of vascular tonus. Vascular endothe- lial, intravascular, and neuronal disorders are the key ones among these factors. Structural changes in vessels that can be observed by nailfold capillaroscopy play a significant role in pathophysiology of secondary RP. The key step in the diagnosis of RP is identifying its clinical variant, since secondary RP may be a sign or a premonitory symptom of certain autoimmune, hematologic, endocrine, neoplastic, and other disorders. Secondary RP is most frequently observed in patients with systemic rheumatoid diseases. Therapy of secondary RP provides no satisfactory out- comes, since there is no complete conception about the pathophysiological mechanisms of its development. Different groups of drugs are cur- rently used to treat RP, including calcium channels blockers, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, etc. This review focuses on pathogenesis, the algorithm of early and differential diagnosis of RP, and current approaches to therapy based on the analysis of the published and our own data. 

  8. Raynaud’s phenomenon in the rheumatologist’s practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Alekperov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP is a common condition that predominantly occurs among women. The onset age in most cases is under 30 years. The phenomenon was first described by M. Raynaud over 150 years ago. Primary (Raynaud’s disease and secondary RP were subsequently distinguished. Pathophysiology of RP has not been fully elucidated yet; RP seems to be a multifactor disease. A pronounced vasospasm in response to stimuli is believed to be caused by disruption in the central and local mechanisms of regulation of vascular tonus. Vascular endothe- lial, intravascular, and neuronal disorders are the key ones among these factors. Structural changes in vessels that can be observed by nailfold capillaroscopy play a significant role in pathophysiology of secondary RP. The key step in the diagnosis of RP is identifying its clinical variant, since secondary RP may be a sign or a premonitory symptom of certain autoimmune, hematologic, endocrine, neoplastic, and other disorders. Secondary RP is most frequently observed in patients with systemic rheumatoid diseases. Therapy of secondary RP provides no satisfactory out- comes, since there is no complete conception about the pathophysiological mechanisms of its development. Different groups of drugs are cur- rently used to treat RP, including calcium channels blockers, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, etc. This review focuses on pathogenesis, the algorithm of early and differential diagnosis of RP, and current approaches to therapy based on the analysis of the published and our own data. 

  9. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  10. The phenomenon of mobbing in Serbia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišić Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the phenomenon of abuse in the workplace came to a closer public eye of a broader audience through media coverage, there is not a more fertile ground for a fully detailed problem explanation and search for its short or long-term solution. The dose of seriousness concerning the issue of mobbing isn’t only given for its negative effect on a business organization, but also for the mutation of a society’s culture, as well. The research paper outlines the mobbing phenomenon by presenting the theoretical and practical (statistical diagnosis through which, for a better understanding of the situation, there are added testimonies of mobbing victims, as well as legal and extra-judicial solutions for the issue. The observation of the phenomena is focused on the research and data presentation, using examples from Serbia and Europe. Putting aside the obvious differences in approach, a great space for implementation of European developed countries’ principles can be seen. The same principles could be introduced on the domestic scene, with the introduction of mandatory work conditions that are considered decent.

  11. Discrete numerical investigation of the ratcheting phenomenon in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvetti, Francesco; di Prisco, Claudio

    2010-10-01

    Several relevant geotechnical works, such as railway and road embankments, offshore foundations and vibrating machine foundations, are affected by the progressive accumulation of irreversible settlements. These latter represent the macroscopic evidence of the progressive rearrangement of particles under cycling loading, which is commonly referred to, in the literature, as ratcheting. This phenomenon is well known, but it is quite difficult to describe it by means of an appropriate constitutive model. As a consequence, the evaluation of durability of the aforementioned structures remains an open problem. In this article, the phenomenon will be approached by employing a Distinct Element model capable of describing the evolution of the microstructure induced by cyclic mechanical perturbations. Several analyses are performed in order to stress the influence of both the stress level and loading history on the mechanical response of a numerical model of a sand specimen. The numerical analyses are intended to provide an experimental background for conceiving a simplified macro approach based on generalised plasticity theory. In particular by means of probe test the plastic potential and the hardening parameters will be defined as a function of the current stress state and loading history.

  12. Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Q.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom welded joint, the author has calculated circumferential and longitudinal stresses. These are combined to more accurately approximate the stresses at the base shell course. The calculated result closely conforms to the actual damage, termed ''elephant's foot,'' observed in the fuel storage tanks damaged in the Tangshan earthquake. This result shows that the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon is not caused by buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressive stresses resulting from horizontal earthquake acceleration, but rather by the combined stresses in the base shell course of the storage tank exceeding the yield strength of the shell course material. The effect due to vertical earthquake load is more than the effect from the horizontal load. Finally, some earthquake resistant methods to prevent the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon are suggested by the author.

  13. All Impostors Aren't Alike - Differentiating the Impostor Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Mona; Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Rohrmann, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Following up on earlier investigations, the present paper analyzes construct validity of the impostor phenomenon. It examines the question whether the impostor phenomenon is a homogeneous construct or whether different types of persons with impostor self-concept can be distinguished on the basis of related characteristics. The study was conducted with professionals in leadership positions exhibiting a pronounced impostor self-concept ( n = 183). Cluster-analytic procedures indicated the existence of two different types: one group which, in line with the literature (e.g., Clance, 1985), possessed traits classified as fairly unfavorable ("true impostors") and another group which can be described as largely unencumbered ("strategic impostors"). The present study suggests two types of impostorism: "True" impostors characterized by the negative self-views associated with the construct definition, and more "strategic" impostors who seem to be less encumbered by self-doubt. It is assumed that "strategic impostors" are characterized by a form of deliberate self-presentation. Therefore, the impostor self-concept cannot principally be viewed as a dysfunctional personality style. This distinction should be more carefully considered in further research and in therapeutic interventions.

  14. [The knowledge of animal respiration as a combustion phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The different stages leading to knowledge of the phenomenon of animal breathing are going from some writings in Corpus Hippocraticum to Aristoteles' and Galen's works, who considered the heart as the source of the animal heat. Later, Miguel Servet suggested that the inspired air can achieve other functions besides cooling the blood. After that, different explications of the animal heat were raised. About 1770, due to progress of knowledge in the chemistry field, first Mayow and later Black began to consider the animal respiration as a combustion. The important treatise Méthode de nomenclature chimique, published by Guyton de Morveau et al. in 1787 and soon after the Traité élémentaire de chimie de Lavoisier (1789) provided a solid support to Lavoisier's thought. This way on arrived to consider analogous the respiration and combustion phenomena. Studies on the animal respiration phenomenon continued in xix century and in the following century it was possible to apply thermodynamic principles to biology: "generalized thermodynamics". Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Forgetting Phenomenon on Surveillance Test Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho-Joong; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs) define Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. SRs include surveillance test intervals (STIs) and the optimization of the STIs is one of the main issues in risk-informed applications. Surveillance tests are required in NPPs to detect failures in standby equipment to assure their availability in an accident. However, operating experience of the plants suggests that, in addition to the beneficial effects of detecting latent faults, the tests also may have adverse effects on plant operation or equipment; e.g., plant transient caused by the test and wear-out of safety system equipment due to repeated testing. Recent studies have quantitatively evaluated both the beneficial and adverse effects of testing to decide on an acceptable test interval. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of forgetting phenomenon on STI. It is a fundamental human characteristic that a person engaged in a repetitive task will improve his performance over time. The learning phenomenon is observed by the decrease in operation time per unit as operators gain experience by performing additional tasks. However, once there is a break of sufficient length, forgetting starts to take place. In surveillance tests, the most common factor to determine the amount of forgetting is the length of STI, where the longer the STI, the greater the amount of forgetting

  16. Surface plasmon resonance phenomenon of the insulating state polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umiati, Ngurah Ayu Ketut, E-mail: ngurahayuketutumiati@gmail.com [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UGM, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Diponegoro, Jalan Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat; Kamsul [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UGM, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon of the insulating polyaniline (PANI) is has been observed. Surface Plasmon (SP) is the traveled electromagnetic wave that passes through the interface of dielectric metal and excited by attenuated total reflection (ATR) method in Kretschmannn configuration (Au-PANI prism). The resonance condition is observed through the angle of SPR in such condition that SP wave is coupled by the evanescent constant of laser beam. In this research, the laser beam was generated by He–Ne and its wavelength (λ) was 632,8 nm. SPR curve is obtained through observation of incidence angles of the laser beam in prism. SPR phenomenon at the boundary between Au – PANI layer has showed by reflection dip when the laser beam passes through the prism. In this early study, the observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and preliminary compared with some experimental data reported in other referred literatures. The results shows that the optimum layer of Au and polyaniline are 50 and 1,5 nm thick respectively. Our own near future experimental work would be further performed and reported elsewhere.

  17. The God effect quantum entanglement, science’s strangest phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon that Einstein thought too spooky and strange to be true What is entanglement? It's a connection between quantum particles, the building blocks of the universe. Once two particles are entangled, a change to one of them is reflected---instantly---in the other, be they in the same lab or light-years apart. So counterintuitive is this phenomenon and its implications that Einstein himself called it "spooky" and thought that it would lead to the downfall of quantum theory. Yet scientists have since discovered that quantum entanglement, the "God Effect," was one of Einstein's few---and perhaps one of his greatest---mistakes. What does it mean? The possibilities offered by a fuller understanding of the nature of entanglement read like something out of science fiction: communications devices that could span the stars, codes that cannot be broken, computers that dwarf today's machines in speed and power, teleportation, and more. In The God Effect, veteran science writer Brian Clegg has written an ex...

  18. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  19. The clinicide phenomenon: an exploration of medical murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of clinicide. The study of medical killers is barely in its infancy. Clinicide is the unnatural death of multiple patients in the course of treatment by a doctor. Serial medical killing is a relatively new phenomenon. The role model is Dr Marcel Petiot, the worst serial killer in French history. More recently, Dr Harold Shipman was Britain's worst serial killer and in the United States and Zimbabwe, Dr Michael Swango killed 60 patients. A number of doctors have such high patient death rates that it cannot be ignored. At some level, these doctors have an awareness of what they are doing, countered by an overweening refusal to acknowledge the implications or desist from further treatment. Treatment killer offences usually occur on the basis of serial mental illness, but may include the contentious area of euthanasia killing. Doctors have frequently been accomplices in state repression, brutality and genocide in direct contravention to their sanctioned role to relieve suffering and save life. They have become mass murderers on an exponential scale, making any comparison with a doctor killing his own patients almost risible. Many clinicidal doctors have extreme narcissistic personalities, a grandiose view of their own capability and inability to accept that they could be criticized or need assistance from other doctors. Such doctors develop a God-complex, getting a vicarious thrill out of ending suffering and by determining when a person dies.

  20. The solubilisation of boar sperm membranes by different detergents - a microscopic, MALDI-TOF MS, 31P NMR and PAGE study on membrane lysis, extraction efficiency, lipid and protein composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Karin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detergents are often used to isolate proteins, lipids as well as "detergent-resistant membrane domains" (DRMs from cells. Different detergents affect different membrane structures according to their physico-chemical properties. However, the effects of different detergents on membrane lysis of boar spermatozoa and the lipid composition of DRMs prepared from the affected sperm membranes have not been investigated so far. Results Spermatozoa were treated with the selected detergents Pluronic F-127, sodium cholate, CHAPS, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Brij 96V. Different patterns of membrane disintegration were observed by light and electron microscopy. In accordance with microscopic data, different amounts of lipids and proteins were released from the cells by the different detergents. The biochemical methods to assay the phosphorus and cholesterol contents as well as 31P NMR to determine the phospholipids were not influenced by the presence of detergents since comparable amounts of lipids were detected in the organic extracts from whole cell suspensions after exposure to each detergent. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to identify phospholipids was essentially disturbed by the presence of detergents which exerted particular suppression effects on signal intensities. After separation of the membrane fractions released by detergents on a sucrose gradient only Triton X-100 and sodium cholate produced sharp turbid DRM bands. Only membrane solubilisation by Triton X-100 leads to an enrichment of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine in a visible DRM band accompanied by a selective accumulation of proteins. Conclusion The boar sperm membranes are solubilised to a different extent by the used detergents. Particularly, the very unique DRMs isolated after Triton X-100 exposure are interesting candidates for further studies regarding the

  1. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  2. Surface-Exposed Lipoproteins: An Emerging Secretion Phenomenon in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marlena M; Bernstein, Harris D

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are hydrophilic proteins that are anchored to a cell membrane by N-terminally linked fatty acids. It is widely believed that nearly all lipoproteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are either retained in the inner membrane (IM) or transferred to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM). Lipoproteins that are exposed on the cell surface have also been reported but are generally considered to be rare. Results from a variety of recent studies, however, now suggest that the prevalence of surface-exposed lipoproteins has been underestimated. In this review we describe the evidence that the surface exposure of lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria is a widespread phenomenon and discuss possible mechanisms by which these proteins might be transported across the OM. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Gradient phenomenon of multidrug resistance gene expression in breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is related to disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litviakov

    2013-01-01

    response to NAC while the expression increase associated with poor response to NAC. In 25% of patients there was no such change in studied gene expression that means the lack of a gradient phenomenon. The objective was to study whether gradient phenomenon for MDR gene expression during NAC is related to disease free survival in breast cancer patients. Five-year metastasis-free survival in patients having a gradient phenomenon was 73 % versus 39 % in patients who lack a gradient phenomenon (log-rank test p=0,0018. So, the presence of a gradient phenomenon in patients is appeared to be associated with a good disease prognosis. It is assumed that the gradient phenomenon is the marker indicating the presence of a balanced system of gene regulation and tumor cell response to chemotherapy. Practically, the estimation of the effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy along with a change in MDR gene expression during NAC could significantly improve prediction of disease outcome in patients with breast cancer.

  4. The Takete-Maluma phenomenon in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that people tend to preferentially associate phonemes like /m/, /l/, /n/ to curvilinear shapes and phonemes like /t/, /z/, /r/, /k/ to rectilinear shapes. Here we evaluated the performance of children/adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurotypical controls in this audiovisual congruency phenomenon. Pairs of visual patterns (curvilinear vs rectilinear) were presented to a group of ASD participants (low- or high-functioning) and a group of age-matched neurotypical controls. Participants were asked to associate each item to non-meaningful phoneme clusters. ASD participants showed a lower proportion of expected association responses than the controls. Within the ASD group the performance varied as a function of the severity of the symptomatology. These data suggest that children/adolescents with ASD show, although at different degrees as a function of the severity of the ASD, lower phonetic-iconic congruency response patterns than neurotypical controls, pointing to poorer multisensory integration capabilities.

  5. THE PHENOMENON OF EUROPEAN MUSICAL ROMANTICISM IN SYSTEMIC RESEARCH VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA AUGUSTINA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanticism – European cultural-artistic phenomenon of the 20th century, developed in various fields of philosophy, literature, arts, and in terms of its amplitude and universality marked the respective century as a Romantic Era – is promoted in the most pointed manner in musical art. The Research of musical Romanticism – in the conceptual, aesthetic, musical aspect – can be achieved only on the basis of a systemic vision, which inputs the necessity of a study of synthesis. The respective study will integrate in a single process the investigation of all the above – mentioned aspects and will take place at the intersection of different scientific domains: aesthetics and musical aesthetics, historical and theoretical musicology, history and theory of interpretative art.

  6. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  7. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  8. Phenomenon in the Evolution of Voles (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekovets L. I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical results of the study of adaptatiogenesis within the family Arvicolidae (Mammalia, Rodentia based of morphological changes of the most functional characters of their masticatory apparatus — dental system — through time. The main directions of the morphological differentiation in parallel evolution of the arvicolid tooth type within the Cricetidae and Arvicolidae during late Miocene and Pliocene were identified and substantiated. It is shown that such unique morphological structure as the arvicolid tooth type has provided a relatively high rate of evolution of voles and a wide range of their adaptive radiation, as well as has determined their taxonomic and ecological diversity. The optimality of the current state of this group and evaluation of evolutionary prospects of Arvicolidae were presented and substantiated here as a phenomenon in their evolution.

  9. Rational use of calcium-channel antagonists in Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgill, M G; Seibold, J R

    1998-11-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a peripheral circulatory disorder characterized by sudden episodes of digital artery spasm, often precipitated by cold temperature or emotional stress. Although the cause of RP is not fully known, it appears to involve inappropriate adrenergic response to cold stimuli. Treatment of RP is conservative in most patients, but in patients with severe disease includes the use of agents that promote digital vasodilation. The calcium-channel antagonists, particularly the dihydropyridine derivative nifedipine, are the most thoroughly studied drug class for the treatment of RP. Approximately two thirds of patients respond favorably, with significant reductions in the frequency and severity of vasospastic attacks. Nifedipine use is often limited by the appearance of adverse vasodilatory effects such as headache or peripheral edema. The newer second-generation dihydropyridines such as amlodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, and felodipine also appear to be effective in patients with RP and may be associated with fewer adverse effects.

  10. Seizure freedom after lamotrigine rash: a peculiar phenomenon in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old right-handed woman with a history of left frontal lobe stroke had experienced episodes of language-expression difficulty followed by paraphasia lasting for approximately 30 seconds two years earlier. She was diagnosed with left frontal lobe epilepsy, and a lamotrigine regimen was initiated. This treatment had to be stopped five weeks after initiation because she developed a rash, and her drug lymphocyte stimulation test result was positive. Interestingly, she has since remained seizure free without requiring any antiepileptic medications. This adult case with a peculiar clinical course provides support for the hypothesis of immunomodulation process involvement in epilepsy, a phenomenon that was previously mainly seen in pediatric patients.

  11. Preparation of cellulase concoction using differential adsorption phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhade, Sachinkumar; Pednekar, Mukesh; Sagwal, Shilpa; Odaneth, Annamma; Lali, Arvind

    2017-05-28

    Controlled depolymerization of cellulose is essential for the production of valuable cellooligosaccharides and cellobiose from lignocellulosic biomass. However, enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis involves multiple synergistically acting enzymes, making difficult to control the depolymerization process and generate desired product. This work exploits the varying adsorption properties of the cellulase components to the cellulosic substrate and aims to control the enzyme activity. Cellulase adsorption was favored on pretreated cellulosic biomass as compared to synthetic cellulose. Preferential adsorption of exocellulases was observed over endocellulase, while β-glucosidases remained unadsorbed. Adsorbed enzyme fraction with bound exocellulases when used for hydrolysis generated cellobiose predominantly, while the unadsorbed enzymes in the liquid fraction produced cellooligosaccharides majorly, owing to its high endocellulases activity. Thus, the differential adsorption phenomenon of the cellulase components can be used for the controlling cellulose hydrolysis for the production of an array of sugars.

  12. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.

  13. Stability of the discretization of the electron avalanche phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.villa@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Barbieri, Luca, E-mail: luca.barbieri@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Gondola, Marco, E-mail: marco.gondola@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Leon-Garzon, Andres R., E-mail: andresricardo.leon@polimi.it [CMIC Department “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milano (Italy); Malgesini, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.malgesini@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    The numerical simulation of the discharge inception is an active field of applied physics with many industrial applications. In this work we focus on the drift-reaction equation that describes the electron avalanche. This phenomenon is one of the basic building blocks of the streamer model. The main difficulty of the electron avalanche equation lies in the fact that the reaction term is positive when a high electric field is applied. It leads to exponentially growing solutions and this has a major impact on the behavior of numerical schemes. We analyze the stability of a reference finite volume scheme applied to this latter problem. The stability of the method may impose a strict mesh spacing, therefore a proper stabilized scheme, which is stable whatever spacing is used, has been developed. The convergence of the scheme is treated as well as some numerical experiments.

  14. Retrospective Revaluation: The Phenomenon and Its Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R.; Witnauer, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective revaluation refers to an increase (or decrease) in responding to conditioned stimulus (CS X) as a result of decreasing (or increasing) the associative strength of another CS (A) with respect to the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., A-US) that was previously trained in compound with the target CS (e.g., AX−US or just AX). We discuss the conditions under which retrospective revaluation phenomena are most apt to be observed and their implications for various models of learning that are able to account for retrospective revaluation (e.g., Dickinson and Burke, 1996; Miller and Matzel, 1988; Van Hamme and Wasserman, 1994). Although retroactive revaluation is relatively parameter specific, it is seen to be a reliable phenomenon observed across many tasks and species. As it is not anticipated by many conventional models of learning (e.g., Rescorla and Wagner, 1972), it serves as a critical benchmark for evaluating traditional and newer models. PMID:26342855

  15. Condensation in a capped capillary is a continuous critical phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Rascón, C; Wilding, N B; Evans, R

    2007-06-01

    We show that condensation in a capped capillary slit is a continuous interfacial critical phenomenon, related intimately to several other surface phase transitions. In three dimensions, the adsorption and desorption branches correspond to the unbinding of the meniscus from the cap and opening, respectively, and are equivalent to 2D-like complete-wetting transitions. For dispersion forces, the singularities on the two branches are distinct, owing to the different interplay of geometry and intermolecular forces. In two dimensions we establish precise connection, or covariance, with 2D critical-wetting and wedge-filling transitions: i.e., we establish that certain interfacial properties in very different geometries are identical. Our predictions of universal scaling and covariance in finite capillaries are supported by extensive Ising model simulation studies in two and three dimensions.

  16. Aggregation-induced emission: phenomenon, mechanism and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuning; Lam, Jacky W Y; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2009-08-07

    It is textbook knowledge that chromophore aggregation generally quenches light emission. In this feature article, we give an account on how we observed an opposite phenomenon termed aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and identified the restriction of intramolecular rotation as a main cause for the AIE effect. Based on the mechanistic understanding, we developed a series of new fluorescent and phosphorescent AIE systems with emission colours covering the entire visible spectral region and luminescence quantum yields up to unity. We explored high-tech applications of the AIE luminogens as, for example, fluorescence sensors (for explosive, ion, pH, temperature, viscosity, pressure, etc.), biological probes (for protein, DNA, RNA, sugar, phospholipid, etc.), immunoassay markers, PAGE visualization agents, polarized light emitters, monitors for layer-by-layer assembly, reporters for micelle formation, multistimuli-responsive nanomaterials, and active layers in the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes.

  17. The phenomenon of factoring, benefits for beneficiary and national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay encompasses three thematic units focused on the phenomenon of factoring and its benefits for beneficiaries and national economies. In the first part the essay analyses background, concept and participants, types of factoring products, and how factoring functions from the perspective of involved risks. In the second part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for beneficiaries, especially their financial performances and how factoring decreases collection risk and costs of working capital financing. In the third part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for national economies tackling its capabilities to support declining companies and how factoring upgrades macroeconomic figures and features of financial sector. This part explains the way how national economies are organized through international factoring based on two factor systems. The goal of the essay is to pinpoint micro benefits and their impact on macro environment, i.e. national economy.

  18. Coupling Phenomenon in Diode with Dielectric Gridded Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, A.; Berezovsky, V.; Schachter, L.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the current characteristic in a vacuum diode with a Gridded cathode. The grid is located on a top of a Ferro - Electric disk with a uniform cathode on its back side. We found experimental evidence that the current in such a system exceeds Child - Langmuir limit, in agreement with results reported in [1]. Explanations to this phenomenon were given in term of the non-linear characteristic of the ferro - electric ceramic or by plasma-assisted emission and gap closure. Recently [2] it has been shown theoretically that electrostatic coupling between the dielectric disk and the vacuum gap is directly responsible to the excess of current. We shall report experimental results that may support this possibility

  19. The phenomenon of voltage controlled switching in disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sanjib; De Munshi, D

    2014-01-01

    The superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) is a phenomenon occurring in highly disordered superconductors and may be useful in the development of superconducting switches. The SIT has been demonstrated to be induced by different external parameters: temperature, magnetic field, electric field, etc. However, the electric field induced SIT (ESIT), which has been experimentally demonstrated for some specific materials, holds particular promise for practical device development. Here, we demonstrate, from theoretical considerations, the occurrence of the ESIT. We also propose a general switching device architecture using the ESIT and study some of its universal behavior, such as the effects of sample size, disorder strength and temperature on the switching action. This work provides a general framework for the development of such a device. (paper)

  20. Parallels in Communication and Navigation Technology and Natural Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The premise is more than art imitates life, or technology imitates nature it is a nascent step to see how we might be unwittingly inspired and influenced. An example that might immediately come to mind is a starling murmuration (a phenomenon called scale-free correlation) and Intels recent Coachella music festival drone performance. Superconductivity is a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum phenomenon - choreographed electrons (i.e. an electron murmuration) that enable astonishing devices. There is indeed an intimate connectedness between biology and electromagnetism. Our brains are complex neural circuits generating magnetic fields with a magnitude around 100 femtoTesla (roughly one billion times weaker than a typical magnet used to tack notes to a refrigerator door). Migratory birds navigate by orienteering with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. Electromagnetic field therapy is used in orthopedics to aid in bone repair. The electric eel generates a large electric field for self-defense. Sharks apparently detect extremely weak electric fields for finding prey. And so on. There are similarities between the way a field of wheat responds to a breeze and the natural restoring forces of a semiconductor crystal. And waves in a slowly moving river can lap backwards against a peninsular shoreline mimicking a diffraction effect. Getting back to the introductory sentence and mysterious links over cosmic distances, in August 2016, China launched the Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) satellite. The technology is based on a non-linear crystal that produces pairs of entangled photons whose attributes apparently remain entwined regardless of how far apart they are separated. This paper will, no doubt superficially, attempt to enumerate and examine these types of connections and parallelisms.