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Sample records for cell neoplasms treatment

  1. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  2. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  3. Reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplant for treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lokare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is a rare, aggressive tumor characterized by skin and/or marrow infiltration by CD4+ CD56+ cells. Historically, the tumor was variably thought to arise from either monocytes, T cells or NK cells giving rise to terms such as CD4+/CD56+ acute monoblastic leukemia, primary cutaneous CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic tumor and blastic NK-cell lymphoma. Whilst considerable progress has been made in understanding the histogenesis, the best modality of treatment remains to be defined. We are therefore reporting this case which was successfully treated with a T-deplete allogeneic transplant and the patient is currently alive and in remission 4 years post transplant.

  4. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

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    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  5. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  6. [Molecular pathology of plasma cell neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, F

    2010-10-01

    Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and related immunosecretory disorders are a group of B-cell proliferations with a wide clinical and prognostic spectrum, characterized by the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin by immortalized plasma cells. Recent years have seen an explosion in knowledge on the genetic basis and biology of these diseases, followed by improved clinical risk stratification and the introduction of novel therapeutic concepts, such as treatment with proteasome inhibitors or immunomodulatory substances. PCM is a common malignancy, accounting for approximately 10% of all hematological neoplasms. There is good evidence to support a multistep transformation process in plasma cell neoplasms, which corresponds to clinically discernible disease stages. Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance is a common asymptomatic precursor lesion for PCM which carries an approximately 1% annual risk for progression. Terminal disease stages are characterized by increasing genetic complexity and independence from bone marrow stromal cells and show a rapidly increasing tumour load with severe clinical symptoms. Modern diagnostics of plasma cell neoplasms require inclusion of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypical and cytogenetic features to allow for individual risk assessment and therapy planning. PMID:20852863

  7. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  8. Immunohistochemical study of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏秋媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathologic features,immunophenotype and genetic changes of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) .Methods A total of 25 cases of PEComa located in various anatomic sites were selected for immunohistochemical staining (SP or

  9. Expansion of circulating CD56bright natural killer cells in patients with JAK2-positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms during treatment with interferon-α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Caroline H; Hansen, Morten; Brimnes, Marie K;

    2015-01-01

    -tumor immune response against the JAK2-mutated clone. The objective of this study was to investigate circulating levels and phenotype of natural killer cells in 29 JAK2-positive MPN patients during IFN-α treatment. Furthermore, functional studies of NK cells upon target-cell recognition and cytokine......In recent years, major molecular remissions have been observed in patients with JAK2-positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) after therapy with IFN-α. IFN-α is known to have altering effects on immune cells involved in immune surveillance and might consequently enhance anti...... stimulation were performed. The CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cell subtypes display different properties in terms of cytokine production and cytotoxicity, respectively. Our results show a significant increase in the proportion of CD56(bright) NK cells and a decreasing CD56(dim) population during treatment...

  10. Granular Cell Tumor: An Uncommon Benign Neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Tirthankar Gayen; Anupam Das; Kaushik Shome; Debabrata Bandyopadhyay; Dipti Das; Abanti Saha

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  11. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  12. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

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    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  13. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  14. Thermoradiotherapy in treatment of vulva neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of increasing of radiotherapy efficiency using local SHF-hyperthermia in treating primary and relapsed neoplasms as well as metastases in patients with vulva neoplasms are clarified. It is shown that immediate and early results of thermoradiotherapy of vulva neoplasms and metastases are favourable. Further investigations in this field are necessary. 4 refs

  15. Neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005175 The value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the diagnosis of malignant bone neoplasms. MA Ling(马玲), et al. Dept Diag Radi-ol, 1st Affili Hosp Sun Yat-sen Univ, Guangzhou 510080. Chin J Radiol, 2004;38(11):1129-1134. Objective: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the diagnosis of malignant bone neoplasms. Methods: Eighteen cases with

  16. Rare non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms: Pathology, genetics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, William D; Gore, Martin; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Rare non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms have posed management challenges for many years. Their rarity means that most specialist practitioners will see one such case every several years, and most generalists may never see a case. The first step in management is to establish the correct diagnosis and this may necessitate specialist pathology review. Here, we review recent developments in the pathology, genetics and treatment of small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) and sex cord-stromal tumours. Pathologically, these tumours often display morphological overlap with other neoplasms; for example, SCCOHT overlaps with many other "small round blue cell" tumours. Specific immunohistochemical stains, while useful, may not always be definitive. The discovery of somatic mutations in FOXL2 (adult granulosa cell tumours) and germline and somatic mutations in DICER1 (Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours) and SMARCA4 (SCCOHT) has demonstrated the value of molecular investigation as an adjunct to traditional histopathological approaches. In addition, the presence of germline mutations in a significant proportion of some of these neoplasms points to the need for genetic counselling and testing, offering the prospect of prevention and early diagnosis. Treatment of these rare tumours, as a group, should be on the basis of sound oncological principles, given that level 1 evidence will almost always be lacking. The rationale for experimental therapies must be clearly established. In view of the complex issues involved in the management of these conditions, expert opinion in pathology, genetics and treatment may be essential to offer the patient and her family the best chance of a good outcome. PMID:27079213

  17. Intra-arterial injection of radioactive microspheres in neoplasm treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory methods to obtain microspheres with 90Y was developed. In the experiment on animals a possibility of the microspheres application for intraarterial injection for radiation treatment of highly vascularized neoplasms was shown

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  19. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  20. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920632 Phenotypic analysis of T lympho-cytes from the patient with thymoma com-plicated with pure red cell aplasia. LIUBai(刘白), et al. Beijing Med Univ. Chin J Hema-tol 1992; 13(5): 244-246. The thymocytes in thymoma tissue and mono-nuclear cells in peripheral blood and bone marrowwere obtained from a patient with thymomacomplicated with pure red cell aplasia. The

  1. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  2. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  3. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  5. Increase in circulating CD4CD25Foxp3 T cells in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms during treatment with IFN-α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, C.H.; Morten Krogh, Jensen; Brimnes, M.K.;

    2011-01-01

    in these patients. Foxp3 regulatory T cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and, importantly, preventing immune reactivity to self-antigens; however, their suppressive activity can compromise an effective antitumor immune response, and high frequencies of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood......-α2 (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8% to 15.2%) compared with healthy donors (6.1%; 95% CI 4.9% to 7.2%), patients with untreated chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (6.9%; 95% CI 5.8% to 7.4%), or patients treated with hydroxyurea (5.8%; 95% CI 4.3% to 7.4%; P

  6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: A decade of discoveries and treatment advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal stem cell diseases, first conceptualized in 1951 by William Dameshek, and historically included chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In 1960, Nowell and Hungerford discovered an invariable association between the Philadelphia chromosome (subsequently shown to harbor the causal BCR-ABL1 mutation) and CML; accordingly, the term MPN is primarily reserved for PV, ET, and PMF, although it includes other related clinicopathologic entities, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. In 2005, William Vainchenker and others described a Janus kinase 2 mutation (JAK2V617F) in MPN and this was followed by a series of additional descriptions of mutations that directly or indirectly activate JAK-STAT: JAK2 exon 12, myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) and calreticulin (CALR) mutations. The discovery of these, mostly mutually exclusive, "driver" mutations has contributed to revisions of the WHO diagnostic criteria and risk stratification in MPN. Mutations other than JAK2, CALR and MPL have also been described in MPN and shown to provide additional prognostic information. From the standpoint of treatment, over the last 50 years, Louis Wasserman from the Unites States and Tiziano Barbui from Italy had skillfully organized and led a number of important clinical trials, whose results form the basis for current treatment strategies in MPN. More recently, allogeneic stem cell transplant, as a potentially curative treatment modality, and JAK inhibitors, as palliative drugs, have been added to the overall therapeutic armamentarium in myelofibrosis. In the current review, I will summarize the important advances made in the last 10 years regarding the science and practice of MPN.

  7. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: A decade of discoveries and treatment advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal stem cell diseases, first conceptualized in 1951 by William Dameshek, and historically included chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In 1960, Nowell and Hungerford discovered an invariable association between the Philadelphia chromosome (subsequently shown to harbor the causal BCR-ABL1 mutation) and CML; accordingly, the term MPN is primarily reserved for PV, ET, and PMF, although it includes other related clinicopathologic entities, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. In 2005, William Vainchenker and others described a Janus kinase 2 mutation (JAK2V617F) in MPN and this was followed by a series of additional descriptions of mutations that directly or indirectly activate JAK-STAT: JAK2 exon 12, myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) and calreticulin (CALR) mutations. The discovery of these, mostly mutually exclusive, "driver" mutations has contributed to revisions of the WHO diagnostic criteria and risk stratification in MPN. Mutations other than JAK2, CALR and MPL have also been described in MPN and shown to provide additional prognostic information. From the standpoint of treatment, over the last 50 years, Louis Wasserman from the Unites States and Tiziano Barbui from Italy had skillfully organized and led a number of important clinical trials, whose results form the basis for current treatment strategies in MPN. More recently, allogeneic stem cell transplant, as a potentially curative treatment modality, and JAK inhibitors, as palliative drugs, have been added to the overall therapeutic armamentarium in myelofibrosis. In the current review, I will summarize the important advances made in the last 10 years regarding the science and practice of MPN. PMID:26492355

  8. Secondary Malignant Neoplasms Following Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bomken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving survival rates in children with malignancy have been achieved at the cost of a high frequency of late adverse effects of treatment, especially in intensively treated patients such as those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, many of whom suffer the high burden of chronic toxicity. Secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs are one of the most devastating late effects, cause much morbidity and are the most frequent cause of late (yet still premature treatment-related mortality. They occur in up to 7% of HSCT recipients by 20 years post-HSCT, and with no evidence yet of a plateau in incidence with longer follow-up. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and risk factors of the three main categories of post-HSCT SMNs. A wide range of solid SMNs has been described, usually occurring 10 years or more post-HSCT, related most often to previous or conditioning radiotherapy. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplasia occurs earlier, typically three to seven years post-HSCT, mainly in recipients of autologous transplant and is related to previous alkylating agent or topoisomerase II inhibitor chemotherapy. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders occur early (usually within two years post-HSCT, usually presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  9. Combination treatment for myeloproliferative neoplasms using JAK and pan-class I PI3K inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, Meng Ling; Pecquet, Christian; Pendharkar, Vishal; Diaconu, Carmen C.; Yong, Jacklyn Wei Yan; Tai, Shi Jing; Wang, Si Fang; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Vainchenker, William; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Lee, May Ann

    2013-01-01

    Current JAK2 inhibitors used for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) treatment are not specific enough to selectively suppress aberrant JAK2 signalling and preserve physiological JAK2 signalling. We tested whether combining a JAK2 inhibitor with a series of serine threonine kinase inhibitors, targeting nine signalling pathways and already used in clinical trials, synergized in inhibiting growth of haematopoietic cells expressing mutant and wild-type forms of JAK2 (V617F) or thrombopoietin rece...

  10. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Baruchel, Andre; Devidas, Meenakshi; Escherich, Gabriele; Gibson, Brenda; Heydrich, Christiane; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Michel, Gérard; Pieters, Rob; Piette, Caroline; Pui, Ching-Hon; Raimondi, Susana; Silverman, Lewis; Stanulla, Martin; Stark, Batia; Winick, Naomi; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. Patients and Methods We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980 and 2007. Results Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% ± 2.9%, 31.1% ± 6.2%, and 18.3% ± 3.8%, respectively). Five-year survival estimates for AML were 11.2% ± 2.9% for 125 patients diagnosed before 2000 and 34.1% ± 6.3% for 61 patients diagnosed after 2000 (P < .001); 5-year survival estimates for MDS were 17.1% ± 6.4% (n = 36) and 48.2% ± 10.6% (n = 33; P = .005). Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation failed to improve outcome of secondary myeloid malignancies after adjusting for waiting time to transplantation. Five-year survival rates were above 90% for patients with meningioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and parotid gland tumor, and 68.5% ± 6.4% for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Eighty-nine percent of patients with brain tumors had received cranial irradiation. Solid tumors were associated with cyclophosphamide exposure, and myeloid malignancy was associated with topoisomerase II inhibitors and starting doses of methotrexate of at least 25 mg/m2 per week and mercaptopurine of at least 75 mg/m2 per day. Myeloid malignancies with monosomy 7/5q− were associated with high hyperdiploid ALL karyotypes, whereas 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML or MDS was associated with ALL harboring translocations of t(9;22), t(4;11), t(1;19), and t(12;21) (P = .03). Conclusion SMNs, except for brain tumors, AML, and MDS, have outcomes similar to their primary counterparts. PMID:23690411

  11. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  12. Cytokine Regulation of Microenvironmental Cells in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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    Gregor Hoermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases including not only polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocythemia (ET, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF, but also chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and systemic mastocytosis (SM. Despite the clinical and biological differences between these diseases, common pathophysiological mechanisms have been identified in MPN. First, aberrant tyrosine kinase signaling due to somatic mutations in certain driver genes is common to these MPN. Second, alterations of the bone marrow microenvironment are found in all MPN types and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Finally, elevated levels of proinflammatory and microenvironment-regulating cytokines are commonly found in all MPN-variants. In this paper, we review the effects of MPN-related oncogenes on cytokine expression and release and describe common as well as distinct pathogenetic mechanisms underlying microenvironmental changes in various MPN. Furthermore, targeting of the microenvironment in MPN is discussed. Such novel therapies may enhance the efficacy and may overcome resistance to established tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in these patients. Nevertheless, additional basic studies on the complex interplay of neoplastic and stromal cells are required in order to optimize targeting strategies and to translate these concepts into clinical application.

  13. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2015-01-01

    -genomic gene expression regulation involves small non-coding RNAs, predominantly micro-RNAs (miRs). Testicular GCTs display micro-RNA profiles similar to embryonic stem cells. Targeted miRNA-based blood tests for miR-371-3 and miR-367 clusters are currently under development and hold a great promise......This concise review summarises tissue and serum markers useful for differential diagnosis of germ cell tumours (GCTs), with focus on the most common testicular GCTs (TGCTs). GCTs are characterised by phenotypic heterogeneity due to largely retained embryonic pluripotency and aberrant somatic...... to gain-of function mutations in survival-promoting genes (e.g. FGFR3, HRAS), thus this tumour has a different expression profile than GCNIS-derived TGCT. Clinically most informative markers for GCT, except teratoma, are genes expressed in primordial germ cell/gonocyte and embryonic pluripotency...

  14. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C;

    2015-01-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutat...

  15. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with leukemic presentation: an Italian multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Livio; Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Fisogni, Simona; Carluccio, Paola; Mannelli, Francesco; Lunghi, Monia; Pica, Gianmatteo; Onida, Francesco; Cattaneo, Chiara; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Di Bona, Eros; Todisco, Elisabetta; Musto, Pellegrino; Spadea, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and efficacy of treatments in patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with a leukemic presentation at onset of the disease. In order to do this, a retrospective multicenter study was performed from 2005-2011 in 28 Italian hematology divisions in which 43 cases were collected. Forty-one patients received an induction therapy, consisting of an acute myeloid leukemia-type regimen in 26 patie...

  16. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen Chin; Kundra, Ajay; Andrei, Mirela; Baptiste, Stacey; Chen, Chi; Wong, Ching; Sindhu, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Although BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)--and especially myelofibrosis (MF)--are recognized to be associated with autoimmune phenomena, immune derangements in MPN have been much less studied. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one type of important immune modulator cell. Therefore, we studied MDSCs in MPN disease. MDSCs were studied in two cohorts: the first cohort was 55 patients including 16 primary myelofibrosis (PMF), 7 post-polycythemia vera (PV)-MF, 2 post-essential thrombocythemia (ET)-MF, 11 ET, 17 PV, 2 undefined MPN disorder, and 23 normal controls; the second cohort included 38 patients: 17 ET, 7 PMF, 3 ET-MF, 2 PV-MF, 9 PV patients, and 20 normal volunteers. The second cohort was studied using freshly collected specimens and a comparable age group as controls. CD11b(+), CD14(-), and CD33(+) cells were defined as MDSCs in both cohorts by flow cytometry. Since there are no differences in MDSC levels among different MPN categories, they were grouped as MPNs. The results showed that MDSCs were significantly elevated in MPNs compared with controls in both cohorts. We also performed RT-PCR and found that MPN patients have significantly elevated arginase-1 mRNA compared with controls, and sorted MDSCs were found to have suppressor T cell activity in MPNs, substantiating the hypothesis that levels of MDSCs are, in fact, deranged in MPNs. MDSC levels were not correlated with JAK2 status, white blood cells, Hb levels, platelet counts, splenomegaly, or the degree of bone marrow fibrosis (in MF). Further studies in immune therapy involving MDSC inhibitors or differentiation may be developed to treat MPN disease. PMID:26943702

  18. Lenalidomide, celecoxib, and azacitidine therapy for blastic plasmocytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Recio, Marta; Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Bento, Leyre; Ramos, Rafael; Gines, Jordi; Daumal, Jaime; Sampol, Antonia; Gutierrez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmocytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is characterized by aggressive behavior with a tendency for systemic dissemination and a predilection for skin, lymph nodes, soft tissues, peripheral blood, or bone marrow. It usually occurs in elderly patients with a mean age between 60 and 70 years. Despite initial response to chemotherapy, the disease regularly relapses with a short median overall survival. Better outcomes have been reported with high-dose acute leukemia-like induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, elderly patients are not candidates for intensive therapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. So, new active and tolerable drugs are needed. Our case illustrates that one cycle of lenalidomide and celecoxib provides at least a partial cutaneous and hematologic response, but this regimen was discontinued due to toxicity and followed by a consolidation/maintenance phase with azacitidine, thus achieving a final complete response with a much higher than expected progression-free and overall survival in an elderly patient with comorbidities. This information may be useful in the design of treatment approaches for elderly patients with blastic plasmocytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. However, it should be confirmed in clinical trials as well as by optimizing the induction and extending the consolidation/maintenance period to avoid early relapses after discontinuation and improve progression-free survival. PMID:27660468

  19. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm: From Origin of the Cell to Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Kamel; Denizon, Nathalie; Besançon, Anne; Farhi, Jonathan; Lemaire, Pierre; Sandrini, Jeremy; Truong, Catherine; Ghnaya, Habib; Baugier de Materre, Alix

    2016-08-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. It is grouped with acute myeloid leukemia-related precursor neoplasms in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. Most patients with BPDCN have skin lesions at diagnosis and subsequent or simultaneous involvement of the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes. Patients usually respond to initial chemotherapy but often relapse. Stem cell transplantation may improve survival. This neoplasm is derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and is characterized by the coexpression of the immunophenotypic markers CD4, CD56, CD123, blood dendritic cell antigen-2, blood dendritic cell antigen-4, CD2AP, and lineage(-). Atypical immunophenotype expression may be present, making diagnosis difficult. BPDCN is often associated with a complex karyotype, frequent deletions of tumor suppressor genes, and mutations affecting either the DNA methylation or chromatin remodeling pathways. A better understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this neoplasm could open the way to new therapies targeting specific signaling pathways or involving epigenetics. PMID:27026248

  20. Increase in circulating CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms during treatment with IFN-α

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Jensen, Morten Krogh; Brimnes, Marie Klinge;

    2011-01-01

    in these patients. Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and, importantly, preventing immune reactivity to self-antigens; however, their suppressive activity can compromise an effective antitumor immune response, and high frequencies of regulatory T cells in peripheral...... treated with IFN-a2 (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8% to 15.2%) compared with healthy donors (6.1%; 95% CI 4.9% to 7.2%), patients with untreated chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (6.9%; 95% CI 5.8% to 7.4%), or patients treated with hydroxyurea (5.8%; 95% CI 4.3% to 7.4%; P

  1. Molecular profiling of peripheral blood cells from patients with polycythemia vera and related neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, V.; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, T.A.;

    2012-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms that may be associated with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders. Earlier gene expression profiling studies have demonstrated aberrant expression of genes involved in...... chronic inflammation to be of pathogenetic importance for the progression of these neoplasms toward the myelofibrotic end-stage and may also account for the increased frequency of second cancer in these diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  2. Nordic guidelines 2014 for diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Sorbye, Halfdan; Welin, Staffan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has undergone major recent advances and new methods are currently introduced into the clinic. An update of the WHO classification has resulted in a new nomenclature dividing NENs into neuroendocrine...

  3. [The use of the Surgitron radiowave scalpel for the surgical treatment of external ear neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, V I; Chernolev, A I; Antoniv, V F; Korshunova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate etiology and clinical picture of the tumours of the external ear as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of their radiowave surgery. We sought to optimize the surgical strategy for the treatment of tumour-like masses, benign and malignant neoplasms of the external ear with the use of the Surgitron radiowave scalpel.

  4. Combination of PIM and JAK2 inhibitors synergistically suppresses cell proliferation and overcomes drug resistance of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shih-Min A.; Wang, Anlai; Greco, Rita; LI, Mrs Zhifang; Sun, Fangxian; Barberis, Claude; Tabart, Michel; Patel, Vinod; Schio, Laurent; Hurley, Raelene; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Lengauer, Christoph; Pollard, Jack; Watters, James

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of JAK2 kinase are emerging as an important treatment modality for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). However, similar to other kinase inhibitors, resistance to JAK2 inhibitors may eventually emerge through a variety of mechanisms. Effective drug combination is one way to enhance therapeutic efficacy and combat resistance against JAK2 inhibitors. To identify potential combination partners for JAK2 compounds in MPN cell lines, we performed pooled shRNA screen targeting 5,000 genes ...

  5. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2013 for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Yasuhiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hidenori; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The third version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms was published in 2013. The guidelines comprise nine chapters and nine algorithms. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. This revision was intended to collect up-to-date international evidence. The highlights of this revision are to (1) newly specify costs and conflicts of interest; (2) describe the clinical significance of pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, including variant histologic types; (3) describe more clearly the indications for laparoscopic surgery as the standard treatment; (4) provide guidelines for post-treatment hormone replacement therapy; (5) clearly differentiate treatment of advanced or recurrent cancer between the initial treatment and the treatment carried out after the primary operation; (6) collectively describe fertility-sparing therapy for both atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (corresponding to G1) and newly describe relapse therapy after fertility-preserving treatment; and (7) newly describe the treatment of trophoblastic disease. Overall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for uterine body neoplasms in Japan with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all Japanese women diagnosed with uterine body neoplasms.

  6. Less common neoplasms of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abby L Mulkeen; Peter S Yoo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased recognition of neoplasms of the pancreas other than ductal adenocarcinoma. Although not as well studied or characterized as pancreatic adenocarcinoma there are many distinct lesions which exhibit diverse biological behaviors and varying degrees of malignancy. These lesions include: endocrine neoplasms, cystic tumors, solid pseudopapillary tumors, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions to the pancreas. These less common neoplasms are being diagnosed more frequently as the number and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging studies increase. This review article discusses the clinical course,diagnosis, and treatment of these less common, but quite relevant, neoplasms of the pancreas.

  7. Spindle cell lipoma of the mandibular mucogingival junction:a case report of unusual oral neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manal Abdulaziz Al Sheddi; Ahmad Assari; Hezekiah Mosadomi

    2014-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma (SCL) is a benign lipomatous neoplasm typically located in the posterior neck and back of older males. It presents as a well-circumscribed mass in the buccal mucosa, tongue, floor of the mouth or hard palate. There are only two case reports of SCL in the gingiva and alveolar ridge. Here, we report a case of SCL in the mandibular mucogingival junction of a 68-year-old male. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings are presented. Although oral SCL is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms occurring in the oral cavity.

  8. Investigation of temperature feedback signal parameters during neoplasms treatment by diode laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of temperature signal in operation area and laser power at nevus, papilloma, and keratoma in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and with temperature feedback (APC) mode are presented. Feedback allows maintaining temperature in the area of laser treatment at a preset level by regulating power of diode laser radiation (automatic power control). Temperature in the area of laser treatment was controlled by measuring the amplitude of thermal radiation, which occurs when tissue is heated by laser radiation. Removal of neoplasm was carried out in CW mode with laser radiation average power of 12.5+/-0.5 W; mean temperature in the area of laser treatment was 900+/-10°C for nevus, 800+/-15°C for papilloma, and 850+/-20°C for keratoma. The same laser radiation maximal power (12.5 W) and targeted temperature (900°C) were set for nevus removal in APC mode. The results of investigation are real time oscillograms of the laser power and temperature in the area of laser treatment at neoplasms removal in two described above modes. Simultaneously with the measurement of laser power and the temperature in the area of laser treatment video recording of surgeon manipulations was carried out. We discuss the correlation between the power of the laser radiation, the temperature in the area of laser treatment and consistency of surgeon manipulation. It is shown that the method of removal (excision with or without traction, scanning) influences the temperature in the area of laser treatment. It was found, that at removal of nevus with temperature feedback (APC) mode to achieve comparable with CW mode temperature in the area of laser treatment (900+/-10°C) 20-50% less laser power is required. Consequently, removing these neoplasms in temperature feedback mode can be less traumatic than the removal in CW mode.

  9. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch;

    2011-01-01

    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F...... shown that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces complete haematological remissions in a large proportion of the patients. However, its use in clinical practice has unfortunately been limited due to side effects with high drop-out rates in most studies. Recently, IFN-alpha2 has been shown to induce deep...... molecular remissions and also normalization of the bone marrow in PV, which may be sustained even after discontinuation of IFN-alpha2 therapy. Accordingly, in the coming years we are most likely facing a new era of increasing interest for using IFN-alpha2 in the treatment of patients with PV, ET...

  10. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, H.C.; Larsen, T.S.; Riley, C.H.;

    2011-01-01

    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F...... shown that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces complete hematological remissions in a large proportion of the patients. However, its use in clinical practice has unfortunately been limited due to side effects with high drop-out rates in most studies. Recently, IFN-alpha2 has been shown to induce deep...... molecular remissions and also normalization of the bone marrow in PV, which may be sustained even after discontinuation of IFN-alpha2 therapy. Accordingly, in the coming years we are most likely facing a new era of increasing interest for using IFN-alpha2 in the treatment of patients with PV, ET...

  11. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the kidney: A rare neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Narayan Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, but it should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of renal neoplasms. A middle aged man presented with symptoms of weight loss, anorexia and fullness of the abdomen after meals. On clinical and radiological examination, a renal mass was revealed and operated upon. A diagnosis of primary high grade renal lymphoma was made on histopathological examination and immunohistochemically it was further classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Unfortunately, the patient died after 5 months of diagnosis in spite of three cycles of chemotherapy following surgery. The pathological details of rare tumor are presented here.

  12. 2012478 Biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and JAK2 mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田竑

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) and detect JAK2 mutation in BMSCs from myeloproliferative neoplasms(MPN) patients. Methods JAK2 V617F mutation and exon 12 mutation in 70 MPN patients’ blood or bone marrow samples were detected.

  13. Malignant Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm (PEComa) of the Pelvis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, David; Hanspeter, Esther; D'Elia, Carolina; Martini, Thomas; Pycha, Armin

    2016-05-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) are rare mesenchymal tumors that can occur in any part of the body and have unpredictable pathological behavior. They are usually benign, but may be malignant. We present a case of malignant PEComa of the pelvic retroperitoneum treated with radical surgery.

  14. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  15. Differential expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in salivary gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat; Masorn, Marisa; Jarupoonphol, Werapong; Supatthanayut, Sirinpaporn; Saeoweiang, Pichanee

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is the epithelial-specific molecule expressed on various epithelial cell types. The function of EpCAM involves cellular adhesion, proliferation, and signaling in both normal tissues and cancers. The purposes of this study were to investigate the EpCAM expression in salivary gland neoplasms and examine its relationship with pathologic characteristics. Forty-two cases of salivary gland neoplasms, including 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), 9 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), and 2 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGAs) were enrolled. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using MOC-31 and BerEP4 antibodies. Results showed that the majority of MECs and all PLGAs showed EpCAM expression in more than 50% of neoplastic cells, whereas most PAs and ACCs did not express this protein. In MECs, most EpCAM-positive neoplastic cells were clear cells, glandular epithelial cells, and intermediate cells, whereas squamous cells and mucous cells were largely negative. The expression was limited to ductal epithelium in EpCAM-positive PAs and ACCs. The decreased EpCAM expression in MECs was significantly associated with microscopically diminished cystic components, the presence of small nest invasion at invasive front, cellular anaplasia, vascular invasion, and high pathologic grade. These data suggested that EpCAM showed different expression pattern among salivary gland neoplasms and in different grades of MECs. PMID:27649957

  16. Characteristics and Outcomes of Second Malignant Neoplasms after Childhood Cancer Treatment: Multi-Center Retrospective Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Yoo, Keon Hee; Im, Ho Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hyo Sun; Han, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu; Baek, Hee Jo; Kook, Hoon; Lee, Jun Ah; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Kwang Chul; Kim, Soon Ki; Park, Meerim; Lee, Young-Ho; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Seo, Jong Jin

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors. PMID:27478336

  17. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: the first report of two cases treated by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Kamel; Denizon, Nathalie; Ghnaya, Habib; Atlassi, Mustapha; Besançon, Anne; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Gaulard, Philippe; Petrella, Tony

    2014-07-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy which was first included as an independent cutaneous lymphoma in the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification (1). BPDCN usually has an extremely poor prognosis, with quick relapses after chemotherapy (2; 3). Here, we report two cases of patients diagnosed in 2011 with BPDCN and myelodysplasia, and who were treated for the first time with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza); a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and mainly used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (Kaminskas E, et al. 2005 Clin Cancer Res, 11, 3604-8). The first case was an 81-year-old man who presented with unusual CD10+, CD56- immunohistochemistry and 45X, -Y abnormality using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The second case was a 78-year-old woman who manifested monosomy 13 and chromosome instability due to D13S319 locus deletion in 13q14 as determined by FISH. Both patients showed excellent responses of their skin lesions after one cycle of chemotherapy, and their hematological disease was stabilized; however, pulmonary sepsis set in, followed by neutropenia after the fourth and the fifth cycle of treatment, that is, eight and 9 months postdiagnosis, respectively, leading to patient death. PMID:24571716

  18. Chromogranin A as a Marker for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Survival in Patients With Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu-Hong; Yang, Qiu-chen; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Ling; Chen, Min-hu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chromogranin A (CgA) not only plays an important role in pathologic diagnosis, but is also used as a circulating biomarker in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN). However, the relationship between immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression and serum levels of CgA has not been investigated. The value of CgA for evaluating treatment response and prognosis is still not well understood. We conducted this study to assess the significance of CgA in GEP-NEN in ...

  19. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  20. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  1. Molecular mechanisms promoting the pathogenesis of Schwann cell neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromas, schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) all arise from the Schwann cell lineage. Despite their common origin, these tumor types have distinct pathologies and clinical behaviors; a growing body of evidence indicates that they also arise via distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Identification of the genes that are mutated in genetic diseases characterized by the development of either neurofibromas and MPNSTs [neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)] or schwannomas [ne...

  2. Immunophenotyping of mature T/NK cell neoplasm presenting as leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gujral

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Mature T/NK cell lymphomas (MTNKL presenting as leukemia are rare and show considerable overlapping of clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features. AIM: Critical analysis of the morphology and immunophenotypic profile of MTNKL. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 380 consecutive cases of mature lymphoid neoplasm that presented as leukemia and were diagnosed on morphology and immunophenotyping of bone marrow and/or peripheral blood samples. Results : Peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement was seen in all cases. MTNKL constituted 4% (nine cases of all mature lymphoid neoplasms presenting as leukemia. It included four cases of T-large granular leukemia (T-LGL, two of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia small cell variant (T-PLL, two of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL and one of primary cutaneous gamma delta T-cell lymphoma (PCGDTCL. T-LGL revealed CD4-/CD8+ phenotype in three, and CD4+/CD8+ phenotype in one case. CD56 was absent in all the cases of T-LGL. One case of T- PLL small cell variant showed CD4+/CD8- phenotype, while the other revealed CD4-/CD8+ phenotype. Both cases of ATLL showed CD4+/CD8+/CD25+ phenotype. The single case of PCGDTCL showed CD4-/CD8- phenotype pattern. CD3 and CD5 were expressed in all MTNKL. CD7 was absent in three cases of T-LGL. TCRα/β was performed in three cases of T-LGL and was positive in all. TCRα/β was also seen in both the cases of T-PLL small variant. However, TCRα/β was seen in the single case of PCGDTCL. Conclusion : Mature nodal T/NK cell neoplasms are rare and MTNKL presenting as leukemia are even rarer. There is an overlap between the immunophenotypic profiles of different MTNKL subtypes and elaborate T/NK cell panels are required for their evaluation.

  3. A new era for IFN-α in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    discontinuation of IFN-α2. Accordingly, interest in using IFN-α2 in the treatment of patients with PV and related neoplasms has been revived. This article highlights the current status of IFN-α2 in the treatment of patients with ET, PV, primary myelofibrosis and myelofibrosis following ET and PV. In the context...... interferons in treating patients with these neoplasms favors the upfront use of pegylated interferons, the goal being to influence the development of the disease at the molecular level and revert patients to a stage of 'minimal residual disease/operational cure' instead of progressive clonal evolution...

  4. Laser spectroscopy as a method for diagnosing cancer and assessing the efficacy of treatment of malignant neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akleyev, Alexander; Romanskaya, Yulia; Kisselyov, Mikhail; Vazhenin, Andrei

    2005-08-01

    The issues of early diagnosis and effective treatment of malignant neoplasms are of vital importance for the Urals region which in 1950-1960 became the site of several radiation incidents with the resultant overexposures of dozens of thousands of residents who have manifested increased risks of leukemia and solid cancer incidence. The present study has demonstrated the efficacy of the method of laser-correlation spectrometry (LCS) of blood plasma and serum for early diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and prediction of relapses of tumor following radical treatment. The LCS method is characterized by a sufficiently high diagnostic sensitivity in relation to malignant tumors. It has been established that LC spectra obtained for patients with malignant neoplasms differ significantly from those for patients with non-cancer pathology of the same sites. The LCS methodology has manifested a sufficiently high prognostic sensitivity (76.6%) in relation to complete regression after radical treatment and progression (78.0%) of the tumor process. A positive prognostic criterion of the course of a malignant neoplasm after radical treatment in patients without relapse and metastases is a statistically significant (ptreatment a comparison of summarized LC spectra of blood plasma and serum determined before and after radical treatment showed no significant differences.

  5. The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)/Met Axis: A Neglected Target in the Treatment of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a cytoprotective cytokine. Disturbing the equilibrium between Met and its ligand may lead to inappropriate cell survival, accumulation of genetic abnormalities and eventually, malignancy. Abnormal activation of the HGF/Met axis is established in solid tumours and in chronic haematological malignancies, including myeloma, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for the abnormal activation of HGF/Met pathways are described and discussed. Importantly, inCML and in MPNs, the production of HGF is independent of Bcr-Abl and JAK2V617F, the main molecular markers of these diseases. In vitro studies showed that blocking HGF/Met function with neutralizing antibodies or Met inhibitors significantly impairs the growth of JAK2V617F-mutated cells. With personalised medicine and curative treatment in view, blocking activation of HGF/Met could be a useful addition in the treatment of CML and MPNs for those patients with high HGF/MET expression not controlled by current treatments (Bcr-Abl inhibitors in CML; phlebotomy, hydroxurea, JAK inhibitors in MPNs)

  6. The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)/Met Axis: A Neglected Target in the Treatment of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissinot, Marjorie [Translational Neuro-Oncology Group, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Level 5 Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, St James’s Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Vilaine, Mathias [Institute of Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), CNRS-Inserm-UNS UMR 7284, U 1081, Centre A. Lacassagne, 33 Avenue Valombrose, Nice 06189 (France); Hermouet, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.hermouet@univ-nantes.fr [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093 (France); Inserm UMR892, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie Nantes-Angers, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Université de Nantes, 8 quai Moncousu, Nantes cedex 44007 (France)

    2014-08-12

    Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a cytoprotective cytokine. Disturbing the equilibrium between Met and its ligand may lead to inappropriate cell survival, accumulation of genetic abnormalities and eventually, malignancy. Abnormal activation of the HGF/Met axis is established in solid tumours and in chronic haematological malignancies, including myeloma, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for the abnormal activation of HGF/Met pathways are described and discussed. Importantly, inCML and in MPNs, the production of HGF is independent of Bcr-Abl and JAK2V617F, the main molecular markers of these diseases. In vitro studies showed that blocking HGF/Met function with neutralizing antibodies or Met inhibitors significantly impairs the growth of JAK2V617F-mutated cells. With personalised medicine and curative treatment in view, blocking activation of HGF/Met could be a useful addition in the treatment of CML and MPNs for those patients with high HGF/MET expression not controlled by current treatments (Bcr-Abl inhibitors in CML; phlebotomy, hydroxurea, JAK inhibitors in MPNs)

  7. The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF/Met Axis: A Neglected Target in the Treatment of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Boissinot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, a cytoprotective cytokine. Disturbing the equilibrium between Met and its ligand may lead to inappropriate cell survival, accumulation of genetic abnormalities and eventually, malignancy. Abnormal activation of the HGF/Met axis is established in solid tumours and in chronic haematological malignancies, including myeloma, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML, and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. The molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for the abnormal activation of HGF/Met pathways are described and discussed. Importantly, inCML and in MPNs, the production of HGF is independent of Bcr-Abl and JAK2V617F, the main molecular markers of these diseases. In vitro studies showed that blocking HGF/Met function with neutralizing antibodies or Met inhibitors significantly impairs the growth of JAK2V617F-mutated cells. With personalised medicine and curative treatment in view, blocking activation of HGF/Met could be a useful addition in the treatment of CML and MPNs for those patients with high HGF/MET expression not controlled by current treatments (Bcr-Abl inhibitors in CML; phlebotomy, hydroxurea, JAK inhibitors in MPNs.

  8. Radiotherapy combined with surgical treatment for retroperitoneal neoplasms: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang QIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To systematic review the prognosis of radiotherapy combined with surgery for the treatment of retroperitoneal neoplasms. Methods Articles concerning randomized clinical trials (RCTs in which radiotherapy (pre-, intraand post-operation in combination with surgery was compared with surgery alone were retrieved by searching Cochrane Library ( Jun 2014, Medline ( Jan 1950–June 2014, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database ( Jan 1994–Jun 2014, Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals Database ( Jan 1994–Jun 2014, China National Knowledge Infrastructure ( Jan 1994–Jun 2014 and Wanfang Database ( Jan 1997–Jun 2014 in English and Chinese languages. The selection/inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria were ascertained by reviewing the relevant literature. The quality of data of RCTs were assessed by two researchers independently. The Stata 12.0 was used to analyze the data to calculate or extract the hazard ratio (HR and 95%CI. Descriptive analysis was used for the articles which are not suitable for meta-analysis. Results The appropriate articles were selected. A analysis of nine articles (including 1 Chinese paper and 8 English papers suggests that the combination of radiotherapy and surgery for RCTs is more effective than surgery alone (Merge HR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.40-0.74, P=0.000, and there was a statistically significant difference between two groups. Conclusion Retroperitoneal neoplasm patients should receive appropriate radiotherapy at the same time of surgery to improve the prognosis and elevate the survival rate. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.10

  9. NY-ESO-1 is a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for myxoid and round cell liposarcomas among related mesenchymal myxoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, Jessica A; Iwenofu, O Hans

    2013-09-01

    Myxoid and round cell liposarcomas constitute approximately one-third of all liposarcomas, a relatively common group of fat-derived soft tissue sarcomas. The histomorphology is a continuum between highly differentiated myxoid and poorly differentiated round cell components. The gold standard of diagnosis is dependent on histomorphology and/or identification of t(12;16)(q13;p11) translocation by cytogenetics or demonstration of DDIT3 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization. There are currently no diagnostic immunohistochemical stains available. The broad range of myxoid neoplasms in the differential diagnosis includes a variety of sarcomas. Given the notable differences in disease biology among myxoid neoplasms, which range from benign to aggressive, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for proper treatment and prognostication. Prompted by our recent study showing frequent expression of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 in myxoid and round cell liposarcomas, we sought to evaluate the utility of NY-ESO-1 as an immunohistochemical marker for myxoid and round cell liposarcoma among mesenchymal myxoid neoplasms within the differential diagnosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks were obtained for the following mesenchymal myxoid neoplasms (n=138): myxoid and round cell liposarcoma (n=38); well-differentiated liposarcoma (n=12); lipoma (n=20; 4 with myxoid change); extra-cardiac soft tissue myxoma (n=39); extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (n=12); myxofibrosarcoma (n=10: 5 low grade, 2 intermediate grade, 3 high grade); and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (n=7). Utilizing standard immunohistochemistry protocols, full sections were stained with NY-ESO-1 (clone E978), and staining was assessed for intensity (1-2+), percentage of tumor positivity, and location. In all, 36/38 (95%) of the myxoid and round cell liposarcomas demonstrated NY-ESO-1 immunoreactivity. The majority of the positive cases (34/36; 94%) showed strong, homogenous staining (>50% tumor

  10. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)–type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  11. Neoplasms treatment by diode laser with and without real time temperature control on operation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Sosenkova, Svetlana A.; Lazareva, Anastasia A.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2016-04-01

    Results of nevus, papilloma, dermatofibroma, and basal cell skin cancer in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and automatic power control (APC) mode are presented. The collateral damage width and width of graze wound area around the collateral damage area were demonstrated. The total damage area width was calculated as sum of collateral damage width and graze wound area width. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.538+/-0.254 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in CW mode, papilloma - 0.586+/-0.453 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.568+/-0.437 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.603+/-0.613 mm. The mean width of total damage area reached 1.201+/-0.292 mm for patient group with nevus removing by 980 nm diode laser operating in APC mode, papilloma - 0.413+/-0.418 mm, dermatofibroma - 1.240+/-0.546 mm, and basal cell skin cancer - 1.204+/-0.517 mm. It was found that using APC mode decreases the total damage area width at removing of these nosological neoplasms of human skin, and decreases the width of graze wound area at removing of nevus and basal cell skin cancer. At the first time, the dynamic of output laser power and thermal signal during laser removal of nevus in CW and APC mode is presented. It was determined that output laser power during nevus removal for APC mode was 1.6+/-0.05 W and for CW mode - 14.0+/-0.1 W. This difference can explain the decrease of the total damage area width and width of graze wound area for APC mode in comparison with CW mode.

  12. Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining platelet count in patients with plasma cell neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Mair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in patients with the plasma cell neoplasm (PCN is rarely discussed in the literature. The puzzling phenomenon, which PCN patients maintaining normal platelet count even when the marrow is mostly replaced by plasma cells, is hardly explored. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the frequency of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN and the relationships between bone marrow (BM plasma cell percentage, plasma cell immunomarkers, the severity of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis, and peripheral blood platelet count in PCN. Materials and Methods: We randomly selected 16 cases of PCN, among which 4 were with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 12 were with plasma cell myeloma. Results: Our study showed that: (1 Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis was present in all the selected cases of PCN and its severity was not correlated with the percentage of the plasma cells in BM; (2 almost all patients maintained normal platelet count even when BM was mostly replaced by plasma cells; (3 immunomarkers of the neoplastic plasma cells were not associated with dysmegakaryocytopoiesis or maintaining of platelet count. The possible mechanisms behind dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining of platelet count were also discussed. Conclusion: Despite the universal presence of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN, the platelet count is maintained at normal range.

  13. Human ovarian neoplasm cell CD147 stimulates production and activation of matrix metalloproteinases in co-cultures with mouse fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; ZOU Wei; XIN Xiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD147 on human ovarian neoplasm cell lines and its influence on production and activation of matrix metallproteinases(MMPs). Methods: The expression of CD147 on different human ovarian neoplasm cell lines was studied by western blotting. Co-culture was carried out to investigate the stimulative effect of the positive expression CD147 cell HO-8910 on the production of MMPs of fibroblast cell in vitro. Zymography and immune blotting were used to study the production and activity of positive MMPs, at the time, to explore the relation between CD147 and MMPs. Results: CD147 was positively presented in 2 ovarian neoplasm cell lines(HO-8910,3-AO), but in SKOV3, TC-1,NIN3T3 cell was negative. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by HO-8910 cell line, mouse fibroblast cell and co-culture cells; but the expression in co-culture cell is obviously higher than individual cultures of each type alone.CD147 stimulated MMPs in dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: CD147 causes increased production and activation of MMP-2, MMP-9.CD147 is probably a indirect marker of some ovarian cancer cells with invasion and metastasis.

  14. Chromogranin A as a marker for diagnosis, treatment, and survival in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Qiu-chen; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Ling; Chen, Min-hu; Chen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) not only plays an important role in pathologic diagnosis, but is also used as a circulating biomarker in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN). However, the relationship between immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression and serum levels of CgA has not been investigated. The value of CgA for evaluating treatment response and prognosis is still not well understood. We conducted this study to assess the significance of CgA in GEP-NEN in terms of diagnosis, curative effects evaluation and prognosis. One hundred forty-five patients comprising 88 patients with active disease and 57 disease-free patients were enrolled in this study from January 2011 to November 2013. The expression of CgA was assessed by IHC, and serial serum CgA levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The overall expression rate of CgA was 69.0% (100/145). CgA expression was associated with tumor site and stage (P tumor response. Furthermore, patients with serum CgA levels higher than 95 ng/ml had a significantly shorter survival compared with patients with levels lower than 95 ng/ml (P maker for diagnosis of GEP-NEN. We further confirmed that serial measurement of CgA may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of different kinds of therapies in patients during follow-up, and serum CgA level ≥ 95 ng/ml may serve as a predictor of overall survial. PMID:25501094

  15. The impact of ruxolitinib treatment on inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2015-01-01

    The inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis (MF) and related neoplasms (MPNs) likely reflect the concurrent immune deregulation and systemic inflammatory nature of the MPNs, emphasizing the link between chronic systemic inflammation, immune deregulation, and the malignant clone. JAK1......-2 inhibitors in MF-patients reduce constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, but also taget autoimmune and inflammation-mediated comorbidities....

  16. mTOR inhibitors alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors effectively inhibit cells of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Bogani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatment is represented by the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway that has been found constitutively activated in MPN cells; proof-of-evidence of efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 has been obtained recently in a Phase I/II trial in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of mTOR inhibitors, used alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors, against MPN cells. FINDINGS: Mouse and human JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and primary hematopoietic progenitors from MPN patients were challenged with an allosteric (RAD001 and an ATP-competitive (PP242 mTOR inhibitor and two JAK2 inhibitors (AZD1480 and ruxolitinib. mTOR inhibitors effectively reduced proliferation and colony formation of cell lines through a slowed cell division mediated by changes in cell cycle transition to the S-phase. mTOR inhibitors also impaired the proliferation and prevented colony formation from MPN hematopoietic progenitors at doses significantly lower than healthy controls. JAK2 inhibitors produced similar antiproliferative effects in MPN cell lines and primary cells but were more potent inducers of apoptosis, as also supported by differential effects on cyclinD1, PIM1 and BcLxL expression levels. Co-treatment of mTOR inhibitor with JAK2 inhibitor resulted in synergistic activity against the proliferation of JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and significantly reduced erythropoietin-independent colony growth in patients with

  17. Steroid Cell Ovarian Neoplasm, Not Otherwise Specified: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Steroid cell ovarian tumors, not otherwise specified, represent a unique cause of female virilization. Most commonly encountered in premenopausal women, these tumors can exist throughout a women’s lifetime, from before puberty until after menopause. Case. Steroid cell, not otherwise specified, was diagnosed in a 70-year-old female significant for hirsutism. The patient demonstrated elevated total testosterone levels with normal gonadotropins, DHEA, and DHEA-S levels. CT imaging revealed a right ovarian mass and subsequent laparoscopic right oophorectomy yielded clinical improvement promptly. Conclusion. Virilization in females can occur based on ovarian or adrenal pathology. In terms of ovarian-based female virilization, many tumors exist that may induce women to demonstrate masculine features, such as pure Sertoli, pure Leydig, Sertoli-Leydig combinations, and gynandroblastomas. Each of these tumor types possesses a unique histologic pattern that allows for pathologic identification after removal. A rare source of ovarian-based female virilization is steroid cell neoplasms, not otherwise specified, that do not demonstrate these specific histologic characteristics and thus represent a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes of ovarian-based female virilization have been ruled out.

  18. Polycomb-group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell regulation and hematopoietic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, V; de Haan, G; Klauke, K

    2013-03-01

    The equilibrium between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins have been shown to be involved in this process by repressing genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and differentiation. PcGs are histone modifiers that reside in two multi-protein complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). The existence of multiple orthologs for each Polycomb gene allows the formation of a multitude of distinct PRC1 and PRC2 sub-complexes. Changes in the expression of individual PcG genes are likely to cause perturbations in the composition of the PRC, which affect PRC enzymatic activity and target selectivity. An interesting recent development is that aberrant expression of, and mutations in, PcG genes have been shown to occur in hematopoietic neoplasms, where they display both tumor-suppressor and oncogenic activities. We therefore comprehensively reviewed the latest research on the role of PcG genes in normal and malignant blood cell development. We conclude that future research to elucidate the compositional changes of the PRCs and methods to intervene in PRC assembly will be of great therapeutic relevance to combat hematological malignancies.

  19. Neoplasms of the nasopharynx in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J B

    1977-02-01

    Neoplasms of the nasopharynx are rare in children, but they threaten the child's life when they do occur. The nasopharynx tends to harbor dysontogenetic neoplasms. After classification into benign and malignant groups, nasopharyngeal neoplasms in children can be further characterized according to the age of the patients in which the clinical manifestations usually appear. Dermoids and teratomas are the most frequently encountered neoplasms of the nasopharynx in infants and may produce airway obstruction and dysphagia. Among the benign tumors of the nasopharynx in children, the juvenile angiofibroma deserves the most attention. With the onset in puberty, these neoplasms may cause recurrent massive bleeding and orbital and intracranial complications. Evaluation of the extent of the neoplasm and the source of the blood supply has been improved with bilateral selective internal and external carotid angiography. Intracranial and orbital invasion is regarded as an indication for radiotherapy. Surgery has been made somewhat safer by preoperative estrogen therapy and angiographic embolization of the major arterial supply. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx have immunologic similarities to patients with Burkitt's lymphomia and infectious mononucleosis; The etiologic role of the Epstein-Barr virus is considered. The parts played by radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and cryosurgery in the treatment of children with carcinoma of the nasopharynx are discussed. The value of radical neck dissection after radiation therapy is critically reviewed. The prognosis in patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx is better in females than in males and better in children than in adults.

  20. Retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation:A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhao; Jin Huang; Jin Wang

    2013-01-01

    The retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel differentiation (PEComa) is an extremely rare path-ological entity. In this article, we reported one case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital (The Second People’s Hospital of Hefei, China) for retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel dif erentiation. The B ultra-sonic examination showed echopoor in the region of cavitas pelvis. The histologic characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotype both revealed the neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel differentiation.

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or certain chemicals . Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and urine are used to detect (find) and ... amyloidosis. Radiation therapy : Radiation therapy is given for bone lesions of the spine . Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is given to ...

  2. Impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and recalcification in plasma cell neoplasms. Long-term experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Mario; Chiesa, Silvia; Manfrida, Stefania [Univ. Hospital ' Gemelli' , Rome (IT). Radiotherapy Dept.] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and on recalcification in patients with osteolytic lesions due to plasma cell neoplasm. Patients and Methods: Pain relief was evaluated according to a 0-10 verbal numerical rating scale (NRS) and recalcification was measured using radiological imaging. Results: From 1996-2007, 52 patients were treated. Median total dose was 38 Gy (range, 16-50 Gy). Pain before radiotherapy was reported by 45 of 52 (86.5%) patients as being severe (8 {<=} NRS {<=} 10) in 5 (11%), moderate (5 {<=} NRS {<=} 7) in 27 (60%), and mild in 13 (29%). Pain relief was achieved in 41 of 45 patients (91%): complete relief was obtained in 21 (51.2%) and partial relief in 20 patients (48.8%); patients with severe pain experienced resolution and none presented an increase of pain. Drugs reduction/suspension was achieved in 7 of the 21 patients with complete response. Of 42 patients evaluable for recalcification, 21 (50%) presented a radiological response, which was identified as complete in 16 (38%). Conclusion: Our data confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy for pain relief, including a reduction in drug intake, and on recalcification, thus, supporting its use in a multidisciplinary approach. (orig.)

  3. mTOR inhibitors alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors effectively inhibit cells of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogani C; Bartalucci N; Martinelli S; Tozzi L; Guglielmelli P; Bosi A; Vannucchi AM; Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro AGIMM Gruppo Italiano Malattie Mieloproliferative

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatm...

  4. A Study of Varlilumab (Anti-CD27) and Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Urologic Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Clear-cell Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  5. Molecular Profiling of Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Polycythemia Vera and Related Neoplasms: Identification of Deregulated Genes of Significance for Inflammation and Immune Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Thomassen, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are haematopoietic stem cell neoplasms that may be associated with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders. Earlier gene expression profiling studies have demonstrated aberrant expression of genes involved...

  6. Streptozocin-Based Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms – Predictive and Prognostic Markers for Treatment Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Daniel, Hanna; Nimphius, Wilhelm; Müller, Daniela; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja; Gress, Thomas Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Chemotherapy with streptozocin (STZ) in combination with 5-FU or doxorubicin (Dox) represents a standard of care for patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). However, predictive markers for patient selection are still missing. The aim of this study was a retrospective evaluation of the clinicopathological characteristics of pNEN patients receiving STZ-based chemotherapies and to identify predictive and prognostic markers. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients treated at our center between 1995 and 2013. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods, respectively. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Results The median PFS (mPFS) in patients receiving STZ/5-FU/Dox was 16 months with a median OS (mOS) of 28 months. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 34% and 72%, respectively. Biochemical response and positive octreotide scintigraphy predicted objective response. Univariate analysis revealed Ki-67 > 10% and the absence of biochemical or objective response by imaging as independent risk factors for shorter PFS. Additionally, performance status (PS) and resection of the primary tumor were observed to influence mOS. Treatment was well tolerated with less than 10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Conclusions STZ-based chemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in patients with well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. Positive octreotide scintigraphy and biochemical response predict objective response. PMID:26630134

  7. Haploinsufficiency for NR3C1, the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor, in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadali, Anouk; Hoghoughi, Neda; Duley, Samuel; Hajmirza, Azadeh; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, Francois-Loic; Bertrand, Philippe; Roumier, Christophe; Roggy, Anne; Suchaud-Martin, Céline; Chauvet, Martine; Bertrand, Sarah; Hamaidia, Sieme; Rousseaux, Sophie; Josserand, Véronique; Charles, Julie; Templier, Isabelle; Maeda, Takahiro; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel; Jacob, Marie-Christine; Bonnefoix, Thierry; Park, Sophie; Gressin, Remy; Tensen, Cornelis P; Mecucci, Cristina; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Leroux, Dominique; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Luquet, Isabelle; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefebvre, Christine; Garnache, Francine; Callanan, Mary B

    2016-06-16

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and highly aggressive leukemia for which knowledge on disease mechanisms and effective therapies are currently lacking. Only a handful of recurring genetic mutations have been identified and none is specific to BPDCN. In this study, through molecular cloning in an index case that presented a balanced t(3;5)(q21;q31) and molecular cytogenetic analyses in a further 46 cases, we identify monoallelic deletion of NR3C1 (5q31), encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), in 13 of 47 (28%) BPDCN patients. Targeted deep sequencing in 36 BPDCN cases, including 10 with NR3C1 deletion, did not reveal NR3C1 point mutations or indels. Haploinsufficiency for NR3C1 defined a subset of BPDCN with lowered GCR expression and extremely poor overall survival (P = .0006). Consistent with a role for GCR in tumor suppression, functional analyses coupled with gene expression profiling identified corticoresistance and loss-of-EZH2 function as major downstream consequences of NR3C1 deletion in BPDCN. Subsequently, more detailed analyses of the t(3;5)(q21;q31) revealed fusion of NR3C1 to a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) gene (lincRNA-3q) that encodes a novel, nuclear, noncoding RNA involved in the regulation of leukemia stem cell programs and G1/S transition, via E2F. Overexpression of lincRNA-3q was a consistent feature of malignant cells and could be abrogated by bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein inhibition. Taken together, this work points to NR3C1 as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in a subset of BPDCN and identifies BET inhibition, acting at least partially via lncRNA blockade, as a novel treatment option in BPDCN. PMID:27060168

  8. Ionizing radiation exposures in treatments of solid neoplasms are not associated with subsequent increased risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Sachs, Rainer K; Gale, Robert Peter; Smith, Mitchell R; Hill, Brian T

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is not thought to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Challenging this notion are recent data suggesting CLL incidence may be increased by radiation exposure from the atomic bombs (after many decades), uranium mining and nuclear power facility accidents. To assess the effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for the treatment of solid neoplasms we studied CLL risks in data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Specifically, we compared the risks of developing CLL in persons with a 1(st) non-hematologic cancer treated with or without ionizing radiation. We controlled for early detection effects on CLL risk induced by surveillance after 1(st) cancer diagnoses by forming all-time cumulative CLL relative risks (RR). We estimate such CLL RR to be 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17, 1.23) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with ionizing radiation and 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was treated with ionizing radiations. These results imply that diagnosis of a solid neoplasm is associated with an increased risk of developing CLL only in persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with radiation therapy.

  9. Ionizing radiation exposures in treatments of solid neoplasms are not associated with subsequent increased risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Sachs, Rainer K; Gale, Robert Peter; Smith, Mitchell R; Hill, Brian T

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is not thought to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Challenging this notion are recent data suggesting CLL incidence may be increased by radiation exposure from the atomic bombs (after many decades), uranium mining and nuclear power facility accidents. To assess the effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for the treatment of solid neoplasms we studied CLL risks in data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Specifically, we compared the risks of developing CLL in persons with a 1(st) non-hematologic cancer treated with or without ionizing radiation. We controlled for early detection effects on CLL risk induced by surveillance after 1(st) cancer diagnoses by forming all-time cumulative CLL relative risks (RR). We estimate such CLL RR to be 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17, 1.23) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with ionizing radiation and 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was treated with ionizing radiations. These results imply that diagnosis of a solid neoplasm is associated with an increased risk of developing CLL only in persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with radiation therapy. PMID:26922774

  10. Data analysis of 36 cases with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas for their clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Chunhui; Xiu Dianrong; Tao Ming; Ma Zhaolai; Jiang Bin; Li Zhifei; Li Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a rare pancreatic cystic neoplasm,accounting for 1% of all exocrine pancreatic neoplasms.This study aimed to summarize the clinicopathological and biological behaviors,as well as the experience in diagnosis and treatment of IPMN.Methods Clinicopathological data were collected from 36 cases with IPMN who were treated in Department of General Surgery,Peking University Third Hospital from May 2001 to July 2011.Results The 36 cases of IPMN patients included 27 males and 9 females (M∶F=3∶1).The age of patients ranged from 52 to 78 years,with an average of 67.3 years.Regarding tumor location,20 tumors were located in pancreatic head,3 in pancreatic neck,10 in pancreatic body and tail,and 3 in the whole pancreas.All the 36 cases underwent surgical treatment,with 13 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy,3 cases of middle pancreatectomy,7 cases of tumor resection plus pancreaticojejunostomy,3 cases of distal pancreatectomy,7 cases of distal pancreatectomy plus spleen resection,and 3 cases of total pancreaticoduodenectomy.Of the 36 patients,9 patients underwent the operations under laparoscopy.The 36 cases included main duct type (14 cases,38.9%),branch duct type (10 cases,27.7%),and mixed duct type (12 cases,33.3%).Pathologically,of the 36 cases,there were 7 IPMN adenomas,11 borderline IPMNs,6 IPMN with carcinomas in situ,and 12 IPMNs with invasive carcinomas.All the 36 cases were followed up.During an average of 42 months follow-up period (26-129 months),no recurrence occurred.Conclusions IPMN,which primarily occurs in male,is a low-grade malignancy which may involve any part of the pancreas,with specific clinicopathological features.IPMN is a different malignancy type from pancreatic ductal carcinoma.Imaging and laboratory examination are helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.The prediction of invasive IPMN is still difficult.Surgical resection is recommended as the first choice of

  11. The role of JAK1/2 inhibitors in the treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Clodagh; Mesa, Ruben; Harrison, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the description of the JAK2V617F mutation for the first time provided a molecular key to enable more rapid diagnosis and target for novel therapeutics in the myeloproliferative neoplasms. In 2007, the first-in-class agent INC18424, ruxolitinib, JAKafi, or JAKAVI was first tested in patients with intermediate-risk 2 or high-risk myelofibrosis regardless of whether they possessed the JAK2V617F mutation. Patients treated with this agent had major reduction in splenomegaly as well as impressive reduction, and in some cases resolution, of symptoms. This study was followed by the two Controlled Myelofibrosis Study with Oral JAK Inhibitor Therapy (COMFORT) trials (the first-ever phase III trials in myelofibrosis), which confirmed results in these aspects were superior to either placebo or standard care, and updated results show a survival advantage with this therapy. This paper discusses these results and data from other JAK inhibitors while speculating on the future of these therapies. It also reflects on the fact that the true targets and agents' mode of action are uncertain. Unlike targeted therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), these agents do not deliver molecular remission, and it is not clear whether their predominant benefit is mediated via JAK2, JAK1, or both. Nonetheless, the advent of the JAK inhibitor is a welcome advance and has made a dramatic improvement to the therapeutic landscape of these conditions.

  12. Novel Insights into the Biology and Treatment of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Tariq I.; Barbui, Tiziano; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kralovics, Robert; Jamieson, Catriona; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Mullaly, Ann; Rampal, Raajit; Mesa, Ruben; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Deininger, Michael; Prchal, Joseph; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Saglio, Giuseppe; Van Etten, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders of hematopoiesis characterized by a high frequency of genetic alterations and include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs. Herein we summarize recent advances and controversies in our understanding of the biology and therapy of these disorders, as discussed at the 8th post-American Society of Hematology CML-MPN workshop. The principal areas addressed include the breakthrough discovery of CALR mutations in patients with JAK2/MPL wild type MPN, candidate therapies based on novel genetic findings in leukemic transformation and new therapeutic targets in MPNs, and an appraisal of bone marrow histopathology in MPNs with a focus on the potential new clinical entity of “ masked ” polycythemia vera. An update on clinical trials of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors is presented as well as current understanding regarding the definitions and mechanisms of resistance to JAK inhibitors, and updated information on the safety and efficacy of discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with CML. PMID:25330439

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes in ovarian-type stroma of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms: Comparative study of subepithelial stromal cells in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuyuki; Sasano, Hironobu; Moriya, Takuya; Takahashi, Yayoi; Sugimoto, Ryo; Mue, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Keigo; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Sugai, Tamotsu

    2016-05-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) are generally defined as cyst-forming epithelial neoplasms that arise in the pancreas and harbor characteristic ovarian-type stroma beneath the epithelium. In this study, we compared the immunoreactivity of steroid-related factors in these subepithelial stromal cells in MCNs to those in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) to further characterize this unique MCN ovarian-type stroma through evaluation of sex steroid biosynthesis. Twenty MCNs and twenty IPMNs were examined. Immunoreactivity of steroid hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR, PR-A, and PR-B), and androgen receptor (AR), was more frequently detected in MCN ovarian-type stromal cells than in IPMN stromal cells (P enzymes cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) showed immunoreactivity in 9/20 (45.0 %), 15/20 (75.0 %) and 13/20 (65.0 %), respectively, of ovarian-type stroma from MCN cases. These results demonstrate that the ovarian-type stroma of MCNs can express steroidogenic enzymes. Thus, the ovarian-type stroma of MCNs can produce sex steroids that may also act on these cells.

  14. Cytology of plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dey, Pranab; Verma, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma or plasmacytoma resulting in malignant effusion is rarely described in literature. Aims: In this paper, we have studied the seven rare cases of plasma cell infiltration in effusion fluid. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of pleural fluid and one case of ascetic fluid. Detailed cytological features, clinical history, bone marrow examinations, serum electrophoresis, and immunofixation data were analyzed. Result: There were two cases of plasmacytoma, four cases of multiple myeloma, and one case of plasmablastic lymphoma. On cytology, all the cases showed excess plasma cells along with mesothelial cells and lymphocytes on effusion cytology smear. Conclusion: Plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell tumor is rare. However, on cytology these cases do not pose much problem if relevant history is known.

  15. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Paydas

    2013-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bon...

  16. Givinostat and hydroxyurea synergize in vitro to induce apoptosis of cells from JAK2(V617F) myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaru Calzada, Ariel; Pedrini, Olga; Finazzi, Guido; Leoni, Flavio; Mascagni, Paolo; Introna, Martino; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Golay, Josée

    2013-03-01

    We investigated whether clinically achievable concentrations of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors givinostat and hydroxyurea induce synergistic cytotoxicity in Jak2(V617F) cells in vitro and through which possible mechanism. Givinostat and hydroxyurea at low doses potentiated the pro-apoptotic effects of each other in the Jak2(V617F) HEL and UKE1 cell lines. Givinostat induced 6.8%-20.8% and hydroxyurea (HU) 20.4%-42.4% cell death alone and 35.8%-75.3% in combination. The effect was statistically significant using the median effect Chou-Talalay method, resulting in a combination index less than 1, indicating synergy. Givinostat alone induced cell cycle arrest of the cell lines in G0/G1 and hydroxyurea in S phase, whereas both drugs together led to a G1 block. At the molecular level, hydroxyurea counteracted the induction of p21CDKN1A by Givinostat and potentiated caspase 3 activation, explaining at least in part the increased apoptosis observed in presence of both compounds. We also verified the effect of the same drugs in colony assays of freshly isolated Jak2(V617F) polycythemia vera cells. In this case, low doses of the compounds were additive to each other. These results suggest that combined treatment with givinostat and hydroxyurea is a potential strategy for the management of Jak2(V617F) myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:23111067

  17. Transmission of an expanding donor-derived del(20q) clone through allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without the development of a hematologic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Vania; Porter, David; Luskin, Marlise R; Bagg, Adam; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2015-12-01

    Donor cell leukemia is a rare complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which may result from the development of a new malignancy in previously healthy donor cells after transplant into the recipient, or it may derive from the transmission of an occult leukemia from donor to recipient. We report a case of donor derived 20q11.2 deletion in a male patient who received an allogeneic HSCT from his HLA-identical sister for the treatment of his chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Bone marrow cells from the donor were found to contain the 20q deletion that expanded over time, but which was absent in her peripheral blood cells. Although cases of donor cell leukemia after HSCT have been reported, in this case there has been no evidence of an associated hematologic neoplasm in either the donor or recipient. Pre-transplant donor bone marrow evaluations are not practical or warranted, however the finding of new cytogenetic abnormalities after transplant mandates a thorough evaluation of the donor.

  18. The utility of ultrasonography in the the diagnostics and monitoring of treatment of acute abdominal pain in children with neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the results of the diagnostic imaging modalities, especially ultrasonography (US) in children during the oncological therapy with the acute abdominal symptoms. Acute abdominal symptoms in children with neoplasms causing a very difficult clinical and diagnostic problems and can occur in any stage of disease. The high-resolution ultrasound has a very important role in diagnosis in all patients with acute abdominal pain and with neoplasms. The authors consider that the US should be the first imaging method in the differential diagnosis of the abdominal changes in children with neutropenia and oncological disease. Proper diagnosis should be established only with clinical information. We analyzed 249 ultrasounds examinations of the abdominal cavity in 144 girls and 105 boys aged from 1 to 18 years (mean age 10, 3 years). The more important indication for the US exam in 133 cases was acute abdominal symptoms. We took exams during pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All the patients were under routine hematological control. Based on the clinical symptoms and the laboratory tests we analysed two groups of children with oncological disease and acute abdomen: I group - 111 children with neutropenia, II group - 22 children without neutropenia. In the patients who underwent operation procedure the final diagnosis was established on histopathology. In the other cases diagnosis was based on clinical, laboratory and radiological exams, especially ultrasonography. We analyzed clinical picture of disease, the results of therapy and the US changes in examined patients using statistic parameters as: sensitivity, specificity and efficiency. In the group of 133 children with acute abdominal symptoms the most (92- 69,1%) patients suffer from ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and 16(12%) - from AML (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia), Ewing sarcoma-3(2,2%), osteosarcoma - 3(2,2%), NHL

  19. Renal pelvic calculi and neoplasm. New indication for treatment of asymptomatic renal pelvic calculi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibitis, H; Jørgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented.......Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented....

  20. Practical diagnostic approaches to composite plasma cell neoplasm and low grade B-cell lymphoma/clonal infiltrates in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shafinaz; Gill, Kamraan; Baer, Lea N; Hoehn, Daniela; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir

    2015-03-01

    Composite plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) and low grade B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) in the bone marrow are uncommon and raise the differential diagnosis of B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. This can be a challenging differential diagnosis, and the distinctions are important because of differences in management. We report five cases of composite PCN with B-NHL or clonal B-cell infiltrates involving the bone marrow. By using multiple different diagnostic modalities, including immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetic analysis and IGH gene rearrangement studies by polymerase chain reaction, we were able to distinguish two distinct clonally unrelated neoplasms in all cases. We describe the utility and pitfalls of these different diagnostic modalities. Flow cytometric analysis with a panel of antibodies that includes CD19, CD56, CD138, CD45 and other aberrant markers commonly expressed by PCN will allow identification of clonally unrelated PCN and B-NHL in a composite neoplasm, and distinguish them from B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can give false-negative or false-positive results. In summary, a multimodal approach utilizing these different tools, including clinical data, should be used to arrive at the correct diagnosis.

  1. Emerging role of carfilzomib in treatment of relapsed and refractory lymphoid neoplasms and multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia Jain, Catherine Diefenbach, Jasmine Zain, Owen A O’ConnorNYU Cancer Institute, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Proteasome inhibition forms the cornerstone of antimyeloma therapy. The first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, induces high overall response rates and response qualities in patients with clinically and molecularly defined high-risk disease. However, resistance to bortezomib and neurotoxicity associated with the treatment remain challenging issues. Carfilzomib is a novel, well tolerated, irreversible proteasome inhibitor with minimal neurotoxicity. Carfilzomib demonstrates promising activity in myeloma patients who are refractory to bortezomib and immunomodulatory agents. This review focuses on the pharmacology, safety, and efficacy of carfilzomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma in bortezomib-naïve and bortezomib-exposed populations.Keywords: carfilzomib, multiple myeloma, pharmacology, safety, efficacy

  2. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch;

    2011-01-01

    shown that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces complete haematological remissions in a large proportion of the patients. However, its use in clinical practice has unfortunately been limited due to side effects with high drop-out rates in most studies. Recently, IFN-alpha2 has been shown to induce deep...... molecular remissions and also normalization of the bone marrow in PV, which may be sustained even after discontinuation of IFN-alpha2 therapy. Accordingly, in the coming years we are most likely facing a new era of increasing interest for using IFN-alpha2 in the treatment of patients with PV, ET...... and the hyperproliferative phase of PMF. This paper reviews the history of IFN - in principle IFN-alpha2 - and its present status in the treatment of PV and related diseases. The role of IFN-alpha2 as immune therapy in the future treatment of CMPNs is highlighted and the rationale for the concept of minimal residual disease...

  3. Heterozygous and homozygous JAK2(V617F states modeled by induced pluripotent stem cells from myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saliba

    Full Text Available JAK2(V617F is the predominant mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. Modeling MPN in a human context might be helpful for the screening of molecules targeting JAK2 and its intracellular signaling. We describe here the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell lines from 2 polycythemia vera patients carrying a heterozygous and a homozygous mutated JAK2(V617F, respectively. In the patient with homozygous JAK2(V617F, additional ASXL1 mutation and chromosome 20 allowed partial delineation of the clonal architecture and assignation of the cellular origin of the derived iPS cell lines. The marked difference in the response to erythropoietin (EPO between homozygous and heterozygous cell lines correlated with the constitutive activation level of signaling pathways. Strikingly, heterozygous iPS cells showed thrombopoietin (TPO-independent formation of megakaryocytic colonies, but not EPO-independent erythroid colony formation. JAK2, PI3K and HSP90 inhibitors were able to block spontaneous and EPO-induced growth of erythroid colonies from GPA(+CD41(+ cells derived from iPS cells. Altogether, this study brings the proof of concept that iPS can be used for studying MPN pathogenesis, clonal architecture, and drug efficacy.

  4. Hodgkin’s lymphoma emerging radiation treatment techniques: trade-offs between late radio-induced toxicities and secondary malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Cella, L.; M. Conson; Pressello, M C; S. Molinelli; Schneider, U.; Donato, V; Orecchia, R.; M. Salvatore; R. Pacelli

    2013-01-01

    Background Purpose of this study is to explore the trade-offs between radio-induced toxicities and second malignant neoplasm (SMN) induction risk of different emerging radiotherapy techniques for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) through a comprehensive dosimetric analysis on a representative clinical model. Methods Three different planning target volume (PTVi) scenarios of a female patient with supradiaphragmatic HL were used as models for the purpose of this study. Five treatment radiation techniques...

  5. Efficacy of NS-018, a potent and selective JAK2/Src inhibitor, in primary cells and mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrant activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) caused by somatic mutation of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPLW515L) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suggesting that inhibition of aberrant JAK2 activation would have a therapeutic benefit. Our novel JAK2 inhibitor, NS-018, was highly active against JAK2 with a 50% inhibition (IC50) of <1 n, and had 30–50-fold greater selectivity for JAK2 over other JAK-family kinases, such as JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2. In addition to JAK2, NS-018 inhibited Src-family kinases. NS-018 showed potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines expressing a constitutively activated JAK2 (the JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations or the TEL–JAK2 fusion gene; IC50=11–120 n), but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against most other hematopoietic cell lines without a constitutively activated JAK2. Furthermore, NS-018 preferentially suppressed in vitro erythropoietin-independent endogenous colony formation from polycythemia vera patients. NS-018 also markedly reduced splenomegaly and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells harboring JAK2V617F. In addition, NS-018 significantly reduced leukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis, improved nutritional status, and prolonged survival in JAK2V617F transgenic mice. These results suggest that NS-018 will be a promising candidate for the treatment of MPNs

  6. CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; LI Qiang; ZHOU Chen-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm (HN) is a rare, highly aggressive systemic neoplasm, which had been described under various names including lymphoblastic lymphoma of natural killer (NK) phenotype, blastic NK cell lymphoma (BNK), leukemic lymphoma of immature NK lineage and CD4~+CD56~+ HN. This malignancy is mainly involved in elderly people and usually a rapidly fatal disease, since consistently effective treatments have not yet been developed. It is relatively rare in children.~(1-6) Herein we report a boy with CD4~+CD56~+ HN.

  7. 7.NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920238 Observation of the in vivo tumorcell lysis mediated by NK cells.LUO Liqum (罗利群),et al.Basic Med Sci Instit,CAMS,Beijing.Chin J Oncol 1992;14(1):3-4.Natural killer cells/large granular lympho-

  8. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings.

  9. Identification of a cell surface protein, p97, in human melanomas and certain other neoplasms.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbury, R G; Brown, J. P.; Yeh, M Y; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E

    1980-01-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL 28, and their spleen cells were fused with mouse NS-1 myeloma cells. Hybrid cells were tested in an indirect 125I-labeled protein A assay for production of antibodies that bound to surface antigens of SK-MEL 28 melanoma cells but not to autologous skin fibroblasts. One hybridoma, designated 4.1, had the required specificity. It was cloned and grown in mice as an ascites tumor. The monoclonal IgG1 antibody produced by the hybri...

  10. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...... neoplasms. Chronic inflammation has been suggested to explain the initiation of clonal development and progression in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Decreased bone mineral density and enhanced fracture risk are well-known manifestations of many chronic systemic inflammatory diseases. As opposed to...... systemic mastocytosis (SM) where pathogenic mechanisms for bone manifestations probably involve effects of mast cell mediators on bone metabolism, the mechanisms responsible for increased fracture risk in other chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are not known....

  11. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  12. Surgery for Benign Salivary Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, M Boyd; Iro, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Salivary neoplasms are relatively infrequent entities that account for only 4% of tumors of the head and neck. Although slow-growing lesions of the preauricular area and submandibular space are often confused with sebaceous cysts, lymph nodes, or lipomas by the non-otolaryngologist, otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons recognize that all preauricular and submandibular masses should be considered a salivary neoplasm until proven otherwise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for benign salivary gland neoplasms; however, techniques continue to evolve in order to preserve salivary function and reduce surgical morbidity. The goals of management of benign salivary neoplasms include accurate diagnosis of the lesion, complete surgical extirpation, and functional preservation of adjacent cranial nerves. Accurate diagnosis is aided by appropriate preoperative physical examination, imaging, and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Benign neoplasms typically present as slow-growing, painless, mobile masses without adverse features, such as tissue fixation, ulceration, a cranial nerve deficit, or regional lymphadenopathy. Preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging reveals well-circumscribed lesions without an infiltrative growth pattern or associated adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy may favor a benign neoplasm, supporting the clinical presentation. Surgery for a benign or malignant salivary neoplasm is in essence a false dichotomy since the surgeon can never be completely confident of the diagnosis until the specimen is removed. The surgeon must recognize the significant overlap between benign and malignant salivary masses in terms of clinical presentation, imaging, and cytology, which requires the surgeon to remain vigilant and flexible at the time of surgery should tissue characteristics or frozen section analysis suggest a malignant process.

  13. Polycomb-group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell regulation and hematopoietic neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radulovic, V.; de Haan, G.; Klauke, K.

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins have been shown to be involved in this process by repressing genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and differentiation. PcGs are

  14. Hodgkin’s lymphoma emerging radiation treatment techniques: trade-offs between late radio-induced toxicities and secondary malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this study is to explore the trade-offs between radio-induced toxicities and second malignant neoplasm (SMN) induction risk of different emerging radiotherapy techniques for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) through a comprehensive dosimetric analysis on a representative clinical model. Three different planning target volume (PTVi) scenarios of a female patient with supradiaphragmatic HL were used as models for the purpose of this study. Five treatment radiation techniques were simulated: an anterior-posterior parallel-opposed (AP-PA), a forward intensity modulated (FIMRT), an inverse intensity modulated (IMRT), a Tomotherapy (TOMO), a proton (PRO) technique. A radiation dose of 30 Gy or CGE was prescribed. Dose-volume histograms of PTVs and organs-at-risk (OARs) were calculated and related to available dose-volume constraints. SMN risk for breasts, thyroid, and lungs was estimated through the Organ Equivalent Dose model considering cell repopulation and inhomogeneous organ doses. With similar level of PTVi coverage, IMRT, TOMO and PRO plans generally reduced the OARs’ dose and accordingly the related radio-induced toxicities. However, only TOMO and PRO plans were compliant with all constraints in all scenarios. For the IMRT and TOMO plans an increased risk of development of breast, and lung SMN compared with AP-PA and FIMRT techniques was estimated. Only PRO plans seemed to reduce the risk of predicted SMN compared with AP-PA technique. Our model–based study supports the use of advanced RT techniques to successfully spare OARs and to reduce the risk of radio-induced toxicities in HL patients. However, the estimated increase of SMNs’ risk inherent to TOMO and IMRT techniques should be carefully considered in the evaluation of a risk-adapted therapeutic strategy

  15. Microencapsulation of small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm cells for tumor model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokstad, Anne M; Gustafsson, Björn I; Espevik, Terje; Bakke, Ingunn; Pfragner, Roswitha; Svejda, Bernhard; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Basic cancer research is dependent on reliable in vitro and in vivo tumor models. The serotonin (5-HT) producing small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor cell line KRJ-1 has been used in in vitro proliferation and secretion studies, but its use in in vivo models has been hampered by problems related to the xeno-barrier and tumor formation. This may be overcome by the encapsulation of tumor cells into alginate microspheres, which can function as bioreactors and protect against the host immune system. We used alginate encapsulation of KRJ-1 cells to achieve long-term functionality, growth and survival. Different conditions, including capsule size, variations in M/G content, gelling ions (Ca(2+) /Ba(2+)) and microcapsule core properties, and variations in KRJ-1 cell condition (single cells/spheroids) were tested. Viability and cell growth was evaluated with MTT, and confocal laser scanner microscopy combined with LIVE/DEAD viability stains. 5-HT secretion was measured to determine functionality. Under all conditions, single cell encapsulation proved unfavorable due to gradual cell death, while encapsulation of aggregates/spheroids resulted in surviving, functional bioreactors. The most ideal spheroids for encapsulation were 200-350 μm. Long-term survival (>30 days) was seen with solid Ca(2+) /Ba(2+) microbeads and hollow microcapsules. Basal 5-HT secretion was increased (sixfold) after hollow microcapsule encapsulation, while Ca(2+) /Ba(2+) microbeads was associated with normal basal secretion and responsiveness to cAMP/PKA activation. In conclusion, encapsulation of KRJ-1 cells into hollow microcapsules produces a bioreactor with a high constitutively activate basal 5-HT secretion, while Ca(2+) /Ba(2+) microbeads provide a more stable bioreactor similar to non-encapsulated cells. Alginate microspheres technology can thus be used to tailor different functional bioreactors for both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:22435758

  16. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  17. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  18. Extracellular vesicle miR-7977 is involved in hematopoietic dysfunction of mesenchymal stromal cells via poly(rC) binding protein 1 reduction in myeloid neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Hiroto; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Masahiro; Murata, Masaki; Murase, Kazuyuki; Iyama, Satoshi; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Tsutomu; Ono, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Kawano, Yutaka; Miyanishi, Koji; Sawada, Norimasa; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The failure of normal hematopoiesis is observed in myeloid neoplasms. However, the precise mechanisms governing the replacement of normal hematopoietic stem cells in their niche by myeloid neoplasm stem cells have not yet been clarified. Primary acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome cells induced aberrant expression of multiple hematopoietic factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 in mesenchymal stem cells even in non-contact conditions, and this abnormality was reverted by extracellular vesicle inhibition. Importantly, the transfer of myeloid neoplasm-derived extracellular vesicles reduced the hematopoietic supportive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells. Analysis of extracellular vesicle microRNA indicated that several species, including miR-7977 from acute myeloid leukemia cells, were higher than those from normal CD34+ cells. Remarkably, the copy number of miR-7977 in bone marrow interstitial fluid was elevated not only in acute myeloid leukemia, but also in myelodysplastic syndrome, as compared with lymphoma without bone marrow localization. The transfection of the miR-7977 mimic reduced the expression of the posttranscriptional regulator, poly(rC) binding protein 1, in mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, the miR-7977 mimic induced aberrant reduction of hematopoietic growth factors in mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in decreased hematopoietic-supporting capacity of bone marrow CD34+ cells. Furthermore, the reduction of hematopoietic growth factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 were reverted by target protection of poly(rC) binding protein 1, suggesting that poly(rC) binding protein 1 could be involved in the stabilization of several growth factors. Thus, miR-7977 in extracellular vesicles may be a critical factor that induces failure of normal hematopoiesis via poly(rC) binding protein 1 suppression. PMID:26802051

  19. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL m....... The results suggest that both EL and LPL participate in the supply of nutrients and steroidogenesis in the testes, and that especially EL may be important for the supply of cholesterol for testosterone production in the Leydig cells. The partial cellular separation of the expression of the two lipases...

  20. Neoplasms with schwannian differentiation express transcription factors known to regulate normal schwann cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Karrison, Theodore; Can Gong; Tonsgard, James H; Krausz, Thomas; Montag, Anthony G

    2010-12-01

    A number of transcription factors have been identified as important in guiding normal Schwann cell development. This study used immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays to assess the expression of some of these transcription factors (Sox5, Sox9, Sox10, AP-2α, Pax7, and FoxD3) on 76 schwannomas, 105 neurofibromas, and 34 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Sox9 and Sox10 were found to be widely expressed in all tumor types. FoxD3 reactivity was stronger and more frequently found in schwannomas and MPNSTs than neurofibromas. AP-2α was positive in 31% to 49% of all tumors, but strong reactivity was limited to MPNSTs and schwannomas. Pax7 and Sox5 expression was restricted to subsets of MPNSTs. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the 3 tumor types in the expression of these markers. No differences were found in the analyzed tumor subgroups, including schwannomas of different sites, schwannomas with or without NF2 association, neurofibromas of different types, or sporadic versus NF1-associated MPNSTs. These results suggest that the transcription factors that guide normal Schwann cell development also play a role in the biology of neoplastic cells with Schwannian differentiation. FoxD3, AP-2α, Pax7, and Sox5 are upregulated in MPNSTs compared with neurofibromas and may be markers of malignant transformation. Screening the expression of FoxD3, Sox9, and Sox10 on 23 cases of other spindle-cell proliferations that may be considered in the differential diagnosis of MPNST, including synovial sarcoma and spindle cell melanoma, suggests that these 3 are helpful markers of Schwannian differentiation in the context of diagnosing MPNSTs.

  1. Issues in diagnosis of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Report on the Bone Marrow Workshop of the XVIIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwit, Anna; Fend, Falko; Kremer, Marcus; Orazi, Attilio; Safali, Mükerrem; van der Walt, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small B cell lymphoid neoplasms are the most common lymphoproliferative disorders involving peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The Bone Marrow Workshop (BMW) organized by the European Bone Marrow Working Group (EBMWG) of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) during the XVIIth EAHP Meeting in Istanbul, October 2014, was dedicated to discussion of cases illustrating how the recent advances in immunophenotyping, molecular techniques and cytogenetics provide better understanding and classification of these entities. Submitted cases were grouped into following categories: (i) cases illustrating diagnostic difficulties in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); (ii) cases of BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms other than CLL; (iii) transformation of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms in the BM; and (iv) multiclonality and composite lymphomas in the BM. This report summarizes presented cases and conclusions of the BMW and provides practical recommendations for classification of the BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms based on the current state of knowledge. PMID:27208429

  2. Nuclear factor XIIIa staining (clone AC-1A1 mouse monoclonal) is a sensitive and specific marker to discriminate sebaceous proliferations from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhake, Elizabeth E; Clark, Lindsey N; Smoller, Bruce R; Shalin, Sara C; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-08-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy that may be difficult to diagnose when poorly differentiated. Other epithelial tumors with clear cell change may mimic sebaceous carcinoma. Few useful or specific immunohistochemical markers for sebaceous differentiation are available. Nuclear staining with factor XIIIa (clone AC-1A1) was recently found to be a highly sensitive marker of sebaceous differentiation. We evaluated nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining in sebaceous neoplasms vs. other cutaneous clear cell tumors. We stained 27 sebaceous proliferations: sebaceous hyperplasia (7), sebaceous adenoma (8), sebaceoma (5), sebaceous carcinoma (7). We also stained 67 tumors with clear cell change: basal cell carcinoma (8), squamous cell carcinoma (8), hidradenoma (7), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (2), trichilemmoma (10), trichilemmal carcinoma (3), clear cell acanthoma (9), atypical fibroxanthoma (1), syringoma (8), trichoepithelioma (1), metastatic renal cell carcinoma (2), and nevi with balloon cell change (8). Nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining was present in 100% of sebaceous proliferations; 96% displayed strong staining. Non-sebaceous clear cell tumors were negative or only weakly positive with factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) in 95.5%; only 4.5% showed strong staining. This suggests that strong nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining is a sensitive and specific marker of sebaceous neoplasms vs. other clear cell tumors.

  3. High frequency of endothelial colony forming cells marks a non-active myeloproliferative neoplasm with high risk of splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Rosti

    Full Text Available Increased mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may represent a new biological hallmark of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We measured circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs in 106 patients with primary myelofibrosis, fibrotic stage, 49 with prefibrotic myelofibrosis, 59 with essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera, and 43 normal controls. Levels of ECFC frequency for patient's characteristics were estimated by using logistic regression in univariate and multivariate setting. The sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and positive predictive value of increased ECFC frequency were calculated for the significantly associated characteristics. Increased frequency of ECFCs resulted independently associated with history of splanchnic vein thrombosis (adjusted odds ratio = 6.61, 95% CI = 2.54-17.16, and a summary measure of non-active disease, i.e. hemoglobin of 13.8 g/dL or lower, white blood cells count of 7.8×10(9/L or lower, and platelet count of 400×10(9/L or lower (adjusted odds ratio = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.45-13.49 Thirteen patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis non associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms were recruited as controls. We excluded a causal role of splanchnic vein thrombosis in ECFCs increase, since no control had elevated ECFCs. We concluded that increased frequency of ECFCs represents the biological hallmark of a non-active myeloproliferative neoplasm with high risk of splanchnic vein thrombosis. The recognition of this disease category copes with the phenotypic mimicry of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Due to inherent performance limitations of ECFCs assay, there is an urgent need to arrive to an acceptable standardization of ECFC assessment.

  4. Rapid, Nonradioactive Detection of Clonal T-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangements in Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguin, Anne; Tung, Rosann; Galili, Naomi; Sklar, Jeffrey

    1990-11-01

    Southern blot hybridization analysis of clonal antigen receptor gene rearrangements has proved to be a valuable adjunct to conventional methods for diagnosing lymphoid neoplasia. However, Southern blot analysis suffers from a number of technical disadvantages, including the time necessary to obtain results, the use of radioactivity, and the susceptibility of the method to various artifacts. We have investigated an alternative approach for assessing the clonality of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in lymphoid tissue biopsy specimens. This approach involves the amplification of rearranged γ T-cell receptor genes by the polymerase chain reaction and analysis of the polymerase chain reaction products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. By use of this approach, clonal rearrangements from neoplastic lymphocytes constituting as little as 0.1-1% of the total cells in the tissue are detected as discrete bands in the denaturing gel after the gel is stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under ultraviolet light. In contrast, polyclonal rearrangements from reactive lymphocytes appear as a diffuse smear along the length of the gel. Our findings suggest that polymerase chain reaction combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis may offer a rapid, nonradioactive, and sensitive alternative to Southern blot analysis for the diagnostic evaluation of lymphoid tissue biopsy specimens.

  5. Clinical analyses of six Langerhans cell neoplasms%朗格汉斯细胞肿瘤六例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湘连; 王国民; 付美娜

    2012-01-01

    回顾性分析我院收治的6例朗格汉斯细胞肿瘤患者的临床资料.其中朗格汉斯细胞增生(LCH)5例,朗格汉斯细胞肉瘤(LCS)1例.LCH中,3例为孤立性病变,发病部位分别为腰背部、头皮、右侧腹股沟淋巴结,1例两侧腮腺,1例为多处骨骼发病,发病部位为左侧股骨及一侧顶、髂骨和胸椎;表现为发热、肝脾肿大、骨质破坏等;3例手术,1例放疗,1例未治疗;随访34~ 138个月,2例无复发,1例出现对侧腮腺病灶,1例出现其他多部位病灶,1例失访.1例LCS部位为左侧枕部,表现为头痛、尿崩,采用手术和放疗综合治疗,随访41个月无复发.该肿瘤单一病灶采用手术、放疗,多部位建议化疗,应采取个体化治疗.%To explore the clinical features,diagnosis and treatment of Langerhans cell neoplasms.The data of 6 patients with Langerhans cell neoplasms was analyzed retrospectively.There were Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH,n =5) and Langerhans cell sarcoma ( LCS,n =1 ).Among 5 LCH patients,the involved organs included waist,back,scalp,inguinal lymph nodes,parotid gland and left femur.And the symptoms were fever,splenohepatomegalia and destruction of bone.Three patients received surgery,1 had radiotherapy and 1 was discharged without treatment.The follow-up period was 34 - 138 months.Two patients had no relapse,the contra-lateral parotid gland became involved later in another and several organs were involved in other patients.One patient was lost to follow-up.Left occiput of another LCS was involved and both surgery and radiotherapy were administered.Over a follow-up period of 41 months,there was no relapse.Either surgery or radiotherapy is indicated for this rare disease when a single organ is involved.And chemotherapy is administered for the involvement of multiple organs.The patients should be treated individually.

  6. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutintorn Sriphrapradang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8 cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs2*. The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA.

  7. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence.

  8. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ≥30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  9. 妊娠合并宫颈癌的诊治及预后%Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of uterine cervical neoplasms complicated with pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强素凤; 黄勇

    2013-01-01

    妊娠合并宫颈癌的发生率随生育年龄推迟而呈上升趋势.由于妊娠早期细胞学筛查的普及,妊娠合并宫颈癌多被早期发现.细胞学异常患者必须行阴道镜检查,必要时行宫颈活检.宫颈锥切术仅用于排除浸润癌.孕12周前诊断的宫颈浸润癌需及时治疗;孕12周后诊断的宫颈浸润癌如为早期,可待胎儿成熟后延迟治疗.可使用新辅助化疗以稳定患者病情至胎儿分娩.妊娠合并宫颈癌治疗需依据临床分期、孕周及患者是否有继续妊娠的意愿,制定个性化方案.妊娠合并宫颈癌多为早期浸润癌,预后较好.%The incidence of cervical neoplasms complicated with pregnancy is rising,with delaying of reproouctive age.Because of the prevalence of cytology in pregnancy.eervical neoplasnis complicated with pregnancy are mostly detected early. All patients with cytological abnormalities should undergo colposcopy, and when necessary,they should undergo cervical biopsy.Conization is reserved for patients with suspected invasion.In cases of invasive carcinoma detected up to the 12th week of pregnancy,immediate treatment is prioritized.Regarding diagnoses made during the second trimester,in early-stage invasive cancers,delay of therapy seems to be safe.fetal pulmonary maturity can be awaited.And the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to stabilize the disease until the time of delivery appears to be viable.Doctors should draw up personalized program for the patients with cervical neoplasms complicated with pregnancy according to stage of disease, gestational weeks and the patient's desire for continued pregnancy.Cervical neoplasms complicated with pregnancy are mostly early-stage invasive cancers, so prognosis is good.

  10. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of hysteromyoma and ovarian neoplasms in gestation period%妊娠期子宫肌瘤与卵巢肿瘤的临床诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉霞

    2016-01-01

    Hysteromyoma and ovarian neoplasms were common complication in gestation period.Ultrasound examination had great significance in the diagnosis of hysteromyoma and ovarian neoplasms in gestation period.This paper summarized the clinical diagnosis and treatment experience of hysteromyoma and ovarian neoplasms in gestation period.%子宫肌瘤与卵巢肿瘤是妊娠期常见并发症。超声检查对妊娠期子宫肌瘤与卵巢肿瘤的诊断意义重大。本文总结了妊娠期子宫肌瘤与卵巢肿瘤的临床诊治经验。

  11. Spontaneous skin neoplasms in aged Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Eyster, R C; Sells, D M; Gass, J H

    1992-01-01

    A total of 93 tumors of the epidermis, its appendages, and dermis were observed in 1,433 (717 males, 716 females) rats employed in oncogenicity studies over a 2-yr period. Mammary gland neoplasms will be reported separately. Fifty-seven (61.3%) were epithelial with 49 in males and 8 in females. Keratoacanthoma was the most frequent epithelial neoplasm in males (22) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (11) and papilloma (5). Sebaceous gland neoplasms seen in males (5) included both adenomas (3) and carcinomas (2). In males, there were also 3 trichoepitheliomas, 1 pilomatricoma, 1 basal cell tumor, and 1 malignant melanoma. Of the 8 epithelial neoplasms in females, there were 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 keratoacanthomas, and 1 each basal cell tumor, malignant melanoma, and trichoepithelioma. There were 21 mesenchymal neoplasms in males and 15 in females. The most frequent neoplasm was fibroma (7 males, 8 females) followed by lipoma (7 males, 4 females) and fibrosarcoma (4 males, 3 females). One male had a liposarcoma and 2 males each had hemangioma. The total neoplasm incidence of 70/717 (9.8%) in males and 23/716 (3.2%) in females showed that skin neoplasms were 3 time more common in males than in females. Epithelial neoplasms of the skin were 6 times more common in males than in females. Males were more than twice as likely to have epithelial rather than mesenchymal skin neoplasms whereas the reverse was seen in females.

  12. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density and...

  13. Whole-body MR imaging with the use of parallel imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in pediatric patients with small-cell neoplasms: comparison with skeletal scintigraphy and FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jyoti [Maulana Azad Medical College, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Seith, Ashu; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Bakhshi, Sameer [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Oncology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India)

    2008-09-15

    In pediatric patients with small-cell tumors, there is an increasing demand for accurate and early detection of skeletal, especially bone marrow, metastases as new treatment protocols are introduced. Whole-body MR imaging (WB-MR) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) are new promising imaging methods that can detect metastases before osteoblastic host response occurs, which is the basis for detection of metastases by skeletal scintigraphy (SSC). To assess the ability of WB-MR to detect marrow metastases in children with small-cell neoplasms and compare its performance with that of FDG PET/CT and SSC. During a 16-month period, 26 children and adolescents with histopathologically proven small-cell neoplasms underwent WB-MR, FDG PET/CT and Tc-phosphonate-based SSC in a random order within a 25-day period. Metastases were localized in relation to eight regions of the body. WB-MR revealed metastases in 39 out of a total of 208 regions in 26 patients (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 99.4%, positive predictive value 97.5%, negative predictive value 99.4%), SSC in 12 regions (sensitivity 30%, specificity 99.4%, PPV 92.3%, NPV 85.6%) and FDG PET/CT in 36 regions (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 97.7%). Both WB-MR and FDG PET/CT showed excellent agreement (kappa) with the final diagnosis (96.9% and 93.6% respectively), whereas SSC showed only moderate agreement (39.6%). Our results suggest that WB-MR and FDG PET/CT studies are robust imaging modalities for screening for skeletal metastases, and are far more accurate than SSC. The lack of radiation is an additional advantage of WB-MR, especially in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  14. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  15. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  16. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  17. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  18. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  19. Diagnostically Relevant Molecular Markers in Head and Neck Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Soma Susan Varghese; Philips Mathew; Jithin Jose

    2013-01-01

    Tumor markers are grouped into diagnostic and prognostic markers. Specific diagnostic markers appear extensively in cells of a particular neoplasm and not in other tumors. These markers can be used to assess the cellular lineage and histogenic origin of various neoplasms. Thus, diagnostic markers can be used for the confirmatory diagnosis of various tumors. This paper reviews the literature on various diagnostic markers and aims to group them based on the cellular lineage of neoplasms.

  20. Ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection for an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis: a case report of successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Kobayashi, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Akinari; Ohta, Takumi; Sato, Yayoi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aikawa, Mizuho; Otsuka, Ryota; Yanagihara, Akitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis reportedly occurs in about 15 % of cases of branch duct (BD)-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), with two-thirds of BD-IPMNs being located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas. However, the surgical indications and optimal treatment methods for BD-IPMNs have not been established. A 59-year-old Japanese male with epigastralgia was admitted to our hospital. A multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scan disclosed grade I acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography disclosed a 1.5-cm BD-IPMN in the uncinate process. Two months after discharge, the epigastralgia recurred, and MDCT again revealed grade I pancreatitis. Due to the repeated episodes of pancreatitis, we performed ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection. To detect the inferior branch of the Wirsung duct and avoid the development of a pancreatic fistula, we injected indigo carmine into the tumor which confirmed ligation of the inferior branch. Histopathologically, the tumor proved to be an adenoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in both the short- and long-term follow-up and, to date, there has been no recurrence of pancreatitis, or diabetes mellitus during the 6 years since pancreatectomy. This procedure is one of the methods that can be used for the successful resection of a BD-IPMN in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis.

  1. Mutations with epigenetic effects in myeloproliferative neoplasms and recent progress in treatment: Proceedings from the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immediately following the 2010 annual American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting, the 5th International Post-ASH Symposium on Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and BCR-ABL1-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) took place on 7–8 December 2010 in Orlando, Florida, USA. During this meeting, the most recent advances in laboratory research and clinical practice, including those that were presented at the 2010 ASH meeting, were discussed among recognized authorities in the field. The current paper summarizes the proceedings of this meeting in BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. We provide a detailed overview of new mutations with putative epigenetic effects (TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)) and an update on treatment with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, pomalidomide, everolimus, interferon-α, midostaurin and cladribine. In addition, the new ‘Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS)-plus' prognostic model for primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and the clinical relevance of distinguishing essential thrombocythemia from prefibrotic PMF are discussed

  2. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a review of preoperative diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-li BAI; Qi ZHANG; Noman MASOOD; Waqas MASOOD; Yun ZHANG; Ting-bo LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas,and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques.The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs),mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs),and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas,which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment.The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs,the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis,as well as the most up to date management.Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs,MCNs,and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons.Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients.

  3. Tratamiento de las neoplasias hematológicas en el embarazo Treatment of hematologic neoplasms during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma E Tartas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La neoplasia hematológica más frecuente en la mujer gestante es el linfoma de Hodgkin. Con menor frecuencia se han comunicado leucemias agudas o linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH. En los últimos años se han introducido nuevos fármacos que han cambiado el pronóstico de neoplasias como la leucemia promielocítica aguda, los linfomas no Hodgkin y la leucemia mieloide crónica. Se presenta aquí información actualizada sobre drogas y tratamientos, desarrollo de nuevos fármacos, mecanismo de acción, aplicación clínica, experiencias y resultados del tratamiento, efectos secundarios y teratogénicos, a fin de orientar a hematólogos, oncólogos y pediatras. El equipo médico debe ofrecer el tratamiento más eficaz disponible para alcanzar la curación o remisión de la enfermedad, e informar acerca de sus posibles riesgos para la madre y el feto, así como los derivados por la demora de su aplicación.The most common hematological malignancy in pregnant patients is Hodgkin's lymphoma, but other diseases such as chronic and acute leukemia or non Hodgkin's lymphoma have also been reported. In the last decade, new drugs have changed the prognostic of acute promyelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Herein we present updated information on drugs and treatments, new developments, mechanism of action, clinical application, experience on treatment outcomes, adverse effects and teratogenesis, with the objective of orienting hematologists, oncologists and pediatricians. The medical team should offer the most efficient treatment available in order to achieve cure or remission of the disease, and also inform on possible risks for the mother and the fetus, as well as those derived from the delay in treatment application.

  4. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  5. Arthroscopic guided biopsy and radiofrequency thermoablation of a benign neoplasm of the tibial spines area: a treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoccali Carmine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesions located in the area of the tibial spines are rare. In most cases, treatment follows histological diagnosis, but when imaging and clinical data are considered to be "very" characteristic for benign lesions, such as chondroblastoma or osteoid osteoma, treatment may be performed without biopsy. Traditional curettage requires opening the joint, which presents a high risk of contamination of the joint itself and surrounding structures, such as the popliteal area, with possible contamination of the neurovascular bundle when performing curettage with the posterior approach. In this case, the re-excision of a local recurrence would be extremely difficult. Results We describe a technique using arthroscopic guidance for radiofrequency thermoablation of a benign lesion in the tibial spines area. We report on an illustrative case. The patient so treated, reported immediate relief from the pain, and after two weeks, was free of pain. The biopsy performed before the treatment confirmed the radiological diagnosis of chondroblastoma. At one year of follow-up, the patient is without pain, with a 0-130°range of motion, has no activity limitations and is apparently free of disease. Conclusion This technique allows a radiofrequency thermoablation of a lesion in the tibial spines area and in the posterior tibial surface to be performed without opening the joint, monitoring the tibial plateau surface, probably decreasing the risk of cartilage damage. Unfortunately, in the case presented, the high pressure from the arthroscopy's pump broke the tibial plateau surface creating a communication to the tibial tunnel used for thermoablation.

  6. 131I treatment response in thyroid neoplasms and evaluation of radiation dose complications. A review of ten years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, but its management is still a controversial issue that included an interdisciplinary approach who compounds surgery, radioiodine (RAI) therapy and sometimes external radiation therapy. The aim of our work is to evaluate the role of the RAI treatment in well differenciated thyroid carcinoma and its implication in terms of survival and complications. Methods and Material: we collected data from medical records of 215 patients with confirmed TC, registered from 1990-2004 at the Nuclear Medicine Unit, Hospital Temuco, Chile, who received 50 to 150 mCi RAI therapy four to six weeks after lobectomy, partial or total thyroidectomy. Clinical and laboratory examinations were analyzed including blood count, thorax X Ray, whole body I-131 scans, and serum thyroglobulin. Results: the median age at the diagnosis was 51 years, there were 89% females. All patients were treated surgically and recived postoperative RAI treatment. Total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy and nodule excision was done in 69%, 31% and 37% of patients respectively. The histopathologic results included papillary (62%), follicular (24%) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (14%). Regional lymph nodes were positive in 36% and distant metastases were detected in 20 %, located in the lungs in all of those patients. Additional RAI doses between 100-200 mCi were administrated in 35% patients after to wait a period longer than 1 year. The overall survival rate at 14 years was 93 %, and recurrent disease was detected in 15%. at 5 years and 20% at 14 years from the diagnosis. There were no major complications and minimal alterations in the blood count was observed. We conclude that total or near total thyroidectomy followed by RAI treatment appears to benefit for better survival and lower recurrence disease. Favorable prognostic management included radioiodine therapy at the primary treatment using high actvities (more than 100 mCi) after

  7. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm Having Clinical Characteristics of Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm and a Benign Histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatomi Oku

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Context An intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumor which was first described by Adsay et al. in 1996. It has been defined as a new subgroup of IPMN. Case report We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with nausea. Imaging studies revealed a cystic mass in the body of the pancreas. She underwent a successful distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, and has subsequently remained well. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by columnar epithelium similar to pancreatic duct epithelium, and the nodular projection consisted of arborizing papillary structures, lined by plump cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. These eosinophilic cells were immunohistochemically positively stained with anti-mitochondrial antibody. The cellular atypism was mild and the proliferating index was low, compatible with adenoma of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm. Although no ovarian type stroma was identified, in our case, no communication to main pancreatic duct (located in the pancreatic body and rapid growth by intracystic hemorrhage were clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm, but not IPMN. Conclusion With only 17 cases reported to date, the clinical and pathological details of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm are still unclear. We herein add one case with different characteristics from those of the past reports. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm with the clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm.

  8. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection with disposable curved needle for treatment of malignant liver neoplasms and their metastases in retroperitoneal lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Jing Zuo; Pei-Jun Wang; Cheng-Wei Shao; Min-Jie Wang; Jian-Ming Tian; Yi Xiao; Fang-Yuan Ren; Xi-Yan Hao; Min Yuan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) using a disposable curved needle for treatment of malignant liver neoplasms and their metastases in retroperitoneal lymph nodes.METHODS: CT-guided PEI was conducted using a disposable curved needle in 26 malignant liver tumors smaller than 5 cm in diameter and 5 lymph node metastases of liver cancer in the retroperitoneal space. The disposable curved needle was composed of a straight trocar (21G) and stylet, a disposable curved tip (25 G) and a fine stylet. For the tumors found in deep sites and difficult to reach, or for hepatic masses inaccessible to the injection using a straight needle because of portal vein and bile ducts, the straight trocar was used at first to reach the side of the tumor. Then, the disposable curved needle was used via the trocar. When the needle reached the tumor center, appropriate amount of ethanol was injected. For relatively large malignant liver tumors,multi-point injection was carried out for a better distribution of the ethanol injected throughout the masses. The curved needle was also used for treatment of the metastasis in retroperitoneal lymph nodes blocked by blood vessels and inaccessible by the straight needle.RESULTS: All of the 26 liver tumors received 2 or more times of successful PEI, through which ethanol was distributed throughout the whole tumor mass. Effect of the treatment was monitored by contrast-enhanced multi-phase CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations three months later. Of the 18 lesions whose diameters were smaller than 3 cm, the necrotic change across the whole mass and that in most areas were observed in 15 and 3 tumors,respectively. Among the 8 tumors sizing up to 3 cm, 5 were completely necrotic and 3 largely necrotic. Levels of tumor seromarkers were significantly reduced in some of the cases.In 5 patients with metastases of liver cancer in retroperitoneal lymph nodes who received 1 to 3

  9. HSP90 is a therapeutic target in JAK2-dependent myeloproliferative neoplasms in mice and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Marubayashi, Sachie; Koppikar, Priya; Taldone, Tony; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; West, Nathan; Bhagwat, Neha; Caldas-Lopes, Eloisi; Ross, Kenneth N.; Gönen, Mithat; Gozman, Alex; Ahn, James H.; Rodina, Anna; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Yang, Guangbin; Hedvat, Cyrus

    2010-01-01

    JAK2 kinase inhibitors were developed for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), following the discovery of activating JAK2 mutations in the majority of patients with MPN. However, to date JAK2 inhibitor treatment has shown limited efficacy and apparent toxicities in clinical trials. We report here that an HSP90 inhibitor, PU-H71, demonstrated efficacy in cell line and mouse models of the ...

  10. The HDAC inhibitor Givinostat modulates the hematopoietic transcription factors NFE2 and C-MYB in JAK2(V617F) myeloproliferative neoplasm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaru Calzada, Ariel; Todoerti, Katia; Donadoni, Luca; Pellicioli, Anna; Tuana, Giacomo; Gatta, Raffaella; Neri, Antonino; Finazzi, Guido; Mantovani, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino; Lombardi, Luigia; Golay, Josée

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the mechanism of action of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Givinostat (GVS) in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)(V617F) myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) cells. GVS inhibited colony formation and proliferation and induced apoptosis at doses two- to threefold lower in a panel of JAK2(V617F) MPN compared to JAK2 wild-type myeloid leukemia cell lines. By global gene expression analysis, we observed that at 6 hours, GVS modulated 293 common genes in the JAK2(V617F) cell lines HEL and UKE1, of which 19 are implicated in cell cycle regulation and 33 in hematopoiesis. In particular, the hematopoietic transcription factors NFE2 and C-MYB were downmodulated by the drug specifically in JAK2(V617F) cells at both the RNA and protein level. GVS also inhibited JAK2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, but modulation of NFE2 and C-MYB was JAK2-independent, as shown using the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209. GVS had a direct effect on the NFE2 promoters, as demonstrated by specific enrichment of associated histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9. Modulation by GVS of NFE2 was also observed in freshly isolated CD34(+) cells from MPN patients, and was accompanied by inhibition of their proliferation and differentiation toward the erythroid lineage. We conclude that GVS acts on MPN cells through dual JAK2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inhibition and downmodulation of NFE2 and C-MYB transcription. PMID:22579713

  11. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  12. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  13. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  14. Presumed pluripotency markers UTF-1 and REX-1 are expressed in human adult testes and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2008-01-01

    UTF-1 and REX-1/ZFP42 are transcription factors involved in pluripotency. Because of phenotypic similarities between pluripotent embryonic stem cells and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) and the derivation of pluripotent cells from testes, we investigated the expression of UTF-1 and REX-1 duri...

  15. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai-Ming, Jr.; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had independent prognostic marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  16. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  17. 胃肠神经内分泌肿瘤外科治疗方法选择及其评价%Selecting and evaluating of surgical treatment for gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍晓汀; 覃先蓬

    2014-01-01

    胃肠道是神经内分泌肿瘤发生的主要部位,包括胃、十二指肠、小肠、阑尾、结肠以及直肠神经内分泌肿瘤。手术是目前胃肠神经内分泌肿瘤的一线治疗方案,只有手术可能达到完全切除治愈肿瘤的目的。即使不能够完全切除肿瘤,也可以减轻肿瘤负荷,有利于辅助治疗,延长病人生存。同时,手术还可以降低肿瘤分泌的各种激素量,减轻相应的临床症状,改善病人生活质量。术者应根据肿瘤部位、大小、浸润情况、有无淋巴结转移和远处转移等特征选择合适的术式。%Gastrointestinal tract is the major site of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms include the stomach,duodenum,small intestine, appendix, colon and rectum neuroendocrine neoplasms. Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms and should always be considered as first line therapy. Even if the tumor can’t be completely removed,the debulking procedure can reduce the tumor burden for adjuvant chemotherapy and may prolong survival. Meanwhile,the operation can reduce the amount of hormone secreted by the tumor,reduce the corresponding clinical symptoms and improve the patients’quality of life. The surgeon should select the appropriate surgical procedures based on the tumor location,size,invasion,involvement of regional lymph nodes and metastasis.

  18. Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Isabel Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloproliferative diseases without the Philadelphia chromosome marker (Ph-, although first described 60 years ago, only became the subject of interest after the turn of the millennium. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO defined the classification of this group of diseases and in 2008 they were renamed myeloproliferative neoplasms based on morphological, cytogenetic and molecular features. In 2005, the identification of a recurrent molecular abnormality characterized by a gain of function with a mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 paved the way for greater knowledge of the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The JAK2 mutation is found in 90-98% of polycythemia vera and in about 50% essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. In addition to the JAK2 mutation, other mutations involving TET2 (ten-eleven translocation, LNK (a membrane-bound adaptor protein; IDH1/2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 enzyme; ASXL1 (additional sex combs-like 1 genes were found in myeloproliferative neoplasms thus showing the importance of identifying molecular genetic alterations to confirm diagnosis, guide treatment and improve our understanding of the biology of these diseases. Currently, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and mastocytosis are included in this group of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but are considered different situations with individualized diagnostic methods and treatment. This review updates pathogenic aspects, molecular genetic alterations, the fundamental criteria for diagnosis and the best approach for each of these entities.

  19. Desmoplastic round small cell tumor: a case report of a neoplasm of difficult diagnosis; Tumor desmoplasico de pequenas celulas redondas: relato de um caso de uma neoplasia de dificil diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Daniel Cury; Totsugui, Joel Takashi; Ditzel Filho, Leo Fernando da Silva; Ioshii, Sergio Ossamu [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Machuca, Tiago Noguchi [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ogata, Alessandro Cury [Hospital Nossa Senhora das Gracas, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: daniel_ogata@medcenter.com

    2005-07-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT) is a rare neoplasm of difficult diagnosis, recently described by Gerald et al. There are reports of nearly 101 cases in the literature, being the intra-abdominal region its most common location and children and young adults its preferred age group. This paper reports a case of DSRCT in a young adult of 24 years of age. This patient presented unspecific symptoms of nausea, vomiting and a single episode of haematemesis. Upon physical examination a solid mass on the epigastrium and left hypochondrium was found. Image diagnostic procedures confirmed the existence of the expansive process and also revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymphonodes. Diagnosis was achieved through videolaparoscopic biopsy. Histologic sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin were inconclusive and immunohistochemical analysis was required to establish the diagnosis. This analysis revealed positivity to epithelial and mesenchymal markers and weak positivity to chromogranin A, characteristic results of DSRCT. Due to the fact that the disease was locally advanced, the patient was treated with chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and paclytaxel). However, since there was only partial response to the treatment, the patient refused to undergo any second line option of therapy. Presently, the patient is being submitted only to supportive care, within an 18-month follow-up program. (author)

  20. Novel lymphoid neoplasms – the borderland between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt’s lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The recent update of the WHO classification of tumors of the lymphoid tissue has recognized a category with overlapping features between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this perspective article, Dr. de Jong reviews the conceptual basis and practical impact of this diagnosis. See related paper on page 935.

  1. Presumed pluripotency markers UTF-1 and REX-1 are expressed in human adult testes and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D.M.; Nielsen, J.E.; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2008-01-01

    NANOG and OCT-3/4, UTF-1 and REX-1 are expressed throughout human testes development. The expression pattern indicated that UTF-1 plays a possible role in spermatogonial self-renewal, whereas expression of REX-1 in meiotic cells from both testes and ovary indicate a role in meiosis. UFT-1 and REX-1...

  2. [Contemporary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc-Rajca, Małgorzata; Dańska-Bidzińska, Anna

    2011-09-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases that account for only 2% of all gynecologic malignancies. The most common types are ovarian carcinoid tumor and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix. The tumors are staged according to FIGO clinical staging system. The diagnosis is usually made retrospectively after obtaining the results of histopathological evaluation of the primary tumor They rarely cause syndromes related to hormone overexpression. Neuroendocrine neoplasms are characterized by aggressive behaviour Even at an early stage there is high incidence of nodal and distant metastases. Survival is poor regardless of stage at diagnosis. The most important is to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumor accurately and treat it in multimodal, aggressive approach to control the disease better and reduce the incidence of reccurences. Apart from typical therapeutic approach, treatment may encompass isotope therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. This method should be reserved for patients with expression of somatostatin receptors detected by the somatostatin receptor scyntygraphy. Data concerning the management of neuroendocrin tumors are based mainly on retrospective studies and clinical case series. Lack of randomized trials makes it impossible to select the best treatment option. Better understanding of the biology of neuroendocrine tumors, especially the molecular genetics, will in the future help to determine the optimal treatment strategies for these tumors.

  3. Atypical fibroxanthoma: An unusual skin neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-year-old male with XP.

  4. Atypical Fibroxanthoma: An Unusual Skin Neoplasm in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay; Dipanwita Nag; Sanjay Bandyopadhyay; Swapan Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV) damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-y...

  5. Gene expression profiling of loss of TET2 and/or JAK2V617F mutant hematopoietic stem cells from mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kameda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are clinically characterized by the chronic overproduction of differentiated peripheral blood cells and the gradual expansion of malignant intramedullary/extramedullary hematopoiesis. In MPNs mutations in JAK2 MPL or CALR are detected mutually exclusive in more than 90% of cases [1,2]. Mutations in them lead to the abnormal activation of JAK/STAT signaling and the autonomous growth of differentiated cells therefore they are considered as “driver” gene mutations. In addition to the above driver gene mutations mutations in epigenetic regulators such as TET2 DNMT3A ASXL1 EZH2 or IDH1/2 are detected in about 5%–30% of cases respectively [3]. Mutations in TET2 DNMT3A EZH2 or IDH1/2 commonly confer the increased self-renewal capacity on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs but they do not lead to the autonomous growth of differentiated cells and only exhibit subtle clinical phenotypes [4,6–8,5]. It was unclear how mutations in such epigenetic regulators influenced abnormal HSCs with driver gene mutations how they influenced the disease phenotype or whether a single driver gene mutation was sufficient for the initiation of human MPNs. Therefore we focused on JAK2V617F and loss of TET2—the former as a representative of driver gene mutations and the latter as a representative of mutations in epigenetic regulators—and examined the influence of single or double mutations on HSCs (Lineage−Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells (LSKs by functional analyses and microarray whole-genome expression analyses [9]. Gene expression profiling showed that the HSC fingerprint genes [10] was statistically equally enriched in TET2-knockdown-LSKs but negatively enriched in JAK2V617F–LSKs compared to that in wild-type-LSKs. Double-mutant-LSKs showed the same tendency as JAK2V617F–LSKs in terms of their HSC fingerprint genes but the expression of individual genes differed between the two groups. Among 245 HSC fingerprint genes 100 were more

  6. Assessment of pancreatic neoplasms: review of biopsy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Steven B; Bradner, Michael W; Zervos, Emmanuel E; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2007-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer death annually. Recent technological advances in imaging have led to non-uniformity in the evaluation of pancreatic neoplasms. The following article describes the history behind various biopsy techniques and the rationale for obtaining a biopsy of a pancreatic neoplasm and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of the various pancreatic biopsy techniques, including fine needle aspiration biopsy, Tru-cut needle biopsy, endoscopic brushings/cytology, and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsies. A treatment algorithm for pancreatic neoplasms is then presented. PMID:17562121

  7. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  8. Prospects of the standardized treatment and research of neoplasms%骨肿瘤规范化治疗与研究展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓辉; 刘巍峰

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of chemotherapy, the improvement of surgical techniques and the advocation of comprehensive and standardized treatment, great progresses have been made in the treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. Comprehensive treatment strategy is an ideal choice for common primary bone and soft tissue tumors with surgery as the main therapy and chemoradiotherapy as the adjuvant therapy. The standardized treatment is regarded as the best strategy. The histological reaction in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy is taken as the principal method to predict the survival rate. For the patients with osteosarcoma, surgery and chemotherapy are included in the standardized treatment. It is an unclear concept of“unresectable tumors”. The tumor that can be resected by a surgeon may be unresectable for another, and it depends on how much the patient could accept the adverse effects on his or her functions. The prognosis could be predicted by the high expressions of the interferonα/β. How many metastatic lesions are there? Is it possible to resect all these lesions completely? All the factors may affect the prognosis. The wide resection combined with the preoperative chemotherapy is recommended in the treatment of resectable osteosarcoma in its progressive stage. As to the patients with unresectable metastatic tumors, the chemotherapy is a good choice. The primary tumors are evaluated, and then a suitable approach is chosen to control the local condition. The radiotherapy is the main treatment method for the patients with tumors that could not be resected by surgery. The dedifferentiated chordoma is treated according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network ( NCCN ) guideline. It is better for the patients with metastatic giant cell tumors to undergo the treatment of intracapsular resection. Non-surgical treatment or radiotherapy is recommended for the patients with unresectable tumors. The radiotherapy can be taken as an adjutant therapy in the comprehensive

  9. Frequent GNAS mutations in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, G; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Matsubara, A.; Mori, T; Taniguchi, H; Kushima, R; Hiraoka, N.; Tsuta, K; Tsuda, H.; Kanai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The molecular basis for the development of appendiceal mucinous tumours, which can be a cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei, remains largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-five appendiceal mucinous neoplasms were analysed for GNAS and KRAS mutations. A functional analysis of mutant GNAS was performed using a colorectal cancer cell line. Results: A mutational analysis identified activating GNAS mutations in 16 of 32 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) but in none of three mucino...

  10. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vidal Campregher; Fábio Pires de Souza Santos; Guilherme Fleury Perini; Nelson Hamerschlak

    2012-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative ...

  11. Selective use of radiation therapy for neoplasms of the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R.G.

    1980-07-01

    Radiation therapy is preferable treatment for a minority of basal cell and epidermoid carcinomas of the skin. Proper use exploits the inherent advantage of preservation of function and cosmesis. Therefore, many cancers involving the eyelid, canthus, nose, nasolabial fold, pinna, ear canal, vermilion surface of the lower lip and skin of the chin can be advantageously treated by radiation therapy as compared to surgery, if pretreatment destruction of normal tissue is minimal. Although irradiation is equally effective, surgery is more expeditious for small lesions and cancers at other sites, which can be excised and followed by primary closure, and for large lesions if reconstruction will be required after destruction of the tumor. Radiation therapy can be effective, and usually is preferable treatment, for several other primary neoplasms of skin such as mycosis fungoides and Kaposi's sarcoma.

  12. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms of Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Shah; Qari, Hasina; Banday, Tanveer; Altaf, Asma; Para, Mah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual management of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas. A systematic review was performed in December 2009 by consulting PubMed MEDLINE for publications and matching the key words “pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic tumor”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic mass”, “pancreatic cyst” and “pancreatic cystic neoplasm” to identify English language articles describing the diagnosis and treatment of the MCN of the pancreas. In total, 16,322 references ranging from January 1969 to December 2009 were analyzed and 77 articles were identified. No articles published before 1996 were selected because MCNs were not previously considered to be a completely autonomous disease. Definition, epidemiology, anatomopathological findings, clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, treatment and prognosis were reviewed. MCNs are pancreatic mucin-producing cysts with a distinctive ovarian-type stroma localized in the body-tail of the gland and occurring in middle-aged females. The majority of MCNs are slow growing and asymptomatic. The prevalence of invasive carcinoma varies between 6% and 55%. Preoperative diagnosis depends on a combination of clinical features, tumor markers, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and positron emission tomography-CT. Surgery is indicated for all MCNs.

  13. Treatment Of Sickle Cell Disease

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-12-04

    The present invention includes embodiments for treatment and/or prevention of sickle cell disease that employ Hydroxyfasudil or Isocoronarin D alone or either in conjunction with each other or an inducer of HbF production. The compounds may act synergistically, and the compounds employed circumvent the side effects seen with Hydroxyurea.

  14. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  16. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  18. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Kakushima; Mitsuhiro Fujishiro

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique of therapeutic endoscopy for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms. Three steps characterize it:injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the lesion,cutting the surrounding mucosa of the lesion, and dissecting the submucosa beneath the lesion. The ESD technique has rapidly permeated in Japan for treatment of early gastric cancer, due to its excellent results of enbloc resection compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Although there is still room for improvement to lessen its technical difficulty, ESD has recently been applied to esophageal and colorectal neoplasms.Favorable short-term results have been reported, but the application of ESD should be well considered by three aspects: (1) the possibility of nodal metastases of the lesion, (2) technical difficulty such as location, ulceration and operator's skill, and (3) organ characteristics.

  19. Distribution of the Ca (Oxford) antigen in lung neoplasms and non-neoplastic lung tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinas, F. J.; Boxer, G.; Bagshawe, K D

    1984-01-01

    The Ca (Oxford) antigen was originally isolated from a malignant neoplasm and with few exceptions was reported to discriminate between malignant and non-malignant neoplasms or normal tissues. Using the Ca 1 antibody we have studied the Ca distribution in 54 lung neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. Staining of tumours was very focal and the proportion of positive cells varied from about 50% for adenocarcinomas to less than 1% for oat cell carcinomas, which were often negative. F...

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas%胰腺囊性肿瘤诊断和治疗的现今认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王单松; 靳大勇

    2007-01-01

    胰腺囊性肿瘤(cystic neoplasms of thepancreas.PCN)虽仅占胰腺肿瘤的5%~10%,但最近越来越受到关注,其原因主要有:①随着影像学诊断技术的发展,PCN的发现较过去有了明显增加,如我院在1998年前的40年间仅收治了18例PCN.而1999年1月至2006年12月的8年间收治的PCN已达104例。②PCN包括良性至恶性的各种病变.

  1. Radioactive seed implantation in head and neck neoplasms treatment%放射性粒子植入在头颈恶性肿瘤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 李晓江

    2011-01-01

    近年来,放射性粒子植入以其独特的物理学和放射生物学优势成为各种头颈肿瘤手术治疗或外放射治疗的补充方法,临床治疗效果已得到广泛认同,为头颈部恶性肿瘤的综合治疗增添了一种新颖而有效的手段.%Radioactive seed interstitial implanting is a complementary method for surgery or radiotherapy and also a remedy for postsurgical carcinoma recurrence in head and neck neoplasms. These seeds with unique advantages of physics and radiation biology offer a new effective method for head and neck cancer therapy.

  2. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Patient Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Primary Myelofibrosis; Polycythemia Vera; Essential Thrombocythemia; Mastocytosis; Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia-not Otherwise Specified; Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neoplasms; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic

  3. Whole-body MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with plasma cell neoplasms in comparison to the radiological skeletal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Lohrmann, Christian; Pache, Gregor; Uhl, Markus; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Engelhardt, Monika [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI versus radiological skeletal survey (RSS) in staging patients with plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and to evaluate the possible therapeutic impact of the replacement of RSS by whole-body MRI. Fifty-four patients with PCN [multiple myeloma (MM), n=47; monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), n=7] were studied by whole-body MRI and RSS in a monocenter prospective analysis from August 2002 to May 2004. The MRIs were performed using a rolling table platform ''AngioSURF'' for unlimited field of view with a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Sonata/Maestro Class, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). A coronal STIR sequence (TR5500-4230/TE102-94/TI160) was used for imaging of the different body regions, including the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and upper and lower extremities. The RSS consisted of eight different projections of the axial and appendicular skeleton. In 41/54 (74%) patients, the results of the whole-body MRI and RSS were concordant. In 11/54 (20%) patients, both imaging techniques were negative. Bone involvement was observed in 30/54 (55%) patients; however, whole-body MRI revealed this more extensively than the RSS in 27/30 (90%) patients with concordant positive imaging findings. In 3/30 (10%) patients, both imaging techniques demonstrated a similar extent of bone marrow infiltration. In 10/54 (19%) patients, the whole-body MRI was superior to RSS in detecting bone marrow infiltration, whereas the RSS was negative. In 3/54 (6%) patients, the RSS was proven to be false positive by the clinical course, whereas the whole-body MRI was truly negative. Whole-body MRI is a fast and highly effective method for staging PCN patients by the use of a rolling table platform. Moreover, it is more sensitive and specific than RSS and reveals bone marrow infiltration and extensive disease more reliably. Therefore, whole-body MRI should be performed as an additional method of exactly

  4. Whole-body MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with plasma cell neoplasms in comparison to the radiological skeletal survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI versus radiological skeletal survey (RSS) in staging patients with plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and to evaluate the possible therapeutic impact of the replacement of RSS by whole-body MRI. Fifty-four patients with PCN [multiple myeloma (MM), n=47; monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), n=7] were studied by whole-body MRI and RSS in a monocenter prospective analysis from August 2002 to May 2004. The MRIs were performed using a rolling table platform ''AngioSURF'' for unlimited field of view with a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Sonata/Maestro Class, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). A coronal STIR sequence (TR5500-4230/TE102-94/TI160) was used for imaging of the different body regions, including the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and upper and lower extremities. The RSS consisted of eight different projections of the axial and appendicular skeleton. In 41/54 (74%) patients, the results of the whole-body MRI and RSS were concordant. In 11/54 (20%) patients, both imaging techniques were negative. Bone involvement was observed in 30/54 (55%) patients; however, whole-body MRI revealed this more extensively than the RSS in 27/30 (90%) patients with concordant positive imaging findings. In 3/30 (10%) patients, both imaging techniques demonstrated a similar extent of bone marrow infiltration. In 10/54 (19%) patients, the whole-body MRI was superior to RSS in detecting bone marrow infiltration, whereas the RSS was negative. In 3/54 (6%) patients, the RSS was proven to be false positive by the clinical course, whereas the whole-body MRI was truly negative. Whole-body MRI is a fast and highly effective method for staging PCN patients by the use of a rolling table platform. Moreover, it is more sensitive and specific than RSS and reveals bone marrow infiltration and extensive disease more reliably. Therefore, whole-body MRI should be performed as an additional method of exactly staging PCN patients and

  5. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. The spectrum of Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, in a variety of cutaneous neoplasms, and in neuroendocrine carcinomas from different anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thai Yen; Walsh, Noreen M; Pasternak, Sylvia

    2012-04-01

    Most Merkel cell carcinomas display pure neuroendocrine differentiation (pure Merkel cell carcinoma), whereas a minority show combined neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine elements (combined Merkel cell carcinoma). Recent identification of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA and Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression in a proportion of Merkel cell carcinomas has suggested viral-induced oncogenesis. To date, Merkel cell polyomavirus immunohistochemistry has shown an absence of viral large T antigen expression in combined Merkel cell carcinoma as well as select non-Merkel cell carcinoma cutaneous lesions and visceral neuroendocrine tumors. In our series, we aimed to further characterize the frequency and pattern of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression by CM2B4 immunohistochemistry in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (pure Merkel cell carcinoma and combined Merkel cell carcinoma) and various non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, patients without Merkel cell carcinoma, and individuals with altered immune function. Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen was detected in 17 (63%) of 27 pure Merkel cell carcinomas and absent in all 15 (0%) combined Merkel cell carcinomas. Furthermore, complete concordance (100%) of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression was observed in 10 cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma and subsequent tumor metastases. We also evaluated 70 non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions including 15 cases each of pulmonary and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. All 70 non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions were negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus by CM2B4 immunohistochemistry, irrespective of any known Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosis and immune status. In summary, our identification of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen expression in a subset of Merkel cell carcinoma and lack of findings in combined Merkel cell carcinomas and non-Merkel cell carcinoma lesions concur with

  7. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  8. Role of scrape cytology in ovarian neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasm and its utilization for teaching pathology residents. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on 50 solid/solid-cystic ovarian neoplasms sent in 10% buffered formalin. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of tumors were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology has been satisfactory with 92% of cases correlating with the final diagnosis. Characteristic cytological pattern was noted in various types of surface epithelial, sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. The technique had limited value in mucinous tumors to distinguish borderline cases from invasive carcinoma. Two mucinous carcinomas were diagnosed as borderline mucinous tumor and two endometrioid carcinomas were misinterpreted as cystadenocarcinoma on scrape cytology. Formalin did not interfere or produce any remarkable changes in cytomorphology. Conclusions: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive adjunctive cytodiagnostic technique and its routine utilization in ovarian lesions could aid in expanding the cytological knowledge of ovarian neoplasms.

  9. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8, Xishike Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034 (China); Peng Yun [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Zeng Jinjin, E-mail: jzeng5567@yahoo.co [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  10. Treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma using anti-HER2 immunonanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekrazad R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reza Fekrazad2, Neda Hakimiha3, Enice Farokhi3, Mohammad Javad Rasaee4, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani5, Katayoun AM Kalhori2, Farzaneh Sheikholeslami1 1Research & Development Department, Production and Research Division of the Pasteur Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran; 2Dental Department, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Laser Research Center, Dental Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 5Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran Background: Worldwide, oral squamous cell carcinoma (potentially mediated by HER2 is recognized as the most commonly occurring malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Anti-HER2 nanobodies conjugated to gold-silica nanoshells and used as photothermal treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma may provide a novel therapeutic alternative to current treatment for this disease. Methods: KB epithelial or HeLaS3 cell cultures (controls were exposed to these immunonanoshells, and plasmon resonance electron initiation specific to gold was employed to burn the tumor cells. Results: Following this treatment, significant cell death occurred in the KB tumor cell cultures while there was no evidence of cellular damage or death in the HeLaS3 cell cultures. Conclusion: These findings suggest that photothermal treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma has considerable advantages. Keywords: anti-HER2 immunonanoshells, gold-silica nanoshells, photothermal treatment, oral squamous cell carcinoma

  11. Characterization of gene expression and activated signaling pathways in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minhee; Kim, Minhyung; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Misun; Kim, Won Kyu; Kim, Sang Kyum; Shin, Jihye; Park, Eun Sung; Kang, Chang Moo; Paik, Young-Ki; Kim, Hoguen

    2014-04-01

    Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm is an uncommon pancreatic tumor with distinct clinicopathologic features. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms are characterized by mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1. However, little is known about the gene and microRNA expression profiles of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. Thus, we sought to characterize solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm-specific gene expression and identify the signaling pathways activated in these tumors. Comparisons of gene expression in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm to pancreatic ductal carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues identified solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm-specific mRNA and microRNA profiles. By analyzing 1686 (1119 upregulated and 567 downregulated) genes differentially expressed in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, we found that the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and androgen receptor signaling pathways, as well as genes involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition, are activated in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. We validated these results experimentally by assessing the expression of β-catenin, WIF-1, GLI2, androgen receptor, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related markers with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our analysis also revealed 17 microRNAs, especially the miR-200 family and miR-192/215, closely associated with the upregulated genes associated with the three pathways activated in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm tumorigenesis and its characteristic less epithelial cell differentiation than the other common pancreatic tumors. PMID:24072181

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following PDQ summaries: Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Testicular Cancer Treatment Age and gender can affect the risk ... summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and ...

  13. 咽旁间隙肿瘤45例诊断与治疗的临床分析%Diagnosis and Treatment of 45 Cases of Parapharyngeal Space Neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪浩; 张秋光

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨咽旁间隙肿瘤的诊断和治疗.方法 回顾性分析研究45例咽旁间隙肿瘤的临床表现、病理类型及诊治方法.结果 45例咽旁间隙肿瘤肿良性36例(占80%)、恶性9例(占20%),神经源性良性肿瘤(16例)及涎腺混合瘤(11例)是最常见的肿瘤.临床表现为颈部或咽侧的肿块,可伴有吞咽不适、咽痛、头面麻木、听力下降、颈交感神经麻痹综合征(Homer syndrome)等症状.CT或MRI能显示肿瘤大小、形态、位置、与周围结构的关系等.本组肿瘤均经颈外侧切口入路手术切除.恶性肿瘤术后加用了放、化疗.随访1~10年,良性肿瘤无复发,恶性肿瘤3年生存率44%,5年生存率33%.结论 CT、MRI对咽旁间隙肿瘤的诊断及指导手术有重要意义.颈外侧切口径路切除咽旁间隙肿瘤简易、安全、有效.%Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of primary parapharyngeal space neoplasm.Methods 45 cases of primary parapharyngeal space neoplasm were included in the study and the clinical manifestation,pathological types,diagnosis and treatment were analyzed retrospectively.Results In all 45 cases,36 cases (80%) were benign and 9 cases(20%) were malignant.The most common benign tumor was the salivary mixed tumor(11 cases) and neurogenic tumors(16 cases).Their common symptom was tumor in the neck or pharyngeal portion,accompanying disorders of swallowing,pharyngodynia,acouesthesia degression and Homer syndrome,etc.CT or MRI provides the useful information such as sizes,shapes and extents of tumors,and the relationship between the tumor and vessels.All tumors were resected completely by the cervical lateral operative approach.The postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy was applied to the patients with malignant tumor.The following-up was carried out from 1 to 10 years,and the data indicated that the patients with benign tumor did not recur,the 3 and 5-year survival rates for the patients with malignant tumor were

  14. Primary cutaneous blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: two case reports%原发皮肤的母细胞性浆细胞样树突细胞肿瘤二例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭芳; 王晓彦; 苗朝阳; 王建峰; 郭付云; 黄彬彬; 张晓艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).Methods The clinical and histopathological manifestation,immunophenotype,treatment and prognosis of BPDCN were analyzed in two patients.Results Both of the patients were female with skin lesions as the initial manifestation.Case 1 presented with purple nodules on the waist,back and left upper limb;histopathological examination revealed that a large number of lymphoid cells diffusely infiltrated the dermis and subcutaneous fat layer,with an uninvolved zone separating the infiltrate from the epidermis.Case 2 presented with a subcutaneous mass around the left knee joint,and histopathological examination showed nodular lymphoid infiltrates in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD4,CD56,CD123 (strong) and Ki-67 (40%),but negative staining for myeloperoxidase and EBER in both cases,and positive staining for TdT in case 1 but not in case 2.A bone marrow biopsy disclosed active hyperplasia of granulocytic cells,erythroid cells and megakaryocytes,and increased proportion of segmented cells.Immunophenotype analysis revealed that bone marrow was unaffected.Blood routine examination showed anemia in both patients.Patient 1 died two months after the final diagnosis.After chemotherapy with VDLP (vincristine,daunorubicin,L-asparagine and dexamethasone) and CHOP (cyclophosphamide,doxorubicin,vincristine,and prednisolone),skin lesions subsided in patient 2 who also received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.At the time of this writing,patient 2 was in good condition with no recurrence of skin lesions.Conclusions BPDCN is a rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapid growth and strong invasion capacity,usually with skin lesions as the initial manifestation.The prognosis of BPDCN is poor and there is no standard treatment.Early diagnosis and timely treatment may improve the prognosis of BPDCN,and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may

  15. Kinase domain mutations confer resistance to novel inhibitors targeting JAK2V617F in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Anagha; Reddy, Mamatha M.; Schade, Georg O.M.; Ray, Arghya; Chowdary, Tirumala K.; Griffin, James D.; Sattler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transforming JAK2V617F kinase is frequently associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and thought to be instrumental for the overproduction of myeloid lineage cells. Several small molecule drugs targeting JAK2 are currently in clinical development for treatment in these diseases. We performed a high-throughput in vitro screen to identify point mutations in JAK2V617F that would be predicted to have potential clinical relevance and associated with drug resistance to the JAK2 inhib...

  16. G-CSF priming, clofarabine, and high dose cytarabine (GCLAC) for upfront treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, advanced myelodysplastic syndrome or advanced myeloproliferative neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Pamela S; Medeiros, Bruno C; Stein, Anthony S; Othus, Megan; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Forman, Stephen J; Scott, Bart L; Hendrie, Paul C; Gardner, Kelda M; Pagel, John M; Walter, Roland B; Parks, Cynthia; Wood, Brent L; Abkowitz, Janis L; Estey, Elihu H

    2015-04-01

    Prior study of the combination of clofarabine and high dose cytarabine with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) priming (GCLAC) in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia resulted in a 46% rate of complete remission despite unfavorable risk cytogenetics. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the remission rate and survival with GCLAC were superior to FLAG (fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF) in the relapsed setting. We therefore initiated a study of the GCLAC regimen in the upfront setting in a multicenter trial. The objectives were to evaluate the rates of complete remission (CR), overall and relapse-free survival (OS and RFS), and toxicity of GCLAC. Clofarabine was administered at 30 mg m(-2) day(-1) × 5 and cytarabine at 2 g m(-2) day(-1) × 5 after G-CSF priming in 50 newly-diagnosed patients ages 18-64 with AML or advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or advanced myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Responses were assessed in the different cytogenetic risk groups and in patients with antecedent hematologic disorder. The overall CR rate was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-88%) and the CR + CRp (CR with incomplete platelet count recovery) was 82% (95% CI 71-93%). The CR rate was 100% for patients with favorable, 84% for those with intermediate, and 62% for those with unfavorable risk cytogenetics. For patients with an antecedent hematologic disorder (AHD), the CR rate was 65%, compared to 85% for those without an AHD. The 60 day mortality was 2%. Thus, front line GCLAC is a well-tolerated, effective induction regimen for AML and advanced myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative disorders. PMID:25545153

  17. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: Review of current knowledge, diagnostic challenges, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Jana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cystic lesions are being detected with increasing frequency, largely due to advances in cross-sectional imaging. The most common neoplasms include serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS are currently used as imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, and enables an assessment of tumor markers, cytology, chemistries, and DNA analysis. Here, we review the current literature on pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including classification, diagnosis, treatment, and recommendations for surveillance. Data for this manuscript was acquired via searching the literature from inception to December 2014 on PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE.

  18. Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with

  19. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krhin Blaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC.

  20. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krhin Blaz; Goricar Katja; Gazic Barbara; Dolzan Vita; Besic Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC).

  1. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  2. 异基因造血干细胞移植治疗母细胞性浆细胞样树突细胞肿瘤%Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红升; 许娜; 孙竞; 邓永键; 江千里; 余国攀; 刘启发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with intensified conditioning regimen followed by rapidly tapering immunosuppressants and sequential minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) post-transplantation on outcome of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).Methods Two cases of BPDCN from January 2009 to May 2011 in Nanfang hospital were diagnosed according to 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.Case 1 initially presented with typical cutaneous involvement and was promptly diagnosed with CD+4CD+56LCA+TdT+CD+43 BPDCN by skin biopsy.Case 2 was recognized as acute lymphocyte leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia,which was diagnosed to BPDCN at recurrence through flow cytometry analysis.Total-body-irradiation plus cyclophosphamide based intensified conditioning regimen were followed by allo-HSCT from sibling donor.Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate.Anti-thymocyteglobulin was included additionally for haploid donor allo-HSCT.Multi-color labeling flow cytometry was performed to monitor MRD.Rapidly tapering of prophylactic immunosuppressants and sequential MRD-guided donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) were performed to control relapse of primary malignancy.Results Two cases of BPDCN received allo-HSCT from sibling donor after intensified conditioning regimen.Both patients achieved complete remission and complete donor engraftment.Case 1 survived refractory acyclovir-resistant Epstein-Barr virus viremia benefiting from preemptive treatment with rituximab and DLI-induced grade Ⅳ acute GVHD,but died of thrombotic microangiopathy mixed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and sepsis on +243 days.Case 2 relapsed just 2 months after allo-HSCT despite DLI and rapidly tapering of CsA,died of sepsis followed by diffuse intravascular coagulation on +101 days.Conclusion BPDCN is

  3. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  4. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. 9 CFR 311.11 - Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neoplasms. 311.11 Section 311.11... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.11 Neoplasms. (a) An individual organ or other part of a carcass affected with a neoplasm shall be condemned. If there is...

  6. Pediatric T- and NK-cell lymphomas: new biologic insights and treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mallawany, NK; Frazer, JK; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Ferrando, AA; Perkins, S; Lim, M.; Chu, Y; Cairo, MS

    2012-01-01

    T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas are challenging childhood neoplasms. These cancers have varying presentations, vast molecular heterogeneity, and several are quite unusual in the West, creating diagnostic challenges. Over 20 distinct T- and NK-cell neoplasms are recognized by the 2008 World Health Organization classification, demonstrating the diversity and potential complexity of these cases. In pediatric populations, selection of optimal therapy poses an additional quandary, as mos...

  7. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a report of 6 cases%胰腺囊性肿瘤的诊断及治疗研究进展:附6例病例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasm is mainly divided into four types, serous cystic neoplasm (SCN), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMN) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN). In recent years, due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen, the incidence of PCN is increasing; however, most of these lesions are difficult to make a correct classification. Imaging features of the cyst is the main evidence to identify the type of PCN. Al the cystic tumors of pancreas, including those already got a clear diagnosis and smal lesion with obvious symptoms, should be treated with surgery. The majority can get long—term survival with complete tumor resection.%胰腺囊性肿瘤(pancreatic cystic neoplasms,PCN)主包括浆液性囊腺瘤(serous cystic neoplasm,SCN)、黏液性囊腺瘤(mutinous cystic neoplasm,MCN)、导管内乳头状黏液性囊腺瘤(intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm,IPMN)及实性假乳头状瘤(solid pseudopapillary neoplasm,SPN)等.近年来,随着影像学诊断技术的进展,CT与磁共振的广泛应用,胰腺囊性肿瘤的检出率较前有所提高,但尚不能完全准确区分其组织类型,也没有统一的治疗方案.影像学是PCNs鉴别诊断的主依据.对于有明显症状、确诊或可疑恶性的PCNs,积极根治性手术治疗可提高大多数患者长期生存率.

  8. Primary research on neoplasm needle track implantation metastasis after radioactive seeds implantation and preventive measures%放射性粒子植入导致肿瘤针道种植转移及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wang; Weihong Gong; Huige Fan; Aixia Sui; Na Zhao; Yongqing Shen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the possibility of neoplasm needle track implantation after radioactive seeds implantation and seek preventive measures to avoid it. Methods: Superficial tissue of 250 seeding needle cores and 250 stylophores employed in neoplasm radioactive seeds implantation was smeared on slides to search for tumor cells. All patients received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy after operations. Ultrasound B-mode or computer tomography (CT) was performed at 10th day, 30th day, 60th day, and 180th day post operation to detect neoplasm implantation metastasis through needle tracks.Results: Positive cells were found on 13 of 250 (5.20%) cores, and 7 of 250 (2.80%) stylophores. The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The positive cells frequency of needles those traversed distance less than 3 cm in normal tissue was 6.19% (13/210), while the frequency of the others those traversed longer distance in normal tissue was 2.41% (7/290).The positive cells frequency of needles traversing different distances in normal tissues is significantly different (P < 0.05). No neoplasm was detected through needle tracks by ultrasound B-mode or CT in 180 days after operation. Conclusion: Tumor cells could ablate into the needle track during radioactive seed implantation. Some preventive measures, such as optimization of pre-operation and intra-operation treatment plan, chemotherapy or endocrine therapy after operation, may be beneficial to avoid the implantation metastasis of neoplasm in seeding needle tracks.

  9. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vidal Campregher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  10. Cryotherapy of skeletal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed MR examinations in six patients with giant cell tumor or chondrosarcoma who had undergone surgical curettage and subsequent cryotherapy. In five cases, the authors found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins consistent with cryotherapy injury to medullary bone. This zone appeared dark or intermediate in intensity on T1-weighted images and bright on T2-weighted and short inversion recovery (STIR) images, suggesting tissue edema. In one case, this marginal zone grew for 3 months as the cryotherapy injury evolved. These findings should be expected after cryotherapy and should not be confused with recurrent tumor

  11. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. METHODS AND FINDING: The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  13. Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-05

    Adult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  14. Longitudinal trends in use of targeted therapies for treatment of malignant neoplasms of the eye: a population-based study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jason C.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Lu, Vicky H; Christine Y Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the recent trend in use and costs of antineoplastic agents for treatment of eye malignancies in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012. We also forecasted use and costs of targeted therapies up to and including year 2016 based on the current patterns. Design: Retrospective observational study focusing on the usage of targeted therapies for treatment of eye malignancy. Setting: The monthly claims data for eye malignancy-related antineoplastic agents were retrieved from Taiwan...

  15. Changes in the profile of simple mucin-type O-glycans and polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in human testis and testicular neoplasms are associated with germ cell maturation and tumour differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Poll, S N; Goukasian, I;

    2007-01-01

    -type O-glycans (Tn, sialyl-Tn, T), histo-blood group H and A variants and six polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (T1-4, T6, T11) that control the site and density of O-glycosylation were analysed by immunohistochemistry during human testis development and in TGCT. Normal testis showed a restricted pattern......; gonocytes expressed abundant sialyl-Tn and sialyl-T, and adult spermatogonia were devoid of any glycans, whereas spermatocytes and spermatids expressed exclusively glycans Tn and T and the GalNAc-T3 isoform. A subset of mature ejaculated spermatozoa expressed an additional glycan sialyl-T. The pattern found...... in testicular neoplasms recapitulated the developmental order: Pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells and seminoma expressed fetal type sialylated glycans in keeping with their gonocyte-like phenotype. Neither simple mucin-type O-glycans nor GalNAc-transferase isoforms were found in undifferentiated...

  16. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Sivamani, Raja K; Nasim Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other su...

  17. The radiological and histopathological differential diagnosis of chordoid neoplasms in skull base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Bin-cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chordoid neoplasms refer to tumors appearing to have histological features of embryonic notochord, which is characterized by cords and lobules of neoplastic cells arranged within myxoid matrix. Because of radiological and histological similarities with myxoid matrix and overlapping immunohistochemical profile, chordoma, chordoid meningioma, chordoid glioma, and rare extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma enter in the radiological and histological differential diagnosis at the site of skull base. However, there is always a great challenge for histopathologists to make an accurate diagnosis when encountering a chordoid neoplasm within or near the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to investigate and summarize the radiological, histological features and immunohistochemical profiles of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, and to find a judicious panel of immunostains to unquestionably help in diagnostically challenging cases. Methods A total of 23 cases of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, including 10 chordomas, 5 chordoid meningiomas, 3 chordoid gliomas and 5 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University and Guangdong Tongjiang Hospital. MRI examination was performed on the patients before surgical treatment. Microscopical examination and immunohistochemical staining study using vimentin (Vim, pan-cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, S?100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, D2-40, Galectin-3, CD3, CD20, Ki-67 were performed on the samples of cases. The clinicopathological data of the patients was also analyzed retrospectively. Results Most of chordomas were localized in the clivus with heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2WI scanning. The breakage of clivus was observed in most cases. Histologically, the tumor cells of chordoma exhibited bland nuclear features and some contained abundant vacuolated cytoplasm (the so

  18. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Noa Lavi

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (...

  19. Advances in the Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Singh, Aviral; Baum, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Somatostatin receptor PET/CT using (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs, is a mainstay for the evaluation of the somatostatin receptor status in neuroendocrine neoplasms. In addition, the assessment of glucose metabolism by (18)F-FDG PET/CT at diagnosis can overcome probable shortcomings of histopathologic grading. This offers a systematic theranostic approach for the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms, that is, patient selection for the appropriate treatment-surgery, somatostatin analogs, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, targeted therapies like everolimus and sunitinib, or chemotherapy-and also for therapy response monitoring. Novel targets, for example, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in higher-grade tumors and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor in insulinomas, appear promising for imaging. Scandium-44 and Copper-64, especially on account of their longer half-life (for pretherapeutic dosimetry) and cyclotron production (which favors mass production), might be the potential alternatives to (68)Ga for PET/CT imaging. The future of molecular imaging lies in Radiomics, that is, qualitative and quantitative characterization of tumor phenotypes in correlation with tumor genomics and proteomics, for a personalized cancer management. PMID:27553465

  20. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  1. A hostel for the hostile: the bone marrow niche in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Daniela S; Scadden, David T

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of the biology of the normal hematopoietic stem cell niche has increased steadily due to improved murine models and sophisticated imaging tools. Less well understood, but of growing interest, is the interaction between cells in the bone marrow during the initiation, maintenance and treatment of hematologic neoplasms. This review summarizes the emerging concepts of the normal and leukemic hematopoietic bone marrow niche. Furthermore, it reviews current models of how the microenvironment of the bone marrow may contribute to or be modified by leukemogenesis. Finally, it provides the rationale for a "two-pronged" approach, directly targeting cancer cells themselves while also targeting the bone microenvironment to make it inhospitable to malignant cells and, ultimately, eradicating cancer stem-like cells. PMID:26521296

  2. Genomic Sequencing in Determining Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Cancer or Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Metastatic Neoplasm; Recurrent Neoplasm; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Unresectable Malignant Neoplasm

  3. Molecular approach to diagnose BCR/ABL negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Maccarini Barcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms arise from clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. According to the World Health Organization myeloproliferative neoplasms are classified as: chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, primary myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome, mast cell disease, and unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms. In the revised 2008 WHO diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms, mutation screening for JAK2V617F is considered a major criterion for polycythemia vera diagnosis and also for essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, the presence of this mutation represents a clonal marker. There are currently two hypotheses explaining the role of the JAK2V617F mutation in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. According to these theories, the mutation plays either a primary or secondary role in disease development. The discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation has been essential in understanding the genetic basis of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, providing some idea on how a single mutation can result in three different chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm phenotypes. But there are still some issues to be clarified. Thus, studies are still needed to determine specific molecular markers for each subtype of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm.

  4. Tongue and tongue epithelial exfoliated cells in gastrointestinal neoplasms%舌象及舌上皮脱落细胞与胃肠道肿瘤的关系∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩书文; 胡捷; 陈妍; 吉兆宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the tongue and the tongue epithelial exfoliated cells differences between different types of tissue dif-ferentiation in gastrointestinal neoplasms. Methods:The clinical data, the tongue and the tongue coating epithelium exfoliated cells of 58 cases of patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms admitted in the first affiliated hospital of the Wannan Medical college from September 15, 2013 to March 15 were recruited. According to the pathological tissue classification, they were divided into well-differentiated group, differentiation group and low differentiation group. Twenty cases of normal tongue and the tongue epithelium exfoliated cells were recruited as the control group. The tongues were analyzed by the tongue diagnostic information acquisition system. The apoptosis ratio of the tongue epithelial exfoliated cells were detected by flow cytometry. Results:The thickness of tongue coating was increased gradually in the control group, well-differentiated group, differentiation group and low differentiation group and the apoptosis ratio of the tongue epithelial cells was dropped gradually in these groups. Conclusion:The thickness of tongue coating and the apoptosis ratio of the tongue epithelial exfolia-ted cells might be associated with the types of tissue differentiation in gastrointestinal neoplasms.%目的::探讨胃肠道肿瘤与舌象及舌上皮脱落细胞的关系。方法:搜集2013年9月15日~2014年3月15日皖南医学院第一附属医院收治的58例胃肠道肿瘤患者病历资料、舌象及舌苔上皮脱落细胞。根据病理组织分型分为高分化组、中分化组、低分化组3组,搜集20例正常人的舌象及舌上皮脱落细胞作为对照组。采用舌面诊测信息采集系统分析各组的舌象,使用流式细胞仪检测各组舌上皮脱落上皮细胞的凋亡比例。结果:对照组、高分化组、中分化组、低分化组,舌象分析中厚苔比例逐渐升高,细胞的凋

  5. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben;

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  6. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  8. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina;

    2016-01-01

    in the pancreas, metastatic disease at diagnosis and higher tumour grade were all associated with a significantly poorer survival. CONCLUSION: None of the patients with p-dSOM presented with the full somatostatinoma syndrome. Prognostic factors are localisation of the primary tumour, dissemination and tumour......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...... with duodenal SOM the m/f ratio was 4/5. All males and one female had NF-1. Seven patients had stage 1A-B and 2 had stage 2B disease. The Ki-67 index was 1-5% (median 2%). Plasma somatostatin was elevated in patients with 2B disease. Of the 14 patients with pancreatic SOM or unknown primary tumour the m/f ratio...

  9. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970246 Detection of point mutations of p53 gene bynon-isotopic PCR-SSCP in paraffin-embedded malig-nant mesothelioma tissue. LUO Suqiong(罗素琼), etal. Pneumoconiosis Res Unit, Public Health Sch,West-China Med Univ, Chengdu, 610041. Chin J Ind

  10. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许元富

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Using monoclonal antibody PHMA02, we determined the expression of Pgp in 148 patients with cancers. The specificity of PHMA02 concordance rate between detectability and clinical outcome and accuracy of prognosis were evaluated.

  11. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2003034 NOEY2 gene mRNA expression in breast cancer tissue and its relation to clinicopathological parameters. SHI Zonggao ( 施宗高 ), et al. Molec Pathol Lab, Fudan Univ Cancer Hosp, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Oncol 2002;24(5) :475 - 478.Objective: To investigate the expression of NOEY2 gene in breast cancer tissue and its relation to clinico-

  12. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004193 Quantitation and detection of deletion in tumor mitochondrial DNA by microarray technique.HAN Chengbo (韩琤波), et al. Tumor Instit, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Oncol 2004;26(1):10-13.Objective: To develop a method to rapidly quanti-tate and detect deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtD-

  13. NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2003172 Impact of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 on resistance of ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids to taxol. XING Hui(刑辉), et al. Dept Ob-stetr Gynecol.Tongji Hosp.Tongiji Med Coll, Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Wuhan 430030. Nad Med J China 2003;83(1):37-43.

  14. An update on the management of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips AA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrienne A Phillips1, Colette Owens2, Sangmin Lee1, Govind Bhagat31Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs comprise a rare and heterogeneous subset of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs that arise from post-thymic T-cells or natural killer (NK-cells at nodal or extranodal sites. Worldwide, PTCLs represent approximately 12% of all NHLs and the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO classification includes over 20 biologically and clinically distinct T/NK-cell neoplasms that differ significantly in presentation, pathology, and response to therapy. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, large clinical trials have not been conducted and optimal therapy is not well defined. Most subtypes are treated with similar combination chemotherapy regimens as used for aggressive B-cell NHL, but with poorer outcomes. New treatment combinations and novel agents are currently being explored for PTCLs and this review highlights a number of options that appear promising.Keywords: treatment, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, novel therapy, natural-killer cells

  15. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  16. Clinical Features of 294 Turkish Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Andıç

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs share common clonal stem cells but show significant differences in their clinical courses. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications, JAK2 status, gastrointestinal and cardiac changes, treatment modalities, and survival in MPNs in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: Medical files of 294 patients [112 essential thrombocythemia (ET, 117 polycythemia vera (PV, 46 primary myelofibrosis, and 19 unclassified MPN cases] from 2 different universities in Turkey were examined. Results: Older age, higher leukocyte count at diagnosis, and JAK2 mutation positivity were risk factors for thrombosis. Platelet count over 1000x109/L was a risk factor for hemorrhagic episodes. Hydroxyurea treatment was not related to leukemic transformation. Median follow-up time was 50 months (quartiles: 22.2-81.75 in these patients. Patients with primary myelofibrosis had the shortest survival of 137 months when compared with 179 months for ET and 231 months for PV. Leukemic transformation, thromboembolic events, age over 60 years, and anemia were found to be the factors affecting survival. Conclusion: Thromboembolic complications are the most important preventable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in MPNs. Drug management in MPNs is done according to hemoglobin and platelet counts. Based on the current study population our results support the idea that leukocytosis and JAK2 positivity are more important risk factors for thrombosis than hemoglobin and platelet values.

  17. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  18. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalakshmi V; Chandran Philip; Selvambigai,; Ganesh Jai

    2009-01-01

    Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare...

  19. Giant Cell Tumor: Role of Conservative Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anatolii Diedkov[1; Pavlo Kovalchuk[1; Marija Kukushkina[2; Sergey Bojchuk[1; Viktor Kostyuk[1

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell tumor is aggressive bone tumor. Surgical treatment is considered to be the only effective method of treatment ofthese tumors. The problem of inoperable patients with giant cell tumors is a challenge. A total of 8 patients had giant cell bone tumorsof pelvis and sacrum. 3 patients were treated by bisphosphonates, radiation therapy and embolization of tumor-nutrient arteries. 5patients received denosumab. The efficiency was assessed according to clinical data and CT scan control. Median follow up is 28months. All 8 patients had reduction of pain intensity. Treatment with denosumab demonstrated more than 30% tumor regression. Allof the patients are in remission.

  20. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  1. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. In stage I , cancer is found in one ... in the abdomen ) or in washings of the peritoneum ( tissue lining the peritoneal cavity). Stage II Enlarge ...

  2. Benefits of a combined approach to sampling of renal neoplasms as demonstrated in a series of 351 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Graham E; Perkins, Louis Allen; Zagoria, Ronald J; Garvin, Abbott Julian; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont Joseph; Geisinger, Kim R

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is increasingly used for curative treatment of primary cancers of the kidney. We reviewed our experience of percutaneous sampling performed under computed tomographic guidance with fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core biopsy (CB), and we report on the complementary roles of these 2 techniques in a series of 351 consecutive patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for renal neoplasms. Both FNAB and CB were obtained in 290 cases, of which 156 patients (54%) were positive for neoplasm in both specimens, and 27 (9%) were negative for tumor in both specimens. In 58 (20%) patients, the FNABs were positive, but the CBs were negative, and the reverse occurred in 11 patients (4%). When suspicious interpretations by FNAB and CB are included as positives in the calculations, both their complementary nature and the relative higher diagnostic yield of FNAB persisted. In 25 cases with FNABs positive for neoplasm, the CB allowed a more specific tumor classification. The 19 cases of FNAB which were read as negative/benign had corresponding CBs that were also negative/benign in 13 cases; yet, 6 were diagnostic of renal cell carcinoma not otherwise specified (1 case), renal cell carcinoma clear cell/conventional (4 cases), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1 case). These and additional findings illustrate the complementary value of the combination of the 2 biopsy methods for a reliable pretherapy morphologic confirmation of specific renal neoplasms. FNAB has relatively greater sensitivity and utility for on-site evaluation, whereas CB provides an additional sample for more specific subclassification and additional studies. PMID:21552112

  3. Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic neoplasms of pancreas are rare lesions. Following the Compagno-Oertel classification, we differenciate serous microcystic adenomas (SMA) from mucinous macrocystic adenomas/adenocarcinomas (MMA). The former are benign tumors with slow growth, composed by innumerable small and tiny cystic with centra calcifications, resulting in a ''honeycomb'' pattern. They have a mixed US structure while CT densitometric values reflect a mixture of connective tissue and proteinaceous fluid. Postcontrast enhancement is frequently seen. MMA are potential (adenoma) or frankly (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumors. They appears as moltilocular cystic masses containing septa and/or papillary bulgings, with thickened walls. Both US and CT demonstrate their predominantly cystic character, and the eventual presence of excrescences. WE report a series of 23 cases (6 SMA, 17 MMA) of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas studied during the past five years. A correct diagnosis of SMA was possible in all 6 cases, while MMA was correctly diagnosed in 17 out of 18 cases. There were no false negatives, and 1 falsa positive. All differential diagnoses are also discussed

  4. The Use of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for the Study and Treatment of Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Marc C; Davila, Julio C; Vosough, Massoud; Gramignoli, Roberto; Skvorak, Kristen J; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Blake, William; Strom, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a major global health concern. Liver cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death in the world and currently the only therapeutic option for end-stage liver disease (e.g., acute liver failure, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, cholestatic diseases, metabolic diseases, and malignant neoplasms) is orthotropic liver transplantation. Transplantation of hepatocytes has been proposed and used as an alternative to whole organ transplant to stabilize and prolong the lives of patients in some clinical cases. Although these experimental therapies have demonstrated promising and beneficial results, their routine use remains a challenge due to the shortage of donor livers available for cell isolation, variable quality of those tissues, the potential need for lifelong immunosuppression in the transplant recipient, and high costs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies and more reliable clinical treatments are urgently needed. Recent and continuous technological advances in the development of stem cells suggest they may be beneficial in this respect. In this review, we summarize the history of stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology in the context of hepatic differentiation and discuss the potential applications the technology may offer for human liver disease modeling and treatment. This includes developing safer drugs and cell-based therapies to improve the outcomes of patients with currently incurable health illnesses. We also review promising advances in other disease areas to highlight how the stem cell technology could be applied to liver diseases in the future. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26828329

  5. Radiation-induced glioma following CyberKnife® treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedalthagafi Malak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-stereotactic radiation-induced neoplasms, although relatively rare, have raised the question of benefit regarding CyberKnife® treatments versus the risk of a secondary malignancy. The incidence of such neoplasms arising in the nervous system is thought to be low, given the paucity of case reports regarding such secondary lesions. Case presentation Here we describe a case of a 43-year-old Middle Eastern woman with primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a metastatic focus to the left brain parenchyma who presented with focal neurologic deficits. Following post-surgical stereotactic radiation in the region of the brain metastasis, the patient developed a secondary high-grade astrocytoma nearly 5 years after the initial treatment. Conclusion Although the benefit of CyberKnife® radiotherapy treatments continues to outweigh the relatively low risk of a radiation-induced secondary malignancy, knowledge of such risks and a review of the literature are warranted.

  6. Subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Daniel C; Nathan, Paul C; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS. Better understanding of the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer could lead to more informed screening guidelines. Two investigators independently did a systematic search of Medline and Embase (from January, 1966, through March, 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer. Articles were selected to answer three questions: what is the risk of CNS tumours after radiation to the cranium for a paediatric cancer, compared with the risk in the general population; what are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who received CNS-directed radiation for a paediatric cancer; and, are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 were included in this Review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8·1-52·3-times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation, and some studies showed a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumours. 5-year survival ranged from 0-19·5% for subsequent high-grade gliomas and 57·3-100% for meningiomas, which are similar rates to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up, and small sample sizes. We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who received cranial radiation therapy have an increased risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment about the potential harms and benefits of routine screening for subsequent CNS neoplasms.

  7. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  8. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  9. Ultrasonography a useful adjunctive in management of thyroid neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Latoo, Manzoor; Lateef, Mohammed; Kirmani, Omar

    2007-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been the gold standard of diagnosis in case of thyroid neoplasm. However ultrasonography of thyroid neoplasm is a useful guide for an operating thyroid surgeon. We in our study evaluated patients of thyroid neoplasm with USG thyroid & studied its role in the therapeutic management of neoplasm. In our study of 10 patients of thyroid neoplasm we found USG of the thyroid neoplasm as a valuable guide in management.

  10. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic approaches to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian G; Brugge, William R

    2010-10-27

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly identified on routine imaging. One specific lesion, known as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), is a mucinous, pancreatic lesion characterized by papillary cells projecting from the pancreatic ductal epithelium. The finding of mucin extruding from the ampulla is essentially pathognomonic for diagnosing these lesions. IPMNs are of particular interest due to their malignant potential. Lesions range from benign, adenomatous growths to high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. These mucinous lesions therefore require immediate attention to determine the probability of malignancy and whether observation or resection is the best management choice. Unresected lesions need long-term surveillance monitoring for malignant transformation. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is particularly challenging due to the substantial similarities in morphology of pancreatic cystic lesions and limitations in current imaging technologies. Endoscopic evaluation of these lesions provides additional imaging, molecular, and histologic data to aid in the identification of IPMN and to determine treatment course. The aim of this article is to focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic approaches to IPMN.

  12. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  13. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37–88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2–3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function

  14. Renal Function Outcomes for Multifocal Renal Neoplasms Managed by Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pushpender, E-mail: pugupta@wakehealth.edu; Allen, Brian C., E-mail: bcallen2@wakehealth.edu; Chen, Michael Y., E-mail: mchen@wakehealth.edu; Childs, David D., E-mail: dchilds@wakehealth.edu; Kota, Gopi, E-mail: gkota@wakehealth.edu; Zagoria, Ronald J., E-mail: rzagoria@wakehealth.edu [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate renal function changes related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms. Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study of all patients treated with computed tomography guided RFA for multifocal renal neoplasms at one institution. Fifty-seven subjects, mean age 70 (range 37-88) years, underwent RFA of 169 renal neoplasms (average size 2.0 cm). Subjects had between 2 and 8 (mean 2.96) neoplasms ablated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured before and after RFA. Complications related to RFA were recorded. Results: eGFR decreased on average of 4.4 % per tumor treated and 6.7 % per ablation session (average 1.76 tumors treated per session). For subjects with the largest neoplasm measuring >3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 14.5 % during the course of their treatment. If the largest neoplasm measured 2-3 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 7.7 %, and if the largest neoplasm measured <2 cm, eGFR decreased an average of 3.8 %. Subjects with reduced baseline renal function were more likely to have a greater decline in eGFR after RFA. There was a minor complication rate of 6.3 % (6 of 96 sessions), none of which required treatment, and a major complication rate of 4.2 % (4 of 96 sessions). Conclusion: RFA for the treatment of multifocal renal neoplasms results in mild decline of renal function.

  15. The Role of mTOR Inhibitors for the Treatment of B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelopi Argyriou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the majority of lymphomas initially respond to treatment, many patients relapse and die from disease that is refractory to current regimens. The need for new treatment strategies in lymphomas has led to the investigation and evaluation of novel agents that target cellular pathways. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a representative pathway that may be implicated in lymphomagenesis. Rapamycin and especially its derivatives (temsirolimus, everolimus, and deforolimus represent the first described mTOR inhibitors. These agents have shown promising results in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. On the other hand, new ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors that provoke a broader inhibition of mTOR activity are in early stages of clinical development. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge about mTOR inhibitors and their use in the treatment of B-cell lymphomas. Relevant issues regarding mTOR biology in general as well as in B-cell lymphoid neoplasms are also discussed in short.

  16. Pseudomyxoma peritonei caused by ruptured intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sun; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Yi, Boem Ha; KIm, Hee Kyung; Jung, Jun Chul; Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon disease characterized by the seeding of mucin-secreting tumor cells throughout the abdomen and accumulation of mucin in the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are defined as pancreatic neoplasms that accumulate mucin within dilated ducts. Only a few cases of pancreatic IPMNs are associated with extra-pancreatic mucin and lead to PMP. This manuscript describes an unusual case of PMP caused by ruptured pancreatic IPMN.

  17. Concomitant radio chemotherapy with cisplatin-etoposide in inoperable non small cells bronchial neoplasms stage III: toward an improvement of local control and of survive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of etoposide to cisplatin in the framework of a concomitant radio chemotherapy is susceptible to improve the local control of the non at small cells bronchial carcinomas with an improvement of survive until two years. Results with fifty patients stage III are described

  18. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms using a novel method of DNA methylation analysis of mucin expression in pancreatic juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Mucins (MUC play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Our immunohistochemistry (IHC studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type; MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type; High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel 'methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE' method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms.

  19. WHO classification 2008 of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Ann B; Bondo, Henrik; Stamp, Inger;

    2015-01-01

    We examined the learning effect of a workshop for Danish hematopathologists led by an international expert regarding histological subtyping of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Six hematopathologists evaluated 43 bone marrow (BM) biopsies according to the WHO description (2008), blinded to...

  20. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...

  1. Premalignant cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeja, Vikas; Allen, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Due to increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are frequently being diagnosed. Many of these cysts have premalignant potential and offer a unique opportunity for cancer prevention. Mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the major premalignant cystic neoplasms of pancreas. The prediction of the risk of malignancy (incidental and future risk of malignant transformation) and balancing the risks of watchful waiting with that of operative management with associated mortality and morbidity is the key to the management of these lesions. We review the literature that has contributed to the development of our approach to the management of these cystic neoplasms. We provide an overview of the key features used in diagnosis and in predicting malignancy. Particular attention is given to the natural history and management decision making.

  2. Panorama of neoplasms of upper GI tract: a 5 year research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Suman Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Results: we have received 120 specimens regarding the upper gastrointestinal system. Among these 120 specimens, 71 specimens were endoscopic biopsies and 49 specimens were surgically resected specimens. Out of 71 Endoscopic biopsies 28 biopsies were malignant among which 2 was esophagus and 26 were stomach. Out of 49 surgically resected specimens 1 was benign and 32 were malignant tumors. Out of 59 neoplasms of stomach there were single cases each of Sub mucosal Lipoma, Malignant lymphoma, GIST and 56 cases of Adenocarcinoma and its variants were noted. Conclusion: Most of the neoplasms are of stomach (97%. All the neoplasms are malignant except one benign lesion sub mucous lipoma of stomach. Most of the neoplasms of stomach were Adenocarcinoma (96.5%. Both tumors of esophagus were squamous cell carcinoma occurred after 50 years of age. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1313-1320

  3. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  4. A Phase I Study of iPS Cell Generation From Patients With COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Thoracic Diseases; Respiratory Tract Diseases; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; COPD; Pulmonary Emphysema; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Carcinoma, Small Cell

  5. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes. PMID:27634860

  6. Future therapies for the myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherber, Robyn; Mesa, Ruben A

    2011-03-01

    Ever since their description as "myeloproliferative syndromes" by William Dameshek in 1951, the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have been managed by the selective use of rather mundane, nonspecific therapies that rely on either antiplatelet effects or myelosuppression. The year 2005 ushered in a new era of drug development and discovery for the MPNs after the description of the JAK2 V617F mutation and the role this constitutively active tyrosine kinase has in MPN pathogenesis. Subsequently, multiple pharmacologic agents have begun (or are about to begin) testing for the inhibition of JAK2 in an attempt to improve the treatment of MPNs. Both primary myelofibrosis and myelofibrosis following essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera have been the targets of the most extensive testing of these agents to date. Responses to these oral JAK2 inhibitors have been primarily intended to reduce splenomegaly and meaningfully improve symptoms; effects on the JAK2 V617F allele burden or marrow histology are limited. Toxicities have ranged from myelosuppression to significant diarrhea. Additional agents with other mechanisms of action are also targeting JAK2, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The results of preliminary trials of JAK2 inhibitors in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia have been mixed but are premature. Many questions remain as to the optimal JAK2 inhibitory strategy and the full extent of the benefit of single-agent JAK2 inhibition.

  7. Comparison of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast and primary invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Kim, Stacey A; DeLair, Deborah F; Bose, Shikha; Laury, Anna R; Chopra, Shefali; Mertens, Richard B; Dhall, Deepti

    2016-08-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast may show considerable morphologic overlap with primary mammary carcinomas, particularly those showing evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation, and may be misdiagnosed as such. Accurate distinction between these two entities is crucial for determination of appropriate clinical management. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast were studied and compared with the features of primary invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, which served as controls. Of the metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, 15 were well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors with carcinoid tumor-type morphology and 7 were poorly differentiated/high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas with small-cell or large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma morphology. The majority of the metastatic neoplasms originated in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. There were histologic similarities between metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, both of which exhibited neuroendocrine histologic features (nested and trabecular architecture, minimal tubular differentiation, and characteristic nuclear features). Only one case of the invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation was modified Bloom-Richardson grade 1 (largely due to minimal tubular differentiation on most such tumors), and the invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were often associated with in situ carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was helpful in distinguishing metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms from invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whereas the majority of invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were positive for estrogen receptor and GATA3, metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms were typically negative for estrogen receptor and GATA3, and metastatic well

  8. Origin and Molecular Pathology of Adrenocortical Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, M.; Parviainen, H.; Kiiveri, S.; Heikinheimo, M.; Wilson, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Neoplastic adrenocortical lesions are common in humans and several species of domestic animals. Although there are unanswered questions about the origin and evolution of adrenocortical neoplasms, analysis of human tumor specimens and animal models indicates that adrenocortical tumorigenesis involves both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Chromosomal changes accumulate during tumor progression, and aberrant telomere function is one of the key mechanisms underlying chromosome instability during this process. Epigenetic changes serve to expand the size of the uncommitted adrenal progenitor population, modulate their phenotypic plasticity (i.e., responsiveness to extracellular signals), and increase the likelihood of subsequent genetic alterations. Analyses of heritable and spontaneous types of human adrenocortical tumors have documented alterations in either cell surface receptors or their downstream effectors that impact neoplastic transformation. Many of the mutations associated with benign human adrenocortical tumors result in dysregulated cyclic AMP signaling, whereas key factors/signaling pathways associated with adrenocortical carcinomas include dysregulated expression of the IGF2 gene cluster, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. A better understanding of the factors and signaling pathways involved in adrenal tumorigenesis is necessary to develop targeted pharmacologic and genetic therapies. PMID:19261630

  9. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  10. Lactobacillus in Preventing Infection in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  11. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare the child from the ill effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this communication we describe the gross and microscopic features of metanephric stromal tumor in a one-month-old child with good prognosis.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF CYTOLOGICAL IMPRINT IN THYROID FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pustaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy/FNAB examination, imprint cytology and frozen section intraoperative has big implications for diagnosis and surgical strategy of thyroid nodules with follicular neoplasm cytology. FNAB and frozen section has its limitations, it is difficultto detect the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Whereas imprint cytology can preserve cellular overview (especially the cell nucleus, including the capsular and/or vascular invasion. In addition, imprint cytology is faster than frozen section. Frozen sectionexamination could not indicate the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion in most cases so that imprint cytology is used to replace frozen section as an alternative.Method: This research is a diagnostic test study using a descriptive design. This is a prospective study to assess the sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of imprint cytology in patients with thyroid follicular neoplasm cytology. Results: In our study; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of imprint cytology for follicular neoplasm was found as 84.21%, 95.45%, 94.12%, 87.50% and 90.24% respectively. The outcome was based on likelihood ratio value of 18.21 and the ROC curve, area under the curve obtained at 0.879 and Kappa value of 0.802.Conclusion: Imprint cytology has a value of a gooddiagnostic validity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specifity values of 84.21% and 95.45%. Imprint cytology is a technique that is simple, inexpensive, and has good reliability so that it can be used instead of frozen section.

  13. Thyroid malignant neoplasm-associated biomarkers as targets for oncolytic virotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingxu; Ma, Yanping; Shah, Sahil Rajesh; Romano, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers associated with thyroid malignant neoplasm (TMN) have been widely applied in clinical diagnosis and in research oncological programs. The identification of novel TMN biomarkers has greatly improved the efficacy of clinical diagnosis. A more accurate diagnosis may lead to better clinical outcomes and effective treatments. However, the major deficiency of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is lack of specificity. Due to the macrokinetic interactions, adverse side effects will occur, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Therefore, a new treatment is urgently needed. As an alternative approach, oncolytic virotherapy may represent an opportunity for treatment strategies that can more specifically target tumor cells. In most cases, viral entry requires the expression of specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. Currently, molecular virologists and gene therapists are working on engineering oncolytic viruses with altered tropism for the specific targeting of malignant cells. This review focuses on the strategy of biomarkers for the production of novel TMN oncolytic therapeutics, which may improve the specificity of targeting of tumor cells and limit adverse effects in patients. PMID:27579295

  14. Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  15. Papel da criocirurgia no tratamento das neoplasias cutâneas do segmento cabeça e pescoço: análise de 1900 casos Role of cryosurgery treatment on cutaneous neoplasms of the head and neck: analysis of 1900 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azoubel Antunes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a experiência dos autores na utilização da criocirurgia como tratamento de lesões benignas e malignas da pele e mucosa no segmento cabeça e pescoço. MÉTODO: Os autores realizam um estudo retrospectivo multicêntrico de 1900 casos de pacientes portadores de neoplasias benignas e malignas da cabeça e do pescoço, atendidos e tratados no Centro de Oncologia do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz (CEON/HUOC/UPE, Hospital de C��ncer de Pernambuco (HCP e clínica privada, no período de abril de 1977 a abril de 2002 (25 anos. Comparam, ainda, os dados obtidos com a revisão bibliográfica realizada, bem como sua experiência pessoal na utilização de tal modalidade terapêutica. RESULTADOS: Do total de pacientes, 57,9% eram do sexo masculino e a quinta e sexta décadas de vida foram as mais frequentemente acometidas (58,9%. O Carcinoma basocelular foi o tipo histológico predominante (63,1% - 1200 casos, seguido dos hemangiomas (14,2% - 270 casos. O tempo médio de exposição das lesões ao nitrogênio líquido foi de 15 e 35 segundos, e o tempo médio de cicatrização de 14 e 21 dias para as lesões benignas e malignas respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A indicação da criocirurgia deve obedecer alguns critérios de avaliação como o aspecto macroscópico e tamanho da lesão, tipo histológico, localização, idade e perfil social de cada paciente. Quando indicada e executada corretamente, oferece idênticos índices de cura aos outros métodos terapêuticos convencionais.BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the authors’ experience on cryosurgery treatment for malignant and benign skin neoplasms on head , neck including mucosa. METHODS: The authors review a multicentric retrospective study of 1900 cases of patients with benign and malignant head and neck neoplasms attended and treated at CEON/HUOC/UPE, HCP and private clinic, from April 1977 to April 2002 (25 years. They also compare the data obtained with the literature

  16. INTRAOPERATIVE ULTRASOUND FOR HEPATIC NEOPLASM DURING SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于健春; 钟守先

    1999-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative ultrasound(IOUS) on the management of patients with neoplasms of the liver. ethods. Forty-nlne patients operated on for liver or other pathologic processes were examined intraoperatively with .5.0 MHz special ultrasound transducers during surgical exploration of the abdomen. Subjects were evaluated because of known or suspected disease of the liver. Preoperative imaging studies izmluded percutaneotts ultrasound (n=49),magnetic resonance imaging(n= ll),and computed tomography(n=34). Intraoparative evaluation on all patients included inspection, bimanual palpation,and ultrasonography.Comparison between preoperative imagings and IOUS were analysed. Results. Sensitivity for detection of hepatic neoplasms showed in intraoperative ultrasound, percutaneotts ultrasound,magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as 100%(23/23),74%(17/23),74%(14/19) and 75 % (6/8). Specificity showed 100% (26/26), 100% (26/26), 93 % (14/15) and 67 (2/3). In seveaa patlents(14%) ,the neoplasms were not found by inspection ,bimanual palpation,and identified only by IOUS. Conclusums. Intraoparative ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific method for detection and surgery of liver neoplasms,especially the occult neoplasms and small size lesion(<2cm).

  17. INTRAOPERATIVE ULTRASOUND FOR HEPATIC NEOPLASM DURING SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective.Th purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative ultrasound(IOUS)on the management of patients with neoplasms of the liver.Methods.Forty-nine patients operated on for liver or other pathologic processes were examined intraopertively with 5.0 MHz special ultrasound transducers during surgical exploration of the abdomen.Subjects were evaluated because of known or suspected disease of the liver.Preoperative imaging studies included percutaneous ultrasound(n=49),magnetic resonance imaging(n=11),and computed tomography(n=34).Intraoperative evaluation on all patients included inspection,bimanual palpation,and ultrasnography.Comparison between preoperative imagings and IOUS were analysed.Results.Sensitivity for detection of hepatic neoplasms showed in intraoperative ultrasound,percutaneous ultrasound,magnetic resonance imaging andcomputed tomography as 100%(23/23),74%(17/23),74%(14/19) and 75%(6/8).Specificity showed 100%(26/26),100%(26/26),93%(14/15) and 67(2/3).In seven patients(14%),the neoplasms were not found by inspection,bimanual palpation,and identified only by IOUS.Conclusions.Intraoperative ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific method for detection and surgery of liver neoplasms,especially the occult neoplasms and small size lesion(<2cm).

  18. 内镜黏膜下剥离术治疗消化道肿瘤的疗效和安全性%Efficiency and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection in the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建民; 费保莹; 徐启顺; 楼国春; 张骏; 厉彩红; 施萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨内镜黏膜下剥离术治疗消化道肿瘤的疗效和安全性.方法 该院2009年6月~2011年12月采用内镜黏膜下剥离术治疗消化道早癌、腺瘤、癌前病变及黏膜膜下肿瘤等病变40例(食管10例,胃25例,直肠5例),术后进行1个月~2.5年的随访,对术后病理、并发症、疗效及随访结果进行回顾分析.结果 平均切除病变大小(2.2±0.81)(1.2 ~ 6.0)cm,平均切除时间(77±28)(20~ 150)min,切除成功率92.5%(37/40),整片完整切除率83.8%(31/37),术后病理诊断早期食管癌4例,早期胃癌及高级别上皮内瘤变6例,直肠侧向生长型腺瘤5例,食管及胃平滑肌瘤5例,胃窦异位胰腺2例,其余18例均为食管及胃黏膜平坦隆起伴低级别上皮内瘤变,术中1例大出血、2例黏膜下侵犯内镜难以切除转外科手术治疗,1例食管平滑肌瘤术中穿孔由内镜钛夹成功封闭,术后迟发性出血2例经内科保守疗法治愈,随访至术后3个月创面均基本愈合,随访期内均未见肿瘤残留与复发.结论 内镜黏膜下剥离术治疗消化道肿瘤安全、有效、可行,但应严格掌握适应证,初学者应加强相关技术培训.%[Objective] To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms.[Methods] Forty patients with early gastrointestinal cancer,adenoma,precancerous lesions or submucous tumors (10 cases in esophagus,25 in stomach and 5 in rectum) were treated by ESD and followed up for 1~30 months in our hospital during 2009 and 2011.We retrospectively analyzed their postoperative pathology,complication,therapeutic effect and safety.[Results] The mean size of the resected lesions was (2.2±0.81) cm (1.2~6.0 cm).The mean operation time was (77±28) minutes (20~150 minutes).Successful resction rate for all patients was 92.5% (37/40) and en bloc resection rate for ESD patients was 83.8%(31/37).The postoperative pathological

  19. Breast cancer as second malignant neoplasm after acute myeloid leukemia: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivors after successful treatment of hematological and lymphoid malignancies are at an increased risk for second malignant neoplasms. As the overall survival has increased in these cancers, solid tumors are emerging as a serious long-term complication. In this article, we describe such a rare occurrence, in literature, of breast cancer after the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  20. Cor Pulmonale Caused by Neoplasm Cell Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Gomes, J; Sá, J.; Pais, D; Tavares, F.

    1993-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de Cor Pulmonale por Embolia de Células Neoplásicas em uma doente de 42 anos sem antecedentes conhecidos de doença maligna. A neoplasia primitiva era um coriocarcinoma que não foi encontrado no exame necrópsico. É brevemente discutida a fisiopatologia, achados clínicos e marcha diagnóstica destas situações.

  1. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  2. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Zhuo; Li; Pei-Hong; Wu

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal(GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimallyor not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

  3. Radiological and surgical management of thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, H; Ikeda, Y; Miyabe, R; Okinaga, H; Kameyama, K; Fukunari, N

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the radiological diagnosis in thyroid neoplasms have been achieved by high-resolution ultrasonography and color-Doppler, and the ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy have been developed on the basis of these modalities. Ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy have made minimally invasive thyroid surgery possible. The surgical procedures are classified into three main categories according to the approach, and each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Surgeons have to select the most suitable approach from one of these categories of approaches for each patient with a thyroid neoplasm. PMID:15271417

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Lung Neoplasms: A Retrospective Study of 329 Cases%射频消融治疗329例肺部恶性肿瘤临床安全及疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢强; 李小飞; 韩勇; 张志培; 闫小龙; 黄立军

    2011-01-01

    目的 射频消融(radiofrequency ablation,RFA)是近年来用于无法手术的肺部恶性肿瘤及肺转移瘤治疗的替代方案.本研究旨在评估肺射频消融术的安全性和临床疗效.方法 本研究回顾性分析1999年10月-2006年7月在第四军医大学唐都医院胸腔外科进行肺部恶性肿瘤射频消融术的患者329例(其中肺部原发肿瘤237例,转移瘤92例),对其进行射频治疗后的并发症、局部进展以及1年、2年和5年总生存期的临床资料进行了研究及评价分析.结果 行射频手术的患者术后出现的并发症包括:气胸63例(19.1%),咯血14例(死亡1例,4.296),血胸10例(3.0%),肺炎15例(4.5%)和心包填塞3例(死亡1例,0.9%),术后30天内的死亡率为0.6%,针道肿瘤种植的患者6例(1.8%).中位无进展时间为21.6个月.1年、2年和5年总生存率分别为68.2%、35.3%和20.1%.共有78例(23.7%)患者出现后期肿瘤局部进展.肺部肿瘤原位局部进展的患者的肿瘤包块直径大多>4 cm;在肿瘤局部进展方面,肿瘤<3 cm的患者与直径介于3 cm-4 cm的肿瘤患者相比没有明显差异,这两组患者与直径>4 cm的肿瘤患者间存在明显差异.结论 对于肺部恶性肿瘤来说,射频治疗是一种耐受性良好、疗效可靠安全的治疗方法.%Background and objective In recent years, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly utilized as a non-surgical treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effects of RFA among patients with pulmonary neoplasms. Methods Patients with lung tumors treated with RFA from October 1999 to July 2006 in this hospital were enrolled into the study. A total of 329 cases, 237 primary lung tumors and 92 metastatic tumors, were retrospectively analyzed and evaluated for complications, local progression, and overall survival after one, two, and five years after RFA

  5. Secondary neoplasms of the larynx from a colonic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, fol-lowed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx...... are extremely rare. Tumours spreading to the larynx may be asymptomatic or may result in hoarseness, stridor or airway obstruction. Patients with metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma to the larynx usually present with disseminated disease. We present a case of an isolated laryngeal metastasis from a colonic...... adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with endoscopic surgery and radiation....

  6. Pancreatic Hepatoid Carcinoma Mimicking a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm: A Challenging Case on Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yutaka; Kato, Hironari; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Harada, Ryo; Oda, Shinsuke; Fushimi, Soichiro; Mizukawa, Shou; Yabe, Shuntaro; Uchida, Daisuke; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Yagi, Takahito; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a 45 mm pancreatic mass found during a medical examination. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology showed polygonal cells with pseudopapillary structures. The tumor cells were positive for nuclear/cytoplasmic β-catenin and CD10, and negative for chromogranin A. After a tentative diagnosis of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, middle pancreatectomy was performed. Histologically, polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm formed in the trabeculae and were immunohistochemically positive for HepPar1 and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II. The tumor was finally diagnosed to be pancreatic hepatoid carcinoma. No recurrence occurred for 12 months, even without adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27580541

  7. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) accelerates the growth of colonic neoplasms in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Hare, K J;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotrophic mediator with therapeutic potential in conditions with compromised intestinal capacity. However, growth stimulation of the intestinal system may accelerate the growth of existing neoplasms in the intestine. AIMS: In the present...... study, the effects of GLP-2 treatment on the growth of chemically induced colonic neoplasms were investigated. METHODS: In 210 female C57bl mice, colonic tumours were initially induced with the methylating carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and mice were then treated with GLP-2. Two months after...... growth of mucosal neoplasms. Our findings highlight the need for future investigations on the effects of GLP-2 in conditions needing long time treatment or with increased gastrointestinal cancer susceptibility....

  9. The side effects of IMRT in the treatment of uterine cervical neoplasms%调强放疗在宫颈癌治疗中副反应的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亚琪; 任庆兰

    2015-01-01

    The uterine cervical neoplasms is the most common gynecologic malignant tumor. The radiotherapy occu-pied a significant role in this disease. But the side effects during the radiotherapy were assignable which influenced the life quality of the patient. Intensity modulated radiation - therapy IMRT is the first line radiotherapy for uterine cervi-cal neoplasms with the advantage of protecting organs at risk and creating enough dose in the target volume. IMRT makes significant efforts to avoid the side effects such as myelosuppression,gastrointestinal toxicities,proctitis,cystitis and the errors of target localization.%放射治疗在宫颈癌治疗中占有重要地位,然而放射治疗中的副反应的发生给患者的生存质量造成重大影响。三维调强放射治疗技术(intensity - modulated radiotherapy,IMRT)凭借其靶区高剂量区的三维适形的优势成为局部晚期宫颈癌的一线治疗方式。尤其是针对宫颈癌放疗过程中最常见的骨髓抑制、胃肠道副反应、直肠膀胱损伤、以及照射靶区精度的影响,调强放疗相较于传统放疗模式均表现出显著优势,极大地提高了患者的生存获益。

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy for neoplasms control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratchenko, I. A.; Kristoforova, Yu. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Zakharov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of malignant skin tumors diagnosis was performed involving two setups for native tissues fluorescence control in visible and near infrared regions. Combined fluorescence analysis for skin malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed. Autofluorescence spectra of normal skin and oncological pathologies stimulated by 457 nm and 785 nm lasers were registered for 74 skin tissue samples. Spectra of 10 melanomas and 27 basal cell carcinomas were registered ex vivo. Skin tumors analysis was made on the basis of autofluorescence spectra intensity and curvature for analysis of porphyrins, lipo-pigments, flavins and melanin. Separation of melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed on the basis of discriminant analysis. Overall accuracy of basal cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas separation in current study reached 86.5% with 70% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  11. Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Follicular Neoplasms within the Same Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefika Burçak Polat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neoplasms of the thyroid gland are classified according to the cells they originate from and commonly develop from cells of follicular origin. The most common differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are papillary and follicular carcinomas. Coexistence of two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid neoplasm is a rare condition. There are previous reports of concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid cancers. However, there is scarce data about the simultaneous occurrence of the two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid tumors and this is the first study on that subject. Material and Method: From January 2007 to September 2014, our institutional database was reviewed for patients who underwent thyroid surgery for various indications. Medical records and cytopathology reports of those patients were examined retrospectively. Simultaneous neoplasms of follicular origin were noted. Results: A total of 3.700 patients were operated. Histopathological examination revealed a benign pattern in 2.686 (73% patients and a malignant pattern in 1.014 (27% patients. Among the patients with the diagnosis of DTC, only 20 (1.9% had a concomitant neoplasm within the same thyroid gland. Discussion: Such simultaneous tumors may be a part of a familial tumor syndrome or an unidentified novel gene mutation playing role in the pathogenesis of more than one type of tumor. Based on the current evidence, the synchronous occurrence of those neoplasms in a given patient is likely coincidental in the literature. Further studies on larger patient population with standardized genetic characterization are needed.

  12. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  13. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinming; Shao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs) and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/uniparental disomy (UPD) that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants.

  14. General Information about Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  15. Molecular Pathology: Prognostic and Diagnostic Genomic Markers for Myeloid Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Frank C

    2016-09-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) on myeloid neoplasms has expanded our knowledge of genomic alterations in this group of diseases. Genomic alterations in myeloid neoplasms are complex, heterogeneous, and not specific to a disease entity. NGS-based panel testing of myeloid neoplasms can complement existing diagnostic modalities and is gaining acceptance in the clinics and diagnostic laboratories. Prospective, randomized trials to evaluate the prognostic significance of genomic markers in myeloid neoplasms are under way in academic medical centers. PMID:27523973

  16. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, L; Heidinger, M; Popper, H

    2016-09-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in the mediastinum are very rare and among them thymic NETs are the most common. They represent 5 % of all thymic and mediastinal tumors. The WHO classification from 2015 subdivides thymic NETs into three groups; low grade (typical carcinoid), intermediate grade (atypical carcinoid) and high grade (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma). Through this change of mediastinal/thymic NET classification into three groups of malignancy, the nomenclature was adapted to that of the lungs, while the histological criteria for each entity remained the same. Thymic NETs typically occur in middle-aged adults and predominantly in males. Approximately 30 % are asymptomatic and the rest present with symptoms caused by local tumor growth, distant metastases and/or endocrine manifestations. Carcinoids can also occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and at the time of diagnosis commonly present with regional lymph node or distant metastases, which most often affect the lungs and bones. For the correct diagnosis tumor cell morphology, mitotic count and/or necrosis are crucial. Patients with typical carcinoids have the best prognosis, whereas the prognosis is slightly worse for atypical carcinoids but very poor for large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Small cell carcinomas have the worst prognosis and the shortest median survival time of approximately 14 months.

  17. Dermoscopy of Skin Adnexal Neoplasms:A Continuous Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gatti, Alessandro; Fadel, Mattia; Vichi, Silvia; Trevisan, Giusto

    2016-06-01

    Dear Editor, Apocrine hidradenoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor related to the more common poroma, as they both originate from sweat glands. Hidradenoma usually has an eccrine differentiation, but an apocrine differentiation is possible. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical appearance it is difficult to differentiate it from other malignant cutaneous lesions. In this challenging task, dermatoscopy could be particularly helpful to better describe, recognize, and differentiate these lesions. Unfortunately, the literature offers only few dermatoscopic descriptions of this rare cutaneous neoplasm. A 70-year-old woman in fair general condition was referred to our Department for an asymptomatic 10×8 mm single nodule on her left scapula. This nodule was red, dome shaped, well circumscribed, firm, and mildly tender (Figure 1). The patient reported that it had been present since approximately 7 months. The lesion was neither painful nor itchy and there was no bleeding. A skin examination did not show any other lesions with the same features or other suspicious lesions. Dermatoscopy revealed milky-pinkish areas with dotted vessels, linear-irregular vessels, and hairpin vessels: some of these aspects can also be found in amelanotic melanoma (1). There were also homogeneous blue areas similar to lacunae, characteristic but not exclusive to vascular or sarcomatous neoplasms and basal cell carcinoma (1,2). Furthermore, small ulcerations covered by an amber crust were identified, which can usually be found in basal cell carcinoma. Regarding the background of the lesion, we noticed peculiar, translucent, pinkish, soft, large lobular areas (Figure 2). On the basis of this analysis, we suspected an atypical presentation of a basal cell carcinoma, an amelanotic melanoma, or a sarcomatous skin neoplasm. A metastasis of an unknown solid tumor was also taken into consideration. The histological examination revealed an adnexal neoplasm and specifically an apocrine hidradenoma

  18. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  19. Quantitative relationship between hepatocytic neoplasms and islands of cellular alteration during hepatocarcinogenesis in the male F344 rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, W. K.; Mackenzie, S. A.; Kaufman, D G

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytic neoplasms (nodules and carcinomas) and islands of cellular alteration which display abnormal retention of glycogen on fasting were quantified in F344 male rats at intervals after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by the combination of a two-thirds partial hepatectomy with a single treatment with methyl(acetoxymethyl)-nitrosamine during the subsequent peak of DNA synthesis in regenerating livers. In initiated rats fed the liver tumor promoter phenobarbital, yields of neoplasms and...

  20. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms

  1. Myeloid neoplasm with prominent eosinophilia and PDGFRA rearrangement treated with imatinib mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Møller, Michael Boe;

    2010-01-01

    The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene is the most frequent genetic aberration in myeloid neoplasms associated with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1. Affected patients in adult populations are very sensitive to imatinib therapy. Pediatric cases are rare and so far only one case of...... FIP1L1-PDGFRA positive disease has been reported. We report a 2-year-old female with a myeloid neoplasm associated with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete and durable clinical, hematological, and molecular remission within 3 months after starting...

  2. Cardiac Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Syncope: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Bazine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma are very rare. In this report, we describe a case of ventricular metastases in the absence of vena cava or right atrial involvement. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old man who had a past history of heavy tobacco intake and well-controlled arterial hypertension. He experienced sudden-onset palpitations, lost consciousness and, as a result, was involved in an accident on the public highway. Cardiac arrhythmia was suspected and, therefore, transthoracic echocardiography was suggested, which revealed a large right ventricular mass. Chest and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a mass in the right ventricle, but without contiguous vena cava involvement, and a right renal mass related to the probable neoplasm. An ultrasound-guided renal biopsy showed a clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. A bone scan revealed a metastatic bone disease. The patient was started on sunitinib treatment, which was well tolerated. However, approximately 8 months later, reevaluation showed pulmonary metastases. The patient was subsequently started on treatment with everolimus, which, however, was poorly tolerated. Two months later, the patient died due to terminal respiratory insufficiency. Discussion: Based on the literature and our observations in this case, targeted antiangiogenic therapy should be considered as a viable therapeutic alternative to metastasectomy for patients with inoperable cardiac metastatic disease as long as there is no baseline systolic or diastolic dysfunction. The case also emphasizes the importance of a thorough history review and physical examination in the workup of patients with syncope.

  3. Emerging surgical treatments for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima Z; Badani, Ketan K; Sfakianos, John P; Mehrazin, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of renal cell carcinoma has evolved considerably over the last few years. While total nephrectomy is necessary at times, nephron-sparing surgery, with a goal of renal function preservation, should always be considered. Although open partial nephrectomy is considered the gold standard approach for nephron-sparing surgery, laparoscopic- or robotic-assisted techniques allow urologists to perform renal surgery less invasively, with excellent long-term oncological outcomes. Cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation are less invasive management approaches for carefully selected patients with small renal masses. Active surveillance should be considered in elderly or patients who are unfit for surgery. Ultimately, the method chosen for management of a renal mass is an informed decision made by the physician and patient. PMID:26892144

  4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mendes de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMyeloproliferative neoplasms are caused by a clonal proliferation of a hematopoietic progenitor. First described in 1951 as 'Myeloproliferative Diseases' and reevaluated by the World Health Organization classification system in 2011, myeloproliferative neoplasms include polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis in a subgroup called breakpoint cluster region-Abelson fusion oncogene-negative neoplasms. According to World Health Organization regarding diagnosis criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms, the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation is considered the most important criterion in the diagnosis of breakpoint cluster region-Abelson fusion oncogene-negative neoplasms and is thus used as a clonal marker. The V617F mutation in the Janus kinase 2(JAK2 gene produces an altered protein that constitutively activates the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and other pathways downstream as a result of signal transducers and activators of transcription which are subsequently phosphorylated. This affects the expression of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis and regulatory proteins and modifies the proliferation rate of hematopoietic stem cells.

  5. Spontaneous renal neoplasms in aged Crl:CDBR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Eyster, R C; Sells, D M; Gass, J H

    1992-01-01

    Primary neoplasms of the kidneys occurred in 11/682 male (1.6%) and 2/694 female (0.3%) Crl:CDBr strain Sprague-Dawley rats. Eight of 13 neoplasms were of mesenchymal origin and 5 of 13 were epithelial. Five neoplasms were lipoma (3) or liposarcoma (2). Three of 13 were either hemangioma (1) or mesenchymal tumors (2). The epithelial neoplasms were carcinomas. There was no microscopic evidence of metastasis among those neoplasms judged malignant on morphologic criteria. The overall natural incidence in males was nearly double that compiled for this strain while in females the incidence was similar to that reported for other females.

  6. Successful Control of Liver Metastases From Pancreatic Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN) Using Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No systemic agents that are known to be effective for the treatment of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) are available. We report the prolonged and sustained control of metastatic pancreatic SPN to the liver using hepatic arterial embolization (HAE), where a total of 13 HAE sessions were performed over a 6-year period

  7. Successful Control of Liver Metastases From Pancreatic Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN) Using Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violari, Elena G., E-mail: eviolari@live.com; Brody, Lynn A.; Covey, Anne M.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Getrajdman, George I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); Reidy, Diane L. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service (United States); Jarnagin, William R. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service (United States); Brown, Karen T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Service (United States)

    2015-04-15

    No systemic agents that are known to be effective for the treatment of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) are available. We report the prolonged and sustained control of metastatic pancreatic SPN to the liver using hepatic arterial embolization (HAE), where a total of 13 HAE sessions were performed over a 6-year period.

  8. A CASE OF MALIGNANT RENAL NEOPLASM WITH RHABDOID FEATURES IN AN ADULT

    OpenAIRE

    Kumamoto, Hiromi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Tsujimoto, Sigehiro; Yoshii, Masato; Kitauchi, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Mibu, Hisakazu; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Ichijima, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of malignant neoplasm with rhabdoid features of the kidney in a 68 year old man. To our knowledge malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) has been limited to the pediatric age group. Malignant renal neoplasm similar to MRTK occurring in adults is very rare. However, there has been a recent review in which the authors found 23/480 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (4.7%) exhibiting rhabdoid features, all in adults. In the present case, examination of many sections of t...

  9. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed

  10. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalz, Philip G.R. [Surgical and Molecular Neuro-Oncology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Shen, Michael J.; Park, John K., E-mail: parkjk@ninds.nih.gov [Surgical and Molecular Neuro-Oncology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-02-10

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed.

  11. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  12. Increased gene expression of histone deacetylases in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Thomassen, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Myeloproliferation, myeloaccumulation (decreased apoptosis), inflammation, bone marrow fibrosis and angiogenesis are cardinal features of the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms: essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF...... proteins in favor of apoptosis (enhanced apoptosis) and also to inhibit angiogenesis. Recently, enhanced HDAC enzyme activity has been found in CD34+cells from patients with PMF, enzyme activity levels highly exceeding those recorded in other chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (CMPNs). The raised levels...... correlated to the degree of splenomegaly, suggesting that HDAC might be recruited as ET or PV progresses into myelofibrosis or PMF progresses into a more advanced stage. Accordingly, HDAC inhibition is an obvious novel therapeutic approach in these neoplasms. Using global gene expression profiling of whole...

  13. Detection of telomerase activity in malignant neoplasms and nonmalignantepithelial tissues of human esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Min Yang; Tian Jiao Wang; Bao Yu Li; Yuan Huan Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the expression of telomerase activity in malignant esophageal neoplasms and normal humanesophageal epithelia.METHODS Telomerase activity was assayed by the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)method. All the neoplasms and epithelia of esophagus were confirmed by routine pathological diagnosis.RESULTS Telomerase activity was assayed in 18 normal esophageal epithelial tissues and in 35 malignantneoplasms of esophagus, including 27 cases of esophageal carcinoma and 8 cases of cardiac carcinoma.Telomerase activity was detected in most of malignant neoplasms of esophagus (91.4%, 32/35) and in allthe normal esophageal epithelial tissues except one (18/19).CONCLUSION The results suggest that in addition to contributing to proliferation of immortal blast cellsand neoplastic cells, telomerase activity may also play a similar role in regeneration of normal epithelia ofhuman esophagus. The potential use of telomerase activity as a diagnostic marker in human esophagealneoplasm might not be suitable.

  14. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC, a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia (AML and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+, but not CD4(+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Virus como inductores de neoplasias cutáneas Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bravo Puccio

    2013-03-01

    human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1, which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs

  16. Pediatric T- and NK-cell lymphomas: new biologic insights and treatment strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas are challenging childhood neoplasms. These cancers have varying presentations, vast molecular heterogeneity, and several are quite unusual in the West, creating diagnostic challenges. Over 20 distinct T- and NK-cell neoplasms are recognized by the 2008 World Health Organization classification, demonstrating the diversity and potential complexity of these cases. In pediatric populations, selection of optimal therapy poses an additional quandary, as most of these malignancies have not been studied in large randomized clinical trials. Despite their rarity, exciting molecular discoveries are yielding insights into these clinicopathologic entities, improving the accuracy of our diagnoses of these cancers, and expanding our ability to effectively treat them, including the use of new targeted therapies. Here, we summarize this fascinating group of lymphomas, with particular attention to the three most common subtypes: T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified. We highlight recent findings regarding their molecular etiologies, new biologic markers, and cutting-edge therapeutic strategies applied to this intriguing class of neoplasms

  17. Paraneoplastic pemphigus without an underlying neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G T; Lee, J H; Yun, S J; Lee, S C; Lee, J B

    2007-03-01

    We describe a 52-year-old man with paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) without any evidence of an underlying neoplasm over an 8-year follow-up period. He had a chronic relapsing vesiculobullous eruption for approximately 7 years (from April 1998 to May 2005). Initially, scattered flaccid vesicles with crusts developed on the face and trunk, which waxed and waned several times. Our patient was diagnosed as having PNP based on immunopathological criteria for PNP, i.e. histopathological, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation analyses. However, physical and laboratory examinations including serial blood tests with peripheral blood smear, whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography and abdominal ultrasound were unable to detect any underlying neoplasm over an 8-year follow-up period. PMID:17300250

  18. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F;

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  19. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  20. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  1. Second Malignant Neoplasms after Radio-Chemotherapy of Hodgkins Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to identify the second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL)in long-term survivors (LTS) of Hodgkins disease (HD) patients who were regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI). 42 LTS were studied. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files were revised for date of diagnoses, original site(s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on blood pressure, pulse, chest and cardiac examination, visceromegaly and the presence of lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations included CBC, ESR and bone marrow aspirate and/or biopsy. Radiodiagnostic studies were done whenever indicated. One LTS had acute myeloid leukemia [AML] as a second malignant neoplasm. Finally, the study documented the risk of secondary malignancy [AML] was one of the long-term sequelae of radio-chemotherapy in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD and Screening for early detection of late effects were discussed. New strategies with reduction or elimination of radiation dose are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children.

  2. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. PMID:27207564

  3. Imaging features of thoracic metastases from gynecologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Walker, Christopher M; Kunin, Jeffery R; Betancourt, Sonia L; Shoup, Brenda L; Pettavel, Paul P

    2014-10-01

    Gynecologic malignancies are a heterogeneous group of common neoplasms and represent the fourth most common malignancy in women. Thoracic metastases exhibit various imaging patterns and are usually associated with locally invasive primary neoplasms with intra-abdominal spread. However, thoracic involvement may also occur many months to years after initial diagnosis or as an isolated finding in patients without evidence of intra-abdominal neoplastic involvement. Thoracic metastases from endometrial carcinoma typically manifest as pulmonary nodules and lymphadenopathy. Thoracic metastases from ovarian cancer often manifest with small pleural effusions and subtle pleural nodules. Thoracic metastases to the lungs, lymph nodes, and pleura may also exhibit calcification and mimic granulomatous disease. Metastases from fallopian tube carcinomas exhibit imaging features identical to those of ovarian cancers. Most cervical cancers are of squamous histology, and while solid pulmonary metastases are more common, cavitary metastases occur with some frequency. Metastatic choriocarcinoma to the lung characteristically manifests with solid pulmonary nodules. Some pulmonary metastases from gynecologic malignancies exhibit characteristic features such as cavitation (in squamous cell cervical cancer) and the "halo" sign (in hemorrhagic metastatic choriocarcinoma) at computed tomography (CT). However, metastases from common gynecologic malignancies may be subtle and indolent and may mimic benign conditions such as intrapulmonary lymph nodes and remote granulomatous disease. Therefore, radiologists should consider the presence of locoregional disease as well as elevated tumor marker levels when interpreting imaging studies because subtle imaging findings may represent metastatic disease. Positron emission tomography/CT may be helpful in identifying early locoregional and distant tumor spread. PMID:25310428

  4. Frequency of heterozygous TET2 deletions in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tripodi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Tripodi1, Ronald Hoffman1, Vesna Najfeld2, Rona Weinberg31The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and 2Department of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Cellular Therapy Laboratory, The New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with overlapping clinical and cytogenetic features and a variable tendency to evolve into acute leukemia. These diseases not only share overlapping chromosomal abnormalities but also a number of acquired somatic mutations. Recently, mutations in a putative tumor suppressor gene, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2 on chromosome 4q24 have been identified in 12% of patients with MPN. Additionally 4q24 chromosomal rearrangements in MPN, including TET2 deletions, have also been observed using conventional cytogenetics. The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of genomic TET2 rearrangements in MPN using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a more sensitive method for screening and identifying genomic deletions. Among 146 MPN patients, we identified two patients (1.4% who showed a common 4q24 deletion, including TET2. Our observations also indicated that the frequency of TET2 deletion is increased in patients with an abnormal karyotype (5%.Keywords: TET2, myeloproliferative neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics

  5. Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in the Republic of Korea: analysis of 5318 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Och; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Dae Ho; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Park, Chan Jeoung; Jang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Bong-Hee; Huh, Jooryung

    2010-10-01

    Compared with the West, the overall incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is lower, and the subtype distribution is distinct in Asia. To comprehensively investigate the subtype distribution with the age and sex factors, and temporal changes of subtype proportions, we re-assessed all patients with lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed at a large oncology service in the Republic of Korea from 1989 to 2008 using the World Health Organization classifications. Of the total 5,318 patients, 66.9% had mature B-cell neoplasms, 12.5% had mature T/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms, 16.4% had precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL), and 4.1% had Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30.5%), plasma cell myeloma (14.0%), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma; 12.4%), B-cell ALL/LBL (11.3%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (4.1%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (4.0%), T-cell ALL/LBL (3.9%), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (3.9%). Most subtypes showed male predominance, with an average M/F ratio of 1.3. Most mature lymphoid neoplasms were diseases of adults (mean age, 53.5 yr), whereas ALL/LBLs were of young individuals (mean age, 20.3 yr). When the relative proportion of subtypes were compared between two decades (1989-1998 vs. 1999-2008), especially MALT lymphoma has increased in proportion, whereas T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL have slightly decreased. In summary, the lymphoid neoplasms of Koreans shared some epidemiologic features similar to those of other countries, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. Although the increase in incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is relatively modest in Korea, recent increase of MALT lymphoma and decrease of T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL are interesting findings. PMID:20806229

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  9. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  10. PATTERN OF OVARIAN NEOPLASM IN RURAL POPULATION: A FIVE YEAR STUDY FROM TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The aim of the study was to know the morphological pattern of benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms and their distribution in different age groups in rural population of India. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A retrospective study of all cases of ovarian neoplasms diagnosed at department of pathology, Maharaja Medical College, Agroha during period of five year (Aug, 07 — Oct.12 was done. The tumors were classified according to WHO classification after thorough examination of slides and their distribution in different age groups was also noted. RESULTS : There were total fifty three cases of ovarian tumors noted during this period. Benign tumors comprised 81.13% and malignant tumors were 18.86%. Surface epithelial tumor emerged as the commonest variety accounting for 60.37%, followed by germ cell tumor (32.07% and sex cord stromal tumors were least common comprising 7.54 % of all ovarian neoplasm. No metastatic tumor or tumors with borderline malignancy were seen. Serous cystadenoma was the commonest tumor (43.39% followed by mature cystic teratoma (30.23%.Among the malignant tumor, malignant germ cell tumor were the commonest type (40%, followed by 30 %of each surface epithelial tumor and sex cord stromal tumor. CONCLUSION : Benign ovarian tumors are seen more common than malignant tumor. Malignant epithelial tumors are seen after the age of 30 years and malignant germ cell tumor are seen below the age of 30 years. Bilaterality is more commonly seen in malignant o varian neoplasm

  11. Surgical treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas%76例胰腺导管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤的外科治疗及预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡天涛; 靳大勇; 楼文辉; 王单松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outcome of intraductual papillary mucious neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas after surgical resection. Method Clinical data of 76 patients with intraductal papillary neoplasms of the pancreas undergoing surgical resection at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between January 1999 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 76 patients,49 were male, 37 were female. 32 had noninvasive IPMNs, including adenomas( n = 16), borderline tumors (n =6 ), carcinomas in situ (n = 10 ). 44 had invasive IPMNs. Lesions were present in the head in 63 cases, in the body or tail in 10, in the whole pancreas in 3. There were significant difference in age,jaundice, weight loss, asymptomatic cases and CA199 value between noninvasive and invasive IPMNs.Three patients underwent total pancreatectomy, 59 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 4 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with portal vein resection and reconstruction, six patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, two patients each underwent central pancreatectomy or enucleation. The overall postoperative morbidity rate were 28.9%, there was no operative mortality. Positive pancreatic margin was identified in seven patients of noninvasive neoplasms, among thoee one developed recurrence after 67 months. The five-year survival rate for patients with noninvasive and invasive neolpasms was 100% and 35% ,respectively. Size and lymph node metastasis were significant prognostic factors after surgical resection of the invasive IPMNs. Conclusions Surgical resection provides a favorable outcome for patients with noninvasive IPMNs. In contrast, invasive IPMNs was associated with a poor survival. Early resection is essential for improving survival. Long-term follow-up is necessary for all patients with IPMNs after resection.%目的 分析胰腺导管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤患者的临床特征及手术疗效.方法 收集1999年1月至2008年12月复旦大学附

  12. Safety and Efficacy of EUS-Guided Ethanol Ablation for Treating Small Solid Pancreatic Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Woo Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Dhir, Vinay; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2016-01-01

    The strategy for treating small borderline malignant pancreatic neoplasms--such as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN)--is surgical resection. However, pancreatic resection of these lesions still causes significant morbidity. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided ethanol ablation to treat small solid pancreatic neoplasms. A total of 8 patients with small borderline malignant pancreatic neoplasms and co-morbidities who refused surgery were included. We identified 2 cases of nonfunctioning NET, 3 cases of insulinomas, 1 case of gastrinoma, and 2 cases of SPN. EUS-guided ethanol ablation was performed, and treatment outcomes were assessed with clinical symptom, hormone assay, and imaging study. The mean tumor diameter was 15  mm (range, 7-29  mm), and the median volume of injected ethanol was 2.8  mL (range, 1.2-10.5  mL). There was 1 severe acute pancreatitis after EUS-guided ethanol ablation with 20-gauge CPN needle. During follow-up (median 16.5 months), 6 patients achieved treatment success; however, 2 patients (1 nonfunctioning NET and 1 SPN) still had persistent tumors. The patient with persistent SPN underwent surgical resection and the histopathological results showed peripancreatic infiltration with perineural invasion. Among 6 patients who achieved initial treatment success, 1 patient experienced tumor recurrence within 15 months and underwent repeated EUS-guided ethanol ablation. In conclusion, EUS-guided ethanol ablation therapy is a promising option for patients with small solid pancreatic neoplasm. Multiple sessions or surgical interventions may be required if there is a recurrent or persistent mass, and procedure-related adverse events must be carefully monitored.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of EUS-Guided Ethanol Ablation for Treating Small Solid Pancreatic Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Woo Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Dhir, Vinay; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2016-01-01

    The strategy for treating small borderline malignant pancreatic neoplasms--such as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN)--is surgical resection. However, pancreatic resection of these lesions still causes significant morbidity. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided ethanol ablation to treat small solid pancreatic neoplasms. A total of 8 patients with small borderline malignant pancreatic neoplasms and co-morbidities who refused surgery were included. We identified 2 cases of nonfunctioning NET, 3 cases of insulinomas, 1 case of gastrinoma, and 2 cases of SPN. EUS-guided ethanol ablation was performed, and treatment outcomes were assessed with clinical symptom, hormone assay, and imaging study. The mean tumor diameter was 15  mm (range, 7-29  mm), and the median volume of injected ethanol was 2.8  mL (range, 1.2-10.5  mL). There was 1 severe acute pancreatitis after EUS-guided ethanol ablation with 20-gauge CPN needle. During follow-up (median 16.5 months), 6 patients achieved treatment success; however, 2 patients (1 nonfunctioning NET and 1 SPN) still had persistent tumors. The patient with persistent SPN underwent surgical resection and the histopathological results showed peripancreatic infiltration with perineural invasion. Among 6 patients who achieved initial treatment success, 1 patient experienced tumor recurrence within 15 months and underwent repeated EUS-guided ethanol ablation. In conclusion, EUS-guided ethanol ablation therapy is a promising option for patients with small solid pancreatic neoplasm. Multiple sessions or surgical interventions may be required if there is a recurrent or persistent mass, and procedure-related adverse events must be carefully monitored. PMID:26825894

  14. Stem cell therapy in treatment of different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Amini, Peyvand; Nikbin, Behrouz; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Amiri, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yazdi, Nika Mojahed; Ghodsi, Maryam; Dowlati, Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability of proliferation, regeneration, conversion to differentiated cells and producing various tissues. Stem cells are divided into two categories of embryonic and adult. In another categorization stem cells are divided to Totipotent, Multipotent and Unipotent cells.So far usage of stem cells in treatment of various blood diseases has been studied (such as lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, thalassemia, multiple myeloma and cycle cell anemia). In this paper the goal is evaluation of cell therapy in treatment of Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Radiation Induced Intestinal Injury, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Liver Disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Bone Disease, Renal Disease, Chronic Wounds, Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Sepsis and Respiratory diseases. It should be mentioned that some disease that are the target of cell therapy are discussed in this article.

  15. Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Different Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sahraian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability of proliferation, regeneration, conversion to differentiated cells and producing various tissues. Stem cells are divided into two categories of embryonic and adult. In another categorization stem cells are divided to Totipotent, Multipotent and Unipotent cells.So far usage of stem cells in treatment of various blood diseases has been studied (such as lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, thalassemia, multiple myeloma and cycle cell anemia. In this paper the goal is evaluation of cell therapy in treatment of Parkinsons disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Radiation Induced Intestinal Injury, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Liver Disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Bone Disease, Renal Disease, Chronic Wounds, Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Sepsis and Respiratory diseases. It should be mentioned that some disease that are the target of cell therapy are discussed in this article.

  16. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  17. Portal Hypertension and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: A Relationship Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Burak Toros; Serkan Gokcay; Guven Cetin; Muhlis Cem Ar; Yesim Karagoz; Besir Kesici

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms have a well-established increased risk of thrombosis. Many trials report identification of an underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm by investigation of the patients developing portal hypertensive esophagus and/or fundus variceal hemorrhage in the absence of any known etiology. This trial was designed to investigate the association between myeloproliferative neoplasms and portal hypertension and to detect the frequency of porta...

  18. Ionomycin Treatment Renders NK Cells Hyporesponsive

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Romera-Cárdenas; L Michael Thomas; Sheila Lopez-Cobo; Eva M García-Cuesta; Eric O Long; Reyburn, Hugh T.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes important in immune responses to cancer and multiple pathogens. However, chronic activation of NK cells can induce a hyporesponsive state. The molecular basis of the mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of this hyporesponsive condition are unknown, thus an easy and reproducible mechanism able to induce hyporesponsiveness on human NK cells would be very useful to gain understanding of this process. Human NK cells treated with ionom...

  19. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Morphology and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbui, Tiziano; Thiele, Jürgen; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2016-06-01

    In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), controversy persists regarding the usefulness and reproducibility of bone marrow (BM) features. Disagreements concerning the WHO classification are mainly focused on the discrimination between essential thrombocythemia (ET) and prefibrotic/early primary myelofibrosis (prePMF) and prodromal polycythemia vera (PV). Criticism mostly refers to lack of standardization of distinctive BM features precluding correct morphological pattern recognition. The distinction between WHO-defined ET and prePMF is not trivial because outcome is significantly worse in prePMF. Morphology was generally considered to be non-specific for the diagnosis of PV. Recent studies have revealed under-diagnosis of morphologically and biologically consistent PV. PMID:26718907

  20. Computed tomography of cardiac pseudotumors and neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Miller, Dylan V; Breen, Jerome F; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-07-01

    Important features of cardiac masses can be clearly delineated on cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. This modality is useful in identifying the presence of a mass, its relationship with cardiac and extracardiac structures, and the features that distinguish one type of mass from another. A multimodality approach to the evaluation of cardiac tumors is advocated, with the use of echocardiography, CT imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as appropriately indicated. In this article, various cardiac masses are described, including pseudotumors and true cardiac neoplasms, and the CT imaging findings that may be useful in distinguishing these rare entities are presented. PMID:20705174

  1. Tegafur Substitution for 5-Fu in Combination with Actinomycin D to Treat Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Peng

    Full Text Available Although 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu combination chemotherapy provides a satisfactory therapeutic response in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs, it has severe side effects. The current study analyzed the therapeutic effects and side effects of tegafur plus actinomycin D (Act-D vs. 5-Fu plus Act-D for the treatment of GTNs based on controlled historical records. A total of 427 GTN cases that received tegafur and Act-D combination chemotherapy at the Second Xiangya Hospital of XiangYa Medical School between August 2003 and July 2013 were analyzed based on historical data. A total of 393 GTN cases that received 5-Fu plus Act-D between August 1993 and July 2003 at the same hospital were also analyzed, which constituted the control group. The therapeutic effects, toxicity and side effects after chemotherapy were compared between the groups. The overall response rate was 90.63% in the tegafur+Act-D group (tegafur group and 92.37% in the 5-Fu+Act-D group (5-Fu group; these rates were not significantly different (P > 0.05. However, the incidence rates of myelosuppression (white blood cell decline, gastrointestinal reactions (nausea, vomiting, dental ulcer, and diarrhea, skin lesions and phlebitis were lower in the tegafur group than in the 5-Fu group (P < 0.05. The results of this study may provide useful data for the clinical application of tegafur in GTN treatment.

  2. [Research Progress on CALR Mutation in the Myeloproliterative Neoplasm -Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Hao, Hong-Ling; Li, Yan; Wang, Rui-Cang; Zhang, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    There is no gold diagnostic standard for BCR-ABL fusion gene negative chronic myeloproliterative neoplasm(cMPN). The following detection methods such as comprehensive bone marrow cell morphology, bone marrow pathology, genetic mutation, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical are needed to diagnose the BCR-ABL fusion gene positive cMPN. The JAK2 mutation can be used as a specific diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera (PV), but there is no specific and sensitive indication for the JAK2 mutation-negative MPN. CALR mutation would be an indication in a certain extent. In this review, the CALR mutation detection, detection mean and its correlation with disease diagnosis and prognosis etc were summarized. PMID:27531810

  3. Application of FT IR microspectroscopy in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Salamon, Elizabeth A.; Riese, Karl T.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1999-05-01

    Tissue biopsies and fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of patients with suspected benign or malignant thyroid neoplasms were investigated by infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate statistical methods. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed four different spectral patterns for the aspirates analyzed, corresponding to colloid goiter, adenoma, carcinomas and negative diagnoses. Infrared microspectroscopic measurements of neoplastic cells on infrared transparent slides provide a potentially new tool for diagnostic screening of these FNA. Biopsy material obtained during surgical removal of gland tissue, was successfully used to generate statistically significant criteria for the distinction of neoplastic from normal tissue. Bivariate histogram plots demonstrate that two selected parameters, DNA and protein, are sufficient to separate control tissue from adenoma and carcinomas

  4. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  5. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  6. Two Metachronous Neoplasms in the Radiotherapy Fields of a Young Man With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Williams BS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is recognized that various radiation-induced malignancies often follow childhood radiotherapy. Radiation-induced neoplasms have been shown to occur with increased frequency in syndromes due to mutated tumor suppressor genes. There exist no recommendations for the management of cancer patients with germline APC gene mutations. Preclinical data suggest that APC gene mutations cause enhanced radiosensitivity, but no clinical observations exist that show that patients with this mutation are at higher risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a genetic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP who initially presented at age 10 with a medulloblastoma treated with radiotherapy and surgery. Radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma followed 13 years later. Finally, radiation-induced soft tissue osteosarcoma occurred with widespread metastasis 20 years thereafter. Conclusions: This is the first report of 2 malignancies in the prior radiotherapy fields of a patient with a genetic diagnosis of FAP. More important, this suggests that APC-defective cells are at an enhanced sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy compared with APC-proficient cells. This could argue for genetic screening in affected members of these families and for creation of treatment recommendations to more seriously consider the risks of radiation therapy.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells and Parkinson's disease: modelling and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Jinsha; Li, Jie; Liu, Ling; Han, Chao; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Guoxin; Jiang, Haiyang; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by progressive neuronal loss in different regions of the central nervous system, contributing to brain dysfunction in the relevant patients. Stem cell therapy holds great promise for PD patients, including with foetal ventral mesencephalic cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Moreover, stem cells can be used to model neurodegenerative diseases in order to screen potential medication and explore their mechanisms of disease. However, related ethical issues, immunological rejection and lack of canonical grafting protocols limit common clinical use of stem cells. iPSCs, derived from reprogrammed somatic cells, provide new hope for cell replacement therapy. In this review, recent development in stem cell treatment for PD, using hiPSCs, as well as the potential value of hiPSCs in modelling for PD, have been summarized for application of iPSCs technology to clinical translation for PD treatment.

  8. Alemtuzumab treatment alters circulating innate immune cells in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetspahic, Diana; Ruck, Tobias; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Schwarte, Kathrin; Jörgens, Silke; Scheu, Stefanie; Windhagen, Susanne; Graefe, Bettina; Melzer, Nico; Klotz, Luisa; Arolt, Volker; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. Methods: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)–23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined. Results: In comparison to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid and lymphoid innate cell subsets of patients with MS expressed significantly lower amounts of CD52 on their cell surface. Six months after CD52 depletion, numbers of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) and conventional DCs were reduced compared to baseline. GM-CSF and IL-23 production in DCs remained unchanged. Within the ILC compartment, the subset of CD56bright NK cells specifically expanded under alemtuzumab treatment, but their cytolytic activity did not change. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that 6 months after alemtuzumab treatment, specific DC subsets are reduced, while CD56bright NK cells expanded in patients with MS. Thus, alemtuzumab specifically restricts the DC compartment and expands the CD56bright NK cell subset with potential immunoregulatory properties in MS. We suggest that remodeling of the innate immune compartment may promote long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab and preserve immunocompetence in patients with MS. PMID:27766281

  9. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  10. Digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms: A 2016 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Elettra; Rinzivillo, Maria; Cicchese, Noemi; Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2016-08-01

    Digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms (DNENs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000; the gap between these rates is to be referred to the relatively long survival that characterizes the majority of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Up to 80% of patients are stage IV since the first diagnosis, presenting a 5-yr overall survival rate of 35%-55% and a twice higher mortality than limited disease. DNENs express somatostatin receptors in more than 80% of cases, detected through immunohistochemistry or functional imaging tests (FITs). This feature identifies patients who may benefit from "cold" somatostatin analogs (SSAs) or peptide receptors radionuclide therapy, although SSAs are sometimes used also with a negative uptake at FITs. The therapeutic options have been recently increased after the identification of molecular pathways involved in DNENs pathogenesis, and the subsequent use of targeted therapies (i.e., Everolimus and Sunitinib) for these neoplasms. This review offers an overview about pancreatic and small bowel NENs, critically underlining the issues that still need to be clarified and the future perspectives to be investigated. PMID:27212431

  11. LITERATURE REVIEW ON STEM CELL TREATMENT & ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS (OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathipaty James

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a part of regenerative medicine that involves the use of undifferentiated cells in order to cure the disease. Stem cell - based therapies are being investigated for the treatment of many conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and for nerve regeneration. (1 In orofacial region these therapies are being used for tooth and periodontal regeneration, temporomandibular joint reconstruction, alve olar bone regeneration. Craniofacial stem cells including dental pulp derived stem cells have the potential to cure a number of diseases. Present day treatment modalities for oral mucosal lesions like ulcerative lesions, premalignancies and malignancies mainly consist of steroids and antioxidants (which provide only a short term and symptomatic relief and surgery with or without chemo/radiotherapy (which leave the patient with certain amount of morbidity. Advances in stem cell technology have opened new vistas for treatment of these lesions. Various studies have shown the successful role of stem cell therapies in the treatment of precancerous conditions, oral ulcers, wounds and mucositis. (2 The recent concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs has directed sci entific communities toward a new area of research and possible potential treatment modalities for oral cancer. (3 The present article will discuss the role of stem cell applications in oral mucosal lesions. KEYWORDS: R eview - stem cells - properties - types - appl ications - role in osmf - results

  12. THERAPY-RELATED MYELOID NEOPLASM IN NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Bari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relatively little information on secondary cancers is available for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL treated patients as treatments have been less effective compared to those for Hodgkin Lymphoma. Recently, evolving chemotherapy (CHT in combination with monoclonal antibodies, sometime supplemented with radiotherapy (RT have improved survival outcome of NHL patients and the use of autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for relapsed patients have further improved long term survival for some histological subtypes. As a results of these advances secondary malignancies are becoming an important issue in NHL survivors.   Design and Methods: In the last few years, our group performed 4 researches about second neoplasms in NHL survivors: (1 Secondary malignancies after treatment for indolent NHL; (2 Secondary malignancies after treatment for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL; (3 Meta analysis on the risk of second malignancies in NHL survivors; (4 Incidence of  second myeloid malignancies (SMyM in patients treated for NHL, evaluated on Modena Cancer Registry (MCR database.   Results: In the first study we analyzed 563 patients with indolent NHL enrolled in Gruppo Italiano Studio Linfomi (GISL trials from 1988 to 2003; results showed that, after a median follow-up of 62 months, 39 patients (6.9% developed secondary cancer (12 Myelodisplastic Syndrome (MDS/Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML, and 27 solid tumours. The cumulative incidence (CI of secondary cancer at 12 years was 10.5%. In the second paper we considered 1280 patients with DLBCL enrolled in GISL trials from 1988 to 2003; with a median follow-up of 51 months 48 patients (3.8% developed a second cancer (8 MDS/AML, 5 other hematologic malignancies and 35 solid tumours. The CI of second cancer was 8.2% at 15 years. The third research consist in a meta-analysis in which we carried out an electronic search seeking articles investigating the risk of second malignant neoplasm (SMN

  13. THERAPY-RELATED MYELOID NEOPLASM IN NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Marcheselli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Relatively little information on secondary cancers is available for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL treated patients as treatments have been less effective compared to those for Hodgkin Lymphoma. Recently, evolving chemotherapy (CHT in combination with monoclonal antibodies, sometime supplemented with radiotherapy (RT have improved survival outcome of NHL patients and the use of autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for relapsed patients have further improved long term survival for some histological subtypes. As a results of these advances secondary malignancies are becoming an important issue in NHL survivors.

     

    Design and Methods: In the last few years, our group performed 4 researches about second neoplasms in NHL survivors: (1 Secondary malignancies after treatment for indolent NHL; (2 Secondary malignancies after treatment for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL; (3 Meta analysis on the risk of second malignancies in NHL survivors; (4 Incidence of  second myeloid malignancies (SMyM in patients treated for NHL, evaluated on Modena Cancer Registry (MCR database.

     

    Results: In the first study we analyzed 563 patients with indolent NHL enrolled in Gruppo Italiano Studio Linfomi (GISL trials from 1988 to 2003; results showed that, after a median follow-up of 62 months, 39 patients (6.9% developed secondary cancer (12 Myelodisplastic Syndrome (MDS/Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML, and 27 solid tumours. The cumulative incidence (CI of secondary cancer at 12 years was 10.5%.

    In the second paper we considered 1280 patients with DLBCL enrolled in GISL trials from 1988 to 2003; with a median follow-up of 51 months 48 patients (3.8% developed a second cancer (8 MDS/AML, 5 other hematologic malignancies and 35 solid tumours. The CI of second cancer was 8.2% at 15 years.

    The third research consist in a meta-analysis in which we carried out an electronic search

  14. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Tangalos, Athanasios; Pappa, Polyxeni; Papageorgiou, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Background Mucinous cystic neoplasms arise in the ovary and various extra-ovarian sites. While their pathogenesis remains conjectural, their similarities suggest a common pathway of development. There have been rare reports involving the mesentery as a primary tumour site. Case presentation A cystic mass of uncertain origin was demonstrated radiologically in a 22 year old female with chronic abdominal pain. At laparotomy, the mass was fixed within the colonic mesentery. Histology demonstrated a benign mucinous cystadenoma. Methods and results We review the literature on mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery and report on the pathogenesis, biologic behavior, diagnosis and treatment of similar extra-ovarian tumors. We propose an updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors. Conclusion Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery present almost exclusively in women and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric tumors. Only full histological examination of a mucinous cystic neoplasm can exclude a borderline or malignant component. An updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors is proposed. PMID:19454018

  15. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappa Polyxeni

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucinous cystic neoplasms arise in the ovary and various extra-ovarian sites. While their pathogenesis remains conjectural, their similarities suggest a common pathway of development. There have been rare reports involving the mesentery as a primary tumour site. Case presentation A cystic mass of uncertain origin was demonstrated radiologically in a 22 year old female with chronic abdominal pain. At laparotomy, the mass was fixed within the colonic mesentery. Histology demonstrated a benign mucinous cystadenoma. Methods and results We review the literature on mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery and report on the pathogenesis, biologic behavior, diagnosis and treatment of similar extra-ovarian tumors. We propose an updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors. Conclusion Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery present almost exclusively in women and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric tumors. Only full histological examination of a mucinous cystic neoplasm can exclude a borderline or malignant component. An updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors is proposed.

  16. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Garza-Guajardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  17. Multifocal intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas-A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-Chun Chiang; Jun Te Hsu; Huang-Yang Chen; Shyh Chuan Jwo; Tsann-Long Hwang; Yi-Yin Jan; Chun-Nan Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are relatively rare, comprising 10 percent of pancreatic cysts and only 1 percent of pancreatic cancers. Cystic neoplasms include mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystadenomas,papillary cystic tumors, cystic islet cell tumors and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs). IPMN was first described in 1982.It has been most commonly described in 60 to 70 years old males, and represents a relatively "new" but increasingly recognized disease. The improvement and widespread use of modern imaging equipments and heightened awareness of physicians contribute to the increasing incidence of IPMN. The majority of IPMNs are located in the pancreatic head (75%) while the rest involves the body/tail regions. Multifocal IPMNs have been hypothesized, but the true presence of multifocality is unknown. Here we present a 72-yearold male diagnosed with IPMN (carcinoma in situ) in the pancreatic head and a branch duct type IPMN (duct atypia) in the pancreatic body and tail. The patient underwent a Whipple intervention and a distal pancreatectomy. A three-year disease-free survival has been observed so far.

  18. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report and review of the published work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fujikura, Kohei; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Takenaka, Mamoru; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Zen, Yoh

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a peculiar tumor mimicking intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPN) of the pancreas can develop in the bile duct. Here, we present a similar case and review the published work on the newly proposed biliary neoplasm. A 68-year-old woman was referred to us for further evaluation of a liver mass. On imaging, the tumor was 40 mm in size and intraductal in location, and was enhanced slightly on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography. No mucin overproduction was found. She underwent right hepatectomy for suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The tumor histologically consisted of the biliary-type epithelium arranged in a tubular architecture within the dilated bile duct. Tumor cells had features of high-grade dysplasia but no stroma invasion. No expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC were noted. On molecular studies, KRAS and GNAS appeared to be wild-type genotypes. These features were in keeping with ITPN. In the published work review, "biliary ITPN" described in four manuscripts were characterized by predominantly intrahepatic/hilar in location, histological tubular architecture, negative expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC, and uncommon alterations of KRAS, GNAS and BRAF. Although invasive malignancy was present in 71%, the outcome was favorable with the 5-year survival expected to be approximately 90%. Biliary ITPN are supposedly uncommon, but a greater awareness of this condition may give more chance to diagnose the underrecognized neoplasm. PMID:26459784

  19. Ionomycin Treatment Renders NK Cells Hyporesponsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Romera-Cárdenas

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes important in immune responses to cancer and multiple pathogens. However, chronic activation of NK cells can induce a hyporesponsive state. The molecular basis of the mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of this hyporesponsive condition are unknown, thus an easy and reproducible mechanism able to induce hyporesponsiveness on human NK cells would be very useful to gain understanding of this process. Human NK cells treated with ionomycin lose their ability to degranulate and secrete IFN-γ in response to a variety of stimuli, but IL-2 stimulation can compensate these defects. Apart from reductions in the expression of CD11a/CD18, no great changes were observed in the activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by these NK cells, however their transcriptional signature is different to that described for other hyporesponsive lymphocytes.

  20. Ionomycin Treatment Renders NK Cells Hyporesponsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Cárdenas, Gema; Thomas, L Michael; Lopez-Cobo, Sheila; García-Cuesta, Eva M; Long, Eric O; Reyburn, Hugh T

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes important in immune responses to cancer and multiple pathogens. However, chronic activation of NK cells can induce a hyporesponsive state. The molecular basis of the mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of this hyporesponsive condition are unknown, thus an easy and reproducible mechanism able to induce hyporesponsiveness on human NK cells would be very useful to gain understanding of this process. Human NK cells treated with ionomycin lose their ability to degranulate and secrete IFN-γ in response to a variety of stimuli, but IL-2 stimulation can compensate these defects. Apart from reductions in the expression of CD11a/CD18, no great changes were observed in the activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by these NK cells, however their transcriptional signature is different to that described for other hyporesponsive lymphocytes. PMID:27007115

  1. Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of Ocular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Padma Priya; Syed, Sakinah; Mok, Pooi-Ling; Higuchi, Akon; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Awang Hamat, Rukman; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented.

  2. Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of Ocular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Priya Sivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented.

  3. Alkylator-Induced and Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Models of Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms Model Clinical Disease and Suggest the Presence of Multiple Cell Subpopulations with Leukemia Stem Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Brian A; Johnson, Carl; Gratzinger, Dita; Majeti, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive bone marrow cancers arising from transformed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). Therapy-related AML and MDS (t-AML/MDS) comprise a subset of AML cases occurring after exposure to alkylating chemotherapy and/or radiation and are associated with a very poor prognosis. Less is known about the pathogenesis and disease-initiating/leukemia stem cell (LSC) subpopulations of t-AML/MDS compared to their de novo counterparts. Here, we report the development of mouse models of t-AML/MDS. First, we modeled alkylator-induced t-AML/MDS by exposing wild type adult mice to N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU), resulting in several models of AML and MDS that have clinical and pathologic characteristics consistent with human t-AML/MDS including cytopenia, myelodysplasia, and shortened overall survival. These models were limited by their inability to transplant clinically aggressive disease. Second, we established three patient-derived xenograft models of human t-AML. These models led to rapidly fatal disease in recipient immunodeficient xenografted mice. LSC activity was identified in multiple HSPC subpopulations suggesting there is no canonical LSC immunophenotype in human t-AML. Overall, we report several new t-AML/MDS mouse models that could potentially be used to further define disease pathogenesis and test novel therapeutics. PMID:27428079

  4. Alkylator-Induced and Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Models of Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms Model Clinical Disease and Suggest the Presence of Multiple Cell Subpopulations with Leukemia Stem Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carl; Gratzinger, Dita; Majeti, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive bone marrow cancers arising from transformed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). Therapy-related AML and MDS (t-AML/MDS) comprise a subset of AML cases occurring after exposure to alkylating chemotherapy and/or radiation and are associated with a very poor prognosis. Less is known about the pathogenesis and disease-initiating/leukemia stem cell (LSC) subpopulations of t-AML/MDS compared to their de novo counterparts. Here, we report the development of mouse models of t-AML/MDS. First, we modeled alkylator-induced t-AML/MDS by exposing wild type adult mice to N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU), resulting in several models of AML and MDS that have clinical and pathologic characteristics consistent with human t-AML/MDS including cytopenia, myelodysplasia, and shortened overall survival. These models were limited by their inability to transplant clinically aggressive disease. Second, we established three patient-derived xenograft models of human t-AML. These models led to rapidly fatal disease in recipient immunodeficient xenografted mice. LSC activity was identified in multiple HSPC subpopulations suggesting there is no canonical LSC immunophenotype in human t-AML. Overall, we report several new t-AML/MDS mouse models that could potentially be used to further define disease pathogenesis and test novel therapeutics. PMID:27428079

  5. Clear cell renal cell tumors: Not all that is "clear" is cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Cheng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Continued improvement of our understanding of the clinical, histologic, and genetic features of renal cell tumors has progressively evolved renal tumor classification, revealing an expanding array of distinct tumor types with different implications for prognosis, patient counseling, and treatment. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma is unequivocally the most common adult renal tumor, there is growing evidence that some "clear cell" renal neoplasms, such as exemplified by multilocular cystic clear cell renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (formerly multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma), do not have the same potential for insidious progression and metastasis, warranting reclassification as low malignant potential tumors or benign neoplasms. Still other novel tumor types such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma have been more recently recognized, which similarly have shown a conspicuous absence of aggressive behavior to date, suggesting that these too may be recategorized as noncancerous or may be premalignant neoplasms. This importance for prognosis is increasingly significant in the modern era, in which renal masses are increasingly found incidentally by imaging techniques at a small tumor size, raising consideration for less aggressive management options guided by renal mass biopsy diagnosis, including imaging surveillance, tumor ablation, or partial nephrectomy. PMID:26988177

  6. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti......-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting...

  7. Spectrum of Intestinal Neoplasms: A study of 400 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminder Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is a five-year analysis of all the tumors of small and large intestine received in the Pathology Department of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Methods: All the cases were grossly and microscopically examined and were staged according to Astler Coller Staging and classified and subtyped according to WHO classification. The important differences between the small and large intestine tumors were also analyzed. Results: There were 400 cases out of which 356 were in large intestine while 44 were in the small intestine. There were only 56 benign neoplasms while 344 were malignant tumors. Adenomas were the most common benign tumors while majority of malignant tumors were adenocarcinomas. Lymphomas, mesenchymal tumors, and carcinoid tumors were much more common in a small intestine as compared to large intestine. Majority of adenocarcinomas were located in the large intestine with most of them being moderately differentiated having Astler Coller Stage B II. Mucinous carcinomas had the worst prognosis as compared to adenocarcinomas. Anal canal had mainly squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumors of large intestine were much commoner than of small intestine. There was a higher incidence of tumor in males with M:F ratio of 2.2:1. Mean age of presentation of benign tumor was younger, i.e., 32.6 years when compared to 54.5 years for malignant tumors. Tubular adenoma was the most common benign tumor and adenocarcinoma the commonest malignant neoplasm. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 19-23

  8. Primary cardiac neoplasms:a clinicopathologic analysis of 81 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继纲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the disease spectrum,clinical and pathologic features of primary cardiac neoplasms at asingle medical in stitution during a period of eight years.Methods The clinical and pathologic features of 81 cases of primary cardiac neoplasms encountered at the Affiliated

  9. A new type of cardiac neoplasm: Evans tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yang-feng; XU Ji-bin; LIU Xiao-hong; XU Zhi-yun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Primary cardiac neoplasms are exceedingly rare with a reP1orted prevalence of 0.001% to 0.03% in autopsy series. Sarcomas that most frequently encountered are angiosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, osteosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, being the second most common primary cardiac neoplasm in all age groups.2

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. In stage I , cancer is found in one ... in the abdomen ) or in washings of the peritoneum ( tissue lining the peritoneal cavity). Stage II Enlarge ...

  11. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  12. 胰管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤361例的临床特征%Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 361 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 邵成浩; 郑建明; 王莉; 李兆申; 夏天; 廖专; 邹多武; 金震东; 杜奕奇; 湛先保; 胡先贵; 金钢

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse the clinical characterization of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas (IPMNs) and to improve the understanding of IPMNs.Methods Three hundred and sixty-one patients with IPMN at Shanghai Changhai Hospital between 1993 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among 361 cases of IPMNs,241 were men and 120 were female,with a female to male ratio of 2.6∶1.Mean age of the patients was 62 years old (16 ~ 87 years old).The duct type included the main duct in 102 patients (28.3%),a branch duct in 109 (30.2%),and mixed ducts in 150 (41.6%).The most common symptom at presentation is pancreatitis,which occur in 167 patients (46.3%).The sensitivity for the detection of IPMN was 80.2% by ERCP,76.9% by MRCP,63.9% by CT,and 50.5% by EUS.One hundred and twenty-nine patients (35.7%) were operated and diagnosed with 87 (67.2%) IPMA,21 (16.4%) IPMB,10(8.2%) IPMC(CIS) and 10 (8.2%) had invasive carcinomas.The 5-year survival rates of IPMA,IPMB,IPMC,and invasive carcinomas were 100%,100%,66.5%,and 44.7%,respectively.Conclusions IPMNs were fregrently occured is 60 years old,half of patients had acute pancreatitis history and the frequtly attack,mixed type is most anatomy type,and the outcome after surgery is good.%目的 分析胰管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤(IPMN)的临床特征,以提高对该病的认识.方法 采用单中心回顾性研究方法,分析长海医院1993年1月至2012年8月间收治的361例IPMN的临床资料,分析其临床特征.结果 361例IPMN中,男性261例,女性100例,男女比例为2.6∶1,平均年龄61岁(16 ~87岁).其中主胰管型102例(28.3%),分支胰管型109例(30.2%),混合型150例(41.6%).患者的症状主要为急性胰腺炎发作,共167例(46.3%).内镜下胰胆管造影术(ERCP)的诊断符合率最高,为80.2%(130/162),MRCP、CT、内镜超声(EUS)的检查阳性率分别为76.9%(160/208)、63.9%(159/249)、50.5%(53/105).手术治疗129

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. Recommendations in the management of epithelial appendiceal neoplasms and peritoneal dissemination from mucinous tumours (pseudomyxoma peritonei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, P; Losa, F; Gonzalez-Moreno, S; Rojo, A; Gómez-Portilla, A; Bretcha-Boix, P; Ramos, I; Torres-Melero, J; Salazar, R; Benavides, M; Massuti, T; Aranda, E

    2016-05-01

    The epithelial appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon and are usually detected as an unexpected surgical finding. The general surgeon should be aware of the diversity of its clinical manifestations and biological behaviors along with the significance of the surgical treatment on the progression of the illness and the prognosis of the patients. The operative findings and, especially, tumor histology, determine the type of surgery. Intestinal histologic subtype behaves and should be treated similarly to the right colon neoplasms; while mucinous tumors, often discordant between histology and its aggressiveness, can be treated with a simple appendectomy or require complex oncological surgeries. Mucinous tumors are often associated with the presence of mucin or tumor implants in the abdominal cavity, being the clinical syndrome known as pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). PMP tends to present an indolent but deadly evolution and requires a multimodal approach as a single treatment with curative potential: complete cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic Intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (CCRS + HIPEC) now considered the standard of care in this pathology. The general surgeon should be aware of the governing principles of the treatment of appendiceal neoplasms with or without peritoneal dissemination, know the therapeutic frontiers in every situation (avoiding unnecessary or counterproductive surgeries) and sending early these patients to specialised centres in the radical management of malignant diseases of the peritoneum in the conditions and with the necessary information to facilitate a possible radical treatment. PMID:26489426

  2. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jafar Memon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and have a different histo-logic spectrum and prognosis than those in adults. Pancreatoblastoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm in young children. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm occurs in adolescent girls. It is heterogeneous in internal architecture, with a mixture of solid and cystic hemorrhagic and necrotic elements. All pancreatic neoplasms in children are capable of producing metastases, usually to the liver and lymph nodes; however, on the whole, these tumors have a better clinical outcome than most pancreatic tumors in adults. We present a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm with a liver metastasis in a 13 year old male patient. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3090-3093

  3. Low-dose decitabine plus all-trans retinoic acid in patients with myeloid neoplasms ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lin, Yan; Xiang, Lili; Dong, Weimin; Hua, Xiaoying; Ling, Yun; Li, Haiqian; Yan, Feng; Xie, Xiaobao; Gu, Weiying

    2016-06-01

    In our previous in vitro trials, decitabine and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) demonstrated synergistic effects on growth inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis in SHI-1 cells; in K562 cells, ATRA enhanced the effect of decitabine on p16 demethylation, and the combination of the two drugs was found to activate RAR-β expression (p16 and RAR-β are two tumor suppressor genes). On the rationale of our in vitro trials, we used low-dose decitabine and ATRA to treat 31 myeloid neoplasms deemed ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. The regimen consisted of decitabine at the dose of 15 mg/m(2) intravenously over 1 h daily for consecutive 5 days and ATRA at the dose of 20 mg/m(2) orally from day 1 to 28 except day 4 to 28 in the first cycle, and the regimen was repeated every 28 days. After 6 cycles, decitabine treatment was stopped, and ATRA treatment was continued for maintenance treatment. Treated with a median of 2 cycles (range 1-6), 7 patients (22.6 %) achieved complete remission (CR), 7 (22.6 %) marrow CR (mCR), and 4 (12.9 %) partial remission (PR). The overall remission (CR, mCR, and PR) rate was 58.1 %, and the best response (CR and mCR) rate was 45.2 %. The median overall survival (OS) was 11.0 months, the 1-year OS rate was 41.9 %, and the 2-year OS rate was 26.6 %. In univariate analyses, age, performance status, comorbidities, white blood cell counts and platelets at diagnosis, percentage of bone marrow blasts, karyotype, and treatment efficacy demonstrated no impacts on OS (P > 0.05, each). Main side effects were tolerable hematologic toxicities. In conclusion, low-dose decitabine plus ATRA is a promising treatment for patients with myeloid neoplasms judged ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.

  4. Prediction of the origin of intracanalicular neoplasms with high-resolution MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, S. [Sendai Shakaihoken Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Higano, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hashimoto, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    Correct diagnosis of intracanalicular neoplasms is important to avoid unnecessary operations or an unsuitable surgical approach. We investigated the capability of high-resolution three-dimensional MR imaging in predicting the origin of intracanalicular neoplasms. Twenty cases underwent three-dimensional Fourier-transformation (3DFT) constructive interference in steady state and contrast-enhanced 3DFT-fast low angled shot MR imaging and surgery. Seventeen cases underwent caloric test. MR diagnosis on the origin of intracanalicular neoplasms was compared with surgical results. For MR diagnosis, the origin of intracanalicular neoplasms was predicted according to the location of the tumor in the internal auditory canal (IAC) in two ways, i.e., determining (1) a single specific nerve of origin and (2) whether the tumor originated from the superior or inferior aspect of the IAC. Surgery could determine the nerve of origin in 16 cases (14 inferior and 2 superior vestibular schwannomas), but it was indeterminate in 4. Comparison between MR prediction and surgical results on a single nerve origin revealed exact agreement in five, but inconsistent in three. Regarding whether the tumor was derived from superior or inferior aspect of the IAC, agreement was found in 10 of the 16 cases (62.5%). Caloric test was abnormal in all patients examined but one with superior vestibular schwannoma. 3DFT-MR imaging was not particularly useful in predicting a precise nerve of origin of intracanalicular neoplasms. The prediction on whether the tumor originated in the superior or inferior aspect of the IAC was superior to caloric test, which might have clinical significance in treatment planning especially for hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  5. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for stomach neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuhiro Fujishiro

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques of therapeutic endoscopy for stomach neoplasms are rapidly achieved. One of the major topics in this field is endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). ESD is a new endoscopic technique using cutting devices to remove the tumor by thefollowing three steps: injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the tumor from the muscle layer, pre-cutting the surrounding mucosa of the tumor, and dissecting the connective tissue of the submucosa beneath the tumor. So the tumors are resectable in an en bloc fashion, regardless of the size, shape, coexisting ulcer,and location. Indication for ESD is strictly confined by two aspects: the possibility of nodal metastases and technical difficulty, which depends on the operators. Although long-term outcome data are still lacking, short-term outcomes of ESD are extremely favourable and laparotomy with gastrectomy is replaced with ESD in some parts of therapeutic strategy for early gastric cancer.

  6. Carboplatin treatment of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Yde, Christina Westmose; Christensen, Ib J;

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment. Therefore, biomarkers and new treatment options for antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer are needed. In this study, we investigated whether antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer cell lines have increased...... sensitivity to carboplatin, as it was previously shown with cisplatin, and whether low Bcl-2 expression levels have a potential value as marker for increased carboplatin sensitivity. Breast cancer cells resistant to the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant, and two out of four cell lines resistant...... to the antiestrogen tamoxifen, were more sensitive to carboplatin treatment compared to the parental MCF-7 cell line. This indicates that carboplatin may be an advantageous treatment in antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer; however, a marker for increased sensitivity would be needed. Low Bcl-2 expression...

  7. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with their treatments. 7 Patient testimonials and other marketing provided by clinics may be misleading It can ... Resources About the ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use ...

  8. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  9. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: a clinicopathologic analysis of 107 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdraji, Joseph; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Graeme-Cook, Fiona M; Balis, Ulysses J; Young, Robert H

    2003-08-01

    The classification of appendiceal mucinous tumors is controversial and terminology used for them inconsistent, particularly when they lack overtly malignant features but are associated with extra-appendiceal spread. We reviewed 107 appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and classified them as low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) (n = 88), mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACAs) (n = 16), or discordant (n = 3) based on architectural and cytologic features. LAMNs were characterized by a villous or flat proliferation of mucinous epithelium with low-grade atypia. Thirty-nine tumors were confined to the appendix, but 49 had extra-appendiceal tumor spread, including 39 with peritoneal tumor characterized by mucin pools harboring low-grade mucinous epithelium, usually dissecting in a hyalinized stroma. Eight of the 16 MACAs lacked destructive invasion of the appendiceal wall and eight showed an infiltrative pattern of invasion. Extra-appendiceal tumor spread was present in 12 MACAs (four peritoneum, seven peritoneum and ovaries; one ovaries only). In MACAs with an infiltrative pattern, peritoneal tumor consisted of glands and single cells in a desmoplastic stroma. The peritoneal tumor in the remaining cases consisted of mucin pools that contained mucinous epithelium with high-grade atypia and, in some cases, increased cellularity compared with that seen in peritoneal spread in cases of LAMN. Three cases were classified as discordant because the appendiceal tumors were LAMNs but the peritoneal tumors were high-grade. Follow-up was available for 49 LAMNs, 15 MACAs, and 2 discordant cases. None of the patients with LAMNs confined to the appendix experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6 years). LAMNs with extra-appendiceal spread were associated with 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of 100%, 86%, and 45%, respectively. Patients with MACA had 3- and 5-year survival rates of 90% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.04). The bulk of peritoneal disease correlated with prognosis among

  10. Stem cell treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Guo, Kequan; Ikehara, Susumu

    2014-10-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder that induces dementia in older people. It was first reported in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer, who characterized the disease as causing memory loss and cognitive impairment. Pathologic characteristics of AD are β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neurodegeneration. Current therapies only target the relief of symptoms using various drugs, and do not cure the disease. Recently, stem cell therapy has been shown to be a potential approach to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, and in this review, we focus on stem cell therapies for AD.

  11. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...

  12. Role of stem cells in spondyloarthritis: Pathogenesis, treatment and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca S Y

    2015-10-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a family of interrelated inflammatory arthritis that includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease and undifferentiated SpA. The classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of SpA have been extensively reviewed in the published literature. Reviews on the use of stem cells in various autoimmune diseases in general are also common. However, a review on the role of stem cells in SpA is currently lacking. This review focuses on the involvement of stem cells in the pathogenesis of SpA and the application of different types of stem cells in the treatment of SpA. It also addresses some of the complications which may arise as a result of the use of stem cells in the treatment of SpA.

  13. No evidence for oncogenic mutations in the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene in human adrenocortical neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latronico, A.C.; Reincke, M.; Mendonca, B.B. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The mechanism(s) of tumorigenesis for the majority of adrenocortical neoplasms remain unknown. G-Protein-coupled receptors were recently proposed as candidate protooncogenes. That activating mutations of this class of receptors might be important for tumor induction or progression of endocrine neoplasms was strengthened by the recent identification of such mutations in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. To examine whether the ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) gene could be an oncogene in human adrenocortical tumors, we amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced the entire exon of the ACTH-R gene in 25 adrenocortical tumors (17 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) and 2 adrenocortical cancer cell lines. We found no missense point mutations or even silent polymorphisms in any of the tumors and cell lines studied. We conclude that activating mutations of the ACTH-R gene do not represent a frequent mechanism of human adrenocortical tumorigenesis. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. T Cells in Predicting Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  15. Bortezomib for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Bryan; Caimi, Paolo F; William, Basem M

    2016-08-01

    Bortezomib is a first in class proteasome inhibitor, initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of plasma cell myeloma. Bortezomib has been approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and, more recently, in the upfront setting as well. Treatment algorithms for MCL have rapidly evolved over the past two decades, and the optimal regimen remains to be defined. The choice of treatment regimen is based on disease risk stratification models, the expected toxicity of antineoplastic agents, the perceived patient ability to tolerate the planned treatments and the availability of novel agents. As new drugs with novel mechanisms of action and variable toxicity profiles come into use, treatment decisions for a given patient have become increasingly complex. This article provides an overview of the evolving use of bortezomib in the rapidly changing management landscape of MCL.

  16. Bortezomib for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Bryan; Caimi, Paolo F; William, Basem M

    2016-08-01

    Bortezomib is a first in class proteasome inhibitor, initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of plasma cell myeloma. Bortezomib has been approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and, more recently, in the upfront setting as well. Treatment algorithms for MCL have rapidly evolved over the past two decades, and the optimal regimen remains to be defined. The choice of treatment regimen is based on disease risk stratification models, the expected toxicity of antineoplastic agents, the perceived patient ability to tolerate the planned treatments and the availability of novel agents. As new drugs with novel mechanisms of action and variable toxicity profiles come into use, treatment decisions for a given patient have become increasingly complex. This article provides an overview of the evolving use of bortezomib in the rapidly changing management landscape of MCL. PMID:27493710

  17. Accuracy of intraoperative frozen section for the evaluation of ovarian neoplasms: an institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Naz, Samreen; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Faridi, Naveen; Hussain, Syed Danish; Mumtaz, Shazia; Khan, Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors including surface epithelial, germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors with a subset having low malignant potential (borderline tumors). While the surgical management plan differs in different categories of tumors, preoperative diagnosis is seldom available. In these circumstances, the role of frozen section becomes invaluable. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the frozen section of ovarian tumors in our se...

  18. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Hahn, Peter F. [Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Shirkhoda, Ali [Dept. of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine (United States); Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  19. Endoscopic surgery and photodynamic therapy for behign and malignant neoplasms of colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Razzhivina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature for current methods of endoscopic treatment for colon epithelial neoplasms is represented. Such types of endoscopic interventions as loop electroresection, submucosal dissection, coagulation and destruction of tumors and combination of several options depending on efficiency of previous therapy is analyzed. Limitations of every method, its special aspects and possible complications are described. Special focus is on specifics of neoplasms for which selected methods may be the most effective. Thus, hot biopsy and destruction using high-energy laser is efficient for small flat neoplasms, endoscopic electroexcision – far small pedunculated lesions, and fragmentation is adequate for exophytic tumors more than 2.0 cm. Long-term results of endoscopic treatment, recurrence rates after different options are represented. The literature for photodynamic therapy consists mostly articles about development (on pre-clenecal stage of new photosensitizers which are effective for colon cancer, new methods of treatment including combination with hyperthermia in low-dose light irradiation etc. The literature data shows the prospectivity of subsequent developments in this field. 

  20. Stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantuma, Elise; Merchant, Stephanie; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2010-12-10

    Stem cells offer an enormous pool of resources for the understanding of the human body. One proposed use of stem cells has been as an autologous therapy. The use of stem cells for neurodegenerative diseases has become of interest. Clinical applications of stem cells for Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis will increase in the coming years, and although great care will need to be taken when moving forward with prospective treatments, the application of stem cells is highly promising.

  1. Stem cells: novel players in the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyang Zhang; Maarten Albersen; XunboJin; Guiting Lin

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their capacity for both self-renewal and directed differentiation; thus,they represent great promise for regenerative medicine.Historically,stem cells have been categorized as either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or adult stem cells (ASCs).It was previously believed that only ESCs hold the ability to differentiate into any cell type,whereas ASCs have the capacity to give rise only to cells of a given germ layer.More recently,however,numerous studies demonstrated the ability of ASCs to differentiate into cell types beyond their tissue origin.The aim of this review was to summarize contemporary evidence regarding stem cell availability,differentiation,and more specifically,the potential of these cells in the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in both animal models and human research.We performed a search on PubMed for articles related to definition,Iocalisation and circulation of stem cells as well as the application of stem cells in both diagnosis and treatment of ED.Strong evidence supports the concept that stem cell therapy is potentially the next therapeutic approach for ED.To date,a large spectrum of stem cells,including bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,adipose tissue-derived stem cells and muscle-derived stem cells,have been investigated for neural,vascular,endothelial or smooth muscle regeneration in animal models for ED.In addition,several subtypes of ASCs are localized in the penis,and circulating endogenous stem cells can be employed to predict the outcome of ED and ED-related cardiovascular diseases.

  2. TRAIL treatment provokes mutations in surviving cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lovric, M M; Hawkins, C J

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy commonly damage DNA and trigger p53-dependent apoptosis through intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Two unfortunate consequences of this mechanism are resistance due to blockade of p53 or intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and mutagenesis of non-malignant surviving cells which can impair cellular function or provoke second malignancies. Death ligand-based drugs, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), stimulate extrinsic apoptotic signaling,...

  3. Stem cell treatment for type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Ikehara, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a common chronic disease in children, characterized by a loss of β cells, which results in defects in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Curative therapies mainly include diet and insulin administration. Although hyperglycemia can be improved by insulin administration, exogenous insulin injection cannot successfully mimic the insulin secretion ...

  4. LITERATURE REVIEW ON STEM CELL TREATMENT & ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS (OSMF)

    OpenAIRE

    Prathipaty James; Kameswararao

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a part of regenerative medicine that involves the use of undifferentiated cells in order to cure the disease. Stem cell - based therapies are being investigated for the treatment of many conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and for nerve regeneration. (1) In orofacial region these therapies are being used for tooth and periodonta...

  5. Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological features of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugras, Nesrin; Yerci, Ömer; Coşkun, Sinem Kantarcıoğlu; Ocakoğlu, Gökhan; Sarkut, Pınar; Dündar, Halit Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm that accounts for 2-3% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms. This study aimed to characterize clinicopathological features associated with SPNs and to retrospectively evaluate the relationship of these features with predictive parameters associated with aggressive behavior. We reviewed 16 cases of SPN of the pancreas that had been diagnosed between 2005 and 2014 at our pathology department. A total of 16 cases, 15 female and one male, were evaluated in this study. The patient age ranged from 13 years to 63 years with a median of 35.70 years. The mean tumor diameter ranged from 2 cm to 18 cm with a mean diameter of 5.90 cm. We identified a significant association between the presence of clear cells and perineural invasion (p=0.019), which was considered to be a predictive factor for aggressive behavior. Other features (i.e., localization, nuclear grooves, central hyalinization, myxoid stroma, eosinophilic bodies, foamy histiocyte aggregates, multinucleated cells, and calcification) were not significantly associated with predictive factors for aggressive behavior. One patient died as a result of a pancreatic fistula that developed as a postoperative complication. The remaining 15 patients are alive and have not demonstrated any signs of recurrence or metastasis. The current study suggested that the presence of clear cells might serve as a possible prognostic indicator of perineural invasion, which is a predictive parameter associated with aggressive behavior in SPN. PMID:27450024

  6. Superficial treatment of mammalian cells using plasma needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, E; Kieft, I E; Sladek, R E J [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2003-12-07

    Interactions of a small-size, non-thermal plasma (plasma needle) with living cells in culture are studied. We have demonstrated the non-destructive character of the plasma needle: under moderate conditions (low-power and low concentration of molecular species) the plasma needle does not heat biological samples and does not induce cell death. Treatment of living cells is restricted to the cell exterior (membrane). As a result of the interactions of plasma radicals with cell adhesion molecules, cell attachment is temporarily interrupted; the loose cells can be removed, reattached or transferred. This effect may prove very useful in fine surgery, where a part of the tissue must be removed with high-precision, without damage to the adjacent cells and without inflammatory reaction.

  7. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demuth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal;

    2016-01-01

    growth factor receptor (EGFR) was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8......) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI....... However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin....

  8. Aerosol-Based Cell Therapy for Treatment of Lung Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardia, Egi; Halim, Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-based cell delivery technique via intratracheal is an effective route for delivering transplant cells directly into the lungs. An aerosol device known as the MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer is invented to transform liquid into an aerosol form, which then can be applied via intratracheal administration for drug delivery. The device produces a uniform and concentrated distribution of aerosolized liquid. Using the capability of MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer to transform liquid into aerosol form, our group has designed a novel method of cell delivery using an aerosol-based technique. We have successfully delivered skin-derived fibroblast cells and airway epithelial cells into the airway of a rabbit with minimum risk of cell loss and have uniformly distributed the cells into the airway. This chapter illustrates the application of aerosol device to deliver any type of cells for future treatment of lung diseases. PMID:27062596

  9. Evaluation of cell death after treatment with extracorporeal photopheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Nicola; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Cerrone, Paola; Sinopoli, Silvia; Sansone, Lucia; Gadaleta, Deborah Ilaria; Lanti, Alessandro; Ferraro, Angelo Salvatore; Spurio, Stefano; Scerpa, Maria Cristina; Zinno, Francesco; Adorno, Gaspare; Isacchi, Giancarlo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the mortality of leukocytes during extracorporeal photopheresis. Sixty-three photopheresis performed on 13 patients affected by chronic GvHD were evaluated. Samples were analyzed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Apoptosis and necrosis of limphomononuclear cells dramatically increased after the apheretic procedure. We found a further increase of apoptotic and necrotic limphomononuclear cells after treatment with 8-MOP and UVA (p≤0.05). Our data suggested that the immunomodulatory effects of extracorporeal photopheresis, triggered by circulating apoptotic or necrotic cells, could play an important role in the treatment of GvHD with this procedure.

  10. The evolving treatment paradigm in myelofibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Ruben A.

    2012-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a BCR–ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed de novo or developed from essential thrombocythemia (ET) or polycythemia vera (PV). Average survival of a patient with MF is 5–7 years. Disease complications include fatigue, early satiety, pruritus, painful splenic infarcts, infections and leukemic transformation. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only potentially curative option for MF, but carries a risk of treatment-related mortality ...

  11. Dynamic rendering of the heterogeneous cell response to anticancer treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Falcetta

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative response to anticancer treatment is the result of concurrent responses in all cell cycle phases, extending over several cell generations, whose complexity is not captured by current methods. In the proposed experimental/computational approach, the contemporary use of time-lapse live cell microscopy and flow cytometric data supported the computer rendering of the proliferative process through the cell cycle and subsequent generations during/after treatment. The effects of treatments were modelled with modules describing the functional activity of the main pathways causing arrest, repair and cell death in each phase. A framework modelling environment was created, enabling us to apply different types of modules in each phase and test models at the complexity level justified by the available data. We challenged the method with time-course measures taken in parallel with flow cytometry and time-lapse live cell microscopy in X-ray-treated human ovarian cancer cells, spanning a wide range of doses. The most suitable model of the treatment, including the dose-response of each effect, was progressively built, combining modules with a rational strategy and fitting simultaneously all data of different doses and platforms. The final model gave for the first time the complete rendering in silico of the cycling process following X-ray exposure, providing separate and quantitative measures of the dose-dependence of G1, S and G2M checkpoint activities in subsequent generations, reconciling known effects of ionizing radiations and new insights in a unique scenario.

  12. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, I.

    1982-02-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

  13. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

  14. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  15. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  16. Glomus-like bodies within a neurofibroma: a novel neoplasm arising in neurofibromatosis type 1 or a coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, Sumeet; Honigbaum, Alexis; Jukic, Drazen

    2015-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a relatively common genetic disorder with variable phenotypes. Tumors with features of both glomus tumors and neurofibromas are exceedingly rare in literature. Herein, we report a not yet described neoplasm with features of both a glomangioma/glomus tumor and a neurofibroma arising in a patient with segmental neurofibromatosis. Our case report supports the theory of a common lineage/ancestor cell between neurofibromas and glomus tumors and adds it to the spectrum of neoplasms that may arise in the setting of Von Recklinghausen's disease. PMID:25384450

  17. Neural stem cell-based treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung U; Lee, Hong J; Kim, Yun B

    2013-10-01

    Human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by a loss of neurons and glia in the brain or spinal cord. Neurons and glial cells have successfully been generated from stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs), and stem cell-based cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases have been developed. A recent advance in generation of a new class of pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), derived from patients' own skin fibroblasts, opens doors for a totally new field of personalized medicine. Transplantation of NSCs, neurons or glia generated from stem cells in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, HD, ALS and AD, demonstrates clinical improvement and also life extension of these animals. Additional therapeutic benefits in these animals can be provided by stem cell-mediated gene transfer of therapeutic genes such as neurotrophic factors and enzymes. Although further research is still needed, cell and gene therapy based on stem cells, particularly using neurons and glia derived from iPSCs, ESCs or NSCs, will become a routine treatment for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases and also stroke and spinal cord injury.

  18. Asthma in Sickle Cell Disease: Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Blake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review issues related to asthma in sickle cell disease and management strategies. Data Source. A systematic review of pertinent original research publications, reviews, and editorials was undertaken using MEDLlNE, the Cochrane Library databases, and CINAHL from 1947 to November 2010. Search terms were [asthma] and [sickle cell disease]. Additional publications considered relevant to the sickle cell disease population of patients were identified; search terms included [sickle cell disease] combined with [acetaminophen], [pain medications], [vitamin D], [beta agonists], [exhaled nitric oxide], and [corticosteroids]. Results. The reported prevalence of asthma in children with sickle cell disease varies from 2% to approximately 50%. Having asthma increases the risk for developing acute chest syndrome , death, or painful episodes compared to having sickle cell disease without asthma. Asthma and sickle cell may be linked by impaired nitric oxide regulation, excessive production of leukotrienes, insufficient levels of Vitamin D, and exposure to acetaminophen in early life. Treatment of sickle cell patients includes using commonly prescribed asthma medications; specific considerations are suggested to ensure safety in the sickle cell population. Conclusion. Prospective controlled trials of drug treatment for asthma in patients who have both sickle cell disease and asthma are urgently needed.

  19. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, M Joana; Goldman, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  20. Bone Marrow Stem Cell as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. The chronic hyperglycemia damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Curative therapies mainly include diet, insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, these therapies fail to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range all the time. Although pancreas or islet-cell transplantation achieves better glucose control, a major obstacle is the shortage of donor organs. Recently, research has focused on stem cells which can be classified into embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tissue stem cells (TSCs to generate functional β cells. TSCs include the bone-marrow-, liver-, and pancreas-derived stem cells. In this review, we focus on treatment using bone marrow stem cells for type 1 and 2 DM.

  1. Perspective on the practical indications of endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a new endolurninal therapeutic technique involving the use of cutting devices to permit a larger resection of the tissue over the muscularis propria. The major advantages of the technique in comparison with polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection are controllable resection size and shape and en bloc resection of a large lesion or a lesion with ulcerative findings. This technique is applied for the endoscopic treatment of epithelial neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. Furthermore, some carcinoids and submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract are treated by ESD. To determine the indication, two aspects should be considered. The first is a little likelihood of lymph node metastasis and the second is the technical resectability. In this review, practical guidelines of ESD for the gastrointestinal neoplasms are discussed based on the evidence found in the literature.

  2. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neha Gupta, Hassan Hatoum, Grace K DyDepartment of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007 is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel. A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.Keywords: ABI-007, Abraxane, nab

  3. Primary nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto de Pádua Covas Lage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a rare group of neoplasms derived from post-thymic and activated T lymphocytes. A review of scientific articles listed in PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed using the term "peripheral T-cell lymphomas". According to the World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tissue tumors, this group of neoplasms consists of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALCL-ALK+, and a provisional entity called anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative (ALCL-ALK-. Because the treatment and prognoses of these neoplasms involve different principles, it is essential to distinguish each one by its clinical, immunophenotypic, genetic, and molecular features. Except for anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive, which has no adverse international prognostic index, the prognosis of nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas is worse than that of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Chemotherapy based on anthracyclines provides poor outcomes because these neoplasms frequently have multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Based on this, the current tendency is to use intensified cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP regimens with the addition of new drugs, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This paper describes the clinical features and diagnostic methods, and proposes a therapeutic algorithm for nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients.

  4. Second neoplasms in patients with Hodgkin's disease following combined modality therapy--the Yale experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koletsky, A.J.; Bertino, J.R.; Farber, L.R.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Portlock, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    From 1969 to 1982, 183 patients with previously untreated stages IIIB and IV Hodgkin's disease and relapsing Hodgkin's disease after radiation therapy were treated with combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation (CRT). One hundred fifty patients who achieved a complete response (CR) were analyzed for risk of developing a second neoplasm. Median follow-up has been 8.3 years. Actuarial survival of all patients is 74% at 10 years with a relapse-free survival of 68%. An additional 24 patients with stage IIIA disease were also treated with CRT. There were 22 CRs at risk who were analyzed. Median follow-up has been 3+ years with an actuarial survival of 90% at five years and a relapse-free survival of 83%. Second neoplasms have developed in 14 of 172 patients at risk: acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL; five patients); aggressive histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; three patients); and a variety of solid neoplasms (six patients). Time to second neoplasm diagnosis after initial treatment ranged from 12 to 141 months. Five patients were older than 40 years. At the time of diagnosis of the second malignancy, 11 patients were free of Hodgkin's disease (for 36 to 141 months) and three were receiving therapy for recurrent Hodgkin's disease. The 10-year actuarial risk (%) of developing ANLL was 5.9 +/- 2.8; for NHL, the risk was 3.5 +/- 2.4, and for solid neoplasms, 5.8 +/- 3.0. Our results suggest that combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation does not appear to significantly increase the risk of developing second neoplasms above that already reported for combination chemotherapy when administered as either initial or salvage treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

  5. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demouth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal;

    2016-01-01

    growth factor receptor (EGFR) was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8......) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI....... However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin....

  6. Cell Adhesion on Polycaprolactone Modified by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Recek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of various plasma treatments of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds on the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC. The PCL scaffolds were treated in plasmas created in O2, NH3 or SO2 gas at identical conditions. Surface functionalization of plasma-treated samples was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell adhesion and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the influence of plasma treatment on cell adhesion and viability was evaluated with cell viability assay (MTT assay. The results showed the highest metabolic activity of HUVEC on PCL samples treated with O2 and NH3 plasma. Accordingly, the cells reflected the best adhesion and morphology on O2 and NH3 plasma-treated PCL samples already at 3 h. Moreover, treatment with O2 and NH3 plasma even stimulated endothelial cell proliferation on PCL surfaces by 60% as measured at 24 h, showing significant improvement in endothelialization of this material. Contrarily, SO2 plasma appeared to be less promising in comparison with O2 and NH3 plasma; however, it was still better than without any plasma treatment. Thus, our results importantly contribute to the biocompatibility improvement of the PCL polymer, commonly used for scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  7. Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Sinonasal Tract: Neuroendocrine Carcinomas and Olfactory Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ketan; Perez-Ordóñez, Bayardo

    2016-03-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) can occur in organs or tissues that do not contain neuroendocrine cells normally and do not necessarily imply embryologic derivation from the neuroectoderm; but rather reflect a shared phenotype characterized by the expression of multiple genes encoding both endocrine and neuronal features. NENs are rare in the sinonasal tract and are subdivided into epithelial and neural subtypes based on the presence of keratins or neurofilaments, respectively. Although relatively rare, neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) are the most common neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal tract. The focus of this review is to highlight recent developments in the pathology of sinonasal NECs and ONB in light of the upcoming update of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 classification of tumors of the head and neck. PMID:26830400

  8. WHO Grade IV Gliofibroma: A Grading Label Denoting Malignancy for an Otherwise Commonly Misinterpreted Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante Abril, Paola A; Salazar, Miguel Fdo; López García, Nubia L; Madrazo Moya, Mónica N; Zamora Guerra, Yadir U; Mata Mendoza, Yadira Gandhi; Gómez Apo, Erick; Chávez Macías, Laura G

    2015-07-01

    We report a 50-year-old woman with no relevant clinical history who presented with headache and loss of memory. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left parieto-temporal mass with annular enhancement after contrast media administration, rendering a radiological diagnosis of high-grade astrocytic neoplasm. Tumour sampling was performed but the patient ultimately died as a result of disease. Microscopically, the lesion had areas of glioblastoma mixed with a benign mesenchymal constituent; the former showed hypercellularity, endothelial proliferation, high mitotic activity and necrosis, while the latter showed fascicles of long spindle cells surrounded by collagen and reticulin fibers. With approximately 40 previously reported cases, gliofibroma is a rare neoplasm defined as either glio-desmoplastic or glial/benign mesenchymal. As shown in our case, its prognosis is apparently determined by the degree of anaplasia of the glial component. PMID:26081826

  9. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cystic neoplasm in SV40Tag transgenic mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Feng; Qiang Sun; Cheng Gao; Juan Dong; Xiao-Luan Wei; Hua Xing; Hou-Da Li

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the gene expression changes in pancreatic cystic neoplasm in SV40Tag transgenic mice model and to provide information about the prevention,clinical diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Using the pBC-SV40Tag transgenic mice model of pancreatic cystic neoplasm, we studied the gene expression changes by applying high-density microarrays. Validation of part gene expression profiling data was performed using real-time PCR.RESULTS: By using high-density oligonucleotide microarray, of 14113 genes, 453 were increased and 760 decreased in pancreatic cystic neoplasm, including oncogenes, cell-cycle-related genes, signal transduction-related genes, skeleton-related genes and metabolism-related genes. Among these, we confirmed the changes in Igf, Shh and Wnt signal pathways with real-time PCR.The results of real-time PCR showed similar expression changes in gene chip.CONCLUSION: all the altered expression genes are associated with cell cycle, DNA damage and repair, signal pathway, and metabolism. SV40Tag may cooperate with several proteins in promoting tumorigenesis.

  10. Cell size dynamics and viability of cells exposed to hypotonic treatment and electroporation for electrofusion optimization:

    OpenAIRE

    Hudej, Rosana; Kandušer, Maša; Miklavčič, Damijan; Trontelj, Katja; Ušaj, Marko

    2009-01-01

    Background. Various electrofusion parameters have to be adjusted to obtain theoptimal electrofusion efficiency. Based on published data, good electrofusion conditions can be achieved with the hypotonic treatment. However, the duration of the hypotonic treatment before electroporation and buffer hypoosmolarity have to be adjusted in order to cause cell swelling, to avoid regulatory volume decrease and to preserve cell viability. The aims of our study were to determine cell size dynamics and vi...

  11. Cell size dynamics and viability of cells exposed to hypotonic treatment and electroporation for electrofusion optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Trontelj, Katja; Kandušer, Maša; Miklavčič, Damijan; Hudej, Rosana; Ušaj, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background. Various electrofusion parameters have to be adjusted to obtain theoptimal electrofusion efficiency. Based on published data, good electrofusion conditions can be achieved with the hypotonic treatment. However, the duration of the hypotonic treatment before electroporation and buffer hypoosmolarity have to be adjusted in order to cause cell swelling, to avoid regulatory volume decrease and to preserve cell viability. The aims of our study were to determine cell size dynamics and vi...

  12. Clinical Studies Applying Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Jäkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC seems to be resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and the general treatment regimen of cytokine therapy produces only modest responses while inducing severe side effects. Nowadays standard of care is the treatment with VEGF-inhibiting agents or mTOR inhibition; nevertheless, immunotherapy can induce complete remissions and long-term survival in selected patients. Among different adoptive lymphocyte therapies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have a particularly advantageous profile as these cells are easily available, have a high proliferative rate, and exhibit a high antitumor activity. Here, we reviewed clinical studies applying CIK cells, either alone or with standard therapies, for the treatment of RCC. The adverse events in all studies were mild, transient, and easily controllable. In vitro studies revealed an increased antitumor activity of peripheral lymphocytes of participants after CIK cell treatment and CIK cell therapy was able to induce complete clinical responses in RCC patients. The combination of CIK cell therapy and standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone. These studies suggest that CIK cell immunotherapy is a safe and competent treatment strategy for RCC patients and further studies should investigate different treatment combinations and schedules for optimal application of CIK cells.

  13. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am;

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  14. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  15. Neoplasms of the inferior vena cava - pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pictorial essay reviews common and rare neoplasms affecting the inferior vena cava (IVC, Table 1), with a particular emphasis on the clinical implications and the role and efficacy of the various imaging techniques. (author)

  16. Mucin-hypersecreting biliary neoplasms: two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Gye Yon; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Mucin-hypersecreting biliary neoplasm excretes excessive mucin that fills the biliary tree and results in marked dilatation of the bile ducts and obstructive jaundice. In these neoplasm, the much produced by the tumor rather than the tumor itself plays an important role in clinical course and radiologic patterns. The purpose of this paper is to report characteristic radiologic patterns of mucin-hypersecreting biliary neoplasms in two cases. These neoplasms were characterized by not only multilocular cystic hepatic mass or extra-hepatic bile duct mass resulting in marked biliary dilatation distal to the mass on US or CT, but also change of shape and extent of amorphous filling defects in the markedly dilated bile duct on serial cholangiograms.

  17. Granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, Manolo; Maiola, Vincenza; Salvati, Maurizio; D'Elia, Alessandro; Di Paolo, Alessandro; Campagna, Domenico; Santoro, Antonio; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare neoplasm occurring in the sellar and suprasellar spaces. It is a primary tumor of the neurohypophysis, presumably arising from the pituicytes, a distinctive glial cell of the neurohypophysis. GCTs in most reported cases show biologically benign behavior with slow growth. Only 70 cases of hypophyseal GCTs have been reported in the literature. We report a case of GCT in the neurohypophysis of a 46-year-old woman and discuss the histological and clinical features of this neoplasm together with the treatment modalities, reviewing the pertinent literature.

  18. Pathological features and diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor; M; Castellano-Megías; Carolina; Ibarrola-de; Andrés; Guadalupe; López-Alonso; Francisco; Colina-Ruizdelgado

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm(IPMN) of the pancreas is a noninvasive epithelial neoplasm of mucinproducing cells arising in the main duct(MD) and/or branch ducts(BD) of the pancreas. Involved ducts are dilated and filled with neoplastic papillae and mucus in variable intensity. IPMN lacks ovarian-type stroma, unlike mucinous cystic neoplasm, and is defined as a grossly visible entity(≥ 5 mm), unlike pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm. With the use of high-resolution imaging techniques, very small IPMNs are increasingly being identified. Most IPMNs are solitary and located in the pancreatic head, although 20%-40% are multifocal. Macroscopic classification in MD type, BD type and mixed or combined type reflects biological differences with important prognostic and preoperative clinical management implications. Based on cytoarchitectural atypia, IPMN is classified into low-grade, intermediategrade and high-grade dysplasia. Based on histological features and mucin(MUC) immunophenotype, IPMNs are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic types. These different phenotypes can be observed together, with the IPMN classified according to the predominant type. Two pathways have been suggested: gastric phenotype corresponds to less aggressive uncommitted cells(MUC1-, MUC2-, MUC5 AC +, MUC6 +) with the capacity to evolve to intestinal phenotype(intestinal pathway)(MUC1-, MUC2 +, MUC5 AC +, MUC6- or weak +) or pancreatobiliary /oncocytic phenotypes(pyloropancreatic pathway)(MUC1 +, MUC 2-, MUC5 AC +, MUC 6 +) becoming more aggressive. Prognosis of IPMN is excellent but critically worsens when invasive carcinoma arises(about 40% of IPMNs), except in some cases of minimal invasion. The clinical challenge is to establish which IPMNs should be removed because of their higher risk of developing invasive cancer. Once resected, they must be extensively sampled or, much better, submitted in its entirety for microscopic study to completely rule out

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. 阑尾原发肿瘤的CT诊断%CT diagnosis of primary appendical neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 周纯武; 王爽

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价阑尾原发肿瘤的CT表现.方法 对27例经手术病理证实的阑尾原发肿瘤患者的腹盆部CT进行回顾性分析:记录肿物大小、肿物形态(肿物长短径比例大于1.5者为长管状)、肿物密度(肿物密度分为囊性、实性),囊性肿物囊壁厚度、囊壁有无钙化、肿物浆膜面表现,周围脂肪间隙改变,有无淋巴结转移及远处器官转移.结果 27例阑尾原发肿瘤,其中黏液性囊腺瘤11例、交界恶性囊腺瘤3例,黏液性囊腺癌10例、腺癌3例,良性者多表现为囊性肿物,恶性者伴囊壁增厚、强化,腹水、腹腔假黏液瘤的比例增加.结论 CT是发现阑尾原发肿瘤的有效检查方法,多表现为阑尾囊性肿物,可伴发腹腔假黏液瘤,术前CT检查对正确诊断有帮助.%Objective To evaluate the CT findings of primary appendical neoplasm. Methods CT findings of 27 patients with sugical and pathologically proved were analyzed restrospectly. The size, shape, and density of the neoplasm were recorded. If the neoplasm was cystic density, the thickness of the cystic wall, the calification of the cystic wall were recorded. The periappedical fat in abdominal lymph node was noted. Results The pathological pattens of the 27 neoplasm included mucinous cystadenoma (n = 11), border malignant mucinous cystadenoma ( n = 3). The benign neoplasms were cystic masses. If the cystic wall was thicken, thecystic wall was strenthan, the ascites and celiac false muscus tumor were found in abdomen, then the neoplasms should be malignant. Conclusion CT is an effective method for detecting appendical tumpr. It is helpful for the patient before operative treatment.

  12. Morbidity and mortality of malignant neoplasms in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovikj, Viktorija; Markovski, Velo

    2015-01-01

    Introductions: Malignant neoplasms are the second cause of death among the population in Republic of Macedonia with representation of and represent 19.0% in the structure of total deaths. Objective: To analyze the morbidity and mortality of the most common malignant neoplasms in Republic of Macedonia. Material and methods: Were used a data from the Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia, National institute for statistic of Republic Macedonia. Results and discussions:...

  13. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  14. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, J J; Robles-Lázaro, C; Sánchez-Marcos, A I; González-Sánchez, M C; Antúnez-Plaza, P; Miralles, J M

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas) are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS), a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline) according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. PMID:27413559

  15. Management of Mucin-Producing Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Stefan; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Thayer, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade small lesions of the pancreas have been increasingly recognized in clinical practice. Among these lesions, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms represent a recently described and unique entity among pancreatic tumors. In 1996, the World Health Organization distinguished two different types of mucinous cystic tumors: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas, which are characterized by mucin production, cystic dilation of the pancreatic ducts, and intr...

  16. Cystic micropapillary neoplasm of peribiliary glands with concomitant perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tsuneyuki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ito, Takaaki; Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2016-02-21

    We report a case of a 75-year-old man with cystic micropapillary neoplasm of peribiliary glands detected preoperatively by radiologic examination. Enhanced computed tomography showed a low-density mass 2.2 cm in diameter in the right hepatic hilum and a cystic lesion around the common hepatic duct. Under a diagnosis of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, right hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy and bile duct resection were performed. Pathological examination revealed perihilar cholangiocarcinoma mainly involving the right hepatic duct. The cystic lesion was multilocular and covered by columnar lining epithelia exhibiting increased proliferative activity and p53 nuclear expression; it also contained foci of micropapillary and glandular proliferation. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as a cystic micropapillary neoplasm of peribiliary glands and resembled flat branch-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. Histological examination showed the lesion was discontinuous with the perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed the cystic neoplasm was strongly positive for MUC6 and that the cholangiocarcinoma was strongly positive for MUC5AC and S100P. These results suggest these two lesions have different origins. This case warrants further study on whether this type of neoplasm is associated with concomitant cholangiocarcinoma as observed in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with concomitant pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma. PMID:26900302

  17. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  18. Economics of Treatments for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Chouaid; Kukovi Atsou; Gilles Hejblum; Alain Vergnenegre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the economics of treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We systematically analysed the cost effectiveness of treatments for the different stages of NSCLC, with particular emphasis on more recently approved agents. Numerous economic analyses in NSCLC have been conducted, with a variety of methods and in a number of countries. In patients with localized disease, adjuvant chemotherapy appears to have greater cost effectiveness than observation...

  19. Stem cells for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luminita Labusca; Florin Zugun-Eloae; Kaveh Mashayekhi

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal-related pain is one of the most disablinghealth conditions affecting more than one third of theadult population worldwide. Pain from various mechanismsand origins is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated.The complexity of molecular mechanisms correlating painand the progression of musculoskeletal diseases is notyet fully understood. Molecular biomarkers for objectiveevaluation and treatment follow-up are needed as a steptowards targeted treatment of pain as a symptom or as adisease. Stem cell therapy is already under investigationfor the treatment of different types of musculoskeletalrelatedpain. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapiesare already being tested in various clinical trials that usemusculoskeletal system-related pain as the primary orsecondary endpoint. Genetically engineered stem cells,as well as induced pluripotent stem cells, offer promisingnovel perspectives for pain treatment. It is possible that amore focused approach and reassessment of therapeuticgoals will contribute to the overall efficacy, as well asto the clinical acceptance of regenerative medicinetherapies. This article briefly describes the principal typesof musculoskeletal-related pain and reviews the stemcell-based therapies that have been specifically designedfor its treatment.

  20. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  1. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  2. Mucins in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: report of 40 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yuan; TAN Yun-shan; XU Jian-fang; QI Wei-dong; LI Xiao-ping; SU-JIE Ake-su; ZHU Xiong-zeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas account for 10% to 15% of all cystic pancreatic lesions.The majority (85% to 90%) of cystic lesions of the pancreas are pseudocysts. Although cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are rare, they range from benign to malignant neoplasms. The clinical challenge is the differential diagnosis and management of the cystic neoplasms, which represent 10% to 25% of primary pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreatic neoplasms and tumour like lesions with cystic features have been recently reviewed. The incidence of pancreatic cystic neoplasms reported is variable. Because there is no large, systematic study on tne cases from China comparing the incidence and biology of cystic neoplasms of pancreas to that of Western series, we reviewed all the cases of cystic neoplasms from Zhongshan Hospital over 6 years. Most of the neoplasms in our series were classified according to the recent World Health Organization (WHO)classification.1,2

  3. Treatment of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Cultures with Plasmocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cord C. Uphoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of cell lines are chronically infected with various mycoplasma species. The addition of antibiotics that are particularly effective against these contaminants to the culture medium during a limited period of time is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating cell cultures. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the new antimycoplasma compound Plasmocin that has been employed routinely to cleanse chronically infected cell lines. In a first round of treatment 45 out of 58 (78% mycoplasma-positive cell lines could be cured. In a second attempt using back-up cryopreserved original cells, four additional cell lines were cured; thus, the overall cure rate was 84%. Even if the mycoplasma contamination was not eradicated by Plasmocin, the parallel treatment with several other antibiotics (Baytril, BM-Cyclin, Ciprobay, MRA, or MycoZap led to the cure of all 58 cell lines. The successful decontamination was permanent as mycoplasmas were no longer detected at day +14 posttreatment and at later time points as examined by PCR which is the most sensitive and specific mycoplasma detection method. Collectively, our results highlight certain antibiotics as effective antimycoplasma reagents and support the therapeutic rationale for their use in the eradication of this notorious cell culture contaminant.

  4. Cell Adhesion on Polycaprolactone Modified by Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Recek; Matic Resnik; Helena Motaln; Tamara Lah-Turnšek; Robin Augustine; Nandakumar Kalarikkal; Sabu Thomas; Miran Mozetič

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of various plasma treatments of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds on the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). The PCL scaffolds were treated in plasmas created in O2, NH3 or SO2 gas at identical conditions. Surface functionalization of plasma-treated samples was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell adhesion and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the influence of p...

  5. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE NOSE—Treatment with Chemosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Gilbert A.; Beirne, Clinton G.

    1956-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas of the nose probably originate from embryologic cell rests left between cartilages and bones in the fusion and migration of the nasal precursors. Some carcinomas have been found to invade to the mucosal surface between subcutaneous structures or around the alar margins. Recurrences are particularly likely to develop deep extensions due to overlying scar tissue. In many cases, chemosurgical removal has disclosed unsuspected deep and lateral extensions. It is the treatment method of choice for many such lesions. PMID:13276824

  6. Impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kiparisova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal malignancies.Subjects and methods. The data of a prospective study of dental health indicators were analyzed in 586 patients (there were 76.4 % men and 23.6 % women with oropharyngeal malignancies. In the examinees, the sites of oropharyngeal neoplasms were as follows: the tongue in 195 (33 % cases, mouth floor in 147 (25 %, oropharynx in 139 (24 %, maxilla in 36 (6 %, buccal mucosa in 21 (4 %, soft palate in 18 (3 %, retromolar area in 14 (2 %, mandibula in 12 (2 %, and nose in 4 (1 %. The patients, examination employed routine dental examinations, determination of oral hygiene index, CFE index (a sum of carious, filled, and extracted teeth, and assessment of a patient, s skill and desire to perform individual oral hygiene. The patient hygiene performance (PHP index (Podshadley, Haley, 1968 was used to estimate his/her baseline ability. The rates of initial visits made by patients with oropharyngeal tumors to physicians of different specialties were also analyzed.Results. In the patients with oropharyngeal malignancies, the CFE index was high and amounted to 15 ± 0.4 с with a preponderance of carious and extracted teeth in the pattern; the PHP index was 1.4 ± 0.1, which corresponded to a satisfactory index. Thus, among the comparison group patients, satisfactory oral cavity sanitation was noted in only 4.8 % of the patients having a sanitation certificate. Consequently, 95.2 % of the patients were unready for specialized treatment. Out of the examinees, 176 (30 % made an initial visit for complaints to a dentist, 155 (26.5 % to an oncologist, 107 (18.3 % to an ENT doctor, 103 (17.7 % to a local therapist, and 43 (7.5 % to a surgeon. The collected history data also revealed that 59.2 % of the patients had self-treatment before going to specialists (according to them. Self-treatment or treatment by a noncancer specialist was ascertained to take an average of

  7. Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, M.P.; Goetowski, P.G.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references.

  8. Traumatic iridial extrusion mimicking a conjunctival melanocytic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoroquiain, Pablo; Ganimi, Maria Sb; Alghamdi, Sarah; Burnier, Julia V; Aldrees, Sultan S; Burnier, Miguel N

    2016-01-01

    Conjunctival melanoma is a rare malignant tumour of the eye. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for general pathologists due to low exposure to ocular biopsies and a broad differential diagnosis. In addition, conjunctival samples are often small and are associated with a high frequency of artefacts due to their processing. Here, we present the first case to date of a traumatic iridial extrusion masquerading as a conjunctival melanocytic neoplasm. An 83-year-old Asian man presented with a conjunctival-pigmented nodule surrounded by an area of diffuse pigmentation. Histopathology revealed in the nodule a well-demarcated lesion composed of spindle shaped melanocytes with thick-walled blood vessels. At higher magnification, the blood vessels were composed of thick walls with collagen fibres in an onion-skin-like arrangement. The histological findings were consistent with extruded iridial tissue. The map biopsies of the flat, pigmented lesion showed melanocytic cell proliferation with dendritic processes restricted to the lamina propria without any epithelial involvement, consistent with ocular melanocytosis. The diagnosis of conjunctival melanocytic lesions is challenging, and non-neoplastic conditions should always be included in the differential diagnosis. Pathologists should correlate clinicopathological findings and be familiar with the normal histology in order to achieve the correct diagnosis. PMID:26913071

  9. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  10. Are bone marrow regenerative cells ideal seed cells for the treatment of cerebral ischemia?★

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Hua, Xuming; Hua, Fang; Mao, Wenwei; Wan, Liang; Li, Shiting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow cells for the treatment of ischemic brain injury may depend on the secretion of a large number of neurotrophic factors. Bone marrow regenerative cells are capable of increasing the secretion of neurotrophic factors. In this study, after tail vein injection of 5-fluorouracil for 7 days, bone marrow cells and bone marrow regenerative cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of rats, and then administered intravenously via the tail vein after focal cerebral ischemia. Immunohist...

  11. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit.

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, R.I.F. van der; Waal, I. van der [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veerman, A.J.P. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Snow, G.B. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs.

  13. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs

  14. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit. PMID:26906446

  15. Radiation therapy for a rare association of maxillary neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum: Is it really contraindicated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic malignancies are common in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP patients; they can develop maxillary sinus cancers on rare occasions. Despite their extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light, the patients of XP can be treated with standard doses of ionizing radiation for the treatment of cancers. The examples of use of radiotherapy as a treatment modality for maxillary neoplasms in patients of XP are rare. This report highlights a rare association of maxillary carcinoma in a patient of XP who received the tumoricidal doses of therapeutic X-rays with acceptable toxicities.

  16. Treatment of early glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Tae Jin [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with glassy cell carcinoma of cervix. We reviewed all cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix confirmed and treated at the Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, between January 1993 and December 2005. There were 7 cases with histopathologically confirmed gassy cell carcinoma. A tumor was diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma if over 50% of the tumor cell type displayed glassy cell features. Six patients with stage IB had radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection, and 2 of them received adjuvant external pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Remaining one patient with stage IIA had curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with external pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy. There were 7 patients diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma among the 3,745 (0.2%) patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix. The mean age of 7 patients was 44 years with range of 35 to 53 years of age. The most frequent symptom was vaginal bleeding (86%). By the punch biopsy undertaken before treatment of 7 cases, 2 only cases could diagnose as glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, but remaining of them confirmed by surgical pathological examination. The mean follow up duration was 73 months with range of 13 to 150 months. All 7 patients were alive without disease after treatment. Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that demonstrates an aggressive biologic behavior. However for early-stage disease, we may have more favorable clinical outcome with radical surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy.

  17. Stem cell challenges in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhongling; Gao, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases result from the gradual and progressive loss of neural cells and lead to nervous system dysfunction. The rapidly advancing stem cell field is providing attractive alternative options for fighting these diseases. Results have provided proof of principle that cell replacement can work in humans with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, three clinical studies of cell transplantation were published that found no net benefit, while patients in two of the studies developed dyskinesias that persisted despite reductions in treatment. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have major potential advantages because patient-specific neuroblasts are suitable for transplantation, avoid immune reactions, and can be produced without the use of human ES cells (hESC). Although iPSCs have not been successfully used in clinical trials for PD, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were treated with autologous stem cells and, though they had some degree of decline one year after treatment, they were still improved compared with the preoperative period or without any drug therapy. In addition, neural stem cells (NSCs), via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been shown to ameliorate complex behavioral deficits associated with widespread Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in a transgenic mouse model of AD. So far, the FDA lists 18 clinical trials treating multiple sclerosis (MS), but most are in preliminary stages. This article serves as an overview of recent studies in stem cell and regenerative approaches to the above chronic neurodegenerative disorders. There are still many obstacles to the use of stem cells as a cure for neurodegenerative disease, especially because we still don't fully understand the true mechanisms of these diseases. However, there is hope in the potential of stem cells to help us learn and understand a great deal more about the mechanisms underlying these devastating neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Gene expression analysis for assessment of lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roepman, P.

    2006-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) consists of a group of neoplasms that arise in the mucosal lining of the upper aero digestive tract. Treatment of HNSCC depends largely on assessment whether the patient has already developed lymph node metastases. However, due to difficulties in detecti

  19. Ravuconazole in Preventing Fungal Infections in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  20. Aprepitant, Granisetron, & Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea & Vomiting in Pts. Receiving Cyclophosphamide Before a Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  1. Moxifloxacin in Preventing Bacterial Infections in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  2. Morbidity of Left Pancreatectomy when Associated with Multivisceral Resection for Abdominal Mesenchymal Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Berselli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Resection of adjacent visceral organs is often required in surgery for abdominal mesenchymal tumors. Objectives To analyze the specific perioperative morbidity and mortality of a left pancreatectomy in multivisceral resections for mesenchymal tumors. Patients This paper considered all patients treated at National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy, from January 1997 to May 2009 for the resection of abdominal mesenchymal neoplasms requiring a concomitant left pancreatectomy. The extension of surgery, pathology of both the tumor and the pancreatic tissue, completeness of resection, administration of pre or postoperative treatments and postoperative outcome were analyzed. The overall survival of the entire population was also assessed. Results Fifty-seven patients affected by localized left retroperitoneal mesenchymal neoplasms or intra-abdominal gastrointestinal stromal tumors were identified. A macroscopically complete resection was achieved in all but 3 patients (5.3% and the neoplastic involvement of pancreatic tissue was documented at pathology in 26 (45.6% patients. Surgical postoperative complications occurred in 20 patients (35.1%; 7 patients (12.3% developed a postoperative pancreatic fistula. With a median follow-up of the surviving patients of 32 months (interquartile range: 20-57 months, the overall survival at 5 years was 67.0%. Conclusion Left pancreatic resection seemed to be a safe procedure, even when it is part of a multivisceral resection for abdominal mesenchymal neoplasms. When margins are crucial for cure, the left pancreas should then always be resected, independently of its direct infiltration.

  3. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Manetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct entities among non-inflammatory cystic lesions of the pancreas have been defined: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN, serous cystic neoplasm (SCN and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN. IPMN is characterized by intraductal papillary growth and thick mucus secretion: its incidence has dramatically increased since its initial description. These lesions probably can progress towards invasive carcinoma. IPMNs are symptomatic in most cases: the typical presentation is a recurrent acute pancreatitis, without evident cause, of low or moderate severity. The diagnosis is usually based upon the imaging (CT/cholangio-MRI demonstrating a pancreatic cystic mass, involving a dilated main duct, eventually associated to some filling defects, or a normal Wirsung duct communicating with the cyst lesion. Surgical treatment is generally indicated for main duct IPMN and branch duct IPMN with suspected malignancy (tumour size ≥ 30 mm, mural nodules, dilated main pancreatic duct, or positive cytology or prominent symptoms. Herein we present a case of IPMN of the main duct which occurred with abdominal and back pain associated with weight loss. After the diagnosis, she successfully underwent surgery and is now in a follow-up program.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes treatment: progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CHENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficient or reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells with multiple differentiation potential, self-renewable and immunoregulatory properties. Accumulating evidences from clinic or animal experiments recent years showed that MSCs infusion could ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes. The research progress of MSCs in diabetes treatment is summarized and a corresponding perspective is herewith proposed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.16

  5. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver with low grade dysplasia of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdopska, T; Terziev, I; Taneva, I; Dimitrova, V

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with low grade dysplasia of the liver is rare. It had been previously called hepatobiliary cystadenoma and is seen almost exclusively in women without an associated invasive carcinoma. There are different theories for development of MCN of the liver. One of these is developing from endodermal immature stroma or primary yolk cells implanted during embryogenesis. Another theory refers to the prevalence of hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm in segment IV, which may support an implant origin because hamartomatous lesions commonly develop in segment IV. The third theory concerns the expression of oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor in ovarian-like stroma, which also supports a putative role for female hormones in the tumorogenesis. MCN of the liver is a cystic-forming epithelial neoplasm, usually showing no communication with the bile ducts, composed of cuboidal to columnar, variably mucin-producing epithelium, associated with ovarian-type subepithelial stroma. We present a case of MCN with low grade dysplasia of the liver in a young woman whose working surgical diagnosis was Echinococcus cyst. The MCN diagnosis was confirmed with Immunohistochemical study.

  6. Morphological changes of V-79 cells after equinatoxin II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, U; Jezernik, K

    1992-02-01

    Morphological observations on the V-79-379 A cells after treatment with equinatoxin II (EqT II), isolated from the sea anemone Actina equina L., and fetal calf serum (FCS) treated toxin were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the cells incubated with FCS treated EqT II were almost ultrastructurally unaltered. When the cells were treated with low concentrations of EqT II alone cell ultrastructure was altered with the evidence of numerous blebs and decreased microvilli number on the cell surface and appearance of numerous vesicles in the Golgi regions. High concentrations of EqT II caused disintegration of plasmalemma and intracellular membranes as well as degradation of cytosol. PMID:1348018

  7. Cost Analysis of Monitoring Asthma Treatment using Sputum Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel D’silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a four-centre trial, the use of sputum cell counts (sputum strategy [SS] to guide treatment had resulted in fewer and less severe exacerbations without the need for a higher corticosteroid dose, compared with the use of symptoms and spirometry (clinical strategy [CS].

  8. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis...

  9. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters (226Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation (90Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to 90Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 μCi 90Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level 90Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 μCl 226Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to 226Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  10. Microarray and Proteomic Analyses of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with a Highlight on the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan P Čokić

    Full Text Available The gene and protein expression profiles in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs may reveal gene and protein markers of a potential clinical relevance in diagnosis, treatment and prediction of response to therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis of 25,100 unique genes, we studied the gene expression profile of CD34+ cells and granulocytes obtained from peripheral blood of subjects with essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. The microarray analyses of the CD34+ cells and granulocytes were performed from 20 de novo MPN subjects: JAK2 positive ET, PV, PMF subjects, and JAK2 negative ET/PMF subjects. The granulocytes for proteomic studies were pooled in 4 groups: PV with JAK2 mutant allele burden above 80%, ET with JAK2 mutation, PMF with JAK2 mutation and ET/PMF with no JAK2 mutation. The number of differentially regulated genes was about two fold larger in CD34+ cells compared to granulocytes. Thirty-six genes (including RUNX1, TNFRSF19 were persistently highly expressed, while 42 genes (including FOXD4, PDE4A were underexpressed both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Using proteomic studies, significant up-regulation was observed for MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling regulators that control myeloid cell apoptosis and proliferation: RAC2, MNDA, S100A8/9, CORO1A, and GNAI2. When the status of the mTOR signaling pathway related genes was analyzed, PI3K/AKT regulators were preferentially up-regulated in CD34+ cells of MPNs, with down-regulated major components of the protein complex EIF4F. Molecular profiling of CD34+ cells and granulocytes of MPN determined gene expression patterns beyond their recognized function in disease pathogenesis that included dominant up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling.

  11. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment selectively targets head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Ogawa, Takenori; Uemura, Mamoru; Shumulinsky, Gary; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Ravi, Rajani; Sidransky, David; Keidar, Michael; Trink, Barry

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of locoregional recurrence (LRR) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often requires a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Survival outcomes are poor and the treatment outcomes are morbid. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at room temperature under laboratory conditions. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a CAP jet device selectively targets cancer cells using in vitro melanoma and in vivo bladder cancer models. In the present study, we wished to examine CAP selectivity in HNSCC in vitro models, and to explore its potential for use as a minimally invasive surgical approach that allows for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue ablation without affecting the surrounding healthy cells and tissues. Four HNSCC cell lines (JHU-022, JHU-028, JHU-029, SCC25) and 2 normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines (OKF6 and NOKsi) were subjected to cold plasma treatment for durations of 10, 30 and 45 sec, and a helium flow of 20 l/min-1 for 10 sec was used as a positive treatment control. We showed that cold plasma selectively diminished HNSCC cell viability in a dose-response manner, as evidenced by MTT assays; the viability of the OKF6 cells was not affected by the cold plasma. The results of colony formation assays also revealed a cell-specific response to cold plasma application. Western blot analysis did not provide evidence that the cleavage of PARP occurred following cold plasma treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that cold plasma application selectively impairs HNSCC cell lines through non-apoptotic mechanisms, while having a minimal effect on normal oral cavity epithelial cell lines.

  12. Stem Cell Therapy: A New Treatment for Burns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd G. Gauglitz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new approach in almost every medicine specialty. This vast, heterogeneous family of cells are now both naturally (embryonic and adult stem cells or artificially obtained (induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs and their fates have become increasingly controllable, thanks to ongoing research in this passionate new field. We are at the beginning of a new era in medicine, with multiple applications for stem cell therapy, not only as a monotherapy, but also as an adjunct to other strategies, such as organ transplantation or standard drug treatment. Regrettably, serious preclinical concerns remain and differentiation, cell fusion, senescence and signalling crosstalk with growth factors and biomaterials are still challenges for this promising multidisciplinary therapeutic modality. Severe burns have several indications for stem cell therapy, including enhancement of wound healing, replacement of damaged skin and perfect skin regeneration – incorporating skin appendages and reduced fibrosis –, as well as systemic effects, such as inflammation, hypermetabolism and immunosuppression. The aim of this review is to describe well established characteristics of stem cells and to delineate new advances in the stem cell field, in the context of burn injury and wound healing.

  13. General Information about Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ... a feeling of fullness below the ribs. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis ( ...

  14. Brain tumor stem cells as research and treatment targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant forms of human cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mean survival of GBM patients remains about 1 year. Recent cancer studies revealed that cancer tissues are pathologically heterogeneous and only a small population of cells has the specific ability to reinitiate cancer. This small cell population is called cancer stem cells (CSCs); in brain tumors these are known as brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). The identification of BTSCs yielded new insights into chemo- and radioresistance, by which BTSCs can survive selectively and initiate recurrence. Research focused on BTSCs as treatment targets may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Clinical and basic research studies gradually led to improved outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Stupp et al. reported a mean survival of 14.6 months in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months in those subjected to radiotherapy alone. Earlier cancer therapies primarily targeted rapidly dividing cells but not minor populations of slowly dividing cells that contain BTSCs. Accumulating evidence suggests that BTSCs may represent an excellent tool for discovering new strategies to treat GBM patients. In this review, we present evidence supporting the CSC model of tumor progression, and discuss difficulties encountered in CSC research and experimental and therapeutic implications. (author)

  15. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Treatment of B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphomas with combined immunochemotherapy: ability to treatment optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, N. V.; N. V. Myakova; M. B. Belogurova; O. V. Ryskal; O. E. Nikonova; G. R. Sharapova; A. S. Fedorova; N. A. Grigorieva; A. V. Shamardina; N. I. Ponomareva; D. S. Abramov; D. M. Konovalov; M. E. Dubrovina; A. A. Maschan; E. V. Samochatova

    2015-01-01

    The results of two consecutive multicenter clinical trials enrolled 241 patient with childhood mature B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphomas/leukemia are presented. Patients received treatment according B-NHL 2004mab protocol (n = 83) and B-NHL 2010M (n = 158) with combined immunochemotherapy (ICT) in Russian and Belarus pediatric clinics from 2004 to 2015 years. Primary patients with different mature B-NHL (Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lympho...

  17. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian W. Millsop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers.

  18. Chemoprevention of Radiation Induced Rat Mammary Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiations encountered in space include protons and heavy ions such as iron as well as their secondaries. The relative biological effect (RBE) of these ions is not known, particularly at the doses and dose-rates expected for planetary missions. Neutrons, are not particularly relevant to space travel, but have been found experimentally to have an increase in their RBE with decreasing dose. If a similar trend of increasing RBE with decreasing dose is present for heavy ions and protons during irradiation in space, the small doses received during space travel could potentially have substantial carcinogenic risk. Clearly more investigation of the effects of heavy ions and protons is needed before accurate risk assessment for prolonged travel in space can be done. One means to mitigate the increased risk of cancer due to radiation exposure in space is by developing effective countermeasures that can reduce the incidence of tumor development. Tamoxifen has recently been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent in both animal models and humans for the prevention of mammary tumors. Tamoxifen is a unique drug, with a highly specific mechanism of action affecting a specific radiation-sensitive population of epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In human studies, the annual incidence of a primary tumor in the contralateral breast of women with previous breast cancer is about 8 per 1000, making them an exceedingly high-risk group for the development of breast cancer. In this high risk group, treated with tamoxifen, daily, for 2 years, the incidence of a new primary tumor in the contralateral breast was approximately one third of that noted in the non-tamoxifen treatment group. Tamoxifen antagonizes the action of estrogen by competing for the nuclear receptor complex thereby altering the association of the receptor complex and nuclear binding sites. Its effects in reducing the development of breast cancer could be accomplished by controlling clinically undetectable

  19. Treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous follow-up of 244 patients treated for primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva during a 20-year period (1960-1979) resulted in the detection of recurrent (or persistent) disease in 60 cases. Forty-one of these cases developed local or regional recurrence, or both, later than six months after treatment, and an analysis of the result of retreatment in this group is presented. Twenty-nine had local recurrences, nine regional metastases and three local recurrences and regional metastases. The treatment technique for local recurrences was surgery, in a few cases combined with irradiation and chemotherapy. In approximately one-third of the cases, this treatment resulted in long-term or permanent cure. In cases of regional metastases the prognosis was often extremely poor, but treatment normally gave good palliation although of short duration.

  20. Treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous follow-up of 244 patients treated for primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva during a 20-year period (1960-1979) resulted in the detection of recurrent (or persistent) disease in 60 cases. Forty-one of these cases developed local or regional recurrence, or both, later than six months after treatment, and an analysis of the result of retreatment in this group is presented. Twenty-nine had local recurrences, nine regional metastases and three local recurrences and regional metastases. The treatment technique for local recurrences was surgery, in a few cases combined with irradiation and chemotherapy. In approximately one-third of the cases, this treatment resulted in long-term or permanent cure. In cases of regional metastases the prognosis was often extremely poor, but treatment normally gave good palliation although of short duration. (orig.)