WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell manufacturing technology

  1. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  2. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  5. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. PMID:26489525

  7. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  8. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  9. Effect of storage and LEO cycling on manufacturing technology IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Yardney Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) 50 A-hr space weight individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells were evaluated. This consisted of investigating: the effect of storage and charge/discharge cycling on cell performance. For the storage test the cells were precharged with hydrogen, by the manufacturer, to a pressure of 14.5 psia. After undergoing activation and acceptance tests, the cells were discharged at C/10 rate (5A) to 0.1 V or less. The terminals were then shorted. The cells were shipped to NASA Lewis Research Center where they were stored at room temperature in the shorted condition for 1 year. After storage, the acceptance tests were repeated at NASA Lewis. A comparison of test results indicate no significant degradation in electrical performance due to 1 year storage. For the cycle life test the regime was a 90 minute low earth orbit at deep depths of discharge (80 and 60 percent). At the 80 percent DOD the three cells failed on the average at cycle 741. Failure for this test was defined to occur when the cell voltage degraded to 1 V prior to completion of the 35 min discharge. The DOD was reduced to 60 percent. The cycle life test was continued.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  11. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe2 solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbery, B. J.

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large area CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 (CIGS)/Cd(1-y)Zn(y)S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin film solar cell modules will enable 15 pct. median efficiencies to be achieved in high volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe2 (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x greater than or = 0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30 year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large area integrated thin film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  12. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbery, B.J. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  13. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  14. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  15. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  16. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product...... driven approach can be used in this process. A framework for the product driven approach in nano manufacturing is presented and discussed. The general discussion will be supported by case studies covering polymers and metals....

  17. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

  18. Application of ICSVT technology in manufacturing thick-layer CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of solar cells has become the number one in modern implementations of thick-layer technology in optoelectronics. Through invented and developed in the second half of the current century yet, recently these devices have achieved the crossroad point in their evolution. There are two ways under consideration: the modification of the monocrystalline silicon cell - the non-incipient one that is well recognised and efficient, and the polycrystalline , heterojunction technology which is bloomed in the last few years. Its properties have been kept under intensive investigation still but it is obvious that this one may project their much lower final cost together with almost monocrystalline range of sunlight conversion efficiency. These features will certainly diminish production costs of one peak watt (one watt of electrical energy, obtained in optimal conversion conditions), what is essential for the competency of solar cells as an alternative energy source. CdTe-CdS type cells are heading in this wide researching, owing to their unique features connected with both optical and electrical properties of these materials' combination. When these cells are properly formed, one should expect the competitively high conversion efficiency together with possibility of some untypical, specific implementations (ex. on elastic foils) accompanied by a rather low material consumption. This communicate makes a report from our researches of the new, more efficient technology to form the layers of the type mentioned above, named: ICSVT (Isothermal Close-Space Vapour Transport), combined with some applications of the well known screen-printing technique. (author)

  19. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  20. Contemporary design and manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Taiyong; Zuo, Dunwen

    2013-01-01

    The special topic volume communicates the latest progress and research results of new theory, new technology, method, equipment and so on in Engineering Technology, and to grasp the updated technological and research trends in internationally. The major topics covered by the special volumes include Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies, Control, Automation and Detection Systems, Advanced Design Technology, Optimization and Modeling. In 80 invited and peer-reviewed papers, mechanical and other engineers describe their recent and current research and results in advanced materials and

  1. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  2. ON INTELLIGENTIZED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MODERN WELDING MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shanben; Qiu Tao; Lin Tao; Wu Yixiong

    2003-01-01

    A short survey on researching and developing status of intelligent technologies in modem welding manufacturing is given. According to the developing trend of advanced manufacturing technology, a concept on intelligentized welding manufacturing engineering (IWME), is presented for systematization of researching and developing domains on welding automation, intelligentized welding,robotic and flexible welding and advanced welding manufacturing technologies. And key technologies of welding intelligent manufacturing and its developing trend in the future are investigated.

  3. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  4. Photovoltaic technology, performance, manufacturing cost and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive discussion of key aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion systems will provide the basis for forecasting PV module shipments from 1999 to 2010. Principal areas covered include: (1) Technology and Performance Status: The module efficiency and performance are described for commercial cell technologies including single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, ribbon silicon, film silicon on low cost substrate, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride; (2) Manufacturing cost: 1999 costs for PV technologies in production (single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, and amorphous silicon) are developed. Manufacturing costs for 10--25 MW plants and 100 MW plants will be estimated; (3) The world PV market is summarized by region, top ten companies, and technology; and (4) Forecast of the World Market (seven market sectors) to 2010 will be presented. Key assumptions, price of modules, incentive programs, price of competing electricity generation will be detailed

  5. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  6. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  7. Handbook of manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Springer Reference Work Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology provides overviews and in-depth and authoritative analyses on the basic and cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and sciences across a broad spectrum of areas. These topics are commonly encountered in industries as well as in academia. Manufacturing engineering curricula across universities are now essential topics covered in major universities worldwide.

  8. Challenges of cloud technology in manufacturing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yadekar, Yaser; Shehab, Essam; Mehnen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth Information systems and advanced network technologies have significant impact on enterprises around the world. Enterprises are trying to gain competitive advantage in open global markets by using the latest technologies, along with advanced networks, to create collaboration, reduce costs, and maximize productivity. The combination of latest technologies and advanced manufacturing networks technologies lead to growth of new manufacturing model named Cloud Manufacturing which c...

  9. Organizational training in manufacturing firms and advanced manufacturing technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Diéguez, Isabel; Cantorna, Ana; Canto, Ana

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of new microelectronic technologies in the manufacturing process forces companies to adapt human resource strategy to the changes in the workplace. While this subject has been widely researched from an operations management perspective, research from a human resource management viewpoint has been less frequent. The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technolog...

  10. Challenges in teaching modern manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, Gracious; Wang, Jyhwen; Gau, Jenn-Terng

    2015-07-01

    Teaching of manufacturing courses for undergraduate engineering students has become a challenge due to industrial globalisation coupled with influx of new innovations, technologies, customer-driven products. This paper discusses development of a modern manufacturing course taught concurrently in three institutions where students collaborate in executing various projects. Lectures are developed to contain materials featuring advanced manufacturing technologies, R&D trends in manufacturing. Pre- and post-surveys were conducted by an external evaluator to assess the impact of the course on increase in student's knowledge of manufacturing; increase students' preparedness and confidence in effective communication and; increase students' interest in pursuing additional academic studies and/or a career path in manufacturing and high technology. The surveyed data indicate that the students perceived significant gains in manufacturing knowledge and preparedness in effective communication. The study also shows that implementation of a collaborative course within multiple institutions requires a robust and collective communication platform.

  11. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  12. Manufacturing and recycling of technology metals. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This seminar volume contains 13 lectures concerning the geological availability, the trends of the technology, manufacturing and recycling process of technology metals such as Indium, Gallium, Selenium, Rhenium or the Rare Earths.

  13. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, T.

    1995-09-01

    This describes work done in the final phase of a 3-y, 3-phase contract to demonstrate cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects in the SSI (Siemens Solar Industries) Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, CA; the final phase was concentrated in areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this period: (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with increased growth capacity; (2) Wafer processing with wire saws continued to progress; the wire saws yielded almost 50 percent more wafers per inch in production. The wire saws needs less etching, too; (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better handling and higher mechanical yield. The cell electrical distribution improved with a smaller standard deviation in the distribution; and (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs continued, with focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing techniques. Two modules demonstrating these cost reductions were delivered during this phase.

  14. Organizational Considerations for Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuntz, Bruce D.; Turner, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    In the last several decades, the United States has experienced a decline in productivity, while the world has seen a maturation of the global marketplace. Nations have moved manufacturing strategy and process technology issues to the top of management priority lists. The issues surrounding manufacturing technologies and their implementations have…

  15. Technological Theory of Cloud Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubler, Sylvain; Holmström, Jan; Främling, Kary; Turkama, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Big Data, 3D printing, etc. Such concepts are reshaping traditional manufacturing models, which become increasingly network-, service- and intelligent manufacturing-oriented. It sometimes becomes difficult to have a clear vision of how all those concepts are interwoven and what benefits they bring to the global picture (either from a service or business perspe...

  16. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  17. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  18. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (1) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (2) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994.

  19. Strategic management of advanced manufacturing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pandža, Krsto; Polajnar, Andrej; Buchmeister, Borut

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is threefold. First, it discusses the role of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) within a strategic management context of a manufacturing organisation. Resource-based view is presented as a useful theoretical school for understanding strategic management of AMT. Second, a brief case from a manufacturing organisation is provided to illustrate the debate. In the reported case study, the relevant mechanisms for understanding capability accumulation process and the role...

  20. Challenges in Teaching Modern Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, Gracious; Wang, Jyhwen; Gau, Jenn-Terng

    2015-01-01

    Teaching of manufacturing courses for undergraduate engineering students has become a challenge due to industrial globalisation coupled with influx of new innovations, technologies, customer-driven products. This paper discusses development of a modern manufacturing course taught concurrently in three institutions where students collaborate in…

  1. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  2. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration project is a proof-of-concept test designed to assess the properties of melt deposition modeling...

  4. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  5. Commercialization of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate Manufacturing by Electromagnetic Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, G. S.; Hatkevich, S.; Shang, J.; Wilkerson, L.

    2010-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing bipolar plates is a major component to the overall cost structure of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. To achieve the commercialization of PEM fuel cells, a high volume and low cost manufacturing process for the bipolar plate must be developed. American Trim has identified high velocity electromagnetic forming as a suitable technology to manufacture metallic fuel cell bipolar plates, because of its low capital cost, flexible tooling and rapid prototyp...

  6. Role of Information Technology in Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shankar; Singh; A; V; Muley

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing of a product is constituted of the va ri ous attributes such as quality, cost, performance, and time to market. Manufactu ring can also be understood as the entire product realization process, from spec ification through design and production to marketing and distribution. The induc tion of Information Technology (IT) in manufacturing includes the hardware that computes and communicates, the software that provides data, knowledge, and infor mation while at the same time controlling the hardwa...

  7. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. I n order to achieve these objectives, NAC, a leading U.S. advanced ceramics component manufacturer, assembled a multidisciplinary, vertically integrated team. This team included: a major diesel engine builder, Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC); a corporate ceramics research division, SGIC's Northboro R and D Center; intelligent processing system developers, BDM Federal/MATSYS; a furnace equipment company, Centorr/Vacuum Industries; a sintering expert, Wittmer Consultants; a production OEM, Deco-Grand; a wheel manufacturer and grinding operation developer, Norton Company's Higgins Grinding Technology Center (HGTC); a ceramic machine shop, Chand Kare Technical Ceramics; and a manufacturing cost consultant, IBIS Associates. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration

  8. Evaluation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Programme

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation of AMT Ireland - one of the oldest of the Programmes in Advanced Technology. AMT Ireland was established in 1988 as a programme intended to promote industrial development by transferring Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) capabilities from university-based centres into Irish-based industry. The evaluation concludes that AMT Ireland performs an important role in national industrial development by providing technology transfer and consultancy services in ...

  9. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: RUSSIA’S PLACE

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Dezhina

    2014-01-01

    The development of advanced manufacturing technologies is to become a new trend at the intersection of research, technological and industrial policy. The United States, a few EU countries, and China are leading on the development of new measures and approaches in this field. It was not until recently that the issues of “new industrialization” have been extensively discussed in Russia. All related areas such as science, technological development, and public administration are facing problems. ...

  10. Selection of Technology in Global Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    Transferring a manufacturing system to another country has proven to be problematic for most multinational firms. Selection of the appropriate production process and technology is a critical decision as transplantation of an existing system from another country without adaptation usually does not...... work well. The host country's business and cultural environment must be taken into account in designing a production system which requires attention to the management elements of technology transfer. This paper presents a model for transfer of manufacturing technology to a foreign site based on a...... sociotechnical system approach. It views the decisions for selecting and implementing a production system as a five stage process. The first step is determining the strategic goals of the foreign plant followed by selection of the production process and manufacturing system types. The last stages involve...

  11. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation. PMID:17855217

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature manufacturing technology to enable fabrication of single-piece integrally-stiffened launch vehicle structures to replace expensive, heavy, and...

  13. Emerging Materials Technologies That Matter to Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    A brief overview of emerging materials technologies. Exploring the weight reduction benefit of replacing Carbon Fiber with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Polymer Composites. Review of the benign purification method developed for CNT sheets. The future of manufacturing will include the integration of computational material design and big data analytics, along with Nanomaterials as building blocks.

  14. The biochemistry and technology of tea manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokuchava, M A; Skobeleva, N I

    1980-01-01

    This review surveys tea-production technology, chemistry of raw and manufactured tea as well as tea tasting appraisal and chemical analysis of manufactured tea. The paper describes the healthful properties of tea, gives general information on the tea plant and manufactured tea, and presents classification of teas as related to the processing of black green, yellow, and red tea, green pressed tea as well as instant tea and tea dyes. The paper discusses the chemical composition of raw and manufactured tea as well as approaches to the evaluation of tea quality--tea tasting appraisal and chemical analysis. The paper is supplied with the conclusions and references. The section on the healthful properties of tea discusses various aspects of catechin effects--vitamin P, antimicrobial, antioxidative and radioprotective effects. Also described are favorable effects of tea alkaloids--caffeine, theobromine, theophylline that dilatate cerebral vessels and alleviate headaches. The section on the production of different teas (black, green, yellow, red, instant teas, and tea dyes) considers technological methods and biochemical bases of various types of tea manufacture. The role of tea leaf enzymes in the oxidative processes determining the tea quality is discussed in detail. This section also describes the contribution of thermochemical processes into the formation of tea flavor. The compounds dictating tea taste and aroma are discussed, particularly tannins and catechins, volatile oils, nitrogen compounds, and some other substances. PMID:6996921

  15. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  16. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  17. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  18. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  19. Simulation Model Driven Engineering for Manufacturing Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Hibino, Hironori; Inukai, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yukishige

    2010-01-01

    In our research, the simulation model driven engineering for manufacturing cell (SMDE-MC) is proposed. The purposes of SMDE-MC are to support the manufacturing engineering processes based on the simulation model and to extend the range of control applications and simulation applications using the PC based control. SMDE-MC provides the simulation model which controls and monitors the manufacturing cell directly using PC based control in the manufacturing system execution phase. Then when the s...

  20. Manufacturing technology and process for BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following recent advanced technologies, processes and requests of the design changes of BWR fuel, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) has upgraded the manufacturing technology and honed its own skills to complete its brand-new automated facility in Tokai in the latter half of 1980's. The plant uses various forms of automation throughout the manufacturing process: the acceptance of uranium dioxide powder, pelletizing, fuel rod assembling, fuel bundle assembling and shipment. All processes are well computerized and linked together to establish the integrated control system with three levels of Production and Quality Control, Process Control and Process Automation. This multi-level system plays an important role in the quality assurance system which generates the highest quality of fuels and other benefits. (author)

  1. Simulation Environment Synchronizing Real Equipment for Manufacturing Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Toshihiro; Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    Recently, manufacturing industries face various problems such as shorter product life cycle, more diversified customer needs. In this situation, it is very important to reduce lead-time of manufacturing system constructions. At the manufacturing system implementation stage, it is important to make and evaluate facility control programs for a manufacturing cell, such as ladder programs for programmable logical controllers (PLCs) rapidly. However, before the manufacturing systems are implemented, methods to evaluate the facility control programs for the equipment while mixing and synchronizing real equipment and virtual factory models on the computers have not been developed. This difficulty is caused by the complexity of the manufacturing system composed of a great variety of equipment, and stopped precise and rapid support of a manufacturing engineering process. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering environment (MEE) to support manufacturing engineering processes using simulation technologies is proposed. MEE consists of a manufacturing cell simulation environment (MCSE) and a distributed simulation environment (DSE). MCSE, which consists of a manufacturing cell simulator and a soft-wiring system, is emphatically proposed in detail. MCSE realizes making and evaluating facility control programs by using virtual factory models on computers before manufacturing systems are implemented.

  2. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stephan; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Weatherup, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    [Image - see article] Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for ?electronic-grade? large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Ch...

  3. Manufacturing technology: A Sandia Technology Bulletin, Volume 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydew, R.C.; Leonard, J.A.; Hey, N.S. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    Welcome to this first issue of Manufacturing Technology, one of three new technology bulletins published at Sandia National Laboratories in which we seek to share information with US industry about applications of technology. Inside this issue: industry/DOE/Sandia agreement to strengthen specialty metals competitiveness; silicon micromachining produces microscopic parts; Sandia develops state-of-the-art capacitor winding machine; new robotic system spells finis to manual edge finishing; and milling assistant speeds numerically controlled machine programming.

  4. Technology transfer and international development: Materials and manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Policy oriented studies on technological development in several relatively advanced developing countries were conducted. Priority sectors defined in terms of technological sophistication, capital intensity, value added, and export potential were studied in Brazil, Venezuela, Israel, and Korea. The development of technological policy alternatives for the sponsoring country is assessed. Much emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamics of the sectors through structured interviews with a large sample of firms in the leading manufacturing and materials processing sectors.

  5. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe{sub 2} solar cell modules. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbery, B.J. [Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (US)

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{>=}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  6. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  7. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Linxi; Yang Quanzhan; Zhang Guirong; Zhao Fangxin; Shen Gang; Yu Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the signiifcant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting technology (EBM) are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and ifne structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  8. Risk calculations in the manufacturing technology selection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, S.; O'Brien, C.

    2010-01-01

    the paper are the outcome of an action research study that was conducted in an aerospace company. Findings - The paper highlights the role of risk calculations in manufacturing technology selection process by elaborating the contribution of risk associated with manufacturing technology alternatives in...... manufacturing and supply chain environment. The evaluation of a manufacturing technology considering supply chain opportunities and threats provides a broader perspective to the technology evaluation process. The inclusion of supply chain dimension in technology selection process facilitates an organisation to...... select a manufacturing technology not only according to its own requirements, but also according to the interest of its constituent supply chain....

  9. 48 CFR 235.006-70 - Manufacturing Technology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturing Technology... CONTRACTING 235.006-70 Manufacturing Technology Program. In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 2521(d), for acquisitions under the Manufacturing Technology Program— (a) Award all contracts using competitive...

  10. Comparison of manufactured and modeled solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Strachala, D.; Hylský, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to compare the model of monocrystalline silicon solar cell in PC1D with the real solar cell structure in terms of using a model in manufacture process. Real solar cell was firstly measured and analyzed to determine input parameters for a simulation and then realized in free available PC1D software. Degree of conformity of modeled and real solar cell was in the end established for basic prediction of solar cell parameters before manufacturing process.

  11. Theorizing about technological development of manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    research. A case study is used to emphasize how a process perspective enriches the traditional structural perspective. Finally, through first attempts at theory building, a set of propositions is suggested in order to overcome long-standing problems found in AMT research.......The aim of the paper is to apply metatriangulation and theory building to strengthen our theorizing on technological development of manufacturing firms. AMT literature is reviewed and by means of bracketing, the paper identifies a set of problematic assumptions embedded within traditional AMT...

  12. Digital manufacturing-the development direction of the manufacturing technology in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG You-lun; YIN Zhou-ping

    2006-01-01

    After introducing the concepts of digital manufacturing technology,the discipline framework of digital manufacturing is presented in the paper by discussing its basic concept,theory foundation,key technology and scientific problems in detail.As the core of the advanced manufacturing technology,digital manufacturing is gradually becoming the main manufacturing technology of the twenty-first century.Firstly,the main features of digital manufacturing are indicated and its key supporting technologies are investigated by grouping them into four levels related to product development, numerical control, production management,and enterprise collaboration,respectively.Moreover,the existing problems in the research on the multi-discipline theory foundation of digital manufacturing such as manufacturing informatics, computational manufacturing,and manufacturing intelligence,are also indicated.Then,the core scientific problems of digital manufacturing are discussed in depth,which focuses on digitization of manufacturing information,modeling of manufacturing constraints,high-speed and high-precision numerical control theory,and Internet-based collaboration and integration.Lastly, the development trends and application perspectives of digital manufacturing are concluded.

  13. A model for manufacturing cell job redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Cellular manufacturing is widely viewed as an exemplary form of manufacturing organisation for small batch size production. A UK survey states that over 75% of British engineering industry have introduced or are planning to introduce cellular manufacturing methods in an attempt to improve competitiveness through improved product quality, responsiveness and flexibility (Ingersoll Engineers, 1990). Cells are known to foster these improvements through a focus on the methods of ...

  14. Synthesis of Evolving Cells for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, J.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) was formulated due to the global necessity for production systems that are able to economically evolve according to changes in markets and products. Technologies and design methods are under development to enable RMSs to exhibit transformable system layouts, reconfigurable processes, cells and machines. Existing factory design methods and software have not yet advanced to include reconfigurable manufacturing concepts. This paper presents the underlying group technology framework for the design of manufacturing cells that are able to evolve according to a changing product mix by mechanisms of reconfiguration. The framework is based on a Norton- Bass forecast and time variant BOM models. An adaptation of legacy group technology methods is presented for the synthesis of evolving cells and two optimization problems are presented within this context.

  15. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stephan; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Weatherup, Robert S

    2015-07-16

    Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  17. Technological assessment of local manufacturers for wind turbine blade manufacturing in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khurram; Haroon, General

    2012-11-01

    Composite materials manufacturing industry is one of the world's hi-tech industry. Manufacturing of wind turbine blades is one of the specialized fields requiring high degree of precision and composite manufacturing techniques. This paper identifies the industries specializing in the composite manufacturing and is able to manufacture wind turbines blades in Pakistan. In the second phase, their technology readiness level is determined, based on some factors and then a readiness level are assigned to them. The assigned technology readiness level will depict the absorptive capacity of each manufacturing unit and its capability to take on such projects. The individual readiness level of manufacturing unit will then be used to establish combined technology readiness level of Pakistan particularly for wind turbine blades manufacturing. The composite manufacturing industry provides many spin offs and a diverse range of products can be manufactured using this facility. This research will be helpful to categorize the strong points and flaws of local industry for the gap analysis. It can also be used as a prerequisite study before the evaluation of technologies and specialties to improve the industry of the country for the most favorable results. This will form a basic data base which can be used for the decision making related to transfer of technology, training of local skilled workers and general up-gradation of the local manufacturing units.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Investigation and research on analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the achievement in fiscal 1997 of analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials. Silicon consumption for solar cells in fiscal 1997 has increased to 2000-ton level, and the supply has been very tight. For drastic improvement in the demand and supply situation, development of SOG-Si manufacturing technology and its early practical application are desired. The development of the NEDO mass-production technology using melting and refining has completed constructing the process facilities in fiscal 1998, and will enter the stage of operational research. However, insufficiency in the basic data about behavior of impurities is inhibiting the development. In the substrate manufacturing technology, discussions have shown progress on use of diversifying silicons outside the standard by using the electromagnetic casting process. For slicing and processing the substrates, development of a high-performance slicing equipment and automatic rough rinsing machine is under way. Properties required on silicon raw materials vary considerably widely because of difference in cell making systems and conditions, which is attributable to unknown impurity behavior. When 1GW production is assumed, the cell module manufacturing cost is calculated as 137 yen/W, for which low-cost mass production for its realization, slicing productivity enhancement, and cost reduction are required. The paper also describes site surveys in overseas countries. (NEDO)

  19. Manufacturing technology: a changing challenge to improved productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-03

    This is GAO's study of how the U.S. compares to other nations in applying modern manufacturing technology by discrete parts, batch process manufacturers. These manufacturers constitute over 35 percent of the manufacturing firms in the U.S. and they manufacture most of the items procured by the Federal government. There are sufficient indications that the private sector is having difficulty maintaining its productivity in dealing with rapid changes in manufacturing technology. Moreover, the Federal government is the largest single purchaser of manufactured goods and if technology and productivity falter then the cost of these goods will increase accordingly. It appears that foreign competitors have an advantage of being able to exploit, develop, and diffuse manufacturing technology faster than the U.S. The U.S. will need to take a positive stance to improve its own diffusion of manufacturing technology so as to enhance productivity and remain competitive, it is observed in the report. GAO concludes that the U.S. needs to make manufacturing productivity a national priority to remain internationally competitive and to maintain strong industries. Although the study focuses primarily on discrete parts, batch-processing industries engaged in various forms of metal working, principally metal cutting, the principles, problems, and potential for improved growth through computer-integrated manufacturing apply equally to other areas of manufacturing, such as plastics, glass, and metal forming. The opportunities for improved productivity through automation in the service sector of the economy are great. Computer-integrated manufacturing is already taking place. Factors other than technology, investment capital, employee-management attitudes and relationships, institutional characteristics, monetary policy, raw material endowment, are interwoven to make up a nation's productivity. (MCW)

  20. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu;

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  1. Technology Choice and Market Structure: Strategic Aspects of Flexible Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, George; THISSE, Jacques-François

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows that the adoption of flexible manufacturing techniques by firms leads to a tougher price regime. This need not benefit consumers since the tougher regime deters entry and facilitates segmented market structures. The ability of flexible manufacturing to deter entry is moderated by two forces: non-prohibitive costs of re-anchoring flexible manufacturing processes and entrants choosing to produce niche products using designated technologies rather than to adopt flexible manufact...

  2. Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from US Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Arik Levinson

    2009-01-01

    Pollution emitted by US manufacturers declined markedly over the past several decades, even as real manufacturing output increased. I first show that most of the decline in US manufacturing pollution has resulted from changing production processes ("technology"), rather than changes in the mix of goods produced. I then show that increased net imports of polluting goods ("international trade") accounts for only a small portion of the pollution reductions from the changing mix of goods. Togethe...

  3. Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from U.S. Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Arik Levinson

    2007-01-01

    Total pollution emitted by U.S. manufacturers declined over the past 30 years by about 60 percent, even though real manufacturing output increased 70 percent. This improvement must result from a combination of two trends: (1) changes in production or abatement processes ("technology"); or (2) changes in the mix of goods manufactured in the United States, which itself may result from increased net imports of pollution-intensive goods ("international trade"). I first show that most of the decli...

  4. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  5. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  6. Integration of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology for ultraprecision optical manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Ashley M. H.; Chan, Norman S. W.; Louie, Derek C. H.; Li, Li-Man

    2003-05-01

    Magneto-rheological-finishing (MRF) technology is capable of substantially improving the surface figure of spherical lens to about 1/20 wavelength. Nonetheless, since MRF technology is an ultra-fine polishing process, in which only less than a few microns of material will be removed per cycle, time for making an aspheric surface from a best-fit sphere can be very significant. The situation can be worse if the surface profile is considerably deviated from its best-fit spherical surface. This is not desirable for actual production, and thus a manufacturing cell is proposed to enhance the efficiency of the high precision lens manufacturing process. On the other hand, MRF was suggested to be an alternative for lapping of surface of ceramic lens mould insert. Rather than using the abrasive particles in typical lapping process, the magnetized slurry in MRF is moved past the rotating surface of mould insert locally under the computer-control process so as to achieve the desired surface form accuracy.

  7. Exploring the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology in a manner that builds on a longitudinal perspective. Based on the data of investments in AMTs from 567 manufacturing companies this paper develops a longitudinal taxonomy defined by the evolution of...

  8. Technological trends affecting the manufacturing sector of New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell L. Moss

    1997-01-01

    The author concludes that manufacturing is still a vital part of New York City's economy, despite substantial job losses in this sector over the past two decades. An influx of skilled immigrants, the use of advanced technologies in production processes, and the ability to respond rapidly to global markets give New York City a strong future in manufacturing high-value goods.

  9. Centers for manufacturing technology: Industrial Advisory Committee Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An advisory committee, composed of senior managers form industrial- sector companies and major manufacturing trade associations and representatives from appropriate educational institutions, meets semi-annually to review and advise the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) on its economic security program. Individual papers have been indexed separately for the database.

  10. Additive manufacturing technologies 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Ian; Stucker, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given,  beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered  

  11. The Effect of the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies on Training in the Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillon, Isabel Dieguez; Cantorna, Ana I. Sinde

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel-training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study provides empirical evidence from a sector with high rates of technological modernisation. Design/methodology/approach: "Ad hoc" survey of 90 firms in…

  12. A new application for food customization with additive manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenó, L.; Vallicrosa, G.; Delgado, J.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have emerged as a freeform approach capable of producing almost any complete three dimensional (3D) objects from computer-aided design (CAD) data by successively adding material layer by layer. Despite the broad range of possibilities, commercial AM technologies remain complex and expensive, making them suitable only for niche applications. The developments of the Fab@Home system as an open AM technology discovered a new range of possibilities of processing different materials such as edible products. The main objective of this work is to analyze and optimize the manufacturing capacity of this system when producing 3D edible objects. A new heated syringe deposition tool was developed and several process parameters were optimized to adapt this technology to consumers' needs. The results revealed in this study show the potential of this system to produce customized edible objects without qualified personnel knowledge, therefore saving manufacturing costs compared to traditional technologies.

  13. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  14. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  15. The Effects of Environmental Regulation on Technology Diffusion: The Case of Chlorine Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Lori; Miller, Nolan; Stavins, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We use a hazard model to estimate the effect of environmental regulation on the diffusion of membrane cell production technology in the chlorine manufacturing industry. We estimate the effect of regulation on both the adoption of the membrane technology at existing plants and on the exit of existing plants using older technologies. We find that environmental regulation did affect the diffusion of the cleaner technology in the chlorine industry. However, it did so not by encouraging the adopti...

  16. Development of polymer catalyst manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in Pressurized Heavy Water Power Plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new six pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water demand for these plants would be 3892 Mg during the period 1992-2006. Reformed hydrogen processes are considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchance was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. (Author)

  17. A new manufacturing technology of radio telescope panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengzhi; Chen, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Through a new manufacturing technology, achieved the machining of high precision composite radio panel. It adopts foil sticking in a vacuum, metal bonding, rubber precision compensation, stress release and other technology. Through designing the manufacturing process, and adopting a large number of experiment scheme to improve, finally summarized a technical route of high feasibility and accurate process parameters. At last, by the measurement of PGI Dimension red outside precision detector (the surface detection accuracy of which can reach 2 um) for surface precision of experimental panels, we verified the feasibility and reliability of this technique and provided the reliable data to support for practice application of this technology.

  18. Manufacturing Technology and Application Trends of Titanium Clad Steel Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang SU; Xiao-bing LUO; Feng CHAI; Jun-chang SHEN; Xin-jun SUN; Feng LU

    2015-01-01

    Some of the major manufacturing processes and corresponding mechanical properties of titanium clad steel plates were analyzed, and the consequences of research, manufacturing, and application of titanium clad steel plates in both markets of China and overseas were also summarized. As an economical and environmentally friendly technology, the roll bonding process is ex-pected to become the next-generation mainstream process for the manufacturing of titanium clad steel plate. Some of the crucial and most important technical problems of this particular process, including vacuum sealing technology, surface treatment process technology, application of a transition layer, and rolling process, were discussed along with the advantageous mechanical properties and life-cycle economy of these plates processed by this technology. Finally, the market needs, application trends, and requirements of titanium clad steel plate were also considered from industries of petrochemical, shipbuilding, marine, and electric power.

  19. Productization and Manufacturing Scaling of High-Efficiency Solar Cell and Module Products Based on a Disruptive Low-Cost, Mono-Crystalline Technology: Final Technical Progress Report, April 1, 2009 - December 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Final report for PV incubator subcontract with Solexel, Inc. The purpose of this project was to develop Solexel's Unique IP, productize it, and transfer it to manufacturing. Silicon constitutes a significant fraction of the total solar cell cost, resulting in an industry-wide drive to lower silicon usage. Solexel's disruptive Solar cell structure got around these challenges and promised superior light trapping, efficiency and mechanical strength, despite being significantly thinner than commercially available cells. Solexel's successful participation in this incubator project became evident as the company is now moving into commercial production and position itself to be competitive for the next Technology Pathway Partnerships (TPP) funding opportunity.

  20. Technology Sharing in Manufacturing Business Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    in a clinical research setting. A prestudy identified key dimensions in classifying cases leading to four clusters of typified cases. Data were gathered from meetings with 24 managers from various research and development (R&D) units who met regularly every other week during seven months, in......Technology represents the primordial force for companies and organizations in securing long-term competitiveness. In the intensive search to access new technology, organizations are more and more looking beyond the borders of the focal firm and becoming involved in various networks with suppliers...

  1. Manufacturing technology of irradiation denaturalized starch and its serosity performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn starch as raw material was irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to denaturalize and optimize the manufacturing condition. The serosity performance of the denaturalized corn starch, such as agglutinating strength, chorion, viscidity and the stability to heat, etc. were analyzed after irradiation treatment. Compared with chemical manufacturing technology, the irradiation method was much simpler and more environment friendly, Irradiated corn starch could meets the requirement of industrial application. (authors)

  2. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu; Tzou, Gow-Yi; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Hwang, Yunn-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate the latest advancements of relevant fundamental and applied research works of high quality to the inter- national community. The topics of the accepted articles in the special issue include precision...

  3. Virtual Tryout Technologies for Preparing Automotive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    It is important to reduce the weight of the automotive and to shorten the development period for reduction of CO2 discharge. For these purpose, virtual tryout technologies have been introduced automotive industry. Every process from stamping to assembly for car development has introduced CAD design and numerical simulation such as forming simulation, dimensional accuracy simulation such as forming simulation, dimensional accuracy simulation and so on. In this paper, sheet metal forming simula...

  4. Development of MOX manufacturing technology in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is successfully operating a small scale MOX fuel fabrication facility at its Sellafield Site and is currently constructing an advanced, commercial scale MOX facility to complement its existing LWR UO2 fabrication capability. BNFL's MOX fuel capability is fully supported by a comprehensive technology development programme aimed at providing a high quality product which is successfully competing in the market. Building on the experience gained over the last 30 years, is from the production of both thermal and fast reactor MOX fuels, BNFL's development team set a standard for its MOX product which is targeted at exceeding the performance of UO2 fuel in reactor. In order to meet the stringent design requirements the product development team has introduced the Short Binderless Route (SBR) process that is now used routinely in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and which forms the basis for BNFL's large scale Sellafield MOX Plant. This plant not only uses the SBR process for MOX production but also incorporates the most advanced technology available anywhere in the world for nuclear fuel production. A detailed account of the technology developed by BNFL to support its MOX fuels business will be provided, together with an explanation of the processes and plants used for MOX fuel production by BNFL. The paper also looks at the future needs of the MOX business and how improvements in pellet design can assist the MOX fabrication production process to meet the user demand requirements of utilities around the world. (author)

  5. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and has been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  6. The application of welding technology in power plant manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy is presented for the application of welding technology in the manufacture of power plant. A flow chart description is adopted in the present paper to provide a general framework outlining the sequence of activities leading to manufacture. The broad chronological order of events is treated under the three headings, Component Design, Welding Development, and Implementation. Important factors that have to be considered at each of these stages are shown in subsidiary flow charts together with short notes to provide context and an aide memoire for those involved in welding technology. (author)

  7. Research on axisymmetric aspheric surface numerical design and manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-zhong; Guo, Yin-biao; Lin, Zheng

    2006-02-01

    The key technology for aspheric machining offers exact machining path and machining aspheric lens with high accuracy and efficiency, in spite of the development of traditional manual manufacturing into nowadays numerical control (NC) machining. This paper presents a mathematical model between virtual cone and aspheric surface equations, and discusses the technology of uniform wear of grinding wheel and error compensation in aspheric machining. Finally, a software system for high precision aspheric surface manufacturing is designed and realized, based on the mentioned above. This software system can work out grinding wheel path according to input parameters and generate machining NC programs of aspheric surfaces.

  8. Manufacturing of nano silver solution using electrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano Silver solution used for killing many types of bacteria has been studied, manufactured and applied extensively. Common chemical, physical methods and mechanism for manufacturing nano silver solution can only produce low degree of purity and limit abilities to kill bacteria and apply in medical and pharmaceutical industries. Electrochemical technology uses the Ag anode dissolving process to produce high purity nano silver solution without using complex equipments. In comparison with other physical and chemical methods, electrochemical technology can produce nano silver solution with the same structure and concentration, but difference in electrochemical properties such as electrical conductivity and the Zeta potential. (author)

  9. Organic Production Systems: What the Biological Cell Can Teach Us About Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lieven Demeester; Knut Eichler; Christoph H. Loch

    2004-01-01

    Biological cells run complicated and sophisticated production systems. The study of the cell's production technology provides us with insights that are potentially useful in industrial manufacturing. When comparing cell metabolism with manufacturing techniques in industry, we find some striking commonalities, but also some important differences. Like today's well-run factories, the cell operates a very lean production system, assures quality at the source, and uses component commonality to si...

  10. Nondestructive cell evaluation techniques in SOFC stack manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, C.

    2016-04-01

    Independent from the specifics of the application, a cost efficient manufacturing of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), its electrolyte membranes and other stack components, leading to reliable long-life stacks is the key for the commercial viability of this fuel cell technology. Tensile and shear stresses are most critical for ceramic components and especially for thin electrolyte membranes as used in SOFC cells. Although stack developers try to reduce tensile stresses acting on the electrolyte by either matching CTE of interconnects and electrolytes or by putting SOFC cells under some pressure - at least during transient operation of SOFC stacks ceramic cells will experience some tensile stresses. Electrolytes are required to have a high Weibull characteristic fracture strength. Practical experiences in stack manufacturing have shown that statistical fracture strength data generated by tests of electrolyte samples give limited information on electrolyte or cell quality. In addition, the cutting process of SOFC electrolytes has a major influence on crack initiation. Typically, any single crack in one the 30 to 80 cells in series connection will lead to a premature stack failure drastically reducing stack service life. Thus, for statistical reasons only 100% defect free SOFC cells must be assembled in stacks. This underlines the need for an automated inspection. So far, only manual processes of visual or mechanical electrolyte inspection are established. Fraunhofer IKTS has qualified the method of optical coherence tomography for an automated high throughput inspection. Alternatives like laser speckle photometry and acoustical methods are still under investigation.

  11. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  12. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated

  13. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  14. Stem Cell Separation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell so...

  15. Development of technology of the practical use of the photovoltaic power generation system. ; Studies on the practical use of new type solar cells (studies on the manufacturing technology of layer built solar cells (manufacturing technology of amorphous/compound layer cells)). Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. ; Shingata taiyo denchi no jitsuyoka kenkyu (sekisogata taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu (amorphous/kagobutsu sekiso cell seizo gijutsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    To develop the layer built solar cell combined the amorphous silicon with the compound semi-conductor of which conversion efficiency is over 13%, its structure and the techniques to paint the large area are studied. In the a-Si pseudo-cell integrated patterning, the bottom cell power is higher when it is placed parallel. The reliability test of the module of CdS/CdTe cell is done, result of this test shows that the performance does not change after 2400 h. By raising CdTe firing temperature and thinning porous layer, the conversion efficiency is 11.3% in 1.07 cm{sup 2} CdS/CdTe cell. By examining the screen printing in 10 cm{sup 2} substrate, the conversion efficiency is 6.7% when the optimum CdS width is 2.95mm. The forming experiment by the painting machine is done. As the result of this, CdS film is smoother than by screen printing and the conversion efficiency does not change. As the cell becomes largeer the firing case is improved to reduce the temperature difference in the substrate to 31 centigrade. The sub module which is 30*40cm{sup 2}is designed and manufactured, its conversion efficiency is 6.2%. 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  16. The photovoltaic manufacturing technology project: A government/industry partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Mooney, G.D.

    1991-12-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a government/industry photovoltaic manufacturing research and development (R D) project composed of partnerships between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry. It is designed to assist the US PV industry in improving manufacturing processes, accelerating manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, increasing commercial product performance, and generally laying the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing plant capabilities. The project is being carried out in three separate phases, each focused on a specific approach to solving the problems identified by the industrial participants. These participants are selected through competitive procurements. Furthermore, the PVMaT project has been specifically structured to ensure that these PV manufacturing R D subcontract awards are selected with no intention of either directing funding toward specific PV technologies (e.g., amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, etc.), or spreading the awards among a number of technologies (e.g., one subcontract in each area). Each associated subcontract under any phase of this project is, and will continue to be, selected for funding on its own technical and cost merits. Phase 1, the problem identification phase, was completed early in 1991. Phase 2 is now under way. This is the solution phase of the project and addresses problems of specific manufacturers. The envisioned subcontracts under Phase 2 may be up to three years in duration and will be highly cost-shared between the US government and US industrial participants. Phase 3, is also under way. General issues related to PV module development will be studied through various teaming arrangements. 25 refs.

  17. The photovoltaic manufacturing technology project: A government/industry partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Mooney, G.D.

    1991-12-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a government/industry photovoltaic manufacturing research and development (R&D) project composed of partnerships between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry. It is designed to assist the US PV industry in improving manufacturing processes, accelerating manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, increasing commercial product performance, and generally laying the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing plant capabilities. The project is being carried out in three separate phases, each focused on a specific approach to solving the problems identified by the industrial participants. These participants are selected through competitive procurements. Furthermore, the PVMaT project has been specifically structured to ensure that these PV manufacturing R&D subcontract awards are selected with no intention of either directing funding toward specific PV technologies (e.g., amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, etc.), or spreading the awards among a number of technologies (e.g., one subcontract in each area). Each associated subcontract under any phase of this project is, and will continue to be, selected for funding on its own technical and cost merits. Phase 1, the problem identification phase, was completed early in 1991. Phase 2 is now under way. This is the solution phase of the project and addresses problems of specific manufacturers. The envisioned subcontracts under Phase 2 may be up to three years in duration and will be highly cost-shared between the US government and US industrial participants. Phase 3, is also under way. General issues related to PV module development will be studied through various teaming arrangements. 25 refs.

  18. The manufacturing technology of HANARO fuel handling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANARO fuel handling tool is essential apparatus being used for loading, unloading and transportation of fuel. We had manufactured RI rig and half reactor handling tool similar to HANARO fuel handling tool. We made effective use of our experience, developed design and manufactured technology of ball lock mechanism of HANARO fuel handling tool. Endurance test of fuel handling tool in the air was assured by Q.A inspector. We used STS440C ball, whose hardness is HRC64.4, in ball lock mechanism and obtained enough stability of wear resistance. Assembly process of HANARO fuel handling tool, which is composed of 95 elements and have the tow keys of locking and unlocking function, was developed. The accumulation of fuel handling tool manufactured technology which are developed in machining, assembly process will be utilized to the fuel handling tool and similar tool

  19. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  20. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in Russia: Outlines of a New Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Irina, Dezhina; Alexey, Ponomarev; Alexander, Frolov

    2015-01-01

    The present article, which continues the discussion of advanced manufacturing technologies initiated in Foresight-Russia issue 2 (2014), evaluates the current state of this field in Russia. The analysis here examines the state of the relevant scientific research and the readiness of industry to adopt the new technologies developed by researchers. The study is based on bibliometric and patent analyses, as well as on expert evaluations of the markets related to different segments of advanced ma...

  2. Analysis of Technology Effectiveness of Lean Manufacturing Using System Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Hosseini-Nasab; Mohammad Dehghani; Amin Hosseini-Nasab

    2013-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, organizations are seeking to improve their position in the market. Lean manufacturing is an effective tool for elevating the competitiveness of organizations based on the fact that each can find its own way of improvement. Technology improvement is considered to be one of lean manufacturing’s dimensions. Technology is defined as the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems, or methods of organization, with the aim of solving a problem or cr...

  3. Agile manufacturing and technology transfer to industrialising countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Boer, de Sirp

    2003-01-01

    One of the requirements of agile manufacturing, the necessity to gain flexibility, can be reached by using a supplier network. A possible way to develop a supplier network is by subcontracting to parties in industrialising countries. In most cases, it is necessary to transfer technology. The aircraf

  4. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost

  5. The Intelligent Control Technology of Manufacturing Execution Process Based on RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Ruicheng; Wang Aimin; Lv Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent manufacturing is an important trend in the development of the future manufacturing industry, and how to use the current technology to realize the existing traditional manufacturing mode change to the intelligent manufacturing mode need to be studied. Aimed at the implementation of the intelligent manufacturing mode, this paper proposed the intelligent manufacturing execution process control technology based on RFID. The framework of intelligent manufacturing execution process cont...

  6. A feasibility study for a manufacturing technology deployment center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-31

    The Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) and the Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to determine the feasibility of a regional industrial technology institute to be located at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Facility in Waxahachie, Texas. In response to this opportunity, ARRI and TEEX teamed with the DOE Kansas City Plant (managed by Allied Signal, Inc.), Los Alamos National Laboratory (managed by the University of California), Vought Aircraft Company, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), SSC Laboratory, KPMG Peat Marwick, Dallas County Community College, Navarro Community College, Texas Department of Commerce (TDOC), Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (TMAC), Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology, Arkansas Science and Technology Authority, Louisiana Productivity Center, and the NASA Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) to develop a series of options, perform the feasibility analysis and secure industrial reviews of the selected concepts. The final report for this study is presented in three sections: Executive Summary, Business Plan, and Technical Plan. The results from the analysis of the proposed concept support the recommendation of creating a regional technology alliance formed by the states of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana through the conversion of the SSC Central facility into a Manufacturing Technology Deployment Center (MTDC).

  7. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  8. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  9. Benefits from the U.S. photovoltaic manufacturing technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Thomas, H.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    This paper examines the goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project and its achievements in recapturing the investment by the photovoltaic (PV) industry and the public in this research. The PVMaT project was initiated in 1990 with the goal of enhancing the world-wide competitiveness of the U.S. PV industry. Based on the authors analysis, PVMaT has contributed to PV module manufacturing process improvements, increased product value, and reductions in the price of today`s PV products. An evaluation of success in this project was conducted using data collected from 10 of the PVMaT industrial participants in late fiscal year (FY) 1995. These data indicate a reduction of 56% in the weighted average module manufacturing costs from 1992 to 1996. During this same period, U.S. module manufacturing capacity has increased by more than a factor of 6. Finally, the analysis indicates that both the public and the manufacturers will recapture the funds expended in R&D manufacturing improvements well before the year 2000.

  10. Manufacturing technology development for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, Arttu [Metso Powdermet, P.O. Box 237, FIN 33101 Tampere (Finland)]. E-mail: arttu.laitinen@metso.com; Liimatainen, Jari [Metso Powdermet, P.O. Box 237, FIN 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hallila, Pentti [Metso Powdermet, P.O. Box 237, FIN 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the ITER construction including shield modules and primary first wall panels have great impact on the production costs and reliability of the installation. From the manufacturing technology point of view, accuracy of shape, properties of the various austenitic stainless steel/austenitic stainless steel interfaces or CuCrZr/austenitic stainless steel interfaces as well as those of the base materials are crucial for technical reliability of the construction. The current approach in plasma facing components has been utilisation of solid-HIP technology and solid-powder-HIP technology. Due to the large size of especially shield modules shape, control of the internal cavities and cooling channels is extremely demanding. This requires strict control of the raw materials and manufacturing parameters.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption In SMEs: An Integrative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmahdi Darbanhosseiniamirkhiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the critical factors which influence adoption of  Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMTs and identify hurdles and barriers which prevent small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs from accomplishing the desired goals of AMTs utilization. The proposed framework has synthesized previous studies and integrated related studies through conducting a comprehensive literature review. This paper is a theoretical construction that synthesizes previous studies, and centers on three context (Environmental, Organizational, and Technological which influence  adoption of AMTs. This model can provide managers with practical solutions through granting in-depth understanding of whole internal, external, and technological environments, and awarding empirical insight into overcoming barriers to the adoption and implementation of AMT and other process innovations in manufacturing organizations.

  12. Plasma Jet Imaging by CCD Technology in Rapid Mold Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spraying is an important enabling technology i n near-net-shaped process as well as many high-performance coating applicatio ns. Recently, it is being applied to rapid mould manufacturing to reduce develop ment time and manufacturing cost. In this process, inputted powders are heated a nd accelerated by plasma jet, and impinge on master pattern or prototype to form ing a thick coating. Mould will be fabricated after backed-up with consolidated material and other post-treatments. Amongst numerous fa...

  13. Solar cell circuit and method for manufacturing solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention is a novel manufacturing method for making multi-junction solar cell circuits that addresses current problems associated with such circuits by allowing the formation of integral diodes in the cells and allows for a large number of circuits to readily be placed on a single silicon wafer substrate. The standard Ge wafer used as the base for multi-junction solar cells is replaced with a thinner layer of Ge or a II-V semiconductor material on a silicon/silicon dioxide substrate. This allows high-voltage cells with multiple multi-junction circuits to be manufactured on a single wafer, resulting in less array assembly mass and simplified power management.

  14. Locally manufactured wind power technology for sustainable rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, the use of wind power for rural electrification has been limited. However the fact that micro-wind turbines can be manufactured using only basic workshop tools, techniques and materials, and therefore can be produced locally is often overlooked. Local manufacture has the potential to boost the local economy, build local capacity, reduce costs and produce resilient and flexible energy systems. However, locally manufactured technology must be seen as socially embedded due to the variety of local knowledge, skills, equipment and materials needed to construct and maintain such systems, as well as the organisational structures needed to ensure their long term sustainability. Evidence from successful initiatives suggests that stable institutional support from intermediaries such as the local/national government or NGOs is necessary to foster the development of a wind power industry based on local manufacture. The roles of these intermediaries include identifying and targeting windy areas with favourable environmental conditions, conducting research and development, collecting feedback from end users, creating supply chains for new parts and materials and developing relevant knowledge and skills. In this paper, three case studies of specific initiatives are analysed to draw out the social, economic and technical factors that could facilitate wider adoption of the technology. - Highlights: ► Local manufacture of wind turbines often overlooked for rural electrification. ► Flexible to adapt to local context and benefits local economy, capacity and supply chain. ► Development of technology discussed and 3 case studies of dissemination analysed. ► Critical factors: institutional support, system level planning, continuity of supply. ► Dissemination successful in Inner Mongolia; work continues elsewhere.

  15. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  16. Design for manufacturability of a VDSM standard cell library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宠; 陈岚; 曾健平; 尹明会; 赵劫

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of designing a 65 nm DFM standard cell library.By reducing the amount of the library largely,the process of optical proximity correction (OPC) becomes more efficient and the need for large storage is reduced.This library is more manufacture-friendly as each cell has been optimized according to the DFM rule and optical simulation.The area penalty is minor compared with traditional library,and the timing,as well as power has a good performance.Furthermore,this library has passed the test from the Technology Design Department of Foundry.The result shows this DFM standard cell library has advantages that improve the yield.

  17. Evaluating the barriers for enhacing the utilization level of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs in manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam singh sankhla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research has been out within the field of the barriers of advanced manufacturing technology. It has been goal to investigate the barriers affecting the implementation of AMT in the organisation. the work with this paper has been carried out in cooperation with machine well with the goal to create recommendation for the company in how they could implement AMT successfully in the company in order to answer the question what should a small industry focus on to implement the AMT concept successfully, an investigation in the two middle size industries in the Rajasthan (India were visited. One interview was carried out with managers at both the two companies and a questionnaire was handed out to workers. The aim was to see if there were any large differences in the barriers of AMT which is applying in the company. The interview and questionnaire did show that a company should know about barriers of AMT & their inter relationship if they wanted to accomplish more in the organisation with tea work and get more busy from the employees. It is important that all workers know the vision and goal why a company is implementing AMT. Advanced manufacturing technology (AMT has been viewed strategic weapon to gain competitive advantages by manufacturing organisation . The small and medium scale industries (SMISs are under increasing pressure to adopt advanced manufacturing technology to be competitive or simply to survive. The successful implementation of AMT will requires the companies to have a workforce with higher level of skills, a flexible organizational structure and include a new culture in managing and training a workforce in the manufacturing industries. The ability of the workers to run multiple machines, stopping production when problem occur, communication of organizational goals and participation in idea generation and decision making are important in achieving a higher benefits of AMT. The SMIs have to increase the educational and supervision

  18. Development of Self-Luminous Glass Tube (SLGT) Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Sin; Kim, Kyeong Sook; Chung, Eun Su; Song, Kyu Min; Lee, Sook Kyung; Son, Soon Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF) will be a radioactive waste when it is stored in the vault inside the WTRF, which requires maintenance cost and is a troublesome waste such that it cannot be sent to the radioactive waste disposal facility. However, when tritium is utilized it can be valuable resource for many applications. As a starting point to utilize tritium we tried to domesticate the selfluminous glass tube (SLGT) manufacturing technology. As a hydrogen isotope, tritium has similar chemical properties to hydrogen but slightly different physical properties. Due to its unstable nature, tritium emits beta rays, which are streams of electrons, with 0{approx}18.6 keV (5.7 keV in average) energies and 12.323 years of a half-life. The energy level of tritium is relatively low and the biological effects of tritium to the human body are not significant, which makes tritium a popular radioactive isotope for use in industries. The electrons in a beta ray collide with phosphor to produce light so that tritium sealed in phosphor coated glass tubes can make the tubes glow without an external supply of energy. To manufacture these SLGTs, 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology.

  19. Handbook on advanced design and manufacturing technologies for biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The last decades have seen remarkable advances in computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing technologies, multi-variable simulation tools, medical imaging, biomimetic design, rapid prototyping, micro and nanomanufacturing methods and information management resources, all of which provide new horizons for the Biomedical Engineering fields and the Medical Device Industry. Handbook on Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technologies for Biomedical Devices covers such topics in depth, with an applied perspective and providing several case studies that help to analyze and understand the key factors of the different stages linked to the development of a novel biomedical device, from the conceptual and design steps, to the prototyping and industrialization phases. Main research challenges and future potentials are also discussed, taking into account relevant social demands and a growing market already exceeding billions of dollars. In time, advanced biomedical devices will decisively change methods and resu...

  20. Progress of advanced optical manufacturing technology integrated line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiao; Li, Wei; Wang, Jian; Cai, Liqun

    2006-02-01

    Because of the demand for better performance in optical systems, there's a continuing effort to find more efficient ways of producing large optics. FOERC's involvement in developing new techniques for the fabrication of large optical components has resulted in the AOMTIL (Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technology Integrated Line). The purpose of the AOMTIL is to demonstrate the novel manufacturing process and technology for large optics in modern optical system. The progress of AOMTIL is presented in the paper. There are mainly four parts in AOMTIL as follows, the ultra-precision grinding, deterministic figuring or polishing, perfect surface conditioning and precision optical metrology. The preliminary results of the AOMTIL show the possibility to yield more than 20 pieces large optical components per month and the advantages in achieving high accuracy. Optical flats larger than 500mm in diameter have been produced with flatness better than λ/10 peak to valley.

  1. New development on additive manufacturing technology and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiaoyong; Li Dichen; Zhang Anfeng; Lu Zhongliang; Lu Bingheng

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technology has been developed in Xi' an Jiaotong University for almost 20 years.Up to now,it is still attracting the attentions of the researchers or manufacturers all over the world.Some innovative processes and frontier application research are all being conducted here to catch up with the new development of this technology.In the paper,newly developed processes,such as ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UVLED) stereolithography,ceramic stereolithography,and direct metal forming,were described.Some results of the frontier application researches,such as indirect fabrication of ceramic casting mould,wind-tunnel-testing models,photonic crystals and metamaterials,were also briefly reviewed.

  2. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost production platforms have been developed in our research. These reconfigurable platforms are called equiplets. A grid of these equiplets connected by a fast network is capable of producing a varie...

  3. Innovative Technologies to Manufacture Hybrid Metal Foam/Composite Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to verify the technological feasibility to realize hybrid metal-foam/composite component and the mechanical performances of the final structure. The hybrid component is composed by a cylindrical core in aluminum foam, the most used between those commercially available, and an outer layer in epoxy/S2-glass, manufactured by filament winding technology.A set of experimental tests have been carried out, to the aim to estimate the improvement of the hybrid component characteristics, compared to the sum of the single components (metal foam cylinder and epoxy/S2-glass tube).

  4. Advanced manufacturing technologies for the BeCOAT telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael N.; Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-02-01

    The beryllium cryogenic off-axis telescope (BeCOAT) uses a two-mirror, non re-imaging, off- axis, Ritchey Chretian design with all-beryllium optics, structures and baffles. The purpose of this telescope is the system level demonstration of advanced manufacturing technologies for optics, optical benches, and baffle assemblies. The key issues that are addressed are single point diamond turning of beryllium optics, survivable fastening techniques, minimum beryllium utilization, and technologies leading to self-aligning, all-beryllium optical systems.

  5. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  6. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  7. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  8. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  9. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  10. Cloud service-oriented dashboard for work cell management in RFID-enabled ubiquitous manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, H.; Cheng, M.; Li, Y.; Lan, S.; Huang, GQ; Zhong, RY

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at developing a service-oriented dashboard for operators and supervisors of manufacturing shopfloor work-cells to realize information visibility and traceability effectively with cloud and RFID (radio frequency identification) technologies. The work is based on a case of an illustrative assembly line consisting of a number of work cells. The dashboard is deployed for facilitating assembly operations in ubiquitous manufacturing environment. The utilization of the system leads...

  11. A relativity concept in mesenchymal stromal cell manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivan; De Boer, Jan; Sensebe, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being experimentally tested in several biological systems and clinical settings with the aim of verifying possible therapeutic effects for a variety of indications. MSCs are also known to be heterogeneous populations, with phenotypic and functional features that depend heavily on the individual donor, the harvest site, and the culture conditions. In the context of this multidimensional complexity, a recurrent question is whether it is feasible to produce MSC batches as "standard" therapeutics, possibly within scalable manufacturing systems. Here, we provide a short overview of the literature on different culture methods for MSCs, including those employing innovative technologies, and of some typically assessed functional features (e.g., growth, senescence, genomic stability, clonogenicity, etc.). We then offer our perspective of a roadmap on how to identify and refine manufacturing systems for MSCs intended for specific clinical indications. We submit that the vision of producing MSCs according to a unique standard, although commercially attractive, cannot yet be scientifically substantiated. Instead, efforts should be concentrated on standardizing methods for characterization of MSCs generated by different groups, possibly covering a vast gamut of functionalities. Such assessments, combined with hypotheses on the therapeutic mode of action and associated clinical data, should ultimately allow definition of in-process controls and measurable release criteria for MSC manufacturing. These will have to be validated as predictive of potency in suitable pre-clinical models and of therapeutic efficacy in patients. PMID:27059199

  12. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  13. Manufacturing technologies for nanocomposite ceramic structural materials and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new material class of ceramic nanocomposites, containing at least one phase in nanometric dimension, has achieved special interest in previous years. While earlier research was focused on materials science and microstructural details in laboratory scale the subject of developing suitable manufacturing technologies in technical scale is the challenge for the manufacturing engineer. The same high-performance features which make the nanocomposite materials so interesting in their properties are absolutely detrimental if it comes to production of these materials. Extreme hardness, toughness and abrasion resistance make the state of the art cutting-and-machining operations extremely cost intensive so that, from a manufacturing point of view, true near-net-shape manufacturing is mandatory to accomplish reasonable cost targets. Ceramic feedstocks with both, high solid content to reduce shrinkage and warping and stable processing conditions are required to accomplish this aim of near-net-shape processing. Stable and reproducible processing conditions, e.g. favourable rheological properties for injection moulding are essentials for the manufacturing engineer. These prerequisites of ceramic production technologies cannot be reached with pure nanopowders in the 10-20 nm range but materials with a micro-nano architecture can fulfill these requirements, using a mixture of a submicron-sized matrix in the 100-200 nm range and smaller nanosized additives in <20% content which contribute the desired functionality. By using these micro-nanocomposites near-net-shape ceramic forming technologies such as injection moulding, gel casting and slip casting have been developed which lead to high-performance materials at affordable production cost. Advanced surface technologies include nanoceramic coatings made by thermokinetic deposition processes. Modern ceramic processing, i.e. spray drying leads to fine granulated nanopowders with appropriate flowability for subsequent APS plasma or

  14. Manufacturing Concepts of the Future – Upcoming Technologies Solving Upcoming Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    This paper presents an examination of Western European manufacturers’ future challenges as can be predicted today. Some of the challenges analyzed in the paper are: globalization, individualism and customization and agility challenges. Hereafter, the paper presents a broad analysis on manufacturing...... concepts and technologies that are being developed today which may be used to solve manufacturing challenges in the future, such as: (self) reconfigurable manufacturing systems, (focused) flexible manufacturing systems, and AI inspired manufacturing. The paper will try to offer a critical point of view...... on manufacturing challenges, concepts, and technologies, and is meant to address both academia and industry. Keywords: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems, manufacturing challenges, cognitive factory, mass-customization...

  15. Implementing the South African additive manufacturing technology roadmap - the role of an additive manufacturing centre of competence

    OpenAIRE

    Du Preez, Willie Bouwer; De Beer, Deon J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa (RAPDASA) expressed the need for a national Additive Manufacturing Roadmap. Consequentially, the South African Department of Science and Technology commissioned the development of a South African Additive Manufacturing Technology Roadmap. This was intended to guide role-players in identifying business opportunities, addressing technology gaps, focusing development programmes, and informing investment decisions that would enable local c...

  16. Digital Aircraft Sheet Metal Part Manufacturing System and Its Key Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Junbiao; Liu; Chuang

    2007-01-01

    The architecture of digital sheet metal manufacturing system is proposed based on the classification of sheet metal manufacturing information.The essence of digital manufacturing is the definition,management and transfer of information,and the key technologies are brought forward and described.It is pointed out that knowledge-based manufacturing elements design is necessary to make digital technology efficient.The management of all kinds of sheet metal manufacturing element information is to build single source of manufacturing data.Multi-state model-based digital transfer and coordination method is designed to provide a foundation for digital manufacturing of aircraft sheet metal part.The application of digital sheet metal manufacturing is exemplified with an aircraft sheet metal part.The application result is compared to that of the traditional analog transfer technology.It is shown that the developed technology can improve part quality,shorten manufacturing time and lower manufacturing cost.

  17. A state of the Art report on Manufacturing technology of high burn-up fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ho; Nam, Cheol; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Byung Kwon; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    1999-09-01

    In order to manufacturing the prototype fuel cladding, overall manufacturing processes and technologies should be thoroughly understood on the manufacturing processes and technologies of foreign cladding tubes. Generally, the important technology related to fuel cladding tube manufacturing processes for PWRs/PHWRs is divided into three stages. The first stage is to produce the zirconium sponge from zirconium sand, the second stage is to produce the zircaloy shell or TREX from zirconium sponge ingot and finally, cladding is produced from TREX or zircaloy shell. Therefore, the manufacturing processes including the first and second stages are described in brief in this technology report in order to understand the whole fuel cladding manufacturing processes. (author)

  18. A state of the Art report on Manufacturing technology of high burn-up fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to manufacturing the prototype fuel cladding, overall manufacturing processes and technologies should be thoroughly understood on the manufacturing processes and technologies of foreign cladding tubes. Generally, the important technology related to fuel cladding tube manufacturing processes for PWRs/PHWRs is divided into three stages. The first stage is to produce the zirconium sponge from zirconium sand, the second stage is to produce the zircaloy shell or TREX from zirconium sponge ingot and finally, cladding is produced from TREX or zircaloy shell. Therefore, the manufacturing processes including the first and second stages are described in brief in this technology report in order to understand the whole fuel cladding manufacturing processes. (author)

  19. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Technology Transfer and Training Initiative (ECMT3I) Technology Transfer Model Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Technology Transfer and Training Initiative (ECMT3I) is a cooperative effort among education and research institutions in New Mexico to analyze problems in transferring environmental technologies from Department of Energy laboratories to small and medium enterprises (SME's). The goal of the ECMT3I is to…

  20. Reliability Modeling and Analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Savsar, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The demand for customized products has been continuously increasing in recent years and a great deal of attention has been given to automation of manufacturing, specifically to flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and flexible manufacturing cells (FMC). FMC are less costly, smaller, and less complex systems than FMS. In order to get full benefit from these systems, they have to be analyzed in detail before implementation as well as during their operations. While modeling and analysis of tradi...

  1. Modeling technology and technological change in manufacturing: how do countries differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhardt, Markus; Teal, Francis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we ask how technological differences in manufacturing across countries can best be modeled when using a standard production function approach. We show that it is important to allow for differences in technology as measured by differences in parameters. Of similar importance are time-series properties of the data and the role of dynamic processes, which can be thought of as aspects of technological change. Regarding the latter we identify both an element that is common across all...

  2. Manufacturing technology of high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents manufacturing technology of pressure castings made of Al-Si alloy without porosity or with low microporosity of castings. It has been shown that the greatest impact on the porosity of the castings and the concentration of hydrogen has had the charge to the melting furnace. Liquidation or occurrence of a small microporosity of castings provides refining with solid refiners, nitrogen and modification of liquid alloy after various operations of preparing process. The liquid alloy stored in holding furnace should be refined once every 2 h with nitrogen. Authors developed a computer program of Al-Si alloys inspection with using of TDA method. The developed technology was verified under production conditions.

  3. Medium reactor concept and construction/manufacture technologies in Hitachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the demand for medium and small nuclear power plants will increase in the areas where the electric supply network is weak in the near future. Actual plant construction and operational experience is very important due to earlier introduction of nuclear power plants in these areas. Hitachi is developing a medium-sized BWR, designated HABWR by downsizing ABWR that is the latest type of BWR in the world. The systems and equipment in HABWR are simplified and rationalized to overcome the scale demerit while keeping the basic design of the ABWR. Therefore, the construction/manufacture technologies and experience will be almost completely applicable to the HABWR. This paper describes the plant concept of HABWR and the latest construction technologies and experience in Hitachi. (author)

  4. Study on the Architecture of Control System for Manufacturing Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, and resource objects, so as to reduce costs and to increase the control system's agility with respect to changing environment.

  5. Optimization Manufacture of Virus- and Tumor-Specific T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lapteva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ex vivo expanded T cells are currently widely used in pre-clinical and clinical trials, the complexity of manufacture remains a major impediment for broader application. In this review we discuss current protocols for the ex vivo expansion of virus- and tumor-specific T cells and describe our experience in manufacture optimization using a gas-permeable static culture flask (G-Rex. This innovative device has revolutionized the manufacture process by allowing us to increase cell yields while decreasing the frequency of cell manipulation and in vitro culture time. It is now being used in good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities for clinical cell production in our institution as well as many others in the US and worldwide.

  6. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  8. Electron Beam Melting Manufacturing Technology for Individually Manufactured Jaw Prosthesis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suska, Felicia; Kjeller, Göran; Tarnow, Peter; Hryha, Eduard; Nyborg, Lars; Snis, Anders; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-08-01

    In the field of maxillofacial reconstruction, additive manufacturing technologies, specifically electron beam melting (EBM), offer clinicians the potential for patient-customized design of jaw prostheses, which match both load-bearing and esthetic demands. The technique allows an innovative, functional design, combining integrated porous regions for bone ingrowth and secondary biological fixation with solid load-bearing regions ensuring the biomechanical performance. A patient-specific mandibular prosthesis manufactured using EBM was successfully used to reconstruct a patient's mandibular defect after en bloc resection. Over a 9-month follow-up period, the patient had no complications. A short operating time, good esthetic outcome, and high level of patient satisfaction as measured by quality-of-life questionnaires-the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (30-item quality-of-life core questionnaire) and H&N35 (head and neck cancer module)-were reported for this case. Individually planned and designed EBM-produced prostheses may be suggested as a possible future alternative to fibular grafts or other reconstructive methods. However, the role of porosity, the role of geometry, and the optimal combination of solid and porous parts, as well as surface properties in relation to soft tissues, should be carefully evaluated in long-term clinical trials. PMID:27178123

  9. Advanced manufacturing technologies and strategically flexible production. A review and outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    During the 1980s, Western manufacturers were attracted by the potential of computer technology to increase productivity through the improvement of quality and the reduction of costs and lead times. However, most investments aimed at exploiting the benefits of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM...... of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) and the adoption of new managerial and organizational principles....

  10. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  11. Experience Scaling Up Manufacturing of Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, G. W.; Skinner, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines two important generic photovoltaic technologies at particularly revealing stages of development, i.e., the stages between R&D and stable commercial production and profitable sales. Based on two historical cases, it attempts to shed light on the difference between: (1) costs and schedules validated by actual manufacturing and market experience, and (2) estimated costs and schedules that rely on technology forecasts and engineering estimates. The amorphous Silicon case also identifies some of the costs that are incurred in meeting specific market requirements, while the Cadmium Telluride case identifies many of the operational challenges involved in transferring R&D results to production. The transition between R&D and commercial success takes a great deal of time and money for emerging energy conversion technologies in general. The experience reported here can be instructive to those managing comparable efforts, and to their investors. It can also be instructive to R&D managers responsible for positioning such new technologies for commercial success.

  12. MANUFACTURE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL USING PLANT CHLOROPHYLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, we have successfully manufactured working chlorophyll sensitized solar cells using chlorophyll (and b mixture) from spinach leaves. We have evaluated the electronic characteristics (voltage, current, and power outputs using different loading resistors) of this solar c...

  13. An animal cell culture: Advance technology for modern research

    OpenAIRE

    Sarita Khare; Rajeev Nema

    2012-01-01

    At the present time animal cell culture is more significant and multifarious application tool for current research streams. A lot of field assorted from animal cell culture such: stem cell biology, IVF technology, cancer cell biology, monoclonal antibody production, recombinant protein production, gene therapy, vaccine manufacturing, novel drug selection and improvement. In this review conclude animal cell culture as well as its requirements

  14. Implementing the South African additive manufacturing technology roadmap - the role of an additive manufacturing centre of competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Willie Bouwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa (RAPDASA expressed the need for a national Additive Manufacturing Roadmap. Consequentially, the South African Department of Science and Technology commissioned the development of a South African Additive Manufacturing Technology Roadmap. This was intended to guide role-players in identifying business opportunities, addressing technology gaps, focusing development programmes, and informing investment decisions that would enable local companies and industry sectors to become global leaders in selected areas of additive manufacturing. The challenge remains now for South Africa to decide on an implementation approach that will maximize the impact in the shortest possible time. This article introduces the concept of a national Additive Manufacturing Centre of Competence (AMCoC as a primary implementation vehicle for the roadmap. The support of the current leading players in additive manufacturing in South Africa for such a centre of competence is shared and their key roles are indicated. A summary of the investments that the leading players have already made in the focus areas of the AMCoC over the past two decades is given as confirmation of their commitment towards the advancement of the additive manufacturing technology. An exposition is given of how the AMCoC could indeed become the primary initiative for achieving the agreed national goals on additive manufacturing. The conclusion is that investment by public and private institutions in an AMCoC would be the next step towards ensuring South Africa’s continued progress in the field.

  15. Clinical manufacturing of CAR T cells: foundation of a promising therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer patients with autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is one of the most promising adoptive cellular therapy approaches. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade CAR-T cell products is a prerequisite for the wide application of this technology. Product quality needs to be built-in within every step of the manufacturing process. We summarize herein the requirements and logistics to be considered, as well as the state of the art manufacturing platforms available. CAR-T cell therapy may be on the verge of becoming standard of care for a few clinical indications. Yet, many challenges pertaining to manufacturing standardization and product characterization remain to be overcome in order to achieve broad usage and eventual commercialization of this therapeutic modality. PMID:27347557

  16. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m2), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity Se¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m2) and electrical resistance R¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  17. Accelerating Industrial Adoption of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Kenneth; McDonald, Tom

    2016-03-01

    While metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology has clear benefits, there are still factors preventing its adoption by industry. These factors include the high cost of metal AM systems, the difficulty for machinists to learn and operate metal AM machines, the long approval process for part qualification/certification, and the need for better process controls; however, the high AM system cost is the main barrier deterring adoption. In this paper, we will discuss an America Makes-funded program to reduce AM system cost by combining metal AM technology with conventional computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools. Information will be provided on how an Optomec-led team retrofitted a legacy CNC vertical mill with laser engineered net shaping (LENS®—LENS is a registered trademark of Sandia National Labs) AM technology, dramatically lowering deployment cost. The upgraded system, dubbed LENS Hybrid Vertical Mill, enables metal additive and subtractive operations to be performed on the same machine tool and even on the same part. Information on the LENS Hybrid system architecture, learnings from initial system deployment and continuing development work will also be provided to help guide further development activities within the materials community.

  18. After-sales service to manufactured goods on technological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borchardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical and exploratory paper aims to build a critical analysis on after-sales services, mainly regarded to manufactured goods on technological basis. The purpose of the research is to achieve some better understanding about the essential elements that are to be taken into account in conceiving such a service, after different approaches. After-sales service is a member of the service package and it can influence customer satisfaction. The studied issues can integrate policies to guiding firms in designing after-sales services. They are: definition of the service itself; strategic issues; the facilities and premises; and the operation management. We aim this theoretical research to be a pre-requisite to launch further empirical researches, mainly in the field of inter-organizational relationships. Key-words: service management; after-sales service; service operations; goods associated to services; inter-organizational relationships.

  19. Trial of Engineer Educating of Manufacturing Field in Kagoshima National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Hombu, Mitsuyuki; Kusuhara, Yoshito; Kashine, Kenji; Sakasegawa, Eiichi; Tashima, Daisuke; Fukidome, Hiromi

    In Kagoshima National College of Technology, based on investigation with “the job boost measure investigation work in a power supply area” undertaken in the 2005 fiscal year, we accepted the trust from Kyushu Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry, and undertook “the small-and-medium-sized-enterprises personnel educating work which utilized the technical college etc.” for three years from the 2006 fiscal year to the 2008 fiscal year. As the trial of engineer educating according to the electrical engineering concept to the manufacturing field based on a conventional result, we act as a professor of the base technique for applying alternative energy (a fuel cell and a solar cell) in which social needs are powerful these days, and aim at aiming at cultivation of the problem-solving type engineer who can contribute to a low carbon society through manufacturing, we undertook this work according to the manufacturing bearer educating work (personnel educating and secured work of the manufacturing field) in the 2009 fiscal year of National Federation of Small Business Associations.

  20. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  1. Green technology LCA for wood manufacturing: plywood glued from green veneers technology

    OpenAIRE

    POMMIER, Régis R; GRIMAUD, Guilhem G; PRINCAUD, Marion M; Perry, Nicolas; SONNEMANN, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum moulding technologies enable to manufacture plywood. It enables to glue a green state wood, because it can be dried and glued by the vacuum in the same operation. It reduces considerably the number of steps in its manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to propose a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in order to validate the use of vacuum process with green plywood in the hulls of boats. The functional analysis focussed on 4 traditional plywood in order to compare them with our product. The e...

  2. Technology Reinvestment Project Manufacturing Education and Training. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Bond, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing education program is a joint program between the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) College of Engineering and Alabama A&M University's (AAMLJ) School of Engineering and Technology. The objective of the program is to provide more hands-on experiences to undergraduate engineering and engineering technology students. The scope of work consisted of. Year 1, Task 1: Review courses at Alabama Industrial Development Training (AIDT); Task 2: Review courses at UAH and AAMU; Task 3: Develop new lab manuals; Task 4: Field test manuals; Task 5: Prepare annual report. Year 2, Task 1: Incorporate feedback into lab manuals; Task 2 : Introduce lab manuals into classes; Task 3: Field test manuals; Task 4: Prepare annual report. Year 3, Task 1: Incorporate feedback into lab manuals; Task 2: Introduce lab manuals into remaining classes; Task 3: Conduct evaluation with assistance of industry; Task 4: Prepare final report. This report only summarizes the activities of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The activities of Alabama A&M University are contained in a separate report.

  3. Using CORBA to integrate manufacturing cells to a virtual enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancerella, Carmen M.; Whiteside, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    It is critical in today's enterprises that manufacturing facilities are not isolated from design, planning, and other business activities and that information flows easily and bidirectionally between these activities. It is also important and cost-effective that COTS software, databases, and corporate legacy codes are well integrated in the information architecture. Further, much of the information generated during manufacturing must be dynamically accessible to engineering and business operations both in a restricted corporate intranet and on the internet. The software integration strategy in the Sandia Agile Manufacturing Testbed supports these enterprise requirements. We are developing a CORBA-based distributed object software system for manufacturing. Each physical machining device is a CORBA object and exports a common IDL interface to allow for rapid and dynamic insertion, deletion, and upgrading within the manufacturing cell. Cell management CORBA components access manufacturing devices without knowledge of any device-specific implementation. To support information flow from design to planning data is accessible to machinists on the shop floor. CORBA allows manufacturing components to be easily accessible to the enterprise. Dynamic clients can be created using web browsers and portable Java GUI's. A CORBA-OLE adapter allows integration to PC desktop applications. Other commercial software can access CORBA network objects in the information architecture through vendor API's.

  4. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  5. Manufacturing Resource Planning Technology Based on Genetic Programming Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shiwen; LIAO Wenhe; GUO Yu; LIU Jinshan; SU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Network-based manufacturing is a kind of distributed system, which enables manufacturers to finish production tasks as well as to grasp the opportunities in the market, even if manufacturing resources are insufficient. One of the main problems in network-based manufacturing is the allocation of resources and the assignment of tasks rationally, according to flexible resource distribution. The mapping rules and relations between production techniques and resources are proposed, followed by the definition of the resource unit. Ultimately, the genetic programming method for the optimization of the manufacturing system is put forward. A set of software for the optimization system of simulation process using genetic programming techniques has been developed, and the problems of manufacturing resource planning in network-based manufacturing are solved with the simulation of optimizing methods by genetic programming. The optimum proposal of hardware planning, selection of company and scheduling will be obtained in theory to help company managers in scientific decision-making.

  6. Process monitoring in solar cell manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors describe a new method that is capable of on-line monitoring of several solar cell process steps such as texturing, AR coatings, and metal contact properties. The measurement technique is rapid and specifically designed for solar cells and wafers. The system implementing this new concept is named ''PV Reflectometer.'' The idea was originally conceived several years ago and the principle of the method has been demonstrated for some simple cases. Recently, this method has been improved to be more suitable for commercial applications. For completeness, the paper first includes a brief review of the process control requirements and the common monitoring methods in solar cell production

  7. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  8. Experiences and Trends of Manufacturing Technology of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Atoms for Peace' mission initiated in the mid-1950s paved the way for the development and deployment of nuclear fission reactors as a source of heat energy for electricity generation in nuclear power reactors and as a source of neutrons in non-power reactors for research, materials irradiation, and testing and production of radioisotopes. The fuels for nuclear reactors are manufactured from natural uranium (∼99.3% 238U + ∼0.7% 235U) and natural thorium (∼100% 232Th) resources. Currently, most power and research reactors use 235U, the only fissile isotope found in nature, as fuel. The fertile isotopes 238U and 232Th are transmuted in the reactor to human-made 239Pu and 233U fissile isotopes, respectively. Likewise, minor actinides (MA) (Np, Am and Cm) and other plutonium isotopes are also formed by a series of neutron capture reactions with 238U and 235U. Long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend to a great extent on the efficient, safe and secure utilization of fissile and fertile materials. Light water reactors (LWRs) account for more than 82% of the operating reactors, followed by pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), which constitute ∼10% of reactors. LWRs will continue to dominate the nuclear power market for several decades, as long as economically viable natural uranium resources are available. Currently, the plutonium obtained from spent nuclear fuel is subjected to mono recycling in LWRs as uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX), containing up to 12% PuO2, in a very limited way. The reprocessed uranium (RepU) is also re-enriched and recycled in LWRs in a few countries. Unfortunately, the utilization of natural uranium resources in thermal neutron reactors is 2 and MOX fuel technology has matured during the past five decades. These fuels are now being manufactured, used and reprocessed on an industrial scale. Mixed uranium- plutonium monocarbide (MC), mononitride (MN) and U-Pu-Zr alloys are recognized as advanced fuels for sodium

  9. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  10. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  11. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, a Department of Energy laboratory, is responsible for maintaining the safety, security, reliability, and availability of the nuclear weapons stockpile for the United States. Because of the changing national and global political climates and inevitable budget cuts, Sandia is changing the methods and processes it has traditionally used in the product realization cycle for weapon components. Because of the increasing age of the nuclear stockpile, it is certain that the reliability of these weapons will degrade with time unless eventual action is taken to repair, requalify, or renew them. Furthermore, due to the downsizing of the DOE weapons production sites and loss of technical personnel, the new product realization process is being focused on developing and deploying advanced automation technologies in order to maintain the capability for producing new components. The goal of Sandia's technology development program is to create a product realization environment that is cost effective, has improved quality and reduced cycle time for small lot sizes. The new environment will rely less on the expertise of humans and more on intelligent systems and automation to perform the production processes. The systems will be robust in order to provide maximum flexibility and responsiveness for rapidly changing component or product mixes. An integrated enterprise will allow ready access to and use of information for effective and efficient product and process design. Concurrent engineering methods will allow a speedup of the product realization cycle, reduce costs, and dramatically lessen the dependency on creating and testing physical prototypes. Virtual manufacturing will allow production processes to be designed, integrated, and programed off-line before a piece of hardware ever moves. The overriding goal is to be able to build a large variety of new weapons parts on short notice. Many of these technologies that are being developed are also

  12. Solar cell and its manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hisashi; Komatsu, Yasumitsu.

    1989-01-20

    The solar cell with a structure of the Cds sintered film/CdTe sintered film is excellent at mass productivity because of usage of screen printing, but its conversion efficiency is insufficient in comparison with that of the single crystal silicon solar cell. Since the CdS/CdTe solar cell is a heterojunction solar cell, it is necessary that lattice constants of two materials are close each other in order to improve its performance. However, the mismatching of the lattices of CdS and CdTe is as fairly big as 11%. In order to ameliorate this mismatching, this invention substitutes the CdTe sintered film with the CdS-CdTe mixed crystal sintered film. Besides, the CdS-CdTe mixed crystal phase has its narrow forbidden bandwidth at or below 50 mol % of its CdS content, hence with it, a solar cell can be obtained which is highly sensitive to the light of long wave lengths. 2 tabs.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Implementation Process in SME: Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT in Small Medium Enterprise (SME. Many large companies have applied AMT and the applications have shown significant results in this global market era. Conveniently, these phenomenons are also engaged to Small Medium Enterprises (SME that of high demands on performing high quality product, fast delivery, reliable and more flexible. The implementation of AMT follow several processes namely pre installation, installation, improvement and mature. In order to guarantee the succesfull of running these processes, one should consider the Critical Success Factors (CSF. We conducted a survey to 125 SMEs that have implemented AMT, and found that the CSF for each process are moderately different. Good leadership is the main critical success factor for preparing and installation of the AMT. Once the AMT started or installed and arrived at growth stage, the financial availability factor turns into a critical success factor in the AMT implementation. In, mature stage, the support and commitment of top management becomes an important factor for gaining successful implementation. By means of factor analysis, we could point out that strategic factors are the main factors in pre-installation and installation stage. Finally, in the growth stage and mature stage, both tactical and strategic factors are the important factors in the successful of AMT implementation

  14. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  15. Research on Manufacturing Technology Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanqi; ZHENG Kuijing

    2006-01-01

    The concept of machine vision based manufacturing technology is proposed first, and the key algorithms used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional machining are discussed in detail. Machining information can be derived from the binary images and gray picture after processing and transforming the picture. Contour and the parallel cutting method about two-dimensional machining are proposed. Polygon approximating algorithm is used to cutting the profile of the workpiece. Fill Scanning algorithm used to machining inner part of a pocket. The improved Shape From Shading method with adaptive pre-processing is adopted to reconstruct the three-dimensional model. Layer cutting method is adopted for three-dimensional machining. The tool path is then gotten from the model, and NC code is formed subsequently. The model can be machined conveniently by the lathe, milling machine or engraver. Some examples are given to demonstrate the results of ImageCAM system, which is developed by the author to implement the algorithms previously mentioned.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Composites Integrated Modeling Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIM encompassed computational methods, tools and processes that go into the materials, design, manufacturing and qualification of composite aerospace structures....

  17. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  18. Additive technology as a way to implement the concept of lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Shehovcov; Natalya Karpova

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the additive technology, their types, methods of use, advantages and disadvantages. The possibility of application of additive technologies as a way of implementing the concept of lean manufacturing.

  19. Additive technology as a way to implement the concept of lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Shehovcov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the additive technology, their types, methods of use, advantages and disadvantages. The possibility of application of additive technologies as a way of implementing the concept of lean manufacturing.

  20. Cartilage Tissue Engineering with Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Fabricated by Indirect Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced tissue engineering (TE technology based on additive manufacturing (AM can fabricate scaffolds with a three-dimensional (3D environment suitable for cartilage regeneration. Specifically, AM technology may allow the incorporation of complex architectural features. The present study involves the fabrication of 3D TE scaffolds by an indirect AM approach using silk fibroin (SF. From scanning electron microscopic observations, the presence of micro-pores and interconnected channels within the scaffold could be verified, resulting in a TE scaffold with both micro- and macro-structural features. The intrinsic properties, such as the chemical structure and thermal characteristics of SF, were preserved after the indirect AM manufacturing process. In vitro cell culture within the SF scaffold using porcine articular chondrocytes showed a steady increase in cell numbers up to Day 14. The specific production (per cell basis of the cartilage-specific extracellular matrix component (collagen Type II was enhanced with culture time up to 12 weeks, indicating the re-differentiation of chondrocytes within the scaffold. Subcutaneous implantation of the scaffold-chondrocyte constructs in nude mice also confirmed the formation of ectopic cartilage by histological examination and immunostaining.

  1. A Simulation Technology for a Full Cycle of Steel Line Pipe Manufacturing Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim E. Seleznev; Viacheslav V. Kobyakov; Vladimir V. Aleshin

    2011-01-01

    At present day, pipe mill engineers have to deal with challenging technological problems of heavy-wall and high-strength line pipe manufacturing. Numerical analysis of welded large-diameter pipe manufacturing stages is the most efficient way to solve these problems. Corresponding computational technologies and applied software were developed at Physical & Technical Center. Numerical structural analysis of steel plates at various stages of line pipe manufacturing is performed by the finite ele...

  2. Adoption and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Influence of the policy mix in the manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mattes, Katharina; Müller, Simon; Jäger, Angela; Weidner, Nadezda; Weißfloch, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Rising energy prices and political goals which address climate change, such as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, increase the importance of using renewable energies and technologies for generating these. Since the manufac-turing industry is one of the major energy consumers in Germany, this paper focuses on the diffusion of renewable energy technologies to generate power in the manufacturing industry. Using data from the German Manufacturing Survey 2012 for 1,594 firms, we analyse th...

  3. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The resu...

  4. Adoption of advanced manufacturing technology and firm performance in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van, A.G.J.M.; Bartelsman, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents characteristics of firms which employ advanced manufacturing tech-nology (AMT), explores the pattern of adoption of such technology, and traces the effects ofadoption on the evolution of employment and productivity. The study uses linked firm-leveldata on production, factor inputs and on advanced manufacturing technology. It is foundthat the percentage of firms which employ advanced technology increases with higher laborproductivity, higher export-sales ratios, and especia...

  5. Automated Manufacturing/Robotics Technology: Certificate and Associate Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, Paul L.

    A description is provided of the Automated Manufacturing/Robotics program to be offered at Delaware County Community College beginning in September 1984. Section I provides information on the use of reprogramable industrial robots in manufacturing and the rapid changes in production that can be effected through the application of automated…

  6. Development of manufacturing technologies for ITER toroidal field coil conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is responsible for procuring 25% of the ITER toroidal field (TF) coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) for the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless-steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA has constructed a new conductor manufacturing facility. Prior to starting the conductor manufacturing, JAEA manufactured a 760 m-long Cu dummy conductor as a conductor manufacturing process qualification, such as processes of welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling. All manufacturing processes have been qualified and JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils. (author)

  7. Mechanical properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Finite element (FE) models were used to predict the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials. ► Porous materials were produced using additive manufacturing techniques. ► Manufacturing irregularities need to be implemented in FE models. ► FE models are more accurate than analytical models in predicting mechanical properties. - Abstract: An important practical problem in application of open-cell porous biomaterials is the prediction of the mechanical properties of the material given its micro-architecture and the properties of its matrix material. Although analytical methods can be used for this purpose, these models are often based on several simplifying assumptions with respect to the complex architecture and cannot provide accurate prediction results. The aim of the current study is to present finite element (FE) models that can predict the mechanical properties of porous titanium produced using selective laser melting or selective electron beam melting. The irregularities caused by the manufacturing process including structural variations of the architecture are implemented in the FE models using statistical models. The predictions of FE models are compared with those of analytical models and are tested against experimental data. It is shown that, as opposed to analytical models, the predictions of FE models are in agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that manufacturing irregularities significantly affect the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials

  8. Good Operations Practice Supervisor Profiles in Cell-Centric Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Ashutosh; Sackett, P.; Rehman, Shahwar; Linton, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The selection and implementation of good operations practice cannot be undertaken in isolation; it must consider the enterprise context. The aim of this paper is to describe a robust process for the development of specific environment good operations practice role profiles for supervisors, and illustrate this through a case study within a complex cell-centric manufacturing environment. The approach identifies the activities undertaken by a cell leader and team leader in ...

  9. Co-delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin to cancer cells from additively manufactured implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Dillschneider, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    , capable of physically supporting the void while killing residual cancer cells, would be an attractive solution. Here we describe a novel additively manufactured implant that can be functionalized with chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. These induce long term gene silencing in adjacent cancer cells without...... showing toxicity to normal cells. When scaffolds are functionalized with siRNA/chitosan nanoparticles and doxorubicin in combination, their effects synergized leading to cancer cell death. This technology may be used to target resistance genes by RNA interference and thereby re-sensitizing the cancer...

  10. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  11. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  12. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  13. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. PMID:27260134

  14. Laser texturization in technology of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents technology of multicrystalline silicon solar cells with laser texturization step. The texturing of polycrystalline silicon surface using Nd:YAG laser makes it possible to increase absorption of the incident solar radiation. Moreover, the additional technological operation consisting in etching in 20% KOH solution at temperature of 80ºC introduced into technology of the photovoltaic cells manufactured from laser textured wafers allows for significant improvement in...

  15. Evaluation and Modeling of the Digestion and Absorption of Novel Manufacturing Technology in Food Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kerong Zhang; Wuyi Liu

    2015-01-01

    The food industry is more and more in need of importing and absorption new technologies. Focusing on all the possible issues of contradiction and difficulty to improve the digestion and absorption of novel manufacturing technology, a set of customized dynamic quantitative evaluation models were put forward that made it easy to model and supervise the usages, digestion and absorption of novel manufacturing technology in food enterprises. According to the proposed set of evaluation models, anyo...

  16. The effects of changes in competition, technology and strategy on organizational performance in small and medium manufacturing companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Zainun Tuanmat; Malcolm Smith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how the relationship among competitive environment, manufacturing technology and organisational strategy affect organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach – Using a contingency approach, this study investigates the changes in competitive environment, manufacturing technology and organisational strategy in small and medium Malaysian manufacturing companies. The data is collected using a mailed questionnaire survey of manufacturing companies in ...

  17. Texas Manufacturing Technology Center feasibility study for the Inland Regional Industrial Technology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Texas Manufacturing Technology Center (TMTC) Business Plan to convert the Central Facility of the Superconducting Super Collider project to alternate uses. The plan is divided into six sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Market and Benefit Analysis, (3) Marketing Strategy, (4) Services, (5) Organization and Operations Overview, and (6) Financial Plan. Each area is supported by separate documents that address individual opportunities and challenges associated with transitioning the facility, and its asset base to new uses for benefit of the locality, state, region and nation

  18. Virtual manufacturing cells : A taxonomy of past research and identification of future research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomden, G; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews prior research in the area of virtual manufacturing cells. A virtual manufacturing cell (VMC) is a group of resources that is dedicated to the manufacturing of a part family, though this grouping is not reflected in the physical structure of the manufacturing system. Distinguishin

  19. UNRELIABLE FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELL WITH COMMON CAUSE FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRIYA MAHESHWARI; PANKAJ SHARMA,; MADHU JAIN

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for unreliable flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) which operates under stochastic environment and produces a variety of parts by utilizing computer controlled machines, a robot and an automated pallet system. FMC is served by the pallet system which delivers blanks into the cell and moves finished parts out of the cell. The robot acts as a mediator between pallet system and the machines i.e. it takes the blanks from the pallet to load them on the machines and ...

  20. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics. PMID:15676646

  1. Technological Considerations and Constraints in the Manufacture of High Precision Ball and Roller Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.S.Rajendiran,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings for application in Aircraft systems are to be manufactured to higher accuracy levels. Various technology details like raw material, processing stages and facilities such as machining, heat treatment, grinding, super finishing, assembly and inspection are to be considered for manufacture. However the facilities available presently in India are inadequate to produce high precision bearings. This paper deals with the prototype manufacture of bearings for some typical applications.

  2. Investment in Advanced Manufacturing Technology: A Study of Practice in Large UK Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, MG; Dugdale, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey investigation into the investment decision making practices of large UK manufacturing companies, especially in relation to investments in advanced manufacturing technologies. A 24% response rate was received in a survey of the finance directors of 466 large UK manufacturing companies. Responses were classified into three groups ranging from non-users of AMT to sophisticated users and analysis revealed that more sophisticated users do emphasise certa...

  3. Advancement in fuel design and manufacturing technologies of NFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NFI has two works manufacturing PWR fuel, BWR fuel and other types of fuel with a total capacity of 465 ton-U/year and has employees approx. 500. NFI is appreciated as a unique company for supplying both PWR fuel and BWR fuel with excelent quality and carrying out R and D work covering a wide range of areas. NFI has had no leak problem except tow occasions both caused by baffle flow in PWRs. As to BWR fuel, approx. 1,000 bundles have been manufactured by NFI and used to date and not a single case of failure has occurred. (author)

  4. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  5. An Evaluation of the Manufacturing Technology Partnership (MTP) Program. Technical Report No. 96-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Kevin

    The Manufacturing Technology Program (MTP) is a partnership between General Motors, the United Auto Workers, and the public schools in Flint, Michigan, that originated as a preapprenticeship program and has since expanded into a program preparing youth for manufacturing. The programs' effectiveness was examined through a comparison group-based…

  6. Research on Technological Process Control Model of Reverse Logistics in Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiane; LIU Chao

    2006-01-01

    This paper has found out some important input factors of reverse logistics in manufacturing system throuth analysis and summary, and established four kinds of technological process control models of reverse logistics in manufacturing system according to different processing methods. These models embed each other that form a cubic control system of reverse logistics.

  7. Development process and manufacturing of modern medical implants with LENS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balažic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Research and development of modern medical implants is complex and demanding process focused on fulfilling requirements regarding materials, machining technologies and functionality. Typical example of modern medical implant is elbow nail for fixation of Caput radii fractures. It could be manufactured with classical machining technologies and with advanced Rapid Prototyping technologies such as highly targeted metal deposition technology LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping.Design/methodology/approach: Development of modern medical implants is a multi-stage design and manufacturing process primarily based on computer aided design (CAD, computer simulations, machinability of certificated biomaterials, in-vitro biofunctionality and in-vivo tests.Findings: LENS technology enables rapid and agile manufacturing, improved design flexibility, repair and re-manufacture. Material built with LENS technology has equal or even better mechanical and material properties. In medical application LENS technology enables development and rapid prototyping of special surgical instruments, trauma and orthopaedic high-performance implants which are hollow and thin walled.Research limitations/implications: To confirm assumption regarding better material and mechanical properties of products made with LENS technology additional static, dynamic (the High-Cycle-Fatigue test and material (porosity and microstructure tests will be carried out in the near future.Practical implications: Three different designs of bone fixation nail prototype made of titanium alloy had been manufactured with conventional machining techniques where some disadvantages due to the technology had been identified. To solve those problems LENS technology had been applied. As fourth design hollow thin walled fixation bone nail prototype made of titanium alloy powder (grain size 45μm had been manufactured and tested.Originality/value: Paper presents case study where LENS technology is being

  8. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  9. Cities and Growth: Knowledge Spillovers in the Adoption of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    No, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of knowledge spillovers that affect the adoption of advanced technologies in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It examines whether plants that adopt advanced technologies are more likely to do so when there are other nearby plants that do so within a model of technology adoption.

  10. A Technology Selection Framework for Integrating Manufacturing within a Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; O' Brien, Chris

    2012-01-01

    ) approach combined with Strategic Assessment Model (SAM) to evaluate and select the technologies appropriate for providing overall competitive advantage. The framework is intended to assist industrial managers in promoting manufacturing and supply chain collaboration and coordination by including intra...

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion Development Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for...

  12. Advanced manufacturing techniques for next generation power FET technology

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, M.C.; McMonagle, J.

    2005-01-01

    The development and incorporation of an evaporated airbridge technology into an established power pHEMT device is described. Advantages of this technology over a conventional plated technology are discussed. Use of this technology has resulted in improvements to the process flow in terms of reduced complexity and cycle time. Improvements in uniformity and reduced feature size have enabled the use of an automated visual inspection capability to reliably differentiate good and bad die.

  13. The Role of HRM Policies in the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Heijltjes,Marielle

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates how HRM policies can contribute to the creation of a production environment in which the proposed benefits of the implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies can be realized. For one, data from twelve Dutch and eight British companies in the chemical and food & drink industries indicate that the use of advanced manufacturing technologies significantly alters the production environment. The strength of the impact is, however, dependent on the type(s) of automa...

  14. A technology selection framework for integrating manufacturing within a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Sami; O'Brien, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a structured analytical approach for selecting a manufacturing technology. A framework consisting of six integrated steps is proposed by considering the growing importance of supply chains in manufacturing organisations. The framework makes use of Analytical Hierarchy (AHP) approach combined with Strategic Assessment Model (SAM) to evaluate and select the technologies appropriate for providing overall competitive advantage. The framework is intended to...

  15. 5th International and 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Uday

    2015-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers of the AIMTDR 2014 conference on application of laser technology for various manufacturing processes such as cutting, forming, welding, sintering, cladding and micro-machining. State-of-the-art of these technologies in terms of numerical modeling, experimental studies and industrial case studies are presented. This book will enrich the knowledge of budding technocrats, graduate students of mechanical and manufacturing engineering, and researchers working in this area.  

  16. Unlocking the potential of process innovation : A conceptual framework for the exploitation of advanced manufacturing technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schrettle, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a holistic understanding of the determinants that influence the realization of benefits of new manufacturing technologies. Based on findings from operations management and strategic decision-making literature, we propose a framework that explicitly distinguishes between the phase of decision-making and the phase of implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies. Based on a broad literature review, contingency factors are presented and related to each phase ...

  17. Tests for manufacturing technology of disposal canisters for nuclear spent fuel; Loppusijoituskapselin valmistustekniset kokeet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, H. [VTT Energy (Finland); Salonen, T. [Outokumpu Poricopper Oy (Finland); Meuronen, I. [Suomen Teknohaus Oy (Finland); Lehto, K. [Valmet Oyj Rautpohja Foundry (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    The summary and status of the results of the manufacturing technology programmes concerning the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel conducted by Posiva Oy are given in this report. Posiva has maintained a draft plan for a disposal canister design and an assessment of potential manufacturing technologies for about ten years in Finland. Now, during the year 1999, the first full scale demonstration canister is manufactured in Finland. The technology used for manufacturing of this prototype is developed by Posiva Oy mainly in co-operation with domestic industry. The main partner in developing the manufacturing technology for the copper shell has been Outokumpu Poricopper Oy, Pori, Finland, and the main partner in developing the technology for the iron insert of the canister has been Valmet Oyj Rautpohja Foundry, Jyvaeskylae, Finland. In both areas many subcontractors have been used, predominantly domestic engineering workshops, but also some foreign subcontractors, e.g. for EB-welding, who have had large enough welding equipment. This report describes the developing programmes for canister manufacturing, evaluates the results and presents some alternative methods, and tries to evaluate the pros and contras of them. In addition, the adequacy of the achieved technological know-how is assessed in respect of the required quality of the disposal canister. The following manufacturing technologies have been the concrete topics of the development programme: Electron beam welding technology development for thick-walled copper, Casting of massive copper billets, Hot rolling of thick-walled copper plates, Hot pressing and forging in lid manufacture, Extrusion and drawing of copper tubes, Bending of copper plates by roller or press, Machining of copper, Residual stress removal by heat treatment, Non-destructive testing, Long-term strength of EB-welds, Casting and machining of the iron insert of the canister The specialists from all the main developing partner companies have

  18. ASPECTS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING – SEWING A FOOTWEAR PRODUCT FOR WOMEN, TYPE SHOE

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Secan; Florentina Harnagea

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the technological process for manufacturing a low-cut footwear product (type shoe) for women, for casual use, in an IL system.The paper begins with a general presentation of the technological process of manufacturing the product, and follows with a case study which details the characteristic operations, as well as the common ones, which take place during the process.Depending on the structure of the model and the characteristics of the raw and auxiliary materials, the tech...

  19. The Technological Investigations Of Manufacturing Of Energy Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Miklašēvičs, Ziedonis

    2015-01-01

    The methodology in Latvia forest industry provide to determine the quality of energy chips only in long- term storage places before selling. Due to the lack of hard empirical data about the quality parameters of energy chips in different phases of manufacturing process, this research paper consists of: - the identification and analyses of the factors that influenced the values of energy chips quality features such as: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, higher and lower heating value...

  20. Localization and manufacturing technology of materials for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary coolant system of PWR type reactor consists of reactor vessel, steam generator, pressurizer, primary coolant piping, and primary coolant pump. In the case of forged metal all of required materials used in above mentioned system are being produced in Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co.. Small quantities of raw materials of austenite series stainless rolling mill products, primary tubes, and heat transfer pipings of steam generators were imported and manufactured domestically. But the primary coolant pumps are directly imported. Structural materials being installed inside reactor vessel and control element drive mechanisms are being designed and manufactured by Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co. from Yonggwang 5 reactor. Indigenous production of rotor, bucket, nozzle, casing, bolt, and valve was totally accomplished. The motives of indigenous production of products were the results of continued investment on research activities and equipment and instruments. The materials used in primary coolant system were produced and manufactured only by the companies which holds a stringent quality control programs and has ASME MO Stamp. But the required quantity of materials from those companies is so small that most of them are imported. Other than that almost all of materials for nuclear power reactor are domestically produced. (Hong, J. S.)

  1. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture. PMID:26212697

  2. Effects of Job Characteristics on Performance of Advanced Manufacturing Technology:an Empirical Examination to Equipment-manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Dashuang; WANG Dongbo; SONG Jinbo

    2006-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) is pivotal for firms to gain manufacturing performance and competitive advantage. Job characteristics, as a kind of important factors affecting the implementation effects of AMT, have become the focus in the field of academy. Based on a literature review, this study refines the implementation effects of AMT into operational performance, satisfaction and competitive performance, and reclassifies the job characteristics of AMT into job autonomy, job responsibility, job complexity and job significance. With a large sample of 307 equipment-manufacturing firms selected from the 2005 China International Equipment and Manufacturing Exposition, linear structural equation analysis (LIEREL) is performed to examine the relationships between job characteristics and the implementation effects of AMT. The results show that job responsibility and job significance have positive effects on satisfaction; satisfaction is positively correlated with operational performance; operational performance positively affects competitive performance. The findings provide the guide for firms to improve satisfaction, achieve higher operational performance and further gain higher competitive by reasonable job redesign.

  3. Manufacturing facility of solar cell. Taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Takagi, Akira; Ban, Noriji; Ishihara, Mikiji.

    1990-01-09

    When a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell is manufactured by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) , dislocation of the position of its p-n junction interface from the specified position and dislocation of the distribution of impurities in the direction of depth at the p layer and the n layer occur, inhibiting the manufacture of the p-n junction. In order to eliminate the above problem and manufacture a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell with high energy conversion efficiency by the MOCVD, this invention proposes to form a n type CdTe layer as the first layer on a substrate at the first substrate temperature, form a non-dope CdTe layer as the second layer at the second substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature, form a p type CdTe layer as the third layer at the third substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature and from the thickness that the second layer does not remain as an i layer due to diffusion of the impurities from the first and third layers and yet mutual diffusion of the impurities between the first and third layers is controlled. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  5. Is There A Rural-Urban Technology Gap? Results of the ERS Rural Manufacturing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced technology use is less prevalent in rural than in urban manufacturing plants, but plants of comparable size in the same industry use about the same level of technology, regardless of urban/rural location. The rural gap comes about because the mix of rural industries is more heavily weighted with "low-technology" industries. Both rural and urban businesses rate inadequate worker skills as the most important barrier to use of new production technologies and management practices, while ...

  6. Forecasting the Costs of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems: Using Bounded Manufacturing Progress Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lipman, Timonthy E.; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The future manufacturing costs of emerging technologies are difficult to assess because of the complex dynamics of both product and process innovation, and because cost data often are proprietary and difficult to obtain. One method of forecasting potential future technology costs uses the concept of manufacturing progress functions, which are closely related to manufacturing experience curves. Manufacturing cost is related to cumulative production volume for a specific firm in an industry, us...

  7. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard to......Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass...

  8. Linking management accounting and control systems, strategy, information technology, manufacturing technology and organizational performance of the firm in contingency framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvönen, J. (Johanna)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation aims to provide an extensive picture of management accounting systems and explore the relationships between management accounting systems, strategy, information technology, manufacturing technology and organizational performance. The dissertation consists of four essays. The first essay focuses on the adoption and benefits of management accounting practices, whereas the second essay studies the relations between customer-focused strategy, performance measurement ...

  9. Manufacturing technology and some properties of HTSC-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological methods employed for the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication are reviewed. Special attention is given to the problem of obtaining the required film composition with respect to cations, to the in situ film fabrication technology and to obtaining epitaxial HTSC-films. Some technological issues of bismuth- and tallium-based superconducting films are considered. The main criteria for the substrate selection are discussed as well as some investigation techniques and properties of HTSC-films obtained by different methods. 181 refs.; 23 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Manufacture and evaluation of Li/BCX DD cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Takeuchi, E.

    1990-01-01

    This project is divided into four main tasks: cell manufacture, acceptance, and lot certification of cells, performance testing of cells, and abuse testing of cells. Lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride (Li/BCX) 149 DD cells (PN 3B2085-XA) were built according to the provisions of Electrochem Industries Quality Plan 17096. Acceptance and lot certification testing was performed according to NASA JSC Document EP5-83-025, Revision B. Acceptance testing included open circuit and load voltage check, visual examination, size and weight measurements, and high temperature exposure. Lot certification tests were performed for capacity performance and for performance under conditions of thermal and electrical abuse. These tests included 149 C exposure, capacity discharge, fuse check, high temperature exposure, high rate discharge, short circuit, vibration, and overdischarge testing. A quantity of 200 cells was delivered to Johnson Space Center for life test evaluation. A parametric evaluation of the capacity discharge of Li/BCX DD cells was performed over a variety of temperatures and discharge rates. This testing served to map the performance capability of the cell. Tests were also performed over a variety of electrical and thermal abuse conditions. Abuse tests included short circuit, charging, overdischarge, high temperature exposure, shock, and vibration.

  11. Considerations for the transition from fuel cell R ampersand D to manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a growing number of contractors within the present fuel cell community who have the potential of becoming high volume manufacturers of fuel cell power plants or components. Many are transitioning from basic research operations to manufacturing for the first time. Moving a product from the R ampersand D stage to a viable commercial product depends upon many factors. Some companies are more successful at it than others. We believe there is an underlying transition process from invention to market that is much the same for large, well established firms, as it is for start-ups. How well the process is understood and executed often determines the winners and losers in product commercialization. This paper presents a viewpoint on considerations for transitioning a new technology into commercial production and discusses some affects on organizational development

  12. Technological improvements in the equipment for manufacturing of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important improvements in this direction are: isotope separation technology of heavy water on a hot-cold stage with column of equilibration; anticorrosion protection technology against the action of hydrogen sulfide through sulphide coating of the internal surfaces of installations; chemical cleaning technology of the H2 O-H2 S isotope exchange equipment; maintenance technology with gaseous medium of nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide of the corrosion-sensitive equipment; monitoring and leak testing system of the H2 O-H2 S isotope exchange equipment. These developments were applied in the operation of GS Rm. Valcea pilot plant and transferred to ROMAG Drobeta, the Romanian heavy water production plant

  13. Renewable Energy Technology—Is It a Manufactured Technology or an Information Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok L. Shum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-technical or strategic approach to renewable energy deployment all suggests that the uptake of renewable energy technology such as solar photovoltaic is as much a social issue as a technical issue. Among social issues, one most direct and immediate component is the cost of the renewable energy technology. Because renewable electricity provides no new functionality—a clean electron does the same work as a dirty electron does—but is relatively expensive compared with fossil fuel based electricity, there is currently an under-supply of renewable electricity. Policy instruments based on economics approaches are therefore developed to encourage the production and consumption of renewable electricity, aiming to remediate the market inefficiencies that stem from the failure in internalizing the environmental or social costs of fossil fuels. In this vein, the most discussed instruments are renewable portfolio standard or quota based system and the general category of feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariff is to support output or generation of the renewable electricity by subsidizing revenues. The existing discussions have all concerned about the relative effectiveness of these two instruments in terms of cost, prices and implementation efficiency. This paper attempts a different basis of evaluation of these two instruments in terms of cost and (network externality effects. The cost effect is driven by deploying the renewable as a manufactured technology, and the network externality effect is driven by deploying the renewable as an information technology. The deployment instruments are studied in terms of how these two effects are leveraged in the deployment process. Our formulation lends itself to evolutionary policy interpretation. Future research directions associated with this new energy policy framework is then suggested.

  14. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  15. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming technology of copper strip manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Xinbing; Zhou Mo; Tian Tian; Zhao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It finished hot rolling process using the waste heat of the continuous extrusion forming. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was simulated by DEFORM-3DT software. The influence of extrusion wheel velocity and strip size on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was analyzed. The experiment was carried out according to optimized results of numerical simulation, the mic...

  16. Use of information and manufacturing technologies as turnaround strategies

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    To compete successfully in the global environment, companies have been encouraged to implement information technology as well as other technologies. The premise is that better information will result and that this will lead to improved decision making. This research examines the planning and control of operations in three organizations. Each of these organizations in the computer industry faced serious pressure to improve or else. Operating managers responded by implementing networked compute...

  17. UNRELIABLE FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELL WITH COMMON CAUSE FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYA MAHESHWARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for unreliable flexible manufacturing cell (FMC which operates under stochastic environment and produces a variety of parts by utilizing computer controlled machines, a robot and an automated pallet system. FMC is served by the pallet system which delivers blanks into the cell and moves finished parts out of the cell. The robot acts as a mediator between pallet system and the machines i.e. it takes the blanks from the pallet to load them on the machines and places manufactured parts again on the pallet after unloading them from the machines. The operation times, loading/unloading times and material handling times by the pallet are assumed to be exponentially distributed. Using birth death process, the differential difference equations governingthe Markov model have been constructed. By using Runge-Kutta method, the probabilities for different system states have been evaluated. Various performance measures viz. machine utilization, robot utilization, pallet handling system utilization, production rate, etc. are established. The model has been compared with that of earlier existing models with reliable/unreliable machines/robot; such models can be treated as special cases of our model. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to explore the effects of different parameters on the various system performance indices, which have been displayed with the help of tables and graphs.

  18. A study on the polymer catalyst manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in Pressurized Heavy Water Power Plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water demand for these plants would be 1988 Mg during the period 1992-2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchance was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. (Author)

  19. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH's concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. (ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH's Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  20. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Natalie M; Ward, Stephen J; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-10-19

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  1. Comparison of Cell formation techniques in Cellular manufacturing using three cell formation algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Giri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era of globalization and competitive market, cellular manufacturing has become a vital tool for meeting the challenges of improving productivity, which is the way to sustain growth. Getting best results of cellular manufacturing depends on the formation of the machine cells and part families. This paper examines advantages of ART method of cell formation over array based clustering algorithms, namely ROC-2 and DCA. The comparison and evaluation of the cell formation methods has been carried out in the study. The most appropriate approach is selected and used to form the cellular manufacturing system. The comparison and evaluation is done on the basis of performance measure as grouping efficiency and improvements over the existing cellular manufacturing system is presented.

  2. Microscale technologies for cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians,...

  3. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin

  4. Application Of Artificial Neural Networks In Modeling Of Manufactured Front Metallization Contact Resistance For Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musztyfaga-Staszuk M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks for prediction contact resistance of front metallization for silicon solar cells. The influence of the obtained front electrode features on electrical properties of solar cells was estimated. The front electrode of photovoltaic cells was deposited using screen printing (SP method and next to manufactured by two methods: convectional (1. co-fired in an infrared belt furnace and unconventional (2. Selective Laser Sintering. Resistance of front electrodes solar cells was investigated using Transmission Line Model (TLM. Artificial neural networks were obtained with the use of Statistica Neural Network by Statsoft. Created artificial neural networks makes possible the easy modelling of contact resistance of manufactured front metallization and allows the better selection of production parameters. The following technological recommendations for the screen printing connected with co-firing and selective laser sintering technology such as optimal paste composition, morphology of the silicon substrate, co-firing temperature and the power and scanning speed of the laser beam to manufacture the front electrode of silicon solar cells were experimentally selected in order to obtain uniformly melted structure well adhered to substrate, of a small front electrode substrate joint resistance value. The prediction possibility of contact resistance of manufactured front metallization is valuable for manufacturers and constructors. It allows preserving the customers’ quality requirements and bringing also measurable financial advantages.

  5. The Contribution of Shared Knowledge and Information Technology to Manufacturing Performance: An Evaluation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Papoutsakis, Charalampos

    2005-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis builds and tests a theoretical model that evaluates the contribution of shared knowledge and information technology to manufacturing performance. This is achieved through a sectorial research study among Manufacturing, Quality and R&D groups in the global economy era of the 21st century. Theoretically, our research stands uponthe 'knowledge-based theory of the firm'. The theory has received influences from earlier research lines. It is considered to originate from the 'epi...

  6. Business models for additive manufacturing:exploring digital technologies, consumer roles, and supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how ...

  7. Manufacturing microcomponents for optical information technology using the LIGA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans-Dieter; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Hossfeld, Jens; Paatzsch, Thomas

    1999-09-01

    Recently, splices and connectors for fibers ribbons, optical cross connects and especially planar waveguide devices have been fabricated via LIGA in combination with precision engineering techniques. LIGA combines high precision and mass production capability, necessary for products designed for applications in the telecom and datacom market. In this presentation the fabrication of three-level molding and embossing tools is presented, which have been used for the manufacturing of waveguide prestructures consisting of waveguide channels and bier-to-waveguide coupling grooves. The precision of the tools is better than 1 micrometers in all directions, which allows for simple passive pigtailing. A first product, a precision of the tool is better than 1 micrometers in all directions, which allows for simple passive pigtailing. A first product, sixfold array of 4 X 4 multimode star couplers has been realized. The molding behavior of PMMA and COC material has been tested and compared. Production and assembly was tested by fabricating a series of 300 star couplers. The average insertion los has been found better than 9dB, the uniformity better than 3dB, both measured at 830nm. THe device is designed for application in optical backplanes for high-speed computers.

  8. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  9. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  10. EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS WITH PREFERENCE FOR MANUFACTURING CELLS FORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianwei; WEI Xiaopeng; LI Rui

    2008-01-01

    Due to the combinatorial nature of cell formation problem and the characteristics of multi-objective and multi-constrain, a novel method of evolutionary algorithm with preference is proposed. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine scientifically the weights of the sub-objective functions. The satisfaction of constraints is considered as a new objective, the ratio of the population which doesn't satisfy all constraints is assigned as the weight of new objective. In addition, the self-adaptation of weights is applied in order to converge more easily towards the feasible domain. Therefore, both features multi-criteria and constrains are dealt with simultaneously. Finally, an example is selected from the literature to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in designing the manufacturing cells.

  11. A Further Discussion on Trends in the Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu-zi; WU Bo; LI Bin

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a supplement to "Trends in the Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technology" (Yang and Wu in Chin.J Mech.Eng.,39:73,2003)but delves deeper into it.It first points out the strategic status of manufacturing industry in state development.Then.a de tailed analysis is given on the features and trends in the development of advanced manufacturing technology in a total of 12 points from three aspects:"precision,""extreme," and"culture" from the aspect of the product itself;"green," "rapidness,""saving,"and"efficiency"during the manu facturing process;and"digit,""auto,""integration,""net working,"and"intelligence"in view of the manufacturing method.In addition,it emphasizes that all the above aspects should be based on two base points:"manufacture"and "machinery."Finally,it puts forth the guiding ideologies for the development of advanced manufacturing technology and the aspects China should give priority to in development,while stressing on the principles of independence,innovation and"humanorientation."

  12. The strategic value of industrial radiation manufacturing and processing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned and projected budget cuts over the next many years will reduce the number of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and the diversity and quantity of their armaments and systems. Consequently, there is a requirement for the deployment of more effective defense equipment and their more efficient operation. Concomitant with this challenge is an opportunity for innovative technologies that can, at a lower cost, produce new, stronger, more durable materials-and do so with less environmental impact. Radiation processing offers this potential for (a) creating significant cost savings and performance advantages in a broad range of defense materials; (b) destroying and detoxifying dangerous chemicals, ordnance, and rocket propellants; (c) cleaning noxious gaseous effluents; and (d) purifying contaminated water. Radiation technology has the potential to immediately affect defense materials and, in the short and long terms, US industrial international competitiveness

  13. Foreign-owned firms and technological capabilities in the Argentinean manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ionara; Marin, Anabel

    2007-01-01

    This deals with the technological development implications of the substantial and long-dated presence of foreign-owned affiliates in the Argentinean manufacturing industry. It put forward the argument that the learning process of foreign-owned firms should be central in the analysis of the technological impacts of inward FDI. In other words, FDI impacts to host economies are dependent not exclusively on the technology and knowledge that multinational corporations are willing to transfer to th...

  14. Determining Technological Innovation and Competitiveness: A Cross Organizational Analysis of the Malaysian Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Amlus Ibrahim; Ezanee Mohamed Elias; Abd.Rahim Saad; RAMAYAH, T.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the determinants of technological innovation in the Malaysian manufacturing industry. Its main purpose is to identify a set of management- related variables characterizing Malaysian innovative firms. Moreover, the study aimed to test whether the set of determinant differs for firms with different technological trajectories. A sample of 204 Malaysian firms was used for the investigation, with one respondent from each firm. The questionnaire measured the technological innova...

  15. Technology and Demand for Skilled Labor in Turkish Private Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between technology and demand for skilled labor both historically and empirically. First, it is pointed out that the Industrial Revolution substituted skilled labor with unskilled labor since it has a de-skilling characteristic. Second, the skill-bias feature of Information and Communication Technologies Revolution is suggested. Finally, the effect of technological progress on the demand for skilled labor is tested for Turkish Private Manufacturing Industr...

  16. The Technological Structure and Performance of Developing Country Manufactured Exports, 1985-98.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya

    2000-01-01

    This paper maps out the recent manufactured export patterns of developing countries, using a new and detailed classification by technological levels. It argues that export structures, being path-dependent and difficult to change, have important implications for growth and development. Low-technology products (which have the least beneficial learning and spillover effects) tend to grow the slowest, and technology-intensive products (which have the most beneficial effects) the fastest in world ...

  17. Status of Development and Manufacture of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risø/DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels; Hansen, John Bøgild; Holm-Larsen, Helge;

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory (Risø/DTU) which includes material synthesis and cost effective ceramic manufacturing methods for anode and metal supported flat planar cells in addition to multilayer assembling for compact stacks with metallic interconnects. The development is focussing on high electrochemical performance and...... in SOFC technology includes system development in collaboration with system partners and development and manufacturing of integrated stack assemblies called PowerCore. ©2009 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  18. CHOICE OF MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kupriyanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the carried out work abundant type of steel was chosen for casting production of asterisk of the excavator «Kamatsu». This type of steel is widely used as the wearproof steel working in the conditions of abrasive and shock – abrasive wear. Mathematical modeling of process of filling and hardening of casting was done and it confirmed a choice of the technology to produce casting without faulty parts.

  19. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  20. 增材制造技术在模具制造中的应用研究%Application research of additive manufacturing technology in die & mould manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪奕; 高鹏

    2015-01-01

    介绍了增材制造技术的优点,阐述了增材制造技术在模具制造中的各种制造方法及特点,叙述了利用增材制造技术实现模具复合材料和梯度功能材料的应用,指出了增材制造技术的应用前景。%The advantages, different manufacturing methods and characteristics of additive manufacturing technology in die & mould manufacturing were presented. The application of composite material and functional gradient material in die & mould was realized by using additive manufacturing technology; and the application prospect of additive manufacturing technology was pointed out.

  1. 增材制造技术在模具制造中的应用研究%Application research of additive manufacturing technology in die & mould manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪奕; 高鹏

    2015-01-01

    The advantages, different manufacturing methods and characteristics of additive manufacturing technology in die & mould manufacturing were presented. The application of composite material and functional gradient material in die & mould was realized by using additive manufacturing technology; and the application prospect of additive manufacturing technology was pointed out.%介绍了增材制造技术的优点,阐述了增材制造技术在模具制造中的各种制造方法及特点,叙述了利用增材制造技术实现模具复合材料和梯度功能材料的应用,指出了增材制造技术的应用前景。

  2. Technology and manufacturing process selection the product life cycle perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pecas, Paulo; Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    This book provides specific topics intending to contribute to an improved knowledge on Technology Evaluation and Selection in a Life Cycle Perspectives. Although each chapter will present possible approaches and solutions, there are no recipes for success. Each reader will find his/her balance in applying the different topics to his/her own specific situation. Case studies presented throughout will help in deciding what fits best to each situation, but most of all any ultimate success will come out of the interplay between the available solutions and the specific problem or opportunity the reader is faced with.

  3. Ergonomic Optimization of a Manufacturing System Work Cell in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caputo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of a methodology for studying, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in an automotive manufacturing system. The methodology is based on the use of digital human models and virtual reality techniques in order to simulate, in a virtual environment, human performances during the execution of assembly operations. The objective is to define the optimum combination of those geometry features that influence human postures during assembly operation in a work cell. In the demanding global marketplace, ensuring that human factors are comprehensively addressed is becoming an increasingly important aspect of design. Manufacturers have to design work cells that conform to all relevant Health and Safety standards. The proposed methodology can assist the designer to evaluate the performance of workers in a workplace before it has been realized. The paper presents an analysis of a case study proposed by COMAU, a global supplier of industrial automation systems for the automotive manufacturing sector and a global provider of full maintenance services. The study and all the virtual simulations have been carried out in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Competence Regional Center for the qualification of transportation systems (CRdC “Trasporti” - www.centrodicompetenzatrasporti.unina. it, which was founded by the Campania region with the aim of delivering advanced services and introducing new technologies into local companies operating in the field of transport. 

  4. Guest Editors of the Special issue on E-Manufacturing and web-based technology for intelligent manufacturing and networked enterprise interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Panetto, Hervé; Goncalves, Ricardo; Peirera, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this issue is to focus about the research and its applications on E-Manufacturing and web-based technology for intelligent manufacturing and networked enterprise interoperability dedicated on increasing the so-called intelligence into smart organizations.

  5. Development of vitrification line technology and the manufacture of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of technology and the production of equipment for the vitrification of liquid radioactive wastes. For vitrification, frit Frita F270 is used containing up to 20% titanium and featuring a corrosion effect lower by one order than that of lead glass. The liquid waste is discharged in a measuring tank where it is mixed with formic acid. It is then pumped into an evaporator. Breed vapor is carried via a condenser to a condensate tank. The evaporator concentrate is transported to a homogenizer where it is gradually mixed with Frita. The viscous mush thus produced is carried into a furnace where the remaining water is evaporated. The furnace decontamination factor is 102 to 103. At a temperature of up to 1,050 degC the frit melts and is discharged into a case. Currently, technology has been developed of mush preparation and the design has been completed of a vitrification furnace featuring remote lid opening and closing, and of equipment for processing furnace emissions. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref

  6. New technologies on eggs manufacturing; Innovazione tecnologica nell`industria di lavorazione delle uova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M.; Serse, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Marcolini, P.; Erbisti, P. [Soc. Coop. Avicola Lessinia, Pigozzo, Verona (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    Objective of this paper is innovate the industrial manufacturing process, up grading the white egg commercial value according the following points: - improve the albumen rheological properties (whippability); - concentrate the white eggs without damaging the protein functional properties; - fractionate eggs white proteins to improve the useful application range in the pharmaceutical industry. The albumen chemical-physical properties and the protein separation technologies, based mainly on membrane techniques, are discussed. This paper represents a first technical overview on eggs manufacturing, carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the Avicola Lessinia, with the objective to develop a new production process.

  7. Using of advanced manufacturing technologies in forest products industry enterprises in İnegöl

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Kadri Cemil; Külahlı, Cemil; Yıldırım, İbrahim; BALABAN, Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Enterprises maintain their lives and get into conditions of competition which depends on using level of advanced manufacturing technologies. In this study, it is aimed to determined using level of advanced manufacturing technologies of enterprises in forest products industry in the country. The study is applied to 108 firms in İnegöl County of the city of Bursa. As a result of the study, it is determined that almost 58% of the enterprises do not adequately take advantage of advanced manufactu...

  8. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Auzinger, G. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2014-11-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  9. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, M; Bartl, U; Bergauer, T; Gamerith, S; Hacker, J; König, A; Kröner, F; Kucher, E; Moser, J; Neidhart, T; Schulze, H-J; Schustereder, W; Treberspurg, W; Wübben, T

    2014-01-01

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  10. Design for manufacturability from 1D to 4D for 90-22 nm technology nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This book explains integrated circuit design for manufacturability (DfM) at the product level (packaging, applications) and applies engineering DfM principles to the latest standards of product development at 22 nm technology nodes.  It is a valuable guide for layout designers, packaging engineers and quality engineers, covering DfM development from 1D to 4D, involving IC design flow setup, best practices, links to manufacturing and product definition, for process technologies down to 22 nm node, and product families including memories, logic, system-on-chip and system-in-package.

  11. A development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hee Chun; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwy Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Kim, Ho Ki; Kim, Young Sik; Mun, Sung In; Eom, Sung Wuk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cell which was consisted of ceramics has high power density and is very simple in shape. The project named A development of SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) technology is to develop the unit cell fabrication processing and to evaluate the unit cell of solid oxide full cell. In this project, a manufacturing process of cathode by citrate method and polymeric precursor methods were established. By using tape casting method, high density thin electrolyte was manufactured and has high performance. Unit cell composed with La{sub 17}Sr{sub 13}Mn{sub 3} as cathode, 8YSZ electrolyte and 50% NiYSZ anode had a performance of O.85 W/cm{sup 2} and recorded 510 hours operation time. On the basis of these results. 100 cm{sup 2} class unit cell will be fabricated and tests in next program (author). 59 refs., 120 figs.

  12. Manufacturing technologies of sintered graded tool materials evaluated according to foresight methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dołżańska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the development efficiency of conventional technologies of powder metallurgy used for graded tool materials manufacturing. The technologies were divided into three groups according to the matrix type and the percent fraction volume of components in the powders layers.Design/methodology/approach: In the framework of foresight-materials science research a foresight matrices set was created, materials science experiments using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tester, work-stands for testing of fatigue resistance, mechanical fatigue strength, fracture toughness were conducted and technology roadmaps were prepared.Findings: Quite high potential and attractiveness of the analysed technologies against the environment, as well as good development perspectives in industry were shown.Research limitations/implications: Research concerning graded tool materials constitute a part of a larger research project aimed at identifying, researching, and characterising the priority innovative technologies in the field of materials surface engineering.Practical implications: The presented materials science results prove a manufacturing possibility of elements with ductile cores and hard coatings using conventional technologies of powder metallurgy. These technologies are recommended for practical implementation in industry, especially for cutting tools.Originality/value: The originality of this paper the value evaluation of manufacturing technologies of graded tool materials against background environment including the influence of the chemical composition and sintering conditions on the surface layers hardness.

  13. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bieback

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed.

  14. Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkundi S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shantanu Balkundi1, Ari S Nowacek1, Ram S Veerubhotla1, Han Chen2, Andrea Martinez-Skinner1, Upal Roy1, R Lee Mosley1,3, Georgette Kanmogne1, Xinming Liu1,3,4, Alexander V Kabanov3,4, Tatiana Bronich3,4, JoEllyn McMillan1, Howard E Gendelman1,31Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA; 3Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients. The chemical, biological, immune, virological, and toxicological properties of these formulations were compared using an established monocyte-derived macrophage scoring indicator system. Measurements of drug uptake, retention, release, and antiretroviral activity demonstrated differences amongst preparation methods. Interestingly, for drug cell targeting and antiretroviral responses the most significant difference among the particles was the drug itself. We posit that the choice of drug and formulation composition may ultimately affect clinical utility.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus type one, nanotoxicology, monocyte-derived macrophage, nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy, manufacturing techniques

  15. Design and manufacture of turbine runner blades using CAD/CAM technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Winkler, S.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in hydraulic and mechanical design and manufacture of hydraulic turbines have occured over the last years. The turbines have reached a high level of performance. This is especially a result of a proper design and accurate manufacture of the turbine runner due to the application of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing systems combined with new computerized analysis techniques. The various steps of the modular numerical system - hydraulic computation, interactive blade design, fluid flow analysis, stress analysis and CNC-manufacture of the model blade - are shown on the example of a runner blade for axial turbines. For optimizing the manufacturing of the prototype blade the CAD/CAM-technology is applied. The data flow from the model blade, measured on an electronic coordinate measurement machine, via the CAD/CAM-system, which represents the blade surface in a mathematical form and calculates the tool paths, to the five axis CNC-milling machine is demonstrated. Through the application of the CAD/CAM-technology to hydraulic blades the time frame for designing and manufacturing has been reduced while improving quality and accuracy of the blades.

  16. Technological innovation capability in Malaysian-owned resource-based manufacturing companies: Early findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nur Fhathyhah; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Ahmad Shahabuddin, Faridatul Azna; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Ahmad, Nor Amalina; Mustafa, Zainol

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify the determinants of technological innovation capability of Malaysian-owned companies in the resources-based manufacturing, to identify the relationship between technological innovation capability (TIC) and technological innovation performance (TIP) for the resource-based manufacturing. Furthermore, this study also aims to identify innovation capability factors that need more emphasis and improvements from the respective authority. The scope of the study covers four industries which are petrochemical industries, pharmaceutical industries, palm oil-based industries and food processing industries which are located in the state of Selangor. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and performance capability analysis were used in this study. It was found that, technological innovation capabilities (TIC) for companies in the resource-based manufacturing are moderate. Factors such as policies capability, human resources capability and facilities capability have a positive relationship with the performance of technological innovation (TIP). These findings will help the government in making decisions and better implementation of policies to strengthen the competitiveness of the company, particularly in resource-based manufacturing.

  17. Manufacturing capability as a technological development indicator in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Gallo Castro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industrial has five subsectors: medicines, cosmetics, phytotherapeutics, cleaning products and medical devices. The medicine subsector consists of organisations producing, importing and selling these products. Most studies about this industry have been guided by economic interests without assessing technological aspects of production. This article was aimed at proposing a methodology for assessing and describing the medicine sector according to its technological development by using the manufacturing capability concept. The main information was taken from the Colombian Medicaments and Food Surveillance Institute’s (Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos - INVIMA databases related to pharmaceutical plant production in Bogotá, including material transformation facilities. This study led to three characteristics being identified for defining the pharmaceutical industry’s manufacturing capability: that related to the pharmacological group to which active pharmaceutical ingredients belong, that linked to specifications regarding medicines’ sterility and that related to the technology required for manufacturing each pharmaceutical product. An analysis of these features has thus been presented and some technologies have been identified which have not been transferred or assimilated by the organisations being studied. It was found that manufacturing capability should be considered as being an indicator of the degree of technological development in these subsectors in Colombia.

  18. Developments of Additive Manufacturing Technology%增材制造技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涤尘; 田小永; 王永信; 卢秉恒

    2012-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing Technology as one of non-traditional machining technologies, which was called rapid prototyping technology, developed rapidly in the last 30 years. The advantages of this technology include the rapid and free-form fabrication of three dimensional components. It was widely used in the fields of new products development and single-piece and small - batch fabrication. The development trends and key technologies were elaborated in the present paper by introducing the equipments and applications of Additive Manufacturing Technologies. In the future, AM technology will develop in three areas which including manufacturing of consumption goods, manufacturing of function parts and integrated manufacturing of macro & micro structures.%增材制造技术是近30年快速发展的特种加工技术,其优势在于三维结构的快速和自由制造,被广泛应用于新产品开发、单件小批量制造.通过对增材制造技术设备和应用情况的介绍,阐述了我国增材制造技术的发展趋势和关键技术.未来增材制造技术将向着三个方向发展:一是日常消费品制造方向;二是功能零件制造方向;三是组织与结构一体化制造方向.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technology: The Perceived Impact on Producer’s Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani Abdullah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine which AMT has the greatest perceived impact on producer’s value and to identify which AMTs has been most successfully employed. The study population consists of senior manufacturing executives in electrical and electronic firms located in the northern region of Malaysia. The study addresses the senior manufacturing executives’ perceptions on how well specific AMTs have achieved the expectation of the firms implementing them. They are selected as respondents because of their understanding of the technology and their effects, and because as top manufacturing decision makers, their opinions are likely to shape the future technology of the organization. This study found that the type of AMT that perceived the greatest impact on producer’s value is Flexible Manufacturing System, due to its high effects on two dimensions of producer’s value: quality and cost while Just-in-Time is found to be the most successfully employed AMT among respondents. The findings of this study are significant as they contribute to the AMT literature especially in the context of Electrical and Electronic firms. Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, producer’s value

  20. Object-oriented architecture of control system for agile manufacturing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, HCW; Ning, A.; Chan, FTS; Zhang, J.

    2000-01-01

    The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, an...

  1. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  2. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  3. Current state-of-the-art manufacturing technology for He-cooled divertor finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A divertor concept for DEMO has been investigated at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) which has to withstand a heat flux of 10 MW/m2. The design utilizes small finger module composed of a small tungsten tile brazed on a thimble made from tungsten alloy. The divertor finger is cooled by helium jet impingement at 10 MPa and 600 deg. C. The subject of this paper is technological studies on machining and braze joining the divertor components. Goal of this task, which is considered an important R and D issue, is to find out appropriate manufacturing methods to ensure high functionality and high reliability of the divertor as well as to meet the economic aspect. One of the major requirements for manufacturing is micro-crack-free surface of tungsten parts, since crack propagations in tungsten were observed in the previous high-heat-flux tests at Efremov. Different manufacturing methods and the corresponding results are discussed in the following report.

  4. Recent Progress in Development and Manufacturing of SOFC at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risø DTU

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Niels; Holm-Larsen, Helge; Primdahl, Søren; Wandel, Marie; Ramousse, Severine; Hagen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    The SOFC development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC) and Risø DTU is based on a R&D consortium which includes material development and manufacturing of materials, cells and stacks with metallic interconnects focussing on high electrochemical performance, durability and robustness. A significant effort is directed towards improvement of current generations as well as development of the next generation SOFC technology. The innovative concept of the next generation, aiming at improved reliabi...

  5. The future of pharmaceutical manufacturing in the context of the scientific, social, technological and economic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven

    2016-07-30

    Healthcare provision is one of the import elements of modern societies. Life sciences and technology has made substantial progress over the past century and is continuing to evolve exponentially in many different areas. The use of genotypic and phenotypic information in drug discovery and drug therapy, the increasing wealth around the world, growing patient involvement through information and communication technology and finally innovations in pharmaceutical manufacturing technology are transforming the provision of healthcare. The adoption of this new science and technology is going to happen due to the synergistic effects and visible benefits for the society and healthcare systems. The different aspects driving advanced pharmaceutical manufacturing are reviewed to identify future research direction to assure overall acceptance and adoption into healthcare practice. PMID:26542345

  6. Technology and demand for skilled labor in Turkish private manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksoy Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between technology and demand for skilled labor both historically and empirically. First, it is pointed out that the Industrial Revolution substituted skilled labor with unskilled labor since it has a de-skilling characteristic. Second, the skill-bias feature of Information and Communication Technologies Revolution is suggested. Finally, the effect of technological progress on the demand for skilled labor is tested for Turkish Private Manufacturing Industries. According to the static panel data estimation results, there is a positive but weak relationship between technological progress and demand for skilled labor.

  7. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  8. Laser texturization in technology of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents technology of multicrystalline silicon solar cells with laser texturization step. The texturing of polycrystalline silicon surface using Nd:YAG laser makes it possible to increase absorption of the incident solar radiation. Moreover, the additional technological operation consisting in etching in 20% KOH solution at temperature of 80ºC introduced into technology of the photovoltaic cells manufactured from laser textured wafers allows for significant improvement in their electrical performance compared to cells produced from the non-textured wafers after saw damage removal.Design/methodology/approach: The topography of laser textured surfaces were investigated using DSM 940 OPTON scanning electron microscope and LSM 5 Pascal ZEISS confocal laser scanning microscope. The reflectance of produced textures was measured by Perkin-Elmer Lambda spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Electrical parameters of manufactured solar cells were characterized by measurements of I-V light characteristics under standard AM 1.5 radiation.Findings: Solar cells manufactured from laser-textured polycrystalline silicon wafers demonstrate worse electrical performance than cells manufactured from the non-textured wafers after saw damage removal as well as wafers textured by etching in alkaline solutions. Etching of textured surface in 20% KOH solution at temperature of 80ºC subsequent to laser processing shows to have a greatly increased impact on electrical performance of solar cells.Research limitations/implications: Continued etching to remove laser induced defects cause the texture to flatten out reducing it optical effectiveness.Originality/value: This paper demonstrates, that laser processing is very promising technique for texturing multicrystaline silicon independent on grains crystallographic orientation compared to conventional texturing methods in technology of solar cells.

  9. Design, manufacture and technological verification of SiC/C composite stirrer

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dolata-Grosz; W. Hufenbach; J. Śleziona; M. Gude; A. Czulak

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In article were presented assumptions and choose results of investigations connected with material selection and technology production of prototype’s ceramic stirrer with destination to work in environment of liquid metal. In the research work the result of the design, manufacture and technological verification of SiC/C composite stirrer have been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The design of the stirrer (2D and 3D models) and strength tests on the blade and fragment of the co...

  10. Development of a manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron castings from a cupola furnace

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bouska; J. Heunisch; A. Zadera; K. Nedelova; F. Kobersky

    2012-01-01

    Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for produc...

  11. Uncovering dynamics in the accumulation of technological capabilities and skills in the Mozambican manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Warren-Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the formation and accumulation of skills and technological capabilities in the Mozambican manufacturing sector. To this effect, it deploys Sanjaya Lall’s technology capabilities conceptual and methodological framework to examine these issues for the Mozambican metalworking and light chemical sectors in the context of historical dynamics taking place in Mozambique in the economic and industrial policy spheres. This analysis shows that these two industries are experiencing...

  12. Analysis of Syetem Reliability in Manufacturing Cell Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caibo; HAN Botang; SUN Changsen; XU Chunjie

    2006-01-01

    Due to lacking of test-data and field-data in reliability research during the design stage of manufacturing cell system. The degree of manufacturing cell system reliability research is increased. In order to deal with the deficient data and the uncertainty occurred from analysis and judgment, the paper discussed a method for studying reliability of manufacturing cell system through the analysis of fuzzy fault tree, which was based on triangular fuzzy number. At last, calculation case indicated that it would have great significance for ascertaining reliability index, maintenance and establishing keeping strategy towards manufacturing cell system.

  13. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  14. Manufacturing Sector in Black Counties Weakens in Era of New Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Predominantly black rural counties, located in the South, are among the poorest in the nation. Manufacturing has long been an important source of job growth in these counties, but the skill demands of new technology put these populations at a disadvantage. The poor quality of local schools and high dropout rates are major problems in predominantly…

  15. An Analysis of Manufacturing Engineering Technology Programs throughout Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John T.

    A study examined the extent to which postsecondary institutions in Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were addressing the needs of industry for those individuals desiring to enter the field of manufacturing engineering technology. The population for the study included all those schools in the three target states that were identified by a directory…

  16. Preparation of technology and manufacture of modular steam generators at SES Tlmace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SES Tlmace are currently preparing the manufacture of modular steam generators with sodium coolant and sodium-sodium heat exchangers for fast reactors. Seven requirements for quality production are discussed, viz., correct technical documentation; corresponding production areas; equipment and instrumentation; personnel availability; equipment of test units with suitable instruments; proven production technology; psychological training of personnel. (Kr)

  17. Integrated Computer Aided Planning and Manufacture of Advanced Technology Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Subhas

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights an attempt at evolving a computer aided manufacturing system on a personal computer. A case study of an advanced technology jet engine component is included to illustrate various outputs from the system. The proposed system could be an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive CAD/CAM workstations.

  18. EFG Technology and Diagnostic R&D for Large-Scale PV Manufacturing; Final Subcontract Report, 1 March 2002 - 31 March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalejs, J.; Aurora, P.; Bathey, B.; Cao, J.; Doedderlein, J.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kubasti, J.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, S.; Xavier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this subcontract was to carry out R&D to advance the technology, processes, and performance of RWE Schott-Solar's wafer, cell, and module manufacturing lines, and help configure these lines for scaling up of edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) ribbon technology to the 50-100 MW PV factory level. EFG ribbon manufacturing continued to expand during this subcontract period and now has reached a capacity of 40 MW. EFG wafer products were diversified over this time period. In addition to 10 cm x 10 cm and 10 cm x 15 cm wafer areas, which were the standard products at the beginning of this program, R&D has focused on new EFG technology to extend production to 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm EFG wafers. Cell and module production also has continued to expand in Billerica. A new 12-MW cell line was installed and brought on line in 2003. R&D on this subcontract improved cell yield and throughput, and optimized the cell performance, with special emphasis on work to speed up wafer transfer, hence enhancing throughput. Improvements of wafer transfer processes during this program have raised cell line capacity from 12 MW to over 18 MW. Optimization of module manufacturing processes was carried out on new equipment installed during a manufacturing upgrade in Billerica to a 12-MW capacity to improve yield and reliability of products.

  19. The ``Micromorph'' cell: a new way to high-efficiency-low-temperature crystalline silicon thin-film cell manufacturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppner, H.; Kroll, U.; Torres, P.; Meier, J.; Platz, R.; Fischer, D.; Beck, N.; Dubail, S.; Anna Selvan, J. A.; Pellaton Vaucher, N.; Goerlitzer, M.; Ziegler, Y.; Tscharner, R.; Hof, Ch.; Goetz, M.; Pernet, P.; Wyrsch, N.; Vuille, J.; Cuperus, J.; Shah, A.; Pohl, J.

    1997-02-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline Silicon (μc-Si:H) produced by the VHF-GD (Very High Frequency Glow Discharge) process can be considered to be a new base material for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells. The most striking feature of such cells, in contrast to conventional amorphous silicon technology, is their stability under light-soaking. With respect to crystalline silicon technology, their most striking advantage is their low process temperature (220 °C). The so called "micromorph" cell contains such a μc-Si:H based cell as bottom cell, whereas the top-cell consists of amorphous silicon. A stable efficiency of 10.7% (confirmed by ISE Freiburg) is reported in this paper. At present, all solar cell concepts based on thin-film crystalline silicon have a common problem to overcome: namely, too long manufacturing times. In order to help in solving this problem for the particular case of plasma-deposited μc-Si:H, results on combined argon/hydrogen dilution of the feedgas (silane) are presented. It is shown that rates as high as 9.4 Å/s can be obtained: furthermore, a first solar cell deposited with 8.7 Å/s resulted in an efficiency of 3.1%.

  20. Understanding technological progress and input price as drivers of energy demand in manufacturing industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of energy demand behaviour of seven energy intensive manufacturing industries and the aggregate manufacturing sector in India during 1973–74 to 2011–12. The policy Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) has mandated energy efficiency targets for these manufacturing industries in India. We focus on two major drivers of energy demand: technological progress and energy price. Productivity growth accounting and estimation of parametric cost function using Annual Survey of Industry data bring out important implications regarding the role of these two drivers. Results suggest that these industries experienced technological progress over the study period (1973–74 to 2011–12) with significant energy-saving bias during 1998–99 to 2011–12. Increase in energy price has led to reduction in energy demand and augmented technological progress in most of the industries. Energy and material inputs are mostly substitutes. During 1998–99 to 2011–12, productivity growth of energy input was induced by both technological progress and increase in energy price. Estimates of inter-factor substitution suggest that price induced reduction in energy demand can be a capital-intensive process in case of some industries. Rebound effect has never taken back full gains of energy efficiency policies in the context of these industries. -- Highlights: •Energy use behaviour of manufacturing industries in India during 1973/74 to 2011/12. •Technological progress induced output growth and gain in energy productivity. •Energy saving bias of technological progress is prevalent in recent years. •Own price elasticity of energy demand is negative. •Increase in energy price has induced technological progress

  1. Assimilation Patterns in the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in SMEs: Exploring their Effects on Product Innovation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu; Placide Poba-Nzaou; Josée St-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are more and more adopting advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT) aimed at fostering product innovation process, improving product quality, streamlining the production process, and gaining productivity. In this study, we analyze the relationship between AMT proficiency levels in manufacturing SMEs and product innovation performance. Using data from 616 manufacturing SMEs, and considering a wide range of various AMT (20 different types...

  2. The Spillover Effect of Technological Progress Based on Two Sector Model: An Empirical Study of Chinese Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-hua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the technology has the nature of public good, industrial technology innovation activities have positive externalities on related sectors. Two-sector model is built to identify and calculate the spillover effects of technological progress. Specifically, the industry is divided into two sectors, and technological progress in one sector is added to the production function of the other to research the relationship between technological progress in one sector and output growth of the other. Panel data constituted by time-series from 2000 to 2007 and cross-section data of 31 provinces in Chinese manufacturing sectors is used for empirical testing. The conclusion is drawn that there are very significant spillover effects from the technological progress in equipment manufacturing sector on non-equipment manufacturing sector. The estimated results of different divisions prove that the production efficiency of equipment manufacturing sector and equipment updating speed of non-equipment manufacturing sector influence the spillover effects.

  3. Use of PolyJet technology in manufacture of new product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vaupotič

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents an approach to rapid manufacture of new product by PolyJet technology.Design/methodology/approach: Resolution, accuracy, speed and materials are basic factors of rapidprototyping, which mutually exclude themselves on most devices. PolyJet procedure is a technology, whichsuccessfully simultaneously solves some of these problems.Findings: The manufacture of product by PolyJet technology has proved to be a good approach. All advantagesoffered by that technology have been applied and all requirements of the new product have been satisfied. Bytesting on the first prototype the adequacy of the product shape has been established and the prototype has beensuitably adapted. As the data on the product shape are in the computerized form, the changes on the productare made simply.Research limitations/implications: Regrettably, the models from rapid prototyping do not allow majorloadings and exposure to exacting conditions, since the materials used are in the development stage and aregradually gaining strength and toughness. Our product is not exposed to major mechanical loadings; thereforethe process as such is adequate.Practical implications: By this technology very sophisticated and complicated products can be made. It assuresthe manufacture of nested structures and mechanisms already assembled. The price is influenced only by theproduct size. The shape complexity is not important at all.Originality/value: : In case of a small quantity of products, not exposed to major mechanical loadings, themodels made by PolyJet process are usable also as final products.

  4. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  5. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  6. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  7. Proceedings of the 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-05

    The 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It was held August 3 to 5 in Chicago, Illinois. The goal of this conference was to provide a forum for reviewing fuel cell research and development (R&D) programs, assist in strategic R&D planning, promote awareness of sponsor activities, and enhance interactions between manufacturers, researchers, and stakeholders. This conference was attended by over 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, gas and electric utilities, DOE, and other Government agencies. The conference agenda included a keynote session, five presentation sessions, a poster presentation reception, and three breakout sessions. The presentation session topics were DOD Fuel Cell Applications, Low-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, Low-Temperature Component Research, High-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, and High-Temperature Component Research; the breakout session topics were Future R&D Directions for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells, Future R&D Directions for High-Temperature Fuel Cells, and a plenary summary session. All sessions were well attended.

  8. Analysis of Impact of 3D Printing Technology on Traditional Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Niyan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Linzhi; Wang, Xin

    With quiet rise of 3D printing technology in automobile, aerospace, industry, medical treatment and other fields, many insiders hold different opinions on its development. This paper objectively analyzes impact of 3D printing technology on mold making technology and puts forward the idea of fusion and complementation of 3D printing technology and mold making technology through comparing advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing mold and traditional mold making technology.

  9. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  10. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  11. Factors that Influence the Dissemination of Knowledge in Technology Transfer among Malaysian Manufacturing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-re- lated exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another per- son in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular prod- uct or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most signifi- cant to influence technology transfer performance.

  12. Does external technology acquisition determine export performance? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Cao, Wei; Zhou, Zhao; Ning, Lutao

    2013-01-01

    Although technology profile has been one of the key determinants of firms’ export performance in the international business literature, most research has focused on only the role of internal technology efforts rather than the role of external technology. This study thus aims to extend our...... understanding of the determinants of export performance by examining the impact of the inter-organizational dimension of innovation strategy to export performance, which has been ignored in the prevailing “strategy tripod” perspective of exporting research. This study is based on a sample of 141 Chinese...... indigenous manufacturing firms that engaged in inward technology licensing between 2000 and 2003. The empirical results indicate that external technology acquisitions positively influence Chinese firms’ export performance. Moreover the exporting performance of using external technology varies depending on...

  13. A new method for decreasing cell-load variation in dynamic cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aidin Delgoshaei; Mohd Khairol Mohd Ariffin,; Btht Hang Tuah Bin Baharudin; Zulkiflle Leman

    2016-01-01

    Cell load variation is considered a significant shortcoming in scheduling of cellular manufacturing systems. In this article, a new method is proposed for scheduling dynamic cellular manufacturing systems in the presence of bottleneck and parallel machines. The aim of this method is to control cell load variation during the process of determining the best trading off values between in-house manufacturing and outsourcing. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed because of the high potential of t...

  14. Development of manufacturing technology and fabrication of prototype for main coolant pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Koon Seok; Han, C.K.; Chei, J.M.; Chung, K.S.; Youn, M.H.; Shin, S.A.; Choi, D.J.; Kim, H.C. [HALLA Industrial Co., Ltd., Pusan (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    This study presents the development of the manufacturing technology for the Main Coolant Pump of the SMART. This report contains the followings; (1) Select axial type pump for the MCP (2) MCP is drived by squirrel-cage induction motor that consisted canned motor type. (3) MCP shaft has three horizontal and one vertical support bearings. (4) Design of several part of the MCP (5) Manufacturing of the performance test motor (6) Design and manufacturing of the speed sensor (7) Procedures for three-axial and five-axial M.C.T., Tig welding and Electron Beam Welding were developed. (8) Conceptional design of the MCP test facility for the performance test under operating conditions. (9) Results of standard weld test specimens according to the ASME section IX. (author). 21 refs., 35 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  16. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  17. Biological and intelligent manufacturing: human life-skills applied to technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nelcy Jiménez Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly competitive settings, characterised by development being promoting by the predominance of knowledge, means that mul- tidisciplinary approaches must be adopted for dealing with specific problems. Indeed, techniques and tools have been created by imitating human beings’ behaviour and applying them to productive and technological contexts to increase efficiency and enable a quick response. This paper deals with this topic and presents the results of scientometric- and technological surveillance-based research for revealing life sciences’ impact on technological development and its management. It was found that such impact has been mainly reflected in producing concepts and applications for topics such as intelligent manufacturing, biological manu- facturing systems and holonic and bionic manufacturing, thereby providing manufacturing and information management with hu- man attributes such as adaptation, self-learning, flexibility and the ability to evolve. It may thus be concluded that technological factor management has been strengthened, based on fields such as biology, thereby leading to direct outcomes regarding pro- duction.

  18. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  19. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  20. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  1. Advances in polymer concrete technology for cell house components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell house environment is very challenging with regard to protection of the concrete structure and components against the corrosive effects of acid. Coating technology using Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Polyurethane Polymers is available, to provide the necessary chemical and heat resistance. However, producing suitable POLYMER CONCRETE technology for pre-cast components, especially tanks and cells requires not only the correct POLYMER selection, but also significant know-how in mineral aggregate technology to achieve the desired performance properties. Furthermore, the POLYMER CONCRETE technology must enable the pre-caster to manufacture the components in a simple one-step procedure. This paper outlines the important aspects in formulating POLYMER CONCRETE, the performance properties that can be achieved and the practical issues relating to the cost effective pre-casting of tanks and cells in particular. (author)

  2. The implementation of tissue banking experiences for setting up a cGMP cell manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Larijani, Bagher; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Aghayan, Hamid Reza

    2012-12-01

    Cell manufacturing for clinical applications is a unique form of biologics manufacturing that relies on maintenance of stringent work practices designed to ensure product consistency and prevent contamination by microorganisms or by another patient's cells. More extensive, prolonged laboratory processes involve greater risk of complications and possibly adverse events for the recipient, and so the need for control is correspondingly greater. To minimize the associate risks of cell manufacturing adhering to international quality standards is critical. Current good tissue practice (cGTP) and current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) are examples of general standards that draw a baseline for cell manufacturing facilities. In recent years, stem cell researches have found great public interest in Iran and different cell therapy projects have been started in country. In this review we described the role of our tissue banking experiences in establishing a new cGMP cell manufacturing facility. The authors concluded that, tissue banks and tissue banking experts can broaden their roles from preparing tissue grafts to manufacturing cell and tissue engineered products for translational researches and phase I clinical trials. Also they can collaborate with cell processing laboratories to develop SOPs, implement quality management system, and design cGMP facilities. PMID:21870140

  3. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  4. Development of manufacturing technology for vessels with bottom by centrifugal casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities are scheduled to be abolished in the near future, meaning that large amounts of radioactive scrap metal will be produced in this field. To deal with this problem, new technologies must be developed, because of the radioactivity. In past studies, we investigated the distribution of radionuclides in melting and solidification, and also the manufacturing technology for concrete bar. We also conducted basic experiments and developed a numerical analysis program. In this paper, we reported on the tests of studies on real size waste vessels with bottom manufactured by centrifugal casting which proved that the centrifugal casting method was one of the most promising processes for recycling the radioactive waste. Moreover, we could prove that the minimum thickness of vessel wall was controlled by solidification time, superheat temperature and coating thickness, and that the critical flow solidus rate was about 0.4 irrespective of materials. (author)

  5. Utilization of UV Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce the Manufacturing Cost of LIB Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second. This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital (a factor of 10 to 20) and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. The accumulated advantages of higher speed, lower capital and operating costs, reduced footprint, lack of VOC recovery, and reduced energy cost is a reduction of 90% in the manufacturing cost of cathodes. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.S., and a broad technology export market is also envisioned.

  6. RoBlock: a prototype autonomous manufacturing cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekdal, Lars K.; Balslev, Ivar; Eriksen, Rene D.; Jensen, Soren P.; Jorgensen, Bo N.; Kirstein, Brian; Kristensen, Bent B.; Olsen, Martin M.; Perram, John W.; Petersen, Henrik G.; Petersen, Morten L.; Ruhoff, Peter T.; Skjolstrup, Carl E.; Sorensen, Anders S.; Wagenaar, Jeroen M.

    2000-10-01

    RoBlock is the first phase of an internally financed project at the Institute aimed at building a system in which two industrial robots suspended from a gantry, as shown below, cooperate to perform a task specified by an external user, in this case, assembling an unstructured collection of colored wooden blocks into a specified 3D pattern. The blocks are identified and localized using computer vision and grasped with a suction cup mechanism. Future phases of the project will involve other processes such as grasping and lifting, as well as other types of robot such as autonomous vehicles or variable geometry trusses. Innovative features of the control software system include: The use of an advanced trajectory planning system which ensures collision avoidance based on a generalization of the method of artificial potential fields, the use of a generic model-based controller which learns the values of parameters, including static and kinetic friction, of a detailed mechanical model of itself by comparing actual with planned movements, the use of fast, flexible, and robust pattern recognition and 3D-interpretation strategies, integration of trajectory planning and control with the sensor systems in a distributed Java application running on a network of PC's attached to the individual physical components. In designing this first stage, the aim was to build in the minimum complexity necessary to make the system non-trivially autonomous and to minimize the technological risks. The aims of this project, which is planned to be operational during 2000, are as follows: To provide a platform for carrying out experimental research in multi-agent systems and autonomous manufacturing systems, to test the interdisciplinary cooperation architecture of the Maersk Institute, in which researchers in the fields of applied mathematics (modeling the physical world), software engineering (modeling the system) and sensor/actuator technology (relating the virtual and real worlds) could

  7. Development of Optimum Manufacturing Technologies of Radial Plates for the ITER Toroidal Field Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stainless steel structure called a radial plate is used in the toroidal field (TF) coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in order to support large electromagnetic force generated in the conductors. It is a 13.7 m x 8.7 m D-shaped plate having 11 grooves on each side in which conductors are wound. Although severe dimensional accuracy, for example flatness within 2 mm, and tight schedule that all radial plates for 9 TF coils (63 plates) have to be manufactured in about 4 years are required in manufacture of the radial plates, there are no industries in the world who have manufactured a large complicated structure like the radial plate with high accuracy. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been studying rational manufacturing method and developing the optimum manufacturing technologies of the radial plates in order to satisfy the above requirements in collaboration with the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). Several trial manufactures of radial plates have been performed to clarify the following key points: · Effect of nitrogen content in material on machinability · Effect of cutting direction of a piece on deformation caused by machining · Effect of machining shape (curve or straight) on machining condition · Effect of laser welding technique on penetration and welding deformation Three different 316LN materials having nitrogen content of 0.12 %, 0.17%, and 0.20% were used to investigate nitrogen content effect on machinability. Machinability of lower nitrogen content material was slightly better than that of higher nitrogen content material. Three sectoral pieces were cut by plasma cutting technique from a hot rolled plate without any difficulties and one of them was machined to a curved segment of the radial plate having the same size as actual one. However, unacceptable large deformation over 5 mm flatness was found during machining which would be caused by curved shape of grooves and/or cutting direction

  8. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  9. Delivering manufacturing technology and workshop appreciation to engineering undergraduates using the flipped classroom approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromihales, Mike; Holmes, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of manufacturing technology and practical workshop-based work, on undergraduate engineering courses that engage the learners, is challenging. The paper presents an experimental method of workshop delivery using the flipped learning approach, a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Video lectures are viewed by students prior to class. In-class time can be devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions as in this case. Learners w...

  10. Manufacturing the electric vehicle: a window of technological opportunity for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    C O Quandt

    1995-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has mandated that by 1998 2% of new vehicles sold in California must be zero emission, effectively, electric vehicles. This requirement is largely responsible for the electric vehicle development programs run by almost every global automobile manufacturer that does business in the United States. At present, no single electric vehicle technology, from battery type, to propulsion system, to vehicle design, represents a standard for a protoelectric vehicle indu...

  11. Organization of Students’ Self-Study in Studying the Subject “Manufacturing Technology of Drugs”

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovska, M.; Barna, O.; Bondarchuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Modern society development requires that specialists must quickly adapt to new working conditions, act creatively and independently. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to reveal the importance and forms of students’ self-study, its assessment peculiarity in concern with the subject “Manufacturing technology of drugs” (MTD). The article presents the components and features of students’ self-study at the pharmaceutical department under credit-modular system of education on the example of MTD...

  12. Fabrication of HA/PLLA Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Using Additive Manufacturing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the experimental work was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing HA/PLLA parts by selective laser sintering. The results were successful in proving that feasibility. In fact, the main results of the trials performed, have shown that: It is possible to produce bioceramic parts (HA based) by means of AMT - Additive Manufacturing Technologies, namely the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process, using a biocompatible/biodegradable polymer as binder; For that purpose it is ne...

  13. Applications of the Rapid Prototyping Technology to Manufacture the Pelton Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Rapid Prototyping technology using Objet Desktop 3D Printer to manufacture two Pelton runners that are destined for experimental measurements on a Pelton microturbine. The runners are different by bucket’s number and the bucket’s geometry of the second runner is similar with those of the first runner, but scaled in all directions with the bucket’s numbers ratio.

  14. Evaluation of the impact energy of the samples produced by the additive manufacturing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Dobránsky, J.; M. Kočiško; Baron, P.; Simkulet, V.; L. Běhálek; E. Vojnová; Ľ. Nováková Marcinčinová

    2016-01-01

    The article covered the evaluation of the impact energy, notch toughness and morphology of the fracture surfaces of the specimens manufactured by the Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technology. Specimens without heat treatment with no notch were not broken through in course of testing, therefore there was no fracture surface present. The heat treatment resulted in the increase in hardness values. The values of impact energy after the heat treatment was approximately 60 % lower. Ductile intergran...

  15. Development of Probiotic Cheese Manufactured from Goat Milk: Response Surface Analysis via Technological Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F.Xavier

    1998-01-01

    Production of caprine milk has been rising steadily, partially because of its good nutritional value; the possibility of improving nutritional benefits by adding probiotic species such as Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus was assessed. The manufacturing process of a traditional semi-hard goat cheese was technologically modified to optimize the process. The amount of starter inoculum, the concentration of salt, the addition of a protein hydrolysate, and the ripening time wer...

  16. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  17. Technologies for value creation an exploration of remote diagnostics systems in the manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Katrin; Westergren, Ulrika H.; Holmström, Jonny

    2008-01-01

    With firms increasingly relying on ubiquitous computing to implement major business initiatives, it is becoming ever more necessary to understand the technological aspects of business developments. This paper analyzes the use of remote diagnostics systems in the manufacturing industry and discusses the opportunities and challenges for the early adopters. It pays specific attention to the impact on business aspects such as the value creation process consisting of relationships, roles, and arch...

  18. Managing Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes - Implementing Energy Performance in Production Information Technology Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bunse, Katharina; Vodicka, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    International audience Climate change and unsecured energy supply are topics that become increasingly important in today's society. Although renewable energy technologies may be a long-term solution, more efficient energy use potentially makes a high and economic contribution to the given challenges in the short term. New CO2 regulations, rising energy prices and environmentally aware customers make energy efficient manufacturing a priority topic on the agenda of industrial companies. This...

  19. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  20. Roll-to-roll manufacturing of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells with in situ cell performance diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the price target necessary for widespread use of solar cell products, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed and commercialized a continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing technology for the production of a-Si alloy solar cells. Since the early 1980s, we have advanced this technology from a small-scale pilot machine to a large-scale production machine. In 2002, ECD commissioned a 30 MW per year machine for United Solar Systems Corp. in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The RF PECVD a-Si alloy solar cell processor, designed and built by ECD, deposits triple-junction solar cell materials consisting of nine layers of a-Si alloys in a continuous roll-to-roll operation simultaneously on six coils of 130 μm thick, 0.36 m wide, 2.6 km long stainless-steel substrate at 1 cm/s. In order to minimize production losses due to undetected deviations of production conditions and carry on a continuous program of device optimization, we have developed and are incorporating in situ cell performance diagnostic systems. (author)

  1. A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Wei, X

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

  2. Manufacturing of superconducting cable for the LHC-Key technology and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, T; Nagasu, Y; Takagi, A; Wada, K; Shimizu, H; Kimura, A; Meguro, S

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting cable for the LHC main dipole magnet is in progress at The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (here after referred to as "FEC"). Fabrication technology of Rutherford type cable for accelerator magnets has made a remarkable advance through development of the LHC Cable2 Key technology includes many different things such as multi-filament billet design, assembly, control of copper to superconductor ratio, optimization of thermo-mechanical heat treatment, drawing process, Sn-Ag coating and cabling. The well- balanced Cable2 with high quality was developed, and all of the electrical and mechanical performances met the specification requirements. (7 refs).

  3. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  4. Development of a manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron castings from a cupola furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.

  5. Equipment characterization to mitigate risks during transfers of cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieblist, Christian; Jenzsch, Marco; Pohlscheidt, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies by mammalian cell culture in bioreactors up to 25,000 L is state of the art technology in the biotech industry. During the lifecycle of a product, several scale up activities and technology transfers are typically executed to enable the supply chain strategy of a global pharmaceutical company. Given the sensitivity of mammalian cells to physicochemical culture conditions, process and equipment knowledge are critical to avoid impacts on timelines, product quantity and quality. Especially, the fluid dynamics of large scale bioreactors versus small scale models need to be described, and similarity demonstrated, in light of the Quality by Design approach promoted by the FDA. This approach comprises an associated design space which is established during process characterization and validation in bench scale bioreactors. Therefore the establishment of predictive models and simulation tools for major operating conditions of stirred vessels (mixing, mass transfer, and shear force.), based on fundamental engineering principles, have experienced a renaissance in the recent years. This work illustrates the systematic characterization of a large variety of bioreactor designs deployed in a global manufacturing network ranging from small bench scale equipment to large scale production equipment (25,000 L). Several traditional methods to determine power input, mixing, mass transfer and shear force have been used to create a data base and identify differences for various impeller types and configurations in operating ranges typically applied in cell culture processes at manufacturing scale. In addition, extrapolation of different empirical models, e.g. Cooke et al. (Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2nd international conference of bioreactor fluid dynamics, Cranfield, UK, 1988), have been assessed for their validity in these operational ranges. Results for selected designs are shown and serve as examples of structured

  6. Determining Technological Innovation and Competitiveness: A Cross Organizational Analysis of the Malaysian Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlus Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the determinants of technological innovation in the Malaysian manufacturing industry. Its main purpose is to identify a set of management- related variables characterizing Malaysian innovative firms. Moreover, the study aimed to test whether the set of determinant differs for firms with different technological trajectories. A sample of 204 Malaysian firms was used for the investigation, with one respondent from each firm. The questionnaire measured the technological innovation, as well as 5 main potential determinants of innovation adopted from literature. Statistical analysis used, including bivariate correlation and multivariate regression, in identifying association between the technological innovation and the determining variables. The results of the analysis lead the researcher to the model of 5 important determining factors of technological innovation. The important factors were intensity of R&D, trvhnoogical trajectories,intensity of marketing, engineers, scientist and managers with experience locally and technical competency of personnel,. The analysis of technological trajectories confirmed the hypotheses that set of important determinants of innovation as well as the extent of technological innovation differs for firms in different innovation processes.Keywords: Technologies trajectories, technological innovation, intensity of R&D.

  7. Recent Advancements and Techniques in Manufacture of Solar Cells: Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Naga Venkata Sai Ganesh,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The major problem faced by the society is power crisis. All the non-renewable resources like fossil fuelsnecessary for producing power are being used excessively, which might result a day in future where, the world might godark due to lack of power producing resources. Usage of renewable resources like solar energy can be a solution to thisproblem. Solar cells invented to overcome this problem show rigidity in their structure which is a drawback. Inorganicsolar cells are rigid and can be mounted only on rooftops. Hence only upper surface of buildings are utilized. In this paperwe bring out a new era or solar cells- organic solar cells, which are flexible. These organic solar cells offer the bestsolution for the above problem for a tradeoff of efficiency. This paper briefs the manufacturing technique of solar cellsfrom plastic i.e. ,organic polymers, their architecture, the working process of solar energy production from the organicsolar cells with their ease of usage

  8. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION: A CASE STUDY OF INDONESIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ellitan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the role of technology management as a factor of success in technological innovation has been a subject of significant interest among practitioners and academicians. Despite the plethora of attention given to the numerous issues of management of new technology adoption and implementation, many organizations still fail to manage their technology efficiently, effectively, and strategically. This paper is based on a field investigation via face to face interviews with top management in East Java involving medium and large manufacturing companies from the tobacco, plastic, pulp, furniture, textile, cable and plywood sectors. This research seeks to investigate the extent of technology adoption and its management in medium and large Indonesian manufacturing companies. Further, this study investigates the technology benefits perceived by respondents. The study found that: (1 Indonesian manufacturing companies still lack a strategic perspective when adopting technologies and they are more concerned with short-term issues; (2 they face problems related to people, organizational issues, limited budgets and lack of government support; (3 these problems limit the choice of technologies and together with the national economic situation, reinforces the short-term mindset of top management. In addition, the investigation of critical success factors and inhibitors of technology adoption is necessary for identification of a proper vision and strategic viewpoint of managing new technology. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sampai sekarang, peranan manajemen teknologi sebagai factor keberhasilan dalam inovasi teknologi menjadi topik yang menarik perhatian para praktisis maupun akademisi. Walaupun masalah-masalah manajemen teknologi dan implementasinya telah banyak diperhatikan, masih ada banyak perusahaan yang belum mampu mengatur teknologi secara efisien, secara efektif atau dengan strategi yang tepat. Makalah ini dibuat berdasarkan survei lapangan yang

  10. A new technology for manufacturing scheduling derived from space system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, R. S.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1993-02-01

    A new technology for producing finite capacity schedules has been developed in response to complex requirements for operating space systems such as the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and the Deep Space Network for telecommunications. This technology has proven its effectiveness in manufacturing environments where popular scheduling techniques associated with Materials Resources Planning (MRPII) and with factory simulation are not adequate for shop-floor work planning and control. The technology has three components. The first is a set of data structures that accommodate an extremely general description of a factory's resources, its manufacturing activities, and the constraints imposed by the environment. The second component is a language and set of software utilities that enable a rapid synthesis of functional capabilities. The third component is an algorithmic architecture called the Five Ruleset Model which accommodates the unique needs of each factory. Using the new technology, systems can model activities that generate, consume, and/or obligate resources. This allows work-in-process (WIP) to be generated and used; it permits constraints to be imposed or intermediate as well as finished goods inventories. It is also possible to match as closely as possible both the current factory state and future conditions such as promise dates. Schedule revisions can be accommodated without impacting the entire production schedule. Applications have been successful in both discrete and process manufacturing environments. The availability of a high-quality finite capacity production planning capability enhances the data management capabilities of MRP II systems. These schedules can be integrated with shop-floor data collection systems and accounting systems. Using the new technology, semi-custom systems can be developed at costs that are comparable to products that do not have equivalent functional capabilities and/or extensibility.

  11. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology at FuelCell Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' FuelCell Energy, Inc. (Danbury, CT) is a world leader in the development and manufacture of high temperature carbonate fuel cells for clean electric power generation and currently offers power plant products ranging in size from 250 kilowatts to multi-megawatts. With its recent acquisition of Global Thermoelectric, Inc. (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) it is also a leading developer of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. The goal of SOFC development is to commercialize low-cost SOFCs for commercial and light industrial applications ranging in product size from 3 to 10 kilowatts for applications up to 100 kilowatts. When successfully commercialized, these products will be complementary to FuelCell Energy's larger scale product line. The commercialization of SOFC technology requires the development of enabling cell and stack technology combined with an engineering focus on system efficiency and cost reduction. This paper highlights the current status of FuelCell Energy's SOFC technology, including: Review of the integrated single co-fire cell manufacturing process. The performance of production cells made using this process. Long-term testing exceeding 20,000 h. Stack developments that have enabled a significant improvement in life and performance. Development of natural gas fuel cell prototype systems. (author)

  12. The Technological Bias in the Establishment of a Technological Regime: the adoption and enforcement of early information processing technologies in US manufacturing, 1870-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstaller, A.; Hoelzl, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study on the adoption of early information technologies, such as typewriters, calculators or Hollerith machines in US manufacturing in the period between 1870 and 1930, which was by all means a true systemic innovation. Our empirical work is guided by a theoretical framework in which the theory of induced innovation is interpreted along "classical" lines in which an explicit link to the concept of technological regimes is established. We show how the presence...

  13. The effect of chromium coating in RP technology for airfoil manufacturing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Daneshmand; C Aghanajafi; A Ahmadi Nadooshan

    2010-10-01

    Most wind tunnel models are fabricated of all metal components using computerized numerical control (CNC) milling machines. Fabrication of metal wind tunnel models is very expensive and time consuming. The models can require months to manufacture and are often made by small high technology companies that specialize in wind tunnel model manufacture. Using rapid prototype manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This study was done by fused deposition modelling and their ability to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel model configuration constructed using FDM and FDM with chromium coating for subsonic wind tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid prototyping model constructed of FDM technologies using polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Results from this study show relatively good agreement among the three models and rapid prototyping method with chromium coating does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics which produced satisfactory results.

  14. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  15. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  16. Mobile Technology Applications for Manufacturing, Reduction of Muda (Waste) and the Effect on Manufacturing Economy and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Angela M Huenerfauth

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices in the manufacturing setting offer mobility and information whenever and wherever it is needed; these advantages allow for a more efficient workflow and allow the user to make more informed decisions. Due to these advantages, companies are reducing muda (waste) by using mobile devices (implementing Lean Manufacturing) and therefore saving money. Some of the mobile applications discussed in this paper are the following: Augmented Reality for assembly training, pruefcubing, rem...

  17. On-line Measurements and Control of Viable Cell Density in Cell Culture Manufacturing Processes using Radio-frequency Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvell, John P; Dowd, Jason E

    2006-03-01

    In this work, radio-frequency (RF) impedance is reviewed as a method for monitoring and controlling cell culture manufacturing processes. It is clear from the many publications cited that RF Impedance is regarded as an accurate and reliable method for measuring the live cell bio-volume both on-line and off-line and the technology is also sutable for animal cells in suspension, attached to micro-carriers or immobilized in fixed beds. In cGMP production, RF Impedance is being used in three main areas. Firstly, it is being used as a control instrument for maintaining consistent perfusion culture allowing the bioreactor to operate under optimum conditions for maximum production of recombinant proteins. In the second application it has not replaced traditional off-line live cell counting techniques but it is being used as an additional monitoring tool to check product conformance. Finally, RF Impedance is being used to monitor the concentration of live cells immobilized on micro-carriers or packed beds in cGMP processes where traditional off-line live cell counting methods are inaccurate or impossible to perform. PMID:19003069

  18. 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, and Solid Freeform Fabrication: The Technologies of the Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Starting in the late 1980's, several new technologies were created that have the potential to revolutionize manufacturing. These technologies are, for the most part, additive processes that build up parts layer by layer. In addition, the processes that are being touted for hard-core manufacturing are primarily laser or e-beam based processes. This presentation gives a brief history of Additive Manufacturing and gives an assessment for these technologies. These technologies initially grew out of a commercial need for rapid prototyping. This market has a different requirement for process and quality control than traditional manufacturing. The relatively poor process control of the existing commercial Additive Manufacturing equipment is a vestige of this history. This presentation discusses this history and improvements in quality over time. The emphasis will be on Additive Manufacturing processes that are being considered for direct manufacturing, which is a different market than the 3D Printing ``Makerbot'' market. Topics discussed include past and present machine sensors, materials, and operational methods that were used in the past and those that are used today to create manufactured parts. Finally, a discussion of new methods and future directions of AM is presented.

  19. Metal Fabrication by Additive Manufacturing Using Laser and Electron Beam Melting Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence E. Murr; Sara M. Gaytan; Diana A. Ramirez; Edwin Martinez; Jennifer Hernandez; Krista N. Amato; Patrick W. Shindo; Francisco R. Medina; R.yan B. Wicker

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence E. Murr is Mr.J Mrs. Macintosh Murehison Professor and Chairman of the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and Ph.D. Program Director in the Materials Research Technology Institute at The University of Texas at El Paso. Dr. Murr received his B.Sc. in physical science from Albright College, and his B.S.E.E. in electronics, his M.S. in engineering mechanics, and his Ph.D. in solidstate science, all from the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Murr has published 20 books, over 750 scientific and technical articles in a wide range of research areas in materials science and engineering, environmental science and engineering, manufacturing science and engineering (especially rapid prototype/layered manufacturing),

  20. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments are performed to verify the manufacturability of DUPIC fuel and its performance by use of HANARO test reactor. Major works performed during this research period are : analysis of manufacturing process of DUPIC fuel, fabrication technology development such as development of disassembly and decladding method of spent PWR fuel, study on the OREOX process using simulated high burnup fuel, weldability of end cap weld, and development of fabrication equipment including the conceptual and detailed design of DUPIC equipment mainly for the powder preparation, pelletization and fuel element fabrication. A study on the material properties of DUPIC fuel and performance analysis method using irradiation of test fuel was also performed. (author). 91 refs., 274 tabs., 254 figs

  1. An experiment in remote manufacturing using the advanced communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsoulis, Costas; Frost, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the completed project was to develop an experiment in remote manufacturing that would use the capabilities of the ACTS satellite. A set of possible experiments that could be performed using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and which would perform remote manufacturing using a laser cutter and an integrated circuit testing machine are described in detail. The proposed design is shown to be a feasible solution to the offered problem and it takes into consideration the constraints that were placed on the experiment. In addition, we have developed two more experiments that are included in this report: backup of rural telecommunication networks, and remote use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data analysis for on-site collection of glacier scattering data in the Antarctic.

  2. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  3. Technologies for manufacturing UO2 sintered pellets to fuel burnup extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual tendency all over the world is to manufacture fuel bundles capable to resist high burn-up. The factors affecting the burn-up increase are: the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI), the oxidation and hydriding of the Zircaloy-4 sheath, the increase of internal pressure, stress corrosion cracking, Zircaloy-4 irradiation growth, fuel swelling. A way to increase fuel burn-up is to diminish the elements internal pressure by adequate UO2 fuel pellet structure (large grain or controlled closed porosity). In the large grain size UO2 pellets, fission gas release rate decreases and the elements internal pressure increase slowly. Similarly, in the UO2 sintered pellet with controlled closed porosity the fission gas accommodation is better and the elements internal pressure increases slowly. The paper presents a literature review related to the technologies and the methods for manufacturing UO2 sintered pellets to fuel burn-up extension. The flowsheets for large grains and controlled closed porosity UO2 sintered pellets obtained by Nb2O5 dopant respectively pores former addition in UO2 sinterable powder, pressing and sintering in H2 atmosphere are exposed. In the diagrams are presented the dependency of the main sintered pellet characteristics (pore radius distribution, pores volume, density, grains size) as function of the Nb2O5 dopant concentration, UO2 sinterable powder nature and sintering temperature. Other sintered pellets characteristics (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, high temperature molar heat capacity and thermomechanical properties) are presented. The technologies for sintered pellets manufacturing for RU, DUPIC, MOX fuel cycles are presented. A proposal related to fuel manufacturing from Uranium compound resulted in LWR spent fuel reprocessing is also given. (author)

  4. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  5. THE EFFECT OF TQM PRACTICES ON TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION CAPABILITIES: APPLYING ON MALAYSIAN MANUFACTURING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Mohammed Yusr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between TQM practices and innovation performance had drawn the attention of several scholars during last decade,however, this relationship still not clear and inconclusive. Therefore, this study is one of the attempts that aim to clarify the nature of this relationship. Reviewing the past studies reveals that there is somewhat ignoring in examining the indirect relationship between TQM and innovation performance. Thus, to determine and explore the effect of applying TQM practices within the organization on innovation performance, this study is aiming to investigate the relationship between TQM practices and technological innovation capabilities in Malaysian context. The obtained result of SmartPLS statistical analysis confirmed the positive effect of applying TQM practice on technological innovation capabilities. Moreover, the findings also provide an indication regarding the level of occurrence of technological innovation capabilities among Malaysian manufacturing companies. According to the output several recommendations have been highlighted to the managers of the companies.

  6. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  7. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Mandal, Sumantra [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required

  8. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required for testing

  9. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  10. Design for manufacturability evaluation: Composite NIF Pockel Cell body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, W.A.; Spellman, G.P.

    1994-04-01

    A survey of composite materials and processes for the NIF Optical Switch Body is described. Mechanical and physical criterion set upon the part are used as guidelines for the selection of materials and processes for manufacturing. Benefits, costs, and risks associated with selected processes, as well as a recommendation for prototype fabrication is presented.

  11. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques:

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek Adam; Drygała, Aleksandra; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  12. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata; Drygała, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  13. Towards a commercial process for the manufacture of genetically modified T cells for therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, A. D.; Assenmacher, M; Schröder, B.; Meyer, M.; Orentas, R; Bethke, U; Dropulic, B

    2015-01-01

    The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing...

  14. Development and manufacturing of tape casted, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells; Entwicklung und Herstellung von foliengegossenen, anodengestuetzten Festoxidbrennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafbauer, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer high potential in transforming the chemical energy of hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Due to the high efficiency of fuel cells, lots of effort has been made in the improvement of net efficiency and in materials development during the last years. Recently, the introduction of high performance, low-cost production technologies become more and more important. At the Institute of Energy Research IEF-1 of Forschungszentrum Julich, standard SOFCs were processed by time and work consuming methods. On the way to market entrance, product costs have to be reduced drastically. The aim of this thesis is the introduction of a high efficient low-cost processing route for the SOFC manufacturing. Therefore, the well-known and well established shaping technology tape casting was used for generating the anode substrates. As the first goal of this approach, two different tape casting slurries were developed in order to get substrates in the thickness range from 300 to 500 {mu}m after sintering. After shaping of the substrates, sinter regimes for the different necessary coatings were adapted to the novel substrate types in order to obtain cells with high performance and strength. Therefore, the different coating technologies like screen printing and vacuum slip casting were used for cell manufacturing. The optimization of the different coating steps during cell manufacturing led to high performance SOFCs with a 10% higher power output compared to the Julich state-of-the-art SOFC. Additional experiments verified the workability of the novel tape cast substrates for the manufacturing of near-net-shape SOFC. Finally, the novel cell types based on tape cast substrates were assembled to stacks with up to ten repeating units. Stack tests showed identical performance and degradation compared to stacks containing state-of-the-art SOFCs. Thus, the complete lifetime circle of a SOFC starting from powder preparation to stack assembly has been

  15. Advanced Shape Memory Technology to Reshape Product Design, Manufacturing and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guang Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review on the advanced shape memory technology (ASMT with a focus on polymeric materials. In addition to introducing the concept and fundamentals of the ASMT, the potential applications of the ASMT either alone or integrated with an existing mature technique (such as, 3D printing, quick response (QR code, lenticular lens and phenomena (e.g., wrinkling and stress-enhanced swelling effect in product design, manufacturing, and recycling are demonstrated. It is concluded that the ASMT is indeed able to provide a range of powerful approaches to reshape part of the life cycle or the whole life cycle of products.

  16. Quality assurance experience in the manufacture of PFBR reactor vessel during technology development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient and proper implementation of quality assurance in the technology development works of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) main vessel was undertaken to achieve the desired quality and dimensional accuracy of main vessel. In this paper an attempt has been made to bring out the methods and procedures adopted to implement the quality assurance programme on important activities including approval of documents, material, general requirements for manufacture of SS components, inspection procedures, forming and welding of petals, non-destructive testing etc. (author)

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for building 878, manufacturing science and technology, organization 14100.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.

  18. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  19. Synthesizing R&D Data: Experiences from the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmap (IMTR) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    merrell, m.a.

    1999-05-05

    IMTR is a tremendous undertaking to assess the current state and future needs of Manufacturing Technology R&D. A follow-on project to the roadmaps is the development and populating of a Gap Analysis database containing current R&D abstracts related to the roadmaps' technical elements. Efficiently identifying the R&D projects within scope presents many travails of synthesizing data from across a wide spectrum. Challenges to this project were directly proportional to the lack of single-source data collections.

  20. Silicon-film{trademark} photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Annual subcontract report, 15 January 1992--15 November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenberg, W.R.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Lampo, S.; Mulligan, W.P.; Barnett, A.M. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work under a subcontract to upgrade AstroPower, Inc.`s facility to produce 1.22-m{sup 2} Silicon-Film{trademark} PV modules with an output of 170 W{sub p}. The focus for the first year of the PVMaT Phase 2A project is to establish the baseline process capability and optimize the performance of the present machine. This first year`s activities accelerated the advance of Silicon-Film{trademark} manufacturing technology in several ways. First, the project led directly to plans to make an early introduction of a large solar cell product. The successful fabrication of 646-cm{sup 2} wafers and solar cells paved the way for dramatically increasing the power output per solar cell. Second was the establishment of a basis for the design and construction of a 2.4-MW/yr wafer machine. Another important contribution was the determination of the importance of H{sup +} implantation processes for polycrystalline silicon technologies.

  1. Practical Education Support to Foster Engineers at Manufacturing and Engineering Design Center in Muroran Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Toshiharu; Hanajima, Naohiko; Shimizu, Kazumichi; Satoh, Kohki

    To foster engineers with creative power, Muroran Institute of Technology established Manufacturing and Engineering Design Center (MEDeC) that concentrates on Monozukuri. MEDeC consists of three project groups : i) Education Support Group provides educational support for practical training classes on and off campus and PDCA (plan-do-check-action) -conscious engineering design education related to Monozukuri ; ii) Fundamental Manufacturing Research Group carries out nurture research into fundamental and innovative technology of machining and manufacturing, and iii) Regional Cooperation Group coordinates the activities in cooperation with bureau, schools and industries in and around Muroran City. MEDeC has a fully integrated collection of machine tools and hand tools for manufacturing, an atelier, a tatara workplace, implements for measurement and related equipment designed for practically teaching state-of-the-practice manufacturing methods.

  2. Mobile Technology Applications for Manufacturing, Reduction of Muda (Waste and the Effect on Manufacturing Economy and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Huenerfauth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices in the manufacturing setting offer mobility and information whenever and wherever it is needed; these advantages allow for a more efficient workflow and allow the user to make more informed decisions. Due to these advantages, companies are reducing muda (waste by using mobile devices (implementing Lean Manufacturing and therefore saving money. Some of the mobile applications discussed in this paper are the following: Augmented Reality for assembly training, pruefcubing, remotely-monitored shop floors, statistical process control (SPC, and change requests for construction, and the two types of muda (waste reduced by these mobile applications are “unnecessary / excess motion and defects.”

  3. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  4. Development of technology and properties investigation of steel/bronze joints proposed for ITER HHF components manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: During the development of ITER HHF components manufacturing it is necessary to provide reliable joints between heat sink material made of CuCrZr bronze and the supporting construction made of austenitic steel. Four different methods have been tried out: - Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), - HIP assisted brazing, - furnace assisted brazing, - Casting. The investigation of structure and properties of joints show that HIP and casting provide the better results than the other technologies. However, HIP is relatively expensive technology, and big size HIP furnace is required for the full scale components manufacturing that are not available n RF now. Therefore, casting was selected as a reference manufacturing technology for the primary wall of ITER modules n RF. The paper summarizes the results of bronze/steel joints manufacturing and investigation of their properties. (authors)

  5. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Annual subcontractor report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izu, M. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report describes work done under a 3-year program to advance ECD`s roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. The specific 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1.00 per peak watt. Accomplishments during Phase 1 included: (1) ECD successfully incorporated a high-performance Ag/metal-oxide back-reflector system into its continuous roll-to-roll commercial production operation. (2) High-quality a-Si-Ge narrow-band-gap solar cells were incorporated into the manufacturing. (3) ECD demonstrated the continuous roll-to-roll production of high-efficiency, triple-junction, two-band-gap solar cells consistently and uniformly throughout a 762-m (2500-ft) run with high yield. (4) ECD achieved 11.1% initial sub-cell efficiency of triple-junction, two-band-gap a-Si alloy solar cells in the production line. (5) The world`s first 0.37-m{sup 2} (4-ft{sup 2}) PV modules were produced utilizing triple-junction spectrum-splitting solar cells manufactured in the production line. (6) As a result of process optimization to reduce the layer thickness and to improve the gas utilization, ECD achieved a 77% material cost reduction for germane and 58% reduction for disilane. Additionally, ECD developed a new low-cost module that saves approximately 30% in assembly material costs.

  6. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  7. Innovation and adoption of energy efficient technologies: An exploratory analysis of Italian primary metal manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional efforts will be needed by European countries to improve the energy efficiency, as with current trends the 20% objective will be missed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing sector is a promising field, as SMEs are less energy-efficient than larger enterprises. Several studies investigated the barriers to the diffusion of technologies and practices for industrial energy efficiency, but little attention has been paid to understand the factors affecting the perception of such barriers by SMEs. In this multiple case-study, we have investigated 20 Primary Metal manufacturing SMEs in Northern Italy. Economic and information barriers are perceived as the major issues. Interestingly, firm's size, innovativeness of the market in which enterprises operate, as well as product and process innovation are factors affecting barriers to energy efficiency. Differences have been observed within SMEs, especially for information and competence-related barriers. In particular, a more innovative external context in which enterprises operate and a greater production process complexity seem to reduce barriers. Moreover, more product innovative enterprises seem to have a lower perception of behavioral and technology-related barriers. The results of this exploratory investigation provide useful suggestions for policy design and further research on industrial energy efficiency. - highlights: • Economic and Information emerge as the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency. • Market, product and process innovation seem relevant factors affecting barriers. • Firm's size is a factor affecting barriers' perception

  8. Thermal treatment and competing technologies for remediation of MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1,500 MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced ''town gas'' from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas, as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund cleanups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via ground water migration. This paper describes recent experience with high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste. It also reviews competing non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  9. Establishment of a production-ready manufacturing process utilizing thin silicon substrates for solar cells. Final report. Motorola report No. 2364/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Three inch diameter Czochralski silicon substrates sliced directly to 5 mil, 8 mil, and 27 mil thicknesses with wire saw techniques were procured. Processing sequences incorporating either diffusion or ion implantation technologies were employed to produce n+p or n+pp+ solar cell structures. These cells were evaluated for performance, ease of fabrication, and cost effectiveness. It was determined that the use of 7 mil or even 4 mil wafers would provide near term cost reductions for solar cell manufacturers.

  10. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  11. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  12. Additive Manufacturing for High Value Metal Production in an Optimized Hybrid Manufacturing Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Brøtan, Vegard

    2015-01-01

    The in-between processes have also been investigated. In the hybrid cell, the surface roughing is done by a surface milling operation in the milling machine, contrary to the traditional sand blasting operation. And, there is no need to use a lot of time on setting up the part, since the part is fastened to a pallet, where the location data is transferred through the local network. Cleaning the part is done by gas pressure, since there is no cutting fluids used in the machining ...

  13. PVMaT improvements in the Solarex photovoltaic module manufacturing technology: Annual subcontract report: May 5, 1998 -- April 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2000-01-10

    This report describes work done by Solarex during the first year of this subcontract. The objective of this three-year PVMaT program is to continue the advancement of Solarex PV manufacturing technologies to design and implement a process that produces polycrystalline silicon PV modules that can be sold profitably for $2.00 per peak watt or less and that will increase the production capacity of the Frederick plant to at least 25 megawatts per year. Accomplishments during the first year of the program include: (1) Verification of the process to produce SiF{sub 4}, the precursor to silicon feedstock. (2) Design of a silicon feedstock pilot facility using the SiNaF process. (3) Development of and transfer to manufacturing of a process to use thinner wire in the wire saw. (4) Completion of a production trial with recycled SiC. (5) Laboratory development of a selective emitter process using rapid thermal processing. (6) Fabrication of high-efficiency polycrystalline cells using silicon nitride from three different sources. (7) Development of a new encapsulation formulation and laboratory demonstration of a 6-minute lamination cycle. (8) Implementation of an automated laminator. (9) Laboratory demonstration of automated handling of ceramics.

  14. Technology-design-manufacturing co-optimization for advanced mobile SoCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Gan, Chock; Chidambaram, P. R.; Nallapadi, Giri; Zhu, John; Song, S. C.; Xu, Jeff; Yeap, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    How to maintain the Moore's Law scaling beyond the 193 immersion resolution limit is the key question semiconductor industry needs to answer in the near future. Process complexity will undoubtfully increase for 14nm node and beyond, which brings both challenges and opportunities for technology development. A vertically integrated design-technologymanufacturing co-optimization flow is desired to better address the complicated issues new process changes bring. In recent years smart mobile wireless devices have been the fastest growing consumer electronics market. Advanced mobile devices such as smartphones are complex systems with the overriding objective of providing the best userexperience value by harnessing all the technology innovations. Most critical system drivers are better system performance/power efficiency, cost effectiveness, and smaller form factors, which, in turns, drive the need of system design and solution with More-than-Moore innovations. Mobile system-on-chips (SoCs) has become the leading driver for semiconductor technology definition and manufacturing. Here we highlight how the co-optimization strategy influenced architecture, device/circuit, process technology and package, in the face of growing process cost/complexity and variability as well as design rule restrictions.

  15. RADIX ROC: a low complexity algorithm for the cell manufacturing design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ricardo Rosa Georges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cellular Manufacturing System has been widely used in industry as an alternative to increase the ability to compete. The benefits of the use of cellular manufacturing include increased flexibility, reduction of work in process and reducing the total processing time. The first step in the adoption of cellular manufacturing industries is in the design of the cell, which is made from an analysis of the incidence matrix. There are several algorithms to perform the analysis of this matrix to seek groups that may provide sources of manufacturing cells. This article proposes an algorithm of low computational complexity called RADIX ROC. This algorithm is based on the classic algorithm ROC (Rank Order Clustering. A comparative analysis of some algorithms is done at the end to demonstrate the low complexity of the algorithm and a review of the literature on the subject completes this work.

  16. An Approach to Determining the Optimal Cell Number of Manufacturing Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An approach to determining the optimal cell number of manufacturing cell formation is presented. Firstly, the difference of weighting exponent, cluster center and metrics how to have an impact upon the clustering results and membership function are studied. Secondly, a method to determine the optimal m value is given. Two-order partial derivative of the objective function for FCM is calculated, and the variational weighting exponent m is obtained that can prevent the parameter from being the unique value and play an important role in the process of fuzzy clustering. Moreover, in order to avoid a single validity index can not assess correctly, partition coefficient (PC, classification entropy (CE, Fukuyama and Sugeno (FS and Xie and Beni (XB are considered as multi-performance indexes to evaluate the cluster validity, and then an optimal number c is chosen based on these validity measures. Finally, test exampls are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  17. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, U; Kalberer, C.; Spanholtz, J.; Lee, D.A.; Miller, J. S.; Cooley, S.; Lowdell, M.; Uharek, L.; Klingemann, H.; Curti, A.; Leung, W; Alici, E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013–2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen rece...

  18. Co-delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin to cancer cells from additively manufactured implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Dillschneider, Philipp; Chang, Chi-Chih (Clare); Gao, Shan; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Yang, Chuanxu; Hein, San; Bünger, Cody; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    , capable of physically supporting the void while killing residual cancer cells, would be an attractive solution. Here we describe a novel additively manufactured implant that can be functionalized with chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. These induce long term gene silencing in adjacent cancer cells without...

  19. An integrated approach for the cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, Babak; Jolai, Fariborz; Slomp, Jannes; Rabbani, Masoud; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model is presented for cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems (CMS). The proposed model incorporates an extensive coverage of important operational features and especially layout design aspects to determine optimal cell configuration and Int

  20. Manufacturing and Characterization of a Thermoelectric Energy Harvester Using the CMOS-MEMS Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wen Peng; Po-Jen Shih; Ching-Liang Dai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a thermoelectric energy harvester using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology were presented. The thermoelectric energy harvester is composed of eight circular energy harvesting cells, and each cell consists of 25 thermocouples in series. The thermocouples are made of p-type and n-type polysilicons. The output power of the energy harvester relies on the number of the thermocouples. In order to...

  1. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  2. Ultra-high-precision alignment technology for lens manufacturing used for high-end optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Sebastian; Sure, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the progress in the area of modern centration technology by using digital image processing. This work is motivated by the continuously increasing demand for high-end optics. During the last years the surface lens quality has been continuously improved. Today the image quality is more determined by the manufacturing tolerances for the mechanical interface which is responsible for decenter and tilt of the lenses respectively the subgroups. Some of the aberrations are directly linked to the decenter of the lenses, Coma for example. Hence it is necessary to realize the subgroups with tolerances below lpm. To determine the decenter of a lens an auto collimation telescope is used to image the reflex of the lens surfaces onto a detector, commonly a half covert photodiode. Rotating the lens generates a sinusoidal signal, which is evaluated by a lock-in amplifier to drive two actuators to adjust the alignment chuck. Typical internal reflections caused by stray light for example disturb the current procedure in such a way that it is impossible to get a stable alignment process. Digital image processing allows us to fix these problems with image recognition. We will demonstrate how a modified auto collimation telescope in combination with the developed software algorithms made the manufacturing process more accurate, faster and useable for a broad spectrum of lenses. It has been proofed by some thousand diverse lenses that with these new technique subgroups can be centered within 0.25μm.

  3. Microstructural characterization and influence of manufacturing parameters on technological properties of vitreous ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructure of vitreous ceramic samples manufactured from kaolinitic-clay and feldspars raw materials from Cameroon was investigated in the range 1150-1250 deg. C by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring some technological properties. Moreover, the simultaneous influence of feldspars content, heating temperature and soaking time on water absorption and firing shrinkage was evaluated by adopting the response surface methodology (Doehlert matrix), using the New Efficient Methodology for Research using Optimal Design (NEMROD) software. The results show that a spinel phase, mullite, glassy phase and some amount of hematite were formed. However, the spinel phase and potassic feldspar, as compared to the sodic one, disappeared at moderate firing temperature and soaking time. Apparently, mullite developed from spinel phase, which is formed from the demixion of metakaolin. On the other hand, it is found that the effects of fluxing content and firing temperature on the measured properties were almost similar and more influent than soaking time. Antagonistic and synergetic interactions existed between the considered parameters, and their importance differed for the considered properties. By using this mathematical tool, suitable operating conditions for manufacturing vitreous bodies were determined.

  4. Microstructural characterization and influence of manufacturing parameters on technological properties of vitreous ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njoya, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Hajjaji, M., E-mail: Hajjaji@ucam.ac.ma [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Bacaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Njopwouo, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-03-15

    Microstructure of vitreous ceramic samples manufactured from kaolinitic-clay and feldspars raw materials from Cameroon was investigated in the range 1150-1250 deg. C by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring some technological properties. Moreover, the simultaneous influence of feldspars content, heating temperature and soaking time on water absorption and firing shrinkage was evaluated by adopting the response surface methodology (Doehlert matrix), using the New Efficient Methodology for Research using Optimal Design (NEMROD) software. The results show that a spinel phase, mullite, glassy phase and some amount of hematite were formed. However, the spinel phase and potassic feldspar, as compared to the sodic one, disappeared at moderate firing temperature and soaking time. Apparently, mullite developed from spinel phase, which is formed from the demixion of metakaolin. On the other hand, it is found that the effects of fluxing content and firing temperature on the measured properties were almost similar and more influent than soaking time. Antagonistic and synergetic interactions existed between the considered parameters, and their importance differed for the considered properties. By using this mathematical tool, suitable operating conditions for manufacturing vitreous bodies were determined.

  5. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Sarah V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  6. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual technical progress report, 1 April 1992--30 September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izu, M. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work performed by ECD to advance its roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies; to reduce the module production costs; to increase the stabilized module performance; and to expand the commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. The 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1/W{sub p}. Major efforts during Phase I are (1) the optimization of the high-performance back-reflector system, (2) the optimization of a-Si-Ge narrow band-gap solar cell, and (3) the optimization of the stable efficiency of the module. The goal is to achieve a stable 8% efficient 0.3-m {times} 1.2-m (1-ft {times} 4-ft) module. Also, the efforts include work on a proprietary, high-deposition-rate, microwave plasma, CVD manufacturing technology; and on the investigation of material cost reduction.

  7. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Jinwu; Huang Tianyou; Liu Baicheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc.In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  8. SETEC/Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program: 1999 Annual and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCBRAYER,JOHN D.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of work conducted by the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies Program at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) during 1999. This work was performed by one working group: the Semiconductor Equipment Technology Center (SETEC). The group's projects included Numerical/Experimental Characterization of the Growth of Single-Crystal Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}); The Use of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) Imaging for Certifying Critical-Dimension Reference Materials Fabricated with Silicon Micromachining; Assembly Test Chip for Flip Chip on Board; Plasma Mechanism Validation: Modeling and Experimentation; and Model-Based Reduction of Contamination in Gate-Quality Nitride Reactor. During 1999, all projects focused on meeting customer needs in a timely manner and ensuring that projects were aligned with the goals of the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association and with Sandia's defense mission. This report also provides a short history of the Sandia/SEMATECH relationship and a brief on all projects completed during the seven years of the program.

  9. Design, manufacture and technological verification of SiC/C composite stirrer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In article were presented assumptions and choose results of investigations connected with material selection and technology production of prototype’s ceramic stirrer with destination to work in environment of liquid metal. In the research work the result of the design, manufacture and technological verification of SiC/C composite stirrer have been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The design of the stirrer (2D and 3D models and strength tests on the blade and fragment of the composite axle was prepared in the programme Solid Works and the FEM, using COSMOS software. Polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP technique was used for fabrication SiC/C stirrer. Examination of wettability and suitability of the SiC/C composite for application in a liquid metal with sessile drop wettability was conducted. The surface geometry, conducted using a non-contact optical profilometer, FRT Micro’Prof.Findings: Further laboratory tests of the SiC/C composite stirrer, designed and developed in the Institute of Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology at TU Dresden have confirmed rightness of the design, assumptions regarding the thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance of the stirrer.Practical implications: The technological tests have proven a considerable reduction of the turbulence flow, which with an unchanged system of controlling the stirrer ensured stability of the liquid metal whirl and repeatability of the process.Originality/value: The application of this new material will enable not only the expansion of laboratory research, but it may also facilitate the implementation of liquid/phase technologies of obtaining MMC composites for the industry and thus, contribute to increasing the durability of stirrers in comparison with the solutions applied so far.

  10. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Annual subcontract report, March 31, 1994--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, W A [Springborn Labs., Inc., Enfield, CT (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project. The objectives of this subcontract are to (1) define the problem of yellowing/browning of EVA-based encapsulants; (2) determine probable mechanisms and the role of various parameters such as heat, UV exposure, module construction, EVA interfaces, and EVA thickness, in the browning of EVA-based encapsulants; (3) develop stabilization strategies for various module constructions to protect the encapsulant from degradative failure; (4) conduct laboratory, accelerated outdoor, and field testing of encapsulant, laminated test coupons, and full modules to demonstrate the functional adequacy of the stabilization strategies; and (5) implement these strategies. This report summarizes the accomplishments related to the above goals for the reporting period.

  11. Focusing system of the modified betatron: design, technology, manufacturing and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test the medium-energy electron cooling system based on modified betatron the design and construction of such a system prototype (MOBY) was started at JINR. Longitudinal magnetic field of 1 kG of the MOBY is provided by the solenoid system surrounded with a magnetic shielding of 8 mm thickness. The solenoids consist of several sections. The single-layer winding with six copper bars of the 'returning current' is placed inside the magnetic shielding. The bars are isolated and placed inside the slits in the magnetic shielding. The winding of each solenoid is made of copper pipe with the rectangular cross-section 18.5x18.5 mm. The design, the technology of solenoid manufacturing, and the method of the magnetic field measurements are presented

  12. Evaluation of the impact energy of the samples produced by the additive manufacturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covered the evaluation of the impact energy, notch toughness and morphology of the fracture surfaces of the specimens manufactured by the Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technology. Specimens without heat treatment with no notch were not broken through in course of testing, therefore there was no fracture surface present. The heat treatment resulted in the increase in hardness values. The values of impact energy after the heat treatment was approximately 60 % lower. Ductile intergranular fracture with more or less segmented dimple morphology appeared in every specimen. At places where the internal plastic bond was resisting the test, cracks remaining after particles broke away from the surface can be seen as craters.

  13. Electrochemical cells and methods of manufacturing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzarella, Ricardo; Slocum, Alexander H.; Doherty, Tristan; Cross, III, James C.

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical cells and methods of making electrochemical cells are described herein. In some embodiments, an apparatus includes a multi-layer sheet for encasing an electrode material for an electrochemical cell. The multi-layer sheet including an outer layer, an intermediate layer that includes a conductive substrate, and an inner layer disposed on a portion of the conductive substrate. The intermediate layer is disposed between the outer layer and the inner layer. The inner layer defines an opening through which a conductive region of the intermediate layer is exposed such that the electrode material can be electrically connected to the conductive region. Thus, the intermediate layer can serve as a current collector for the electrochemical cell.

  14. Manufacturing Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Phase I Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Mei, Zhuyong; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria da Graca; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Durett, April G.; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Yongping; Gee, Adrian P.; Horwitz, Edwin M.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus host disease (GvHD) and Crohn’s disease, as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. H...

  15. The State of the Art Report on the Development and Manufacturing Technology of Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present R and D on breeder blanket is the development of test blanket modules (TBMs) to be installed and tested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the program of the blanket development, a blanket module test in the ITER is scheduled from the beginning of the ITER operation, and the performance test of TBM in ITER is the most important milestone for the development of the DEMO blanket. The fabrication of TBMs has been required to test the basic performance of the DEMO blanket, i.e., tritium production/recovery, high-grade heat generation and radiation shielding. Therefore, the integration of the TBM systems into ITER has been investigated with the aim to check the safety, reliability and compatibility under nuclear fusion state. For this reason, in the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) as an activity of the International Energy Association (IEA), a variety of ITER TBMs have been proposed and investigated by each party: helium-cooled ceramic (WSG-1), helium-cooled LiPb (WSG-2), water-cooled ceramic (WSG-3), self-cooled lithium (WSG-4) and self-cooled molten salt (WSG-5) blanket systems. Because we are still deficient in investigation of TBM development, the need of development became pressing. In this report, for the development of TBM sub-module and mock-up, it is necessary to analyze and examine the state of the art on the development of manufacturing technology of TBM in other countries. And we will be applied as basic data to establish a manufacturing technology

  16. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  17. Prospects of Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells for Manufacturing Future Generations of Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive review on prospects for one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructure-based solar cells for manufacturing the future generation of photovoltaic (PV modules. Reducing heat dissipation and utilizing the unabsorbed part of the solar spectrum are the key driving forces for the development of nanostructure-based solar cells. Unrealistic assumptions involved in theoretical work and the tendency of stretching observed experimental results are the primary reasons why quantum phenomena-based nanostructures solar cells are unlikely to play a significant role in the manufacturing of future generations of PV modules. Similar to the invention of phase shift masks (to beat the conventional diffraction limit of optical lithography clever design concepts need to be invented to take advantage of quantum-based nanostructures. Silicon-based PV manufacturing will continue to provide sustained growth of the PV industry.

  18. Applying Metaheuristic Algorithms for Output Rate Analysis in Two-Machine Robotic Manufacturing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2013-03-01

    objective of this article is to minimize cycle time in order to increase the output rate of the manufacturing cell. To achieve this goal, it is important to optimally assign operations required for manufacturing a part to each machine and to determine the optimal robot moves sequence. Accordingly, existing feasible movement policies in the cell and their cycle times have been reviewed, and then these policies have been considered in a new machine layout and their cycle times have been calculated based on the new robot moves sequence. Afterwards, a mathematical model has been presented to select optimal cycle time in the manufacturing cell and this model has been solved by a branch and bound exact algorithm; since the mathematical model is non‐linear and the optimal solution cannot be obtained, two metaheuristic algorithms—genetic and simulated annealing algorithms—have also been proposed to solve the model and their results have been compared.

  19. Behind the development of technology: The transition of innovation modes in China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market scale of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry has grown immensely. Despite China still having a limited capacity in terms of technology innovation, the institutional support has promoted the technology capability development of the wind turbine manufacturing industry. This paper explores the driving forces underlying this development by reviewing the transition of the innovation modes and the dynamic interactions among the technology capability, innovation modes, market formation, and wind energy policy. The innovation mode in China began with imitative innovation, then transitioned to cooperative innovation, and has more recently set its sights on attaining truly indigenous innovation. Public policy serves as a key driving force for the evolution of innovation modes, as well as the development of the market. The policy focus has evolved in the following sequence: 1. building the foundation for technological innovation; 2. encouraging technology transfer; 3. enhancing local R and D and manufacturing capabilities; 4. enlarging the domestic market; and 5. cultivating an open environment for global competition and sustainable market development in China. - Highlights: ► New data were provided for China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry. ► The transition of innovation modes in the industry is reviewed. ► The interaction among the technology, market, policy, and innovation mode is explored. ► Public policies are the key driving forces for the transition.

  20. Remote Robot Vision Control of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Silvia; Anton, Florin Daniel; Borangiu, Theodor

    2010-01-01

    The project was finished at the end of 2008 as part of the PRIC research program (Shared Research and Training Resources). The research project provide a communication and collaboration portal solution for linking the existing pilot platform with multiple V+ industrial robot-vision controllers from Adept Technology located in four University Labs from Romania (Bucharest, Craiova, Iasi and Galati). This allow teachers to train their student using robots and expensive devices which they do not ...

  1. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  2. Determination of Tasks Required by Graduates of Manufacturing Engineering Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Jay H.

    1993-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 14 experts identified 37 tasks performed by/qualities needed by manufacturing engineering technologists. Most important were work ethic, performance quality, communication skills, teamwork, computer applications, manufacturing basics, materials knowledge, troubleshooting, supervision, and global issues. (SK)

  3. Development of manufacturing technology for high purity low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium alloys are promising candidate low activation materials for structural components of fusion reactors. Establishment of industrial infrastructure is, however, remaining to be a critical issue because of lack of other large scale commercial applications. In the present study, technologies for large scale manufacturing of high purity V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were developed by improving the present commercial production processes of vanadium metal, and optimizing alloying, plating, sheeting and wiring techniques. Efforts were focused on reducing carbon, nitrogen and oxygen impurities, which are known to deteriorate workability, weldability and radiation resistance of vanadium alloys. Especially, improvements were made in atmospheric control during calcination, aluminothermic reduction, vacuum arc remelting, and hot forging and rolling. A medium size (30kg) high purity V-4Cr-4Ti ingot was produced and designated as NIFS-HEAT-1. The specimens produced out of the ingot are being submitted to Round-robin tests by Japanese universities. Two larger ingots of 166kg in total weight were produced recently (NIFS-HEAT-2(A) and (B)). By these efforts, technology for fabricating large V-4Cr-4Ti alloy products with <100ppm C, ∼100ppm N and 100∼200ppm O was demonstrated. (author)

  4. Application of freeze-drying technology in manufacturing orally disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2016-05-01

    Freeze drying technology has not been maximized and reported in manufacturing orally disintegrating films. The aim of this study was to explore the freeze drying technology in the formulation of sildenafil orally disintegrating films and compare the physical properties with heat-dried orally disintegrating film. Central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three factors, namely concentration of carbopol, wheat starch and polyethylene glycol 400 on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the film. Heat-dried films had higher tensile strength than films prepared using freeze-dried method. For folding endurance, freeze-dried films showed improved endurance than heat-dried films. Moreover, films prepared using freeze-dried methods were thicker and had faster disintegration time. Formulations with higher amount of carbopol and starch showed higher tensile strength and thickness whereas formulations with higher PEG 400 content showed better flexibility. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the freeze-dried films had more porous structure compared to the heat-dried film as a result of the release of water molecule from the frozen structure when it was subjected to freeze drying process. The sildenafil film was palatable. The dissolution profiles of freeze-dried and heat-dried films were similar to Viagra® with f2 of 51.04 and 65.98, respectively. PMID:25597618

  5. Requirements and Matching Software Technologies for Sustainable and Agile Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Telgen, Daniël; Moergestel, Leo van; Puik, Erik; Muller, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable and Agile manufacturing is expected of future generation manufacturing systems. The goal is to create scalable, reconfigurable and adaptable manufacturing systems which are able to produce a range of products without new investments into new manufacturing equipment. This requires a new approach with a combination of high performance software and intelligent systems. Other case studies have used hybrid and intelligent systems in software before. However, they were mainly used to im...

  6. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process. PMID:25096172

  7. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  8. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  9. 5th International and 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Uday

    2015-01-01

    This edited book contains extended research papers from AIMTDR 2014. This includes recent research work in the fields of friction stir welding, sheet forming, joining and forming, modeling and simulation, efficient prediction strategies, micro-manufacturing, sustainable and green manufacturing issues etc. This will prove useful to students, researchers, and practitioners in the field of materials forming and manufacturing.

  10. Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nam-Gyu Park

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells based on organometal halides represent an emerging photovoltaic technology. Perovskite solar cells stem from dye-sensitized solar cells. In a liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cell structure, the adsorption of methylammonium lead halide perovskite on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface produces a photocurrent with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of around 3–4%, as first discovered in 2009. The PCE was doubled after 2 years by optimizing the perovskite coating conditions....

  11. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    conducting oxide (TCO) bi-layer, thus derived were used in a fiber optic-based spectroscopic reflectometry optical monitoring system installed in the pilot line at the PVMC's Halfmoon facility. Results obtained from this study show that the use of regular fiber optics, instead of polarization-maintaining fiber optics, is sufficient for the purpose of process monitoring. Also, the technique does not need to be used "in-situ", but the measurements can be taken in-line, and are applicable to a variety of deposition techniques used for different functional layers deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. In addition, effect of Cu concentration on the CIGS optical properties has been studied. Mixed CIGS/Cu2-xSe phase was observed at the surface at the end of the second stage of 3-stage deposition process, under Cu-rich conditions. A significant change in optical behavior of CIGS due to Cu2-xSe at the surface was observed under Cu-rich conditions, which can be used as end-point detection method to move from 2nd stage to 3rd stage in the deposition process. Developed optical functions were applied to in-line reflectance measurements not only to identify the Cu2-xSe phase at the surface but also to measure the thickness of the mixed CIGS/Cu2-xSe layer. This spectroscopic reflectometry based in-line process control technique can be used for end-point detection as well as to control thickness during the preparation of large area CIGS films. These results can assist in the development of optical process-control tools for the manufacturing of high quality CIGS based photovoltaic cells, increasing the uptime and yield of the production line. Finally, to understand the cost implications, low cost potential of two different deposition technologies has been studied on both rigid and flexible substrates with the help of cost analysis. Cost advantages of employing a contactless optics based process control technique have been investigated in order to achieve a low cost of production. Based

  12. Health and safety issues in photovoltaic cell manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photovoltaics industry has received widespread support from government, industry, and the public because of their belief that photovoltaic energy systems can harness the sun's energy to provide renewable energy in an economically competitive and environmentally acceptable manner. Over the last decade, great advances have been made in producing photovoltaic devices, which are becoming more technologically and economically competitive. At the same time, there has been growing awareness within industry that production of these devises can present hazards to health and the environment due to the types of materials and processing options involved. Many of these hazards must be managed to reduce the rusks they present to health and the environment. This paper reviews these hazards, and describes optics available to the photovoltaics industry to work with such materials and equipment in a manner which will protect health and safety

  13. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gross

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage, laser microdissection (17%, manual cell picking (17%, random seeding/dilution (15%, and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12% are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  14. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  15. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Apinan Soottitantawat; Arnornchai Arpornwichanop; Worapon Kiatkittipong; Wisitsree Wiyaratn; Navadol Laosiripojana; Suttichai Assabumrungrat

    2009-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants). This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect) are presented. Later, the current...

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Southern Energy Homes, First DOE Zero Energy Ready Manufactured Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The country’s first Zero Energy Ready manufactured home that is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is up and running in Russellville, Alabama. The manufactured home was built by a partnership between Southern Energy Homes and the Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), which is a DOE Building America team. The effort was part of a three-home study including a standard-code manufactured home and an ENERGY STAR® manufactured home. Cooling-season results showed that the building used half the space-conditioning energy of a manufactured home built to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD’s) Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards. These standards are known collectively as the HUD Code, which is the building standard for all U.S. manufactured housing.

  17. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRC and AR have identified the following roles and responsibilities necessary to accomplish the hot fire objective of this task.  AR will be responsible for...

  19. Changes in production control required for untended operation of a flexible manufacturing cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Stecke, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines and improves the production control system of a firm that wants to operate its flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in an untended third shift. The FMC consists of a machining centre, a pallet storage, a rail-guided transport vehicle for pallets and a clamping/unclamping station.

  20. Mathematical models for the definition of cell manufacturing layout. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Andrés Romero Duque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the approach to the layout problem of cell manufacturing (LCM in a descriptive form; considering at first the problem and its variations, then the elements of the mathematical models, subsequently presenting solution methods used; and finally some future perspectives about this topic are considered.

  1. Exploring Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, David; Hotek, Doug

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant technological issues of the 21st Century is finding a way to fulfill the energy demands without destroying the environment through global warming and climate change. Worldwide human population is on the rise, and with it, the demand for more energy in pursuit of a higher quality of life. In the meantime, as people use…

  2. The effectiveness of government promotion of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT): An economic analysis based on Swiss micro data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Hollenstein, Heinz; Lenz, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach applied and the results of an evaluation of the effects of the Swiss government programme to promote the diffusion of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) from 1990 to 1996. The method used is based on specifying and econometrically estimating with firm data simultaneously an adoption equation which, besides the main explanatory variables as proposed by the theory of technology diffusion, includes a policy variable, and a policy equation with a set of fi...

  3. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  4. Chrysler Partners with North Lake High School in an Advanced Manufacturing Technology Program for Special Needs Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Patrick J.; Kuhn, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    Chrysler Corporation and North Lake High School cooperated to develop and deploy Advanced Manufacturing Technology for high school students identified as at risk or hard to serve. Chrysler provided curriculum that was delivered by training center instructors; teachers ensured student competence in academic areas. (JOW)

  5. PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

    1999-11-16

    This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection

  6. Concise Review: Guidance in Developing Commercializable Autologous/Patient-Specific Cell Therapy Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Eaker, Shannon; Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; van"t Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

    2013-01-01

    In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy (ISCT) provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Guidance is provided to help small academic or biotech researchers determine what questions can be addressed at the bench level in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production.

  7. Comparative evaluation for safety & potency of inactivated Cell Culture Rabies Vaccines from four Indian manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subhash; Bindra, Gurminder; Vaishnav, Saurabh; Pandey, Anupama; Karol, Ayush; Sheikh, Faraz; Meena, Jaipal; Tewari, Shalini; Kiran, Manjula; Malik, Neeraj; Yadav, Shikha; Soni, G. R.; Singh, Surinder

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal but preventable disease. Various cell culture rabies vaccines (CCRV) are recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for pre- exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure therapeutic application. In the present study, we have evaluated seventy batches of inactivated CCRV, for safety and potency by test for Virus Inactivation and National Institute of Health (NIH) potency test respectively in Swiss albino mice, produced by four manufacturers of India, using different cell substr...

  8. Manufacture and testing of a solar panel assembly comprising bifacial solar cells (AMOC-SPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Uwe; Koch, Juergen W.

    1989-08-01

    The concept, manufacture and testing of the Solar Panel Assembly (SPA) are described. Bifacial solar cells, flexible harness, striped substrates and blanket integrated cushioning are all features of this solar panel. The SPA is designed to be modular. The power output, for an operating voltage of 7.2 V, was approximately 100 W for 192 5 cm by 5 cm solar cells, each under front and rear side illumination. Results of further tests and of a flight acceptance test are presented.

  9. Prospects of Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells for Manufacturing Future Generations of Photovoltaic Modules

    OpenAIRE

    K. F. Poole; Singh, R.; R. Podila; G. F. Alapatt; Gupta, N

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review on prospects for one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructure-based solar cells for manufacturing the future generation of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Reducing heat dissipation and utilizing the unabsorbed part of the solar spectrum are the key driving forces for the development of nanostructure-based solar cells. Unrealistic assumptions involved in theoretical work and the tendency of stretching observed experimental results are the primary reasons why quan...

  10. Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryo Takagi; Teruo Okano; Masayuki Yamato; Nobuo Kanai; Daisuke Murakami; Makoto Kondo; Takaaki Ishii; Takeshi Ohki; Hideo Namiki; Masakazu Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells.Cell-and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients,and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available.In the review article,we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine.Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery,especially in esophageal surgery.However,postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection.Therefore,we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD.Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa.Immediately after EMR or ESD,fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites.We performed a preclinical study with a canine model.In human clinical settings,cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines,and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study.We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD.

  11. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  12. The {open_quotes}Micromorph{close_quotes} cell: a new way to high-efficiency-low-temperature crystalline silicon thin-film cell manufacturing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppner, H.; Kroll, U.; Torres, P.; Meier, J.; Platz, R.; Fischer, D.; Beck, N.; Dubail, S.; Anna Selvan, J.A.; Pellaton Vaucher, N.; Goerlitzer, M.; Ziegler, Y.; Tscharner, R.; Hof, C.; Goetz, M.; Pernet, P.; Wyrsch, N.; Vuille, J.; Cuperus, J.; Shah, A. [Institut de Microtechnique, A.-L. Breguet 2, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Pohl, J. [University of Konstanz, D-78434 Konstanz (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline Silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) produced by the VHF-GD (Very High Frequency Glow Discharge) process can be considered to be a new base material for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells. The most striking feature of such cells, in contrast to conventional amorphous silicon technology, is their stability under light-soaking. With respect to crystalline silicon technology, their most striking advantage is their low process temperature (220{degree}C). The so called {open_quotes}micromorph{close_quotes} cell contains such a {mu}c-Si:H based cell as bottom cell, whereas the top-cell consists of amorphous silicon. A stable efficiency of 10.7{percent} (confirmed by ISE Freiburg) is reported in this paper. At present, all solar cell concepts based on thin-film crystalline silicon have a common problem to overcome: namely, too long manufacturing times. In order to help in solving this problem for the particular case of plasma-deposited {mu}c-Si:H, results on combined argon/hydrogen dilution of the feedgas (silane) are presented. It is shown that rates as high as 9.4 {Angstrom}/s can be obtained: furthermore, a first solar cell deposited with 8.7 {Angstrom}/s resulted in an efficiency of 3.1{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  14. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  15. Performance and manufacturability trade-offs of pattern minimization for sub-22nm technology nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Vyacheslav V.; Jhaveri, Tejas; Morris, Daniel; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2011-04-01

    The traditional design rule paradigm of defining the illegal areas of the design space has been deteriorating at the advanced technology nodes. Radical design space restrictions, advocated by the regular design fabrics methodology, provide an opportunity to reshape the design/manufacturing interface by constraining the layout to a set of allowable patterns. As such, this would allow for guaranteed convergence of the source mask optimization techniques (SMO) and complete validation of the legal design space during technology development and ramp. However, the number of the unique patterns generated by the layout adhering to even the simplistic gridded design rules prohibits this approach. Nevertheless, we have found that just 10% of the unique geometric patterns are sufficient to represent 90% of all layout pattern instances. Furthermore, the overall number of layout patterns on Active, Contact, and Metal-1 design layers can be reduced through modification of existing layout shapes in the final layout database and insertion of non-essential layout features. Unlike the 'dummy fill' used for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the newly added shapes must resemble the patterning of the functional design features and be inserted in close proximity to them. In this paper, we evaluate the digital circuit performance impact of the additional layout parasitics introduced by these 'dummy' features. In particular, we have found that a significant pattern count reduction can be achieved with minimal performance penalty. These results have been used at PDF Solutions to enable a correct by construction layout style, such as the templates and connectors-based layout methodology presented in the companion paper.

  16. Results of an electron beam test with prototype silicon sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies Austria AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand on silicon based sensors continuously increased since they have been used the first time in particle physics for tracking purposes. In accordance with this development the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) and the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG engaged in a cooperation to develop prototype p-on-n silicon strip sensors. The sensors of two independent batches with slightly varying production processes are evaluated. To investigate their performance, modules have been assembled with an analogue readout chip (APV25) and operated in an electron beam test. An already well-studied problem of poorly isolated strips, restricted to a small region of the sensor could be further investigated at one sensor and has proven to be cured at the others. Therefore charge sharing effects and their dependency on the bias voltage have been investigated on different regions of the sensors. Furthermore the recorded data of the modules, including one gamma irradiated, document the functionality of the devices

  17. Effect of information technology on value chain of Iranian Exemplary Exporter Manufacturer Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmood naderi beni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast and ever-increasing progress in Information Technology (IT area and their role in helping firms to improve their performance cause them to depend on IT day by day. At the same time, few studies have been conducted in this area, so the mechanism and effects of IT on Iranian firm’s value chains are unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to study in this area. This study is a descriptive survey. The statistical population of the research is composed of Iranian exemplary exporter manufacturer companies that have elected since 2004 to 2010 by the Trade Promotion Organization of Iran. Data gathering instrument was questionnaire and path analysis technique has been used for the purpose of data analysis. The research has three main hypotheses and three sub-hypotheses. The conceptual research model has four variables including: IT process infrastructure, the speed desirability of value chain process and the cost and accuracy of that. The findings indicate that the IT process infrastructure of firms has directly effect on the speed and accuracy of the value chin processes. Moreover, IT has indirect effect on cost desirability of value chain processes through effecting on speed of that value chain.

  18. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdrhman M G; LI Hang-quan; ZHANG Li-ye; ZHOU Bing

    2006-01-01

    The conjugated polymer-based solar cell is one of the most promising devices in search of sustainable, renewable energy sources in last decade. It is the youngest field in organic solar cell research and also is certainly the fastest growing one at the moment. In addition, the key factor for polymer-based solar cells with high-efficiency is to invent new materials. Organic solar cell has attracted significant researches and commercial interest due to its low cost in fabrication and flexibility in applications. However, they suffer from relatively low conversion efficiency. The summarization of the significance and concept of high efficiency polymer solar cell technologies are presented.

  19. The Application of Zeeko Polishing Technology to Freeform Femoral Knee Replacement Component Manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an advanced 7-axis Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) Polishing Machine from its successful original application of industrial optics manufacture into a process for the manufacture of femoral knee components to improve wear characteristics and prolong component lifetimes. It was indentified that the successful manufacture of optical components using a corrective polishing procedure to enhance their performance could be applied to femoral knee impl...

  20. (Costing) An Integration Methodology for Automated Recurring Cost Prediction using Digital Manufacturing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yan; Curran, Ricky; Burke, Robert; Welch, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The need to account for the effect of design decisions on manufacture and the impact of manufacturing cost on the life cycle cost of any product are well established. In this context, digital design and manufacturing solutions have to be further developed to facilitate and automate the integration of cost as one of the major driver in the product life cycle management. This paper is to present an integration methodology for implementing cost estimation capability within a ...

  1. Self Aligned Cell: Scaling Up Manufacture of a Cost Effective Cell Architecture for Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, A.; van Mierlo, F.

    2010-12-01

    Two areas of technology for fabrication of higher efficiency Si-wafer solar cells were addressed: (1) the formation of structured texturing that is an improvement over the industry-standard isotexture process for multicrystalline wafers. (2) the formation of fine line (<50 micron) metallization seed layers in a self-aligned manner where the fingers can be automatically and perfectly lined up to a selective emitter and where expensive silver screen printing paste can be mostly replaced by plating up the seed layers with silver or copper. The benefits are: a) Lower reflectivity , b) Decoupling the performance of the texture from the saw damage, thus allowing for better advances in sawing and a more robust wet process. 1366 Technologies developed 2 pilot machines for 1) deposition and patterning of low-cost resist layers to enable simultaneous Honeycomb front texturing and groove formation for multicrystalline Si wafers, and 2) fine-line dispensing of materials that are self aligned to the grooves.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Construction for Mobile Emplacement (ACME) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods of manufacturing automation do not lend themselves to construction of large structures with internal features, especially if various other...

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Stationary Power Application Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Pierre

    2009-03-05

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) Develop a reliable, cost-effective, and production-friendly technique to apply the power-enhancing layer at the interface of the air electrode and electrolyte of the Siemens SOFC; (2) Design, build, install, and operate in the field two 5 kWe SOFC systems fabricated with the state-of-the-art cylindrical, tubular cell and bundle technology and incorporating advanced module design features. Siemens successfully demonstrated, first in a number of single cell tests and subsequently in a 48-cell bundle test, a significant power enhancement by employing a power-enhancing composite interlayer at the interface between the air electrode and electrolyte. While successful from a cell power enhancement perspective, the interlayer application process was not suitable for mass manufacturing. The application process was of inconsistent quality, labor intensive, and did not have an acceptable yield. This program evaluated the technical feasibility of four interlayer application techniques. The candidate techniques were selected based on their potential to achieve the technical requirements of the interlayer, to minimize costs (both labor and material), and suitably for large-scale manufacturing. Preliminary screening, utilizing lessons learned in manufacturing tubular cells, narrowed the candidate processes to two, ink-roller coating (IRC) and dip coating (DC). Prototype fixtures were successfully built and utilized to further evaluate the two candidate processes for applying the interlayer to the high power density Delta8 cell geometry. The electrical performance of interlayer cells manufactured via the candidate processes was validated. Dip coating was eventually selected as the application technique of choice for applying the interlayer to the high power Delta8 cell. The technical readiness of the DC process and product quality was successfully and repeatedly demonstrated, and its throughput and cost are amenable to large scale

  4. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  5. Strategies for selecting recombinant CHO cell lines for cGMP manufacturing: improving the efficiency of cell line generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison J; Racher, Andrew J; Preziosi, Richard; Dickson, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Transfectants with a wide range of cellular phenotypes are obtained during the process of cell line generation. For the successful manufacture of a therapeutic protein, a means is required to identify a cell line with desirable growth and productivity characteristics from this phenotypically wide-ranging transfectant population. This identification process is on the critical path for first-in-human studies. We have stringently examined a typical selection strategy used to isolate cell lines suitable for cGMP manufacturing. One-hundred and seventy-five transfectants were evaluated as they progressed through the different assessment stages of the selection strategy. High producing cell lines, suitable for cGMP manufacturing, were identified. However, our analyses showed that the frequency of isolation of the highest producing cell lines was low and that ranking positions were not consistent between each assessment stage, suggesting that there is potential to improve upon the strategy. Attempts to increase the frequency of isolation of the 10 highest producing cell lines, by in silico analysis of alternative selection strategies, were unsuccessful. We identified alternative strategies with similar predictive capabilities to the typical selection strategy. One alternate strategy required fewer cell lines to be progressed at the assessment stages but the stochastic nature of the models means that cell line numbers are likely to change between programs. In summary, our studies illuminate the potential for improvement to this and future selection strategies, based around use of assessments that are more informative or that reduce variance, paving the way to improved efficiency of generation of manufacturing cell lines. PMID:20623584

  6. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  7. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  8. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. PMID:26521697

  9. Large area multicrystalline silicon solar cells in high volume production environment - history, status, new processes, technology transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cast multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell technology, accounted for nearly 41% of all the PV modules manufactures worldwide in 2000. Since 1995 the use of cast mc-Si as a substrate has increased every year and that increase is expected to accelerate in the coming years as the PV market grows further. This impressive growth has been enabled by several factors - wafer suppliers, improvements in casting technology, sawing technology and cell process technology. In this paper the enabling factors will be discussed. The new processes used to enhance the efficiency of the cast multicrystalline silicon solar cells and the criteria for technology transfer will also be discussed. (author)

  10. Development and application of high-precision laser welding technology for manufacturing Ti alloy frames of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development efforts of the high precision laser welding technology for manufacturing titanium alloy frames of glasses. For this purpose, laser welding device with the high beam quality is designed and fabricated, which consists of a optical fiber transmission part, a welding monitoring part and a welding controller. The welding nozzle and holding fixtures for manufacturing titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses. Titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses to be developed were experimentally manufactured by utilizing the laser welding using the optical fiber of GI 400 μm. As a result, the seam welding with the bead width of 0.3 mm or less and the weld penetration of 0.3-0.4mm could be accomplished. The fundamental technology was established through design of welding jigs with a variety of configurations and adequate welding conditions. Also, for the purpose to enable the companies participating in this project to commercialize the developed technology acceleratedly, a training program for the engineers belonging to such companies was conducted along with the technology transfer through joint experiments with the engineers. (author)

  11. Manufacture of refractive and diffractive beam-shaping elements in higher quantities using glass molding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Michael; Blöcher, Ullrich; Dross, Gerhard; Schmitt, Jana; Bischoff, Christian; Umhofer, Udo

    2015-03-01

    Laser beam shaping elements can be used e.g. for material processing. The results of these processes can be improved when the usually Gaussian profile of the laser is transformed into a top hat profile, which can be circular or rectangular in shape. Another frequently used type of beam-forming devices are beam splitters for parallel processing using only one laser. These types of beam formers can be implemented as diffractive or refractive elements. So far these optics are produced either directly by means of lithography e.g. in glass or in plastic using a hot embossing process or nanoimprint technology. Elements produced in this way have either the disadvantage of high costs or they are limited in temperature range, laser power or wavelength. A newly developed molding process for glass allows the manufacture of larger numbers of optics with reduced cost. The production of molds for refractive top hat beam shaping devices requires very high precision of the applied grinding process. Form deviations below 100 nm are necessary to obtain a homogeneous illumination. Measurements of the surface topography of gauss to top hat beam shaping elements using white light interferometry are presented as well as results of optical measurements of the beam profile using a camera. Continuous diffractive beam shaping elements for beam splitting applications are designed to generate several sub-beams each carrying the same energy. In order to achieve this, form deviations of less than 50 nm are required. Measurements of the surface of a 1 x 5 beam splitter are compared with ideal beam splitter profiles. The resulting beam intensity distribution of a molded element is presented.

  12. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  13. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  14. EPR 蒸汽发生器制造技术%Manufacture Technology of the EPR Steam Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景军涛; 江才林; 罗吾希; 郑晨

    2013-01-01

    根据欧洲第三代先进压水堆型( EPR)核电蒸汽发生器的制造过程中积累的经验,并结合其他压水堆型核电蒸汽发生器的制造经验,介绍了EPR蒸汽发生器的结构特点,并分别对制造过程中的一些关键制造技术,如管板一次侧面堆焊、管板深孔钻、内套筒的装配和水室封头的制造等进行详细阐述,为后续压水堆型核电蒸汽发生器的制造提供经验参考。%According to the manufacture experience of evolutionary power reactor ( EPR) steam generator ( third generation reactor type ) and combining with the manufacture experience other pressurized water reactor(PWR) steam generator,the structure characteristic of EPR steam generator was introduced .Some key technology during EPR steam generator manufacture , such as tubesheet primary side cladding , tubesheet deep drilling , installation of the bundle wrapper , manufacture of the channel head and so on were also introduced .It provides some reference for manufacturing the PWR steam generator .

  15. Assimilation Patterns in the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in SMEs: Exploring their Effects on Product Innovation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are more and more adopting advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT aimed at fostering product innovation process, improving product quality, streamlining the production process, and gaining productivity. In this study, we analyze the relationship between AMT proficiency levels in manufacturing SMEs and product innovation performance. Using data from 616 manufacturing SMEs, and considering a wide range of various AMT (20 different types of AMT grouped into 5 categories, we derived three AMT assimilation patterns through a cluster analysis procedure combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering algorithms. The analysis of the relationship between AMT assimilation patterns and product innovation performance shows a rather unexpected picture: in spite of the existence of clearly distinct patterns of AMT assimilation, we find no significant relationship between any pattern and product innovation performance. Instead, we find the organizational and environmental context of SMEs to be more determinant for product innovation performance than any of the AMT assimilation patterns. From a practical point of view, this study indicates that manufacturing SMEs managers interested in fostering their innovation capabilities through AMT assimilation need to be aware of the contingency effects of their organizational size, age, and sector of activity.

  16. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  17. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  18. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non

  19. Production of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells according to good manufacturing practices: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sensebé, Luc; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs, their definition as advanced-therapy medicinal products in European regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration requirements for their production and use imply the use of production processes that should be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Complying with G...

  20. Fuel cells technologies for fuel processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhawat, Dushyant, II; Berry, David A, I

    2014-01-01

    Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient