WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell groups including

  1. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  2. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  3. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  4. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  5. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  6. Development of end group for 1.3 GHZ nine cell SCRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedle, Ajay; Bagre, Manish; Maurya, Tilak; Yadav, Anand; Puntambekar, Avinash; Mahawar, Ashish; Mohania, Praveen; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Joshi, Satish Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) is developing 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities as part of SCRF technology development. The 1.3 GHz nine cell SCRF cavities comprise of multiple cells and end groups at each end. These end groups are important parts of a multi-cell cavity. They serve as interface for putting RF power to cavity, pick up the signal for various RF control and have higher order modes (HOM) coupler. The multiple parts with intricate shape, complex weld geometry and stringent RF requirements pose various challenges in their manufacturing. This paper presents the efforts on development of end groups comprising of manufacturing of various parts, their fabrication by electron beam welding process and pre-qualification including mechanical measurement, vacuum leak testing RF measurement. (author)

  7. 76 FR 45878 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...,420B] Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation...., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  8. 75 FR 32221 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers from... Business Group International, LLC and Amway Corporation. The notice was published in the Federal Register... issued as follows: All workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and...

  9. 75 FR 26794 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC, and Amway Corporation, Ada, MI; Amended... of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park...

  10. Polybenzimidazole Membranes Containing Benzimidazole Side Groups for High Temprature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Xueyuan; Xu, Yizin

    2013-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated temperat......Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated...... temperatures without humidification. At an acid doping level of 13.1 mol H3PO4 per average molar repeat unit, the PBI membranes with a benzimidazole grafting degree of 10.6% demonstrated a conductivity of 0.15 S cm-1 and a H2-air fuel cell peak power density of 378 mW cm-2 at 180 oC at ambient pressure without...

  11. 75 FR 28298 - Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., Highlands Ranch, CO; Including Employees in Support of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support... workers of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, including on...

  12. Letter of professional groups. Energies and fuel cells; La lettre des Groupe Professionnels, energies et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, M. [Supelec, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Serre Combe, P. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sartorelli, G. [Maxwell Technologie, San Diego, CA (United States); Lafont, G. [PILLER France S.A., 92 - Nanterre (France); Green, A. [SAFT, 93170 Bagnolet (France); Perrin, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fregere, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    These proceedings of the 'Arts et Metiers' professional groups treats of energy storage solutions for delocalized power generation units. Four types of energy storage systems are presented with their operation principle, advantages and drawbacks: fuel cells and hydrogen, super-capacitors, flywheels, conventional batteries (lithium-ion, lead, redox, nickel-cadmium, zinc-air), and comparison between the different energy storage solutions including compressed air. (J.S.)

  13. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. Find evidence-based information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  14. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Molofsky, Ari B

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy AT, including those associated with type 2 or "allergic" immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, AT "browning," and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines interleukin-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of group 2 innate lymphoid cell cells and type 2 immunity in AT metabolism and homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Pulmonary Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C. Mindt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context. Interestingly, ILC2, despite their scarcity, are the dominant innate lymphoid cell population in the lung, indicating a key role as first responders and amplifiers upon immune challenge at this site. In addition, the recently described tissue residency of ILC2 further underlines the importance of their respective microenvironment. In this review, we provide an overview of lung physiology including a description of the most prominent pulmonary resident cells together with a review of known and potential ILC2 interactions within this unique environment. We will further outline recent observations regarding pulmonary ILC2 during immune challenge including respiratory infections and discuss different models and approaches to study ILC2 biology in the lung.

  16. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Pulmonary Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Barbara C; Fritz, Jörg H; Duerr, Claudia U

    2018-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context. Interestingly, ILC2, despite their scarcity, are the dominant innate lymphoid cell population in the lung, indicating a key role as first responders and amplifiers upon immune challenge at this site. In addition, the recently described tissue residency of ILC2 further underlines the importance of their respective microenvironment. In this review, we provide an overview of lung physiology including a description of the most prominent pulmonary resident cells together with a review of known and potential ILC2 interactions within this unique environment. We will further outline recent observations regarding pulmonary ILC2 during immune challenge including respiratory infections and discuss different models and approaches to study ILC2 biology in the lung.

  17. 76 FR 19466 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network... Group including on-site leased workers from Reserves Network, Jackson, Ohio. The workers produce...

  18. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Radiosensitization effect by combination with paclitaxel in vivo, including the effect on intratumor quiescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Hori, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Izumi; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Murayama, Chieko

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiosensitization effect on solid tumors upon combination treatment with paclitaxel (TXL), including the effect on intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing SCC VII or EL4 solid tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-irradiation with or without tirapazamine (TPZ) at various time points after TXL administration. Another group of mice received a series of test doses of γ-rays while alive or after tumor clamping to obtain hypoxic fractions (HFs) in the tumors at various time points after TXL administration. Immediately after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 h after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated from the solid tumors in another group of mice, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. For the measurement of the HFs, the MN or apoptosis frequency of Q cells was then used to calculate the surviving fraction of Q cells from the regression line for the relationship between the MN or apoptosis frequency and the surviving fraction of total tumor cells. Results: In both SCC VII and EL4 tumors, maximum values of mitotic index (MI) and apoptosis frequency were observed 9 and 24 h after TXL administration, respectively. However, on the whole, the apoptosis frequency for SCC VII was very low. γ-Irradiation 9 h after TXL administration induced significant radiosensitization effects on the total cells of both tumors. Irradiation at 60 h had a more significant effect on total cells of EL4 tumor, but no significant effect on total cells of SCC VII

  1. Performance of 12Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells of design variable groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1985-01-01

    The design variable program of NASA is a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of 12Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells of 9 important cell designs. These cells were life cycled in a Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) regime for 3 to 4 years. Representative cells taken from the design variable groups after different cycling periods have been examined. The results show that: (1) positive swelling and carbonate content in the electrolyte increases as a function of the number of cycles, (2) electrolyte distribution follows the order NEG greater than POS greater than SEP, 3) control and no PQ groups outperformed the rest of the groups and (4) the polypropylene group shows very heavy cadmium migration and poor performance.

  2. Two-group Current-equivalent Parameters for Control Rod Cells. Autocode Programme CRCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O; Nyman, K

    1962-06-15

    In two-group neutron diffusion calculations there is mostly necessary to describe the influence of control rods by equivalent homogeneous two-group parameters in regions about the control rods. The problem is solved for a control rod in a medium characterized by two-group parameters. The property of fast and thermal neutr. on current equivalence is selected to obtain equivalent two-group parameters for a homogeneous cell with the same radius as the control rod cell. For the parameters determined one obtains the same fast and thermal neutron current into the rod cell and the equivalent cell independent of the fast and thermal flux amplitudes on the cell boundaries. The equivalent parameters are obtained as a solution of a system of transcendental equations. A Ferranti Mercury Autocode performing the solution is described. Calculated equivalent parameters for control rods in a heavy water lattice are given for some representative cases.

  3. Host-cell reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated SV 40 DNA in five complementation groups of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1976-01-01

    Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated double-stranded SV40 DNA was studied in BSC-1 monkey cells, normal human cells, heterozygous Xeroderma pigmentosum xp cells, representative cell strains of the five complemention groups of XP and in XP 'variant' cells. The following percentages of survival of the plaque-forming ability of double-stranded SV40 DNA were found in XP cells compared with the value found in normal monkey and human cells: groupA, 13%; group B, 30%; group C, 18%; group D, 14%; group E, 59%; and in the heterozygous XP cells almost 100%. The survival in XP 'variant' cells was 66%. The survival of single-stranded SV40 DNA in BSC-1 cells was much lower than that of double-stranded SV40 DNA in XP cells of complementation group A, which possibly indicates that some repair of UV damage occurs even in XP cells of group A

  4. Calculation of anisotropic few-group constants in asymptotic cells: the code ANICELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devenyi, A.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical background of the ANICELL computer program together with a user's manual is presented. ANICELL is a nuclear reactor neutron transport code which solves the traditional asymptotic and the so-called tilted flux transport problems in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry using linearly anisotropic scattering. The method of solution used is the first flight collision probability technique. Few-group constants including radial and axial diffusion coefficients for the cell are also prepared by the program. (author)

  5. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  6. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering... reviewed the certification to clarify the subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed...

  7. Development of a fine and ultra-fine group cell calculation code SLAROM-UF for fast reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Sugino, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    A cell calculation code SLAROM-UF has been developed for fast reactor analyses to produce effective cross sections with high accuracy in practical computing time, taking full advantage of fine and ultra-fine group calculation schemes. The fine group calculation covers the whole energy range in a maximum of 900-group structure. The structure is finer above 52.5 keV with a minimum lethargy width of 0.008. The ultra-fine group calculation solves the slowing down equation below 52.5 keV to treat resonance structures directly and precisely including resonance interference effects. Effective cross sections obtained in the two calculations are combined to produce effective cross sections over the entire energy range. Calculation accuracy and improvements from conventional 70-group cell calculation results were investigated through comparisons with reference values obtained with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that SLAROM-UF reduces the difference in k-infinity from 0.15 to 0.01% for a JOYO MK-I fuel subassembly lattice cell calculation, and from - 0.21% to less than a statistical uncertainty of the reference calculation of 0.03% for a ZPPR-10A core criticality calculation. (author)

  8. mCell: Facilitating Mobile Communication of Small Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko T. Tarkiainen; Jonna Häkkilä; Jan Blom; Merja Haveri; Jyri Virtanen

    2008-01-01

    Mobile communication technology offers a potential platform for new types of communication applications. Here, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patt...

  9. Redox reactions for group 5 elements, including element 105, in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionova, G.V.; Pershina, V.; Johnson, E.; Fricke, B.; Schaedel, M.

    1992-08-01

    Standard redox potentials Edeg(M z+x /M z+ ) in acidic solutions for group 5 elements including element 105 (Ha) and the actinide, Pa, have been estimated on the basis of the ionization potentials calculated via the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. Stability of the pentavalent state was shown to increase along the group from V to Ha, while that of the tetra- and trivalent states decreases in this direction. Our estimates have shown no extra stability of the trivalent state of hahnium. Element 105 should form mixed-valence complexes by analogy with Nb due to the similar values of their potentials Edeg(M 3+ /M 2+ ). The stability of the maximum oxidation state of the elements decreases in the direction 103 > 104 > 105. (orig.)

  10. A discrete dopaminergic projection from the incertohypothalamic A13 cell group to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany eMessanvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several findings have indicated an involvement of dopamine in panic and defensive behaviors. The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG is crucially involved in the expression of panic attacks in humans and defensive behaviors, also referred to as panic-like behaviors, in animals. Although the dlPAG is known to receive a specific innervation of dopaminergic fibers and abundantly expresses dopamine receptors, the origin of this dopaminergic input is largely unknown. This study aimed at mapping the dopaminergic projections to the dlPAG in order to provide further insight into the panic-like related behavior circuitry of the dlPAG. For this purpose, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb was injected into the dlPAG of male Wistar rats and double immunofluorescence for CTb and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, was performed. Neurons labeled for both CTb and TH were counted in different dopaminergic cell groups. The findings indicate that the dopaminergic nerve terminals present in the dlPAG originate from multiple dopamine-containing cell groups in the hypothalamus and mesencephalon. Interestingly, the A13 cell group is the main source of dopaminergic afferents to the dlPAG and contains at least 45% of the total number of CTb/TH-positive neurons. Anterograde tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA combined with double immunofluorescence for BDA and TH confirmed the projections from the A13 cell group to the dlPAG. The remainder of the dopamine-positive terminals present in the dlPAG was found to originate from the extended A10 cell group and the A11 group. The A13 cell group is known to send dopaminergic efferents to several other brain regions implicated in defensive behavior, including the central amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, although direct behavioral evidence is lacking, our finding that the A13 cell group is also the main source of dopaminergic

  11. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,411] Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Diamondware, Ltd and Nortel Networks, Inc., Including Workers Working at...

  12. Recognition Strategies of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Romagnani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors (actR) with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediators produced by antigen presenting cells (APC) in the course of the infection. These general recognition strategies, which have been extensively described for innate myeloid cells, are share...

  13. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia González

    Full Text Available The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs, which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories.We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua. High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment.TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies.Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs.

  15. Calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA, is critical for RPE cell survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vohra, Rupali; Westlund, Barbro S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the significance of calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA (iPLA2-VIA), in RPE cell survival following responses to sodium iodate (SI) in cell cultures. METHODS: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line (ARPE-19) cells and primary mouse-RPE cultures were...

  16. 76 FR 2145 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Jackson, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...,287B; TA-W-71,287C] Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Jackson, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Seal Township, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Seaman, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  17. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  18. Homogenisation of a Wigner-Seitz cell in two group diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.R.

    1968-02-01

    Two group diffusion theory is used to develop a theory for the homogenisation of a Wigner-Seitz cell, neglecting azimuthal flux components of higher order than dipoles. An iterative method of solution is suggested for linkage with reactor calculations. The limiting theory for no cell leakage leads to cell edge flux normalisation of cell parameters, the current design method for SGHW reactor design calculations. Numerical solutions are presented for a cell-plus-environment model with monopoles only. The results demonstrate the exact theory in comparison with the approximate recipes of normalisation to cell edge, moderator average, or cell average flux levels. (author)

  19. Lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae by a human cytotoxic T cell clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Robbins, F.; Hartzman, R.J.; Dasch, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytolytic human T cells clones generated in response to the intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi were characterized. Growing clones were tested for their ability to proliferate specifically in response to antigens derived from typhus group rickettsiae or to lyse targets infected with R. typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii, as measured by 51 Cr-release from target cells. Two clones were able to lyse targets infected with typhus group rickettsiae. One of these clones was more fully characterized because of its rapid growth characteristics. This cytolytic clone was capable of lysing an autologous infected target as well as a target matched for class I and II histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA). It was not capable, however, of lysing either a target mismatched for both class I and II HLA or a target partially matched for class I HLA. In addition, the clone exhibited specificity in that it was able to lyse an autologous target infected with typhus group rickettsiae, but did not lyse an autologous target infected with an antigenically distinct rickettsial species, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cells infected with intracellular bacteria can be lysed by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  20. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  1. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  2. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  4. A consistent homogenization procedure to obtain few-group cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1979-01-01

    The criterion, according to which one heterogeneous and one homogeneous cell are equivalent if they have the same boundary values of both the flux and the normal components of the current, is used to homogenize radially an axially infinite cylindrical cell, with azimuth independent properties and moderatur adequately described by diffusion theory. The method, which leads to the definition of a full matrix of diffusion coefficients, provides a new and simple definition of the few-group cell parameters, which are nearly independent of the environment. (orig.) [de

  5. High mobility group A1 protein modulates autophagy in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Andrea; Paladino, Simona; Bianco, Gaia; Fasano, Dominga; Gerlini, Raffaele; Tornincasa, Mara; Renna, Maurizio; Fusco, Alfredo; Tramontano, Donatella; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria

    2017-11-01

    High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural chromatin protein whose overexpression is a feature of malignant neoplasias with a causal role in cancer initiation and progression. HMGA1 promotes tumor growth by several mechanisms, including increase of cell proliferation and survival, impairment of DNA repair and induction of chromosome instability. Autophagy is a self-degradative process that, by providing energy sources and removing damaged organelles and misfolded proteins, allows cell survival under stress conditions. On the other hand, hyper-activated autophagy can lead to non-apoptotic programmed cell death. Autophagy deregulation is a common feature of cancer cells in which has a complex role, showing either an oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity, depending on cellular context and tumor stage. Here, we report that depletion of HMGA1 perturbs autophagy by different mechanisms. HMGA1-knockdown increases autophagosome formation by constraining the activity of the mTOR pathway, a major regulator of autophagy, and transcriptionally upregulating the autophagy-initiating kinase Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1). Consistently, functional experiments demonstrate that HMGA1 binds ULK1 promoter region and negatively regulates its transcription. On the other hand, the increase in autophagosomes is not associated to a proportionate increase in their maturation. Overall, the effects of HMGA1 depletion on autophagy are associated to a decrease in cell proliferation and ultimately impact on cancer cells viability. Importantly, silencing of ULK1 prevents the effects of HMGA1-knockdown on cellular proliferation, viability and autophagic activity, highlighting how these effects are, at least in part, mediated by ULK1. Interestingly, this phenomenon is not restricted to skin cancer cells, as similar results have been observed also in HeLa cells silenced for HMGA1. Taken together, these results clearly indicate HMGA1 as a key regulator of the autophagic pathway in cancer cells

  6. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  7. Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VIII-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Said, J W; Siegel, R J; Fealy, M; Fishbein, M C

    1986-06-01

    Markers for endothelial cells including Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, blood group A, B, and H, and the prostaglandin metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were evaluated in paraffin secretions from formalin-fixed benign and malignant vascular neoplasms using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques, and results compared with staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Staining for Ulex appeared more sensitive than factor VIII-related antigen in identifying poorly differentiated neoplasms including haemangiosarcomas and spindle cell proliferations in Kaposi's sarcoma. Staining for blood group related antigens correlated with blood group in all cases. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin was the only marker for endothelial cells in lymphangiomas.

  8. Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-08

    Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

  9. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  10. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group to be covered by this certification. The intent of the... North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment...

  11. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

  12. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  13. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon, Kathy; Edwards, Jennifer B; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas [1]. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie [2], and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase), with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes

  14. Photoelectrochemical cell including Ga(Sb.sub.x)N.sub.1-x semiconductor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu; Sheetz, Michael; Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Swathi; Jasinski, Jacek B.

    2017-09-05

    The composition of matter comprising Ga(Sb.sub.x)N.sub.1-x where x=0.01 to 0.06 is characterized by a band gap between 2.4 and 1.7 eV. A semiconductor device includes a semiconductor layer of that composition. A photoelectric cell includes that semiconductor device.

  15. Pediatric medulloblastoma xenografts including molecular subgroup 3 and CD133+ and CD15+ cells are sensitive to killing by oncolytic herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gregory K; Moore, Blake P; Nan, Li; Kelly, Virginia M; Etminan, Tina; Langford, Catherine P; Xu, Hui; Han, Xiaosi; Markert, James M; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2016-02-01

    Childhood medulloblastoma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies, including surgery, craniospinal radiation, and chemotherapy. Innate therapeutic resistance of some aggressive pediatric medulloblastoma has been attributed to a subpopulation of cells, termed cancer-initiating cells or cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), marked by the surface protein CD133 or CD15. Brain tumors characteristically contain areas of pathophysiologic hypoxia, which has been shown to drive the CSC phenotype leading to heightened invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Novel therapies that target medulloblastoma CSCs are needed to improve outcomes and decrease toxicity. We hypothesized that oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (oHSV) therapy could effectively infect and kill pediatric medulloblastoma cells, including CSCs marked by CD133 or CD15. Using 4 human pediatric medulloblastoma xenografts, including 3 molecular subgroup 3 tumors, which portend worse patient outcomes, we determined the expression of CD133, CD15, and the primary HSV-1 entry molecule nectin-1 (CD111) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Infectability and cytotoxicity of clinically relevant oHSVs (G207 and M002) were determined in vitro and in vivo by FACS, immunofluorescent staining, cytotoxicity assays, and murine survival studies. We demonstrate that hypoxia increased the CD133+ cell fraction, while having the opposite effect on CD15 expression. We established that all 4 xenografts, including the CSCs, expressed CD111 and were highly sensitive to killing by G207 or M002. Pediatric medulloblastoma, including Group 3 tumors, may be an excellent target for oHSV virotherapy, and a clinical trial in medulloblastoma is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. solving the cell formation problem in group technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla Joglekar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, numerous algorithms have been proposed to solve the work-cell formation problem. For practicing manufacturing managers it would be nice to know as to which algorithm would be most effective and efficient for their specific situation. While several studies have attempted to fulfill this need, most have not resulted in any definitive recommendations and a better methodology of evaluation of cell formation algorithms is urgently needed. Prima facie, the methodology underlying Miltenburg and Zhang's (M&Z (1991 evaluation of nine well-known cell formation algorithms seems very promising. The primary performance measure proposed by M&Z effectively captures the objectives of a good solution to a cell formation problem and is worthy of use in future studies. Unfortunately, a critical review of M&Z's methodology also reveals certain important flaws in M&Z's methodology. For example, M&Z may not have duplicated each algorithm precisely as the developer(s of that algorithm intended. Second, M&Z's misrepresent Chandrasekharan and Rajagopalan's [C&R's] (1986 grouping efficiency measure. Third, M&Z's secondary performance measures lead them to unnecessarily ambivalent results. Fourth, several of M&Z's empirical conclusions can be theoretically deduced. It is hoped that future evaluations of cell formation algorithms will benefit from both the strengths and weaknesses of M&Z's work.

  17. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  18. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  19. Ordered self-assembled monolayers terminated with different chemical functional groups direct neural stem cell linage behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Ying; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been a promising candidate for stem cell-based nerve tissue regeneration. Therefore, the design of idea biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to control stem cell fate is currently a crucial issue that depends on a profound understanding of the interactions between NSCs with the surrounding micro-environment. In this work, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold with different chemical groups, including hydroxyl (−OH), amino (−NH 2 ), carboxyl (−COOH) and methyl (−CH 3 ), were used as a simple model to study the effects of surface chemistry on NSC fate decisions. Contact angle measurement and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) examination implied that all types of alkanethiols self-assembled on gold into a close-packed phase structure with similar molecular densities. In this study, we evaluated NSC adhesion, migration and differentiation in response to different chemical functional groups cultured under serum-free conditions. Our studies showed that NSCs exhibited certain phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to surface chemical groups. Compared with other functional groups, the SAMs with hydroxyl end-groups provided the best micro-environment in promoting NSC migration and maintaining an undifferentiated or neuronal differentiation state.  −NH 2 surfaces directed neural stem cells into astrocytic lineages, while NSCs on  −COOH and  −CH 3 surfaces had a similar potency to differentiate into three nerve lineages. To further investigate the possible signaling pathway, the gene expression of integrin β1 and β4 were examined. The results indicated that a high expression of β1 integrin would probably have a tight correlation with the expression of nestin, which implied the stemness of NSCs, while β4 integrin seemed to correspond to the differentiated NSCs. The results presented here give useful information for the future design of biomaterials to regulate the preservation

  20. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  1. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of Express Personnel Services and the La Salle Network, Bloomingdale, IL; Havi Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL..., applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP, including on-site...

  2. Dual-cell reduction and group effect in an internal microelectrolysis reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Pan, Siwen; Jia, JinPing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2,4-DCP was removed simultaneously in cathode and anode cells in IME reactor. ► Mechanism of dual-cell reduction gave an insight of cathode and anode cells. ► Significant V oc increase with one/two electrodes couples being installed in series. ► Group effect reveals possible high redox potential in IME reactor. -- Abstract: To address some of the fundamental questions regarding the functions of cathodes and anodes (e.g., iron and granular active carbon) and what happens when numerous particles (microscopic galvanic cells) are combined in the widely used and efficient wastewater treatment of an internal microelectrolysis (IME) reactor, we employed a specifically designed dual-cell IME reactor with single-couple electrodes and a narrow cell IME reactor with multi-couple electrodes. The simultaneous removal of 6.36 mg L −1 and 2.93 mg L −1 of 2,4-dichlorophenol within 30 min from the graphite cathode and the iron anode cells, respectively, was observed in the dual-cell reactor. The innovative concept behind this phenomenon is that the anode, which is generally believed to be oxidative, could probably be reductive in an IME reactor. Thus, it is important to understand the unique performance of IME reactors. The group effect, which provides a 45% increase of open-circuit potential with just two additional electrode couples in aqueous solution, was tested and verified in a multi-couple electrode reactor. It suggests a complex potential distribution in the IME reactor and that compounds even with high redox potential could possibly be reduced, which was generally believed to be difficult to accomplish

  3. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  4. Grafted functional groups on expanded tetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) support for fuel cell and water transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Timothy J.; Jiang, Ruichun

    2017-01-24

    A method for forming a modified solid polymer includes a step of contacting a solid fluorinated polymer with a sodium sodium-naphthalenide solution to form a treated fluorinated solid polymer. The treated fluorinated solid polymer is contacted with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or sulfur trioxide to form a solid grafted fluorinated polymer. Characteristically, the grafted fluorinated polymer includes appended CO.sub.2H or SO.sub.2H or SO.sub.3H groups. The solid grafted fluorinated polymer is advantageously incorporated into a fuel cell as part of the ion-conducting membrane or a water transport membrane in a humidifier.

  5. Sub-cell balanced nodal expansion methods using S4 eigenfunctions for multi-group SN transport problems in slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    A highly accurate S 4 eigenfunction-based nodal method has been developed to solve multi-group discrete ordinate neutral particle transport problems with a linearly anisotropic scattering in slab geometry. The new method solves the even-parity form of discrete ordinates transport equation with an arbitrary S N order angular quadrature using two sub-cell balance equations and the S 4 eigenfunctions of within-group transport equation. The four eigenfunctions from S 4 approximation have been chosen as basis functions for the spatial expansion of the angular flux in each mesh. The constant and cubic polynomial approximations are adopted for the scattering source terms from other energy groups and fission source. A nodal method using the conventional polynomial expansion and the sub-cell balances was also developed to be used for demonstrating the high accuracy of the new methods. Using the new methods, a multi-group eigenvalue problem has been solved as well as fixed source problems. The numerical test results of one-group problem show that the new method has third-order accuracy as mesh size is finely refined and it has much higher accuracies for large meshes than the diamond differencing method and the nodal method using sub-cell balances and polynomial expansion of angular flux. For multi-group problems including eigenvalue problem, it was demonstrated that the new method using the cubic polynomial approximation of the sources could produce very accurate solutions even with large mesh sizes. (author)

  6. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell disorders and the concurrent use of some medications such as beta adrenergic ...

  7. Development of a modified prognostic index for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in order to construct a new, large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium levels (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein levels (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors used in the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, median overall survival for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a promising new risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Do ABO blood group antigens hamper the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Guido; Hult, Annika; von Bahr, Lena; Alm, Jessica J; Heldring, Nina; Hamad, Osama A; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Larsson, Stella; Teramura, Yuji; Roelofs, Helene; Nilsson, Bo; Fibbe, Willem E; Olsson, Martin L; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Investigation into predictors for treatment outcome is essential to improve the clinical efficacy of therapeutic multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We therefore studied the possible harmful impact of immunogenic ABO blood groups antigens - genetically governed antigenic determinants - at all given steps of MSC-therapy, from cell isolation and preparation for clinical use, to final recipient outcome. We found that clinical MSCs do not inherently express or upregulate ABO blood group antigens after inflammatory challenge or in vitro differentiation. Although antigen adsorption from standard culture supplements was minimal, MSCs adsorbed small quantities of ABO antigen from fresh human AB plasma (ABP), dependent on antigen concentration and adsorption time. Compared to cells washed in non-immunogenic human serum albumin (HSA), MSCs washed with ABP elicited stronger blood responses after exposure to blood from healthy O donors in vitro, containing high titers of ABO antibodies. Clinical evaluation of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients found only very low titers of anti-A/B agglutination in these strongly immunocompromised patients at the time of MSC treatment. Patient analysis revealed a trend for lower clinical response in blood group O recipients treated with ABP-exposed MSC products, but not with HSA-exposed products. We conclude, that clinical grade MSCs are ABO-neutral, but the ABP used for washing and infusion of MSCs can contaminate the cells with immunogenic ABO substance and should therefore be substituted by non-immunogenic HSA, particularly when cells are given to immunocompentent individuals.

  9. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  10. HAMMER, 1-D Multigroup Neutron Transport Infinite System Cell Calculation for Few-Group Diffusion Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: HAMMER performs infinite lattice, one-dimensional cell multigroup calculations, followed (optionally) by one-dimensional, few-group, multi-region reactor calculations with neutron balance edits. 2 - Method of solution: Infinite lattice parameters are calculated by means of multigroup transport theory, composite reactor parameters by few-group diffusion theory. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - Cell calculations - maxima of: 30 thermal groups; 54 epithermal groups; 20 space points; 20 regions; 18 isotopes; 10 mixtures; 3 thermal up-scattering mixtures; 200 resonances per group; no overlap or interference; single level only. - Reactor calculations - maxima of : 40 regions; 40 mixtures; 250 space points; 4 groups

  11. Small functional groups for controlled differentiation of hydrogel-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Durney, Andrew R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-10-01

    Cell-matrix interactions have critical roles in regeneration, development and disease. The work presented here demonstrates that encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be induced to differentiate down osteogenic and adipogenic pathways by controlling their three-dimensional environment using tethered small-molecule chemical functional groups. Hydrogels were formed using sufficiently low concentrations of tether molecules to maintain constant physical characteristics, encapsulation of hMSCs in three dimensions prevented changes in cell morphology, and hMSCs were shown to differentiate in normal growth media, indicating that the small-molecule functional groups induced differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where synthetic matrices are shown to control induction of multiple hMSC lineages purely through interactions with small-molecule chemical functional groups tethered to the hydrogel material. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful as they could make production of therapeutic materials simpler, cheaper and more easily controlled.

  12. Sensitivity of docetaxel-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells to microtubule-destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and colchicine-site binding agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Wang

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for disease recurrence in the curative breast cancer treatment setting is the development of drug resistance. Microtubule targeted agents (MTAs are among the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of breaset cancer and therefore overcoming taxane resistance is of primary clinical importance. Our group has previously demonstrated that the microtubule dynamics of docetaxel-resistant MCF-7TXT cells are insensitivity to docetaxel due to the distinct expression profiles of β-tubulin isotypes in addition to the high expression of p-glycoprotein (ABCB1. In the present investigation we examined whether taxane-resistant breast cancer cells are more sensitive to microtubule destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and colchicine-site binding agents (CSBAs than the non-resistant cells.Two isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were selected for resistance to docetaxel (MCF-7TXT and the wild type parental cell line (MCF-7CC to examine if taxane-resistant breast cancer cells are sensitive to microtubule-destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and CSBAs. Cytotoxicity assays, immunoblotting, indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging were used to study drug resistance, apoptosis, mitotic arrest, microtubule formation, and microtubule dynamics.MCF-7TXT cells were demonstrated to be cross resistant to vinca alkaloids, but were more sensitive to treatment with colchicine compared to parental non-resistant MCF-7CC cells. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that the IC50 of MCF-7TXT cell to vinorelbine and vinblastine was more than 6 and 3 times higher, respectively, than that of MCF-7CC cells. By contrast, the IC50 of MCF-7TXT cell for colchincine was 4 times lower than that of MCF-7CC cells. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that all MTAs induced the disorganization of microtubules and the chromatin morphology and interestingly each with a unique pattern. In terms of microtubule and chromain morphology, MCF-7TXT cells were

  13. Emergency Department Sickle Cell Assessment of Needs and Strengths (ED-SCANS), a Focus Group and Decision Support Tool Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Paula; Reddin, Christopher; Thornton, Victoria L.; Todd, Knox H.; Wun, Ted; Lyons, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A decision support tool may guide emergency clinicians in recognizing assessment, analgesic and overall management, and health service delivery needs for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to identify data and process elements important in making decisions regarding evaluation and management of adult patients in the ED with painful episodes of sickle cell disease. Methods Qualitative methods using a series of focus groups and grounded theory were used. Eligible participants included adult clients with SCD, and emergency physicians and nurses with a minimum of one year of experience providing care to patients with SCD in the ED. Patients were recruited in conjunction with annual SCD meetings, and providers included clinicians who were and were not affiliated with sickle cell centers. Groups were conducted until saturation was reached, and included a total of two patient groups, three physician groups, and two nurse groups. Focus groups were held in New York, Durham, Chicago, New Orleans, and Denver. Clinician participants were asked the following three questions to guide the discussion: 1) what information would be important to know about patients with SCD in the ED setting to effectively care for them and help you identify patient analgesic, treatment, and referral needs? 2) what treatment decisions would you make with this information? and 3) what characteristics would a decision support tool need to have to make it meaningful and useful? Client participants were asked the same questions with re-wording to reflect what they believed providers should know to provide the best care, and what they should do with the information. All focus groups were audio taped and transcribed. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Two coders independently coded participant responses and identified focal themes based on the key questions. An investigator and assistant independently reviewed the

  14. Polycomb-group genes sustaining the stem cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Polycomb-group genes (PcG) have a role in constituting the cellular memory mechanisms through which the once expressed phenotypes during development are transmitted thereafter and this review describes, together with authors' findings of sustaining hematopoietic stem cell activity by the PcG products, what molecular bases, involving the control of histone code, are concerned in the memory. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the outline of epigenetic control mechanisms of the memory: messages are set up as a histone code in the chromatin and the PcG complex recruited by recognition of the code regulates the chromatin structure leading to DNA transcription and maintenance of the phenotype. Proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo will be possible if exact and detailed mechanisms for PcG are made clear in future. Such ex vivo techniques are especially awaited for marrow remodeling treatment of hematopoietic failure induced by radiation exposure. (T.I.)

  15. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Relevance of blood groups in transfusion of sickle cell disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noizat-Pirenne, France

    2013-03-01

    Blood groups are clinically significant in sickle cell disease (SCD) as transfusion remains a key treatment in this pathology. The occurrence of a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is not rare and is a life-threatening event. The main cause of DHTR is the production of alloantibodies against red blood cell antigens. The high rate of alloimmunization in SCD patients is mainly due to the differences of red blood groups between patients of African descent, and the frequently Caucasian donors. From an immuno-haematological point of view, DHTR in SCD patients has specific features: classical antibodies known to be haemolytic can be encountered, but otherwise non significant antibodies, autoantibodies and antibodies related to partial and rare blood groups are also frequently found in individuals of African descent. In some cases, there are no detectable antibodies. As alloimmunization remains the main cause of DHTR, it is extremely important to promote blood donation by individuals of African ancestry to make appropriate blood available. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Homophilic and Heterophilic Interactions of Type II Cadherins Identify Specificity Groups Underlying Cell-Adhesive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brasch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another. Structures of adhesive fragments from each specificity group confirm near-identical dimer topology conserved throughout the family, allowing interface residues whose conservation corresponds to specificity preferences to be identified. We show that targeted mutation of these residues converts binding preferences between specificity groups in biophysical and co-culture assays. Our results provide a detailed understanding of the type II cadherin interaction map and a basis for defining their role in tissue patterning and for the emerging importance of their heterophilic interactions in neural connectivity. : Type II cadherins are a family of vertebrate cell adhesion proteins expressed primarily in the CNS. Brasch et al. measure binding between adhesive fragments, revealing homophilic and extensive selective heterophilic binding with specificities that define groups of similar cadherins. Structures reveal common adhesive dimers, with residues governing cell-adhesive specificity. Keywords: cell adhesion, crystal structure, hemophilic specificity, heterophilic specificity, neural patterning, synaptic targeting, cadherin

  19. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of "exogenous" signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and "endogenous" host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a "communications hub" in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell-cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  20. Expression and characterization of human group C rotavirus virus-like particles in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Kristina B.; Lin, S.-C.; Humphrey, Charles; Foytich, Kimberly; Esona, Mathew; Wang Yuhuan; Liu, Merry; Jiang Baoming

    2009-01-01

    Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. We expressed the three major capsid proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 of human GpC RV in baculovirus and demonstrated the self-assembly of VP2/6/7 or VP6/7 virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells. We examined a number of parameters, including the kinetics of protein synthesis in different cell lines and media, to optimize the most favorable conditions for the synthesis of recombinant viral proteins and the production of VLPs in Sf9 cells. Hyperimmune serum to VP2/6/7 and VP6/7 VLPs recognized individual recombinant proteins of human GpC RV by Western blot analysis. This serum also showed specific reactivities with the corresponding GpC VLPs but not GpA RV by using immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The ability to produce an unlimited amount of GpC RV antigen and the availability of high quality antibody will allow us to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic assays to better determine the epidemiology and disease burden of GpC RV in humans.

  1. Surface grafting of carboxylic groups onto thermoplastic polyurethanes to reduce cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, P., E-mail: palves@eq.uc.pt [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaiser, Jean-Pierre [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Salk, Natalie [Mikrofertigung – Micro Engineering, Fraunhofer IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, D-288359 Bremen (Germany); Bruinink, Arie [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Sousa, Hermínio C. de; Gil, M.H. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of polymers with other materials is an important issue, being their surface properties clearly crucial. For some important polymer applications, their surfaces have to be modified. Surface modification aims to tailor the surface characteristics of a material for a specific application without affecting its bulk properties. Materials can be surface modified by using biological, chemical or physical methods. The aim of this work was to improve the reactivity of the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material (Elastollan{sup ®}) surface and to make its surface cell repellent by grafting carboxylic groups onto its surface. Two TPU materials were studied: a polyether-based TPU and a polyester-based TPU. The grafting efficiency was evaluated by contact angle measurements and by analytical determination of the COOH groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the membranes surface was performed as well as cell adhesion tests. It was proved that the surfaces of the TPUs membranes were successfully modified and that cell adhesion was remarkably reduced.

  2. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Start here to find information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of polyphosphazene electrolytes including cyclic ether side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Carsten; Luerssen, Bjoern; Lucht, Brett; Janek, Juergen

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and detailed characterization of two polyphosphazene based polymers, including different cyclic ether side groups. The final polymers were obtained by a well-known method employing a living cationic polymerization and subsequent nucleophilic substitution. The synthesized polymers Poly [(1,3-dioxane-5-oxy) (1,3-dioxolane-4-methoxy)phosphazene] (DOPP) and Poly[bis(2-Tetrahydro-3-furanoxy)phosphazene] (THFPP) were mixed with varied amounts of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI) and the interactions between the salt and the polymer chains were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Electrochemical characterization was performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and direct current polarization in the temperature range of 20-60 °C. These measurements were utilized to calculate the lithium transference number (t+), the lithium conductivity (σ) and its activation energy in order to elucidate the lithium transport behavior. Relatively high lithium transference numbers of 0.6 (DOPP) and 0.7 (THFPP) at 60 °C are found and reveal maximum lithium conductivities of 2.8·10-6 Sṡcm-1 and 9.0·10-7 Sṡcm-1 for DOPP and THFPP at 60 °C, respectively.

  4. Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.

  5. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  6. Sodium butyrate stimulates cellular recovery from UV damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, Chikako; Takebe, Hiraku

    1987-01-01

    Possible stimulation of the DNA repair capacity by sodium butyrate in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells was investigated. XP cells belonging to the complementation group F showed considerable stimulation of DNA repair by sodium butyrate in terms of both the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the colony-forming ability after UV irradiation. UDS in XP cells belonging to the complementation group A was not enhanced, while normal cells showed slight enhancement, but less than that of XP F cells. In XP A, XP C, and normal cells, sodium butyrate treatment enhanced the killing effect of UV irradiation. The residual repair capacity in XP F cells appeared to be stimulated by sodium butyrate. (author)

  7. Self-assembled monolayers with different chemical group substrates for the study of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hongji; Yin, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Tian, Weiming; Zhang, Song; Nie, Yongzhan; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important with respect to a number of cell behavoirs, yet remain unclear. In this study, self-assembled monolayers with different terminal chemical groups (hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), animo (-NH 2 ), mercapto (-SH), and methyl (-CH 3 )) were employed as substrates for the culture of MCF-7 cells to examine effects on cell behavior. Cell spreading was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, tallin expression by immunofluorescence, proliferation rate by counting cell numbers, cell cycle by flow cytometry, metabolism by high-performance liquid chromatography and cell migration by live cell imaging. Annexin V-FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and JC-1 assays were performed to determine cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. Our results demonstrate the varied behaviors of MCF-7 cells in response to different chemical groups. Specifically, NH 2 and COOH terminal functional groups promote proliferation, the production of lactic acid and mobility of MCF-7 cells; SH and OH terminal groups enhance the expression and distribution of tallin but result in weak cell proliferation, metabolism, spreading and mobility. These results are meaningful for uncovering the interactions between the ECM and cancer cells; they are potentially useful for designing novel cancer treatment strategies. (paper)

  8. Polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Bacillus cereus group cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Leser, Thomas D.; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2001-01-01

    of the B. cereus group in food and in the environment. Using 16S rDNA as target, a PCR assay for the detection of B. cereus group cells has been developed. Primers specific for the 16S rDNA of the B. cereus group bacteria were selected and used in combination with consensus primers for 165 rDNA as internal...... PCR procedure control. The PCR procedure was optimized with respect to annealing temperature. When DNA from the B. cereus group bacteria was present, the PCR assay yielded a B. cereus specific fragment, while when non-B. cereus prokaryotic DNA was present, the consensus 165 rDNA primers directed...

  9. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Withers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of “exogenous” signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and “endogenous” host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a “communications hub” in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell–cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  10. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R.; Hepworth, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of “exogenous” signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and “endogenous” host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a “communications hub” in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell–cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:29085366

  11. Interim report of the LASL nondestructive testing group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.A.; Bryant, L.

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed include: high-pressure diamond cell work; x-ray fluorescence analysis; shroud of turin; laser fusion target inspection; and scanning electron microscope. Organization charts for the M-1 group are included

  12. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina; Liu Yinghui; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques, such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption enhancement. Since the solar cells avoid using brittle electrodes, the performance of the flexible devices is not affected by the peeling process. We have investigated three different nanostructured grating designs and conclude that gratings with a 500 nm pitch distance have the highest light-trapping efficiency for the selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM), resulting in an enhancement of about 34% on the solar cell efficiency. The presented method can be applied to a large variety of flexible nanostructured devices in future applications. (paper)

  13. Recognition of Core- and Polymerase-derived immunogenic peptides included in novel therapeutic vaccine by T cells from Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Sansas, B; Jiang, J H; Gong, Q M; Jin, G D; Calais, V; Yu, D M; Zhu, M Y; Wei, D; Zhang, D H; Inchauspé, G; Zhang, X X; Zhu, R

    2017-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major public health challenges in the world. Due to a strong interplay between specific T-cell immunity and elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV), efforts to develop novel immunotherapeutics are gaining attention. TG1050, a novel immunotherapy, has shown efficacy in an animal study. To support the clinical development of TG1050 in China, specific immunity to the fusion antigens of TG1050 was assessed in Chinese patients. One hundred and thirty subjects were divided into three groups as CHB patients, HBV spontaneous resolvers, and CHB patients with HBsAg loss after antiviral treatment. HBV-specific T-cell responses to pools of HBV Core or Polymerase genotype D peptides included in TG1050 were evaluated. HBV Core- or Polymerase-specific cells were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the different cohorts. The frequencies and intensities of HBV Core-specific immune responses were significantly lower in CHB patients than in HBsAg loss subjects. In CHB patients, a dominant pool derived from Polymerase (Pol1) was the most immunogenic. CHB patients with low viral loads (Core peptide pool. Overall, genotype D-derived peptides included in TG1050 could raise broad and functional T-cell responses in PBMCs from Chinese CHB patients infected with genotype B/C isolates. Core-specific immunogenic domains appeared as "hot spots" with the capacity to differentiate between CHB vs HBsAg loss subjects. These observations support the extended application and associated immune monitoring of TG1050 in China. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    , such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption......In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques...

  15. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  16. Aplasia versus pancytopenia, including the pure red cell variant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to extend evaluation to the bone marrow and plasma while supplementary imaging ... B lood. Pluripotential stem cell. Early acting molecules, primarily interleukins .... options towards early immunohaematopoietic stem cell allogeneic transplantation. ... Chronic leukaemia, leukaemia, lymphomas; large granular lymphocytic ...

  17. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bhadja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs.

  18. Evaluation of the secretion and release of vascular endothelial growth factor from two-dimensional culture and three-dimensional cell spheroids formed with stem cells and osteoprecursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Lee, Sung-Il; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2018-05-18

    Co-culture has been applied in cell therapy, including stem cells, and has been reported to give enhanced functionality. In this study, stem-cell spheroids were formed in concave micromolds at different ratios of stem cells to osteoprecursor cells, and the amount of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated. Gingiva-derived stem cells and osteoprecursor cells in the amount of 6 × 105 were seeded on a 24-well culture plate or concave micromolds. The ratios of stem cells to osteoprecursor cells included: 0:4 (group 1), 1:3 (group 2), 2:2 (group 3), 3:1 (group 4), and 4:0 (group 5). The morphology of cells in a 2-dimensional culture (groups 1-5) showed a fibroblast-like appearance. The secretion of VEGF increased with the increase in stem cells, and a statistically significant increase was noted in groups 3, 4 and 5 when compared with the media-only group (p cells formed spheroids in concave microwells, and no noticeable change in the morphology was noted with the increase in stem cells. Spheroids containing stem cells were positive for the stem-cell markers SSEA-4. The secretion of VEGF from cell spheroids increased with the increase in stem cells. This study showed that cell spheroids formed with stem cells and osteoprecursor cells with different ratios, using microwells, had paracrine effects on the stem cells. The secretion of VEGF increased with the increase in stem cells. This stem-cell spheroid may be applied for tissue-engineering purposes.

  19. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells remove pyrimidine dimers selectively from the transcribed strand of active genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, J.; van Hoffen, A.; Karcagi, V.; Natarajan, A.T.; van Zeeland, A.A.; Mullenders, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA fragments of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes in primary normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells. Using strand-specific probes, we show that in normal cells, preferential repair of the 5' part of the ADA gene is due to the rapid and efficient repair of the transcribed strand. Within 8 h after irradiation with UV at 10 J m-2, 70% of the pyrimidine dimers in this strand are removed. The nontranscribed strand is repaired at a much slower rate, with 30% dimers removed after 8 h. Repair of the transcribed strand in XP-C cells occurs at a rate indistinguishable from that in normal cells, but the nontranscribed strand is not repaired significantly in these cells. Similar results were obtained for the DHFR gene. In the 3' part of the ADA gene, however, both normal and XP-C cells perform fast and efficient repair of either strand, which is likely to be caused by the presence of transcription units on both strands. The factor defective in XP-C cells is apparently involved in the processing of DNA damage in inactive parts of the genome, including nontranscribed strands of active genes. These findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of UV-induced excision repair and mutagenesis in mammalian cells

  20. 76 FR 61749 - SpectraWatt, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services Hopewell Junction, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... to the production of solar cells for their application in solar panels. The worker group includes on..., during the period of investigation, imports of articles like or directly competitive with solar cells produced by the subject firm have increased, and that the increased imports of solar cells (or like or...

  1. Nucleus retroambiguous projections to lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the male cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Holstege, G

    1997-01-01

    Recently, in the female cat, nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projections have been described as distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement, possibly involved in lordosis behavior. The present study deals with the NRA-lumbosacral pathway in the male cat, Lumbosacral injections of wheat

  2. Algebras of functions on compact quantum groups, Schubert cells and quantum tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levendorskij, S.; Soibelman, Ya.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of Poisson Lie groups on a simple compact group are parametrized by pairs (a, u), where aelement ofR, uelement ofΛ 2 f R , and f R is a real Cartan subalgebra of complexification of Lie algebra of the group in question. In the present article the description of the symplectic leaves for all pairs (a, u) is given. Also, the corresponding quantized algebras of functions are constructed and their irreducible representations are described. In the course of investigation Schubert cells and quantum tori appear. At the end of the article the quantum analog of the Weyl group is constructed and some of its applications, among them the formula for the universal R-matrix, are given. (orig.)

  3. Advances in the theory and application of BSF cells. [including electrical resistivity and photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of p(+), p solar cells were investigated. The p(+), p cells were made by the removal of the n(+) surface layers from n(+), p p(+), BSF cells followed by application of a suitable contact to the resultant p(+), p structures. The open circuit voltage of p(+), p cells was found to increase with increasing 'p' bulk resistivity. The measured open circuit velocity-temperature coefficients were positive and increased with increasing resistivity. An outline of prior limitations in solar cell design is presented, and the removal of these limitations through use of BSF effects is pointed out. The study of BSF effects made feasible production of very thin high efficiency silicon cells as well as high resistivity-high efficiency cells, two desirable types of silicon cells which were previously impossible to make.

  4. ABO blood groups and malaria related clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa; Alwar, Vanamala A; Rameshkumar, Karuna; Ross, Cecil

    2011-03-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate the blood groups and clinical presentations in malaria patients and to understand the differential host susceptibility in malaria. From October 2007 to September 2008, malaria positive patients' samples were evaluated in this study. Hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, and platelet count of each patient were done on an automated cell counter. After determining the blood groups, malarial species and the severity of clinical course were correlated. A total of 100 patients were included in the study, of which 63 cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and 37 cases were positive for P. vivax infection and 11 patients had mixed infection. The results of the blood groups showed 22 - 'A' group, 42 - 'B' group, 35 - 'O' group and 1 was 'AB' group. When the clinical courses between different groups were compared using the following parameters for severe infection--a parasitic load of >10/1000 RBCs, severe anemia with hemoglobin 101°F and other organ involvement, it was observed that 'O' group had an advantage over other the groups. The difference in rosetting ability between red blood cells of different 'ABO' blood groups with a diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells was due to the differential host susceptibility. 'O' group had an advantage over the other three blood groups. Based on literature and the results of this study, the diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells is suggested as the basis for the differential host susceptibility.

  5. A 3.0-kb deletion including an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 of the ABO blood group gene in an individual with the Bm phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, R; Kuboya, E; Nakajima, T; Takahashi, Y; Takahashi, K; Kubo, R; Kominato, Y; Takeshita, H; Yamao, H; Kishida, T; Isa, K; Ogasawara, K; Uchikawa, M

    2015-04-01

    We developed a sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR) for detection of a 5.8-kb deletion (B(m) 5.8) involving an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 of the ABO blood group gene. Using this SSP-PCR, we performed genetic analysis of 382 individuals with Bm or ABm. The 5.8-kb deletion was found in 380 individuals, and disruption of the GATA motif in the regulatory element was found in one individual. Furthermore, a novel 3.0-kb deletion involving the element (B(m) 3.0) was demonstrated in the remaining individual. Comparisons of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in intron 1 between B(m) 5.8 and B(m) 3.0 suggested that these deletions occurred independently. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godthelp, Barbara C. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Buul, Paul P.W. van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J. [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Arwert, Fre [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joenje, Hans [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands) and Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum, N.Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz (Poland)]. E-mail: M.Z.Zdzienicka@LUMC.nl

    2006-10-10

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway.

  7. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godthelp, Barbara C.; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J.; Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam; Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Arwert, Fre; Joenje, Hans; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.

    2006-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway

  8. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  9. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  10. Group cell phones are feasible and acceptable for promoting optimal breastfeeding practices in a women's microcredit program in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Negerie, Mekebeb; Yakubu, Danjuma; Leatherman, Sheila; Bentley, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    As part of a breastfeeding promotion intervention trial in Nigeria, we provided one cell phone per group of 5-7 microcredit clients and instructed the group's cell phone recipient to share weekly breastfeeding voice and text messages with group members. We measured the feasibility and acceptability of using group cell phones by conducting semi-structured exit interviews with 195 microcredit clients whose babies were born during the intervention (target group), in-depth interviews with eight phone recipients and nine non-phone recipients, and 16 focus group discussions with other microcredit clients. Women in the target group said the group phone worked well or very well (64%). They were motivated to try the recommended practices because they trusted the information (58%) and had support from others (35%). Approximately 44% of target women reported that their groups met and shared messages at least once a week. Women in groups that met at least weekly had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.6, 19.7) than women in groups that never met. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions indicated that non-phone recipients had positive feelings towards phone recipients, the group phone met participants' needs, and messages were often shared outside the group. In conclusion, group cell phone messaging to promote breastfeeding among microcredit clients is feasible and acceptable and can be part of an effective behaviour change package. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High Glucose-Induced PC12 Cell Death by Increasing Glutamate Production and Decreasing Methyl Group Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High glucose- (HG- induced neuronal cell death is responsible for the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the effect of HG on metabolism in neuronal cells is still unclear. Materials and Methods. The neural-crest derived PC12 cells were cultured for 72 h in the HG (75 mM or control (25 mM groups. We used NMR-based metabolomics to examine both intracellular and extracellular metabolic changes in HG-treated PC12 cells. Results. We found that the reduction in intracellular lactate may be due to excreting more lactate into the extracellular medium under HG condition. HG also induced the changes of other energy-related metabolites, such as an increased succinate and creatine phosphate. Our results also reveal that the synthesis of glutamate from the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine and valine may be enhanced under HG. Increased levels of intracellular alanine, phenylalanine, myoinositol, and choline were observed in HG-treated PC12 cells. In addition, HG-induced decreases in intracellular dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, and 3-methylhistidine may indicate a downregulation of methyl group metabolism. Conclusions. Our metabolomic results suggest that HG-induced neuronal cell death may be attributed to a series of metabolic changes, involving energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, osmoregulation and membrane metabolism, and methyl group metabolism.

  12. Leptospira interrogans causes quantitative and morphological disturbances in adherens junctions and other biological groups of proteins in human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1) extracellular matrix, 2) intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3) intracellular proteins, 4) cell-cell junction proteins, and 5) a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins) and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or pathways

  13. Leptospira interrogans causes quantitative and morphological disturbances in adherens junctions and other biological groups of proteins in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromi; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1) extracellular matrix, 2) intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3) intracellular proteins, 4) cell-cell junction proteins, and 5) a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins) and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or pathways

  14. Leptospira interrogans causes quantitative and morphological disturbances in adherens junctions and other biological groups of proteins in human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Sato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1 extracellular matrix, 2 intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3 intracellular proteins, 4 cell-cell junction proteins, and 5 a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or

  15. The primary immune response to Vaccinia virus vaccination includes cells with a distinct cytotoxic effector CD4 T-cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, C Mee Ling; van Bockel, David; Bailey, Michelle; Ip, Susanna; Xu, Yin; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Liu, Sue Min; Denyer, Gareth; Kaplan, Warren; Suzuki, Kazuo; Croft, Nathan; Purcell, Anthony; Tscharke, David; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Zaunders, John J; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2016-10-17

    Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans. VV-specific T-cells were identified by up-regulation of activation markers directly ex vivo and through cytokine and co-stimulatory molecule expression. At day-13-post primary inoculation with VV, CD38highCD45RO+ CD4 T-cells were purified by cell sorting, RNA isolated and analysed by microarray. Differential expression of up-regulated genes in activated CD4 T-cells was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. We compared analyses of VV-specific CD4 T-cells to studies on 12 subjects with primary HIV infection (PHI). VV-specific T-cells lines were established from PBMCs collected post vaccination and checked for cytotoxicity potential. A median 11.9% CD4 T-cells were CD38highCD45RO+ at day-13 post-VV inoculation, compared to 3.0% prior and 10.4% during PHI. Activated CD4 T-cells had an up-regulation of genes related to cytolytic function, including granzymes K and A, perforin, granulysin, TIA-1, and Rab27a. No difference was seen between CD4 T-cell expression of perforin or TIA-1 to VV and PHI, however granzyme k was more dominant in the VV response. At 25:1 effector to target ratio, two VV-specific T-cell lines exhibited 62% and 30% cytotoxicity respectively and CD107a degranulation. We show for the first time that CD4 CTL are prominent in the early response to VV. Understanding the role of CD4 CTL in the generation of an effective anti-viral memory may help develop more effective vaccines for diseases such as HIV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Notochord cells enhance proliferation and phenotype-keeping of intervertebral disc chondroid cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianfeng; Liu, Hao; Feng, Ganjun; Deng, Li; Li, Xiuqun; Liang, Tao

    2008-08-01

    To isolate and culture the chondroid cells and notochord cells from New Zealand rabbit immature nucleus pulposus (NP) in monolayer, and to evaluate the responsiveness of rabbit disc-derived chondroid cells to notochord cells with respect to cell proliferation and phenotype. The NP cells were released from the minced immature NP of 6 New Zealand rabbits (4-week-old) by 0.2% collagenase II digestion. The chondroid cells and notochord cells were purified by discontinuous gradient density centrifugation. The chondroid cells were cultured alone (group A) and co-cultured with notochord cells (group B) (1:1), and cell proliferation and phenotype including proteoglycan and collagen II were evaluated. The cells in both groups were observed by the inverted microscope, and the survival rates of the primary and passage cells were detected by toluidine blue staining. The growth curves of the second passage cells in both groups were determined by MTT. Besides, the expressions of proteoglycan and collagen II of the primary and passage cells were examined by toluidine blue and immunocytochemistry staining. The notochord cells and chondroid cells were isolated and purified. With the diameter of 10-15 microm, the notochord cell had abundant intracytoplasmic vesicles, while the chondroid cell, with the diameter of 4-6 microm, had no intracytoplasmic vesicle. The cell survival rate was 89.0%-95.3% in group A and 91.3%-96.3% in group B. There was no significant difference between the same passages in both groups (P > 0.05). The co-cultured cells (group B) increased in cell proliferation compared with the chondroid cells alone (group A) in repeated experiments. The cells in group A reached their logarithmic growth phase after 3-4 days of culture, while the cells in group B did after 2 days of culture. The cell proliferation in group B was more than that in group A after 4-day culture (P notochord cells are conducive for the proliferation and phenotype-keeping of the chondroid cells and

  17. Repair of ultraviolet radiation damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Ishizaki, K.; Yagi, T.; Takebe, H.; Inoue, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kyoto Univ.

    1981-01-01

    DNA-repair characteristics of xeroderma pigmentosum belonging to complementation group F were investigated. The cells exhibited an intermediate level of repair as measured in terms of (1) disappearance of T4 endonuclease-V-susceptible sites from DNA, (2) formation of ultraviolet-induced strand breaks in DNA, and (3) ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis during post-irradiation incubation. The impaired ability of XP3YO to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis was restored, to half the normal level, by the concomitant treatment with T4 endonuclease V and ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. It is suggested that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group F may be defective, at least in part, in the incision step of excision repair. (orig.)

  18. Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut

    2017-11-16

    Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.

  19. Readthrough of stop codons by use of aminoglycosides in cells from xeroderma pigmentosum group C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschal, Christiane; Khan, Sikandar G; Enk, Benedikt; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Readthrough of premature termination (stop) codons (PTC) is a new approach to treatment of genetic diseases. We recently reported that readthrough of PTC in cells from some xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) patients could be achieved with the aminoglycosides geneticin or gentamicin. We found that the response depended on several factors including the PTC sequence, its location within the gene and the aminoglycoside used. Here, we extended these studies to investigate the effects of other aminoglycosides that are already on the market. We reasoned that topical treatment could deliver much higher concentrations of drug to the skin, the therapeutic target, and thus increase the therapeutic effect while reducing renal or ototoxicity in comparison with systemic treatment. Our prior clinical studies indicated that only a few percent of normal XPC expression was associated with mild clinical disease. We found minimal cell toxicity in the XP-C cells with several aminoglycosides. We found increased XPC mRNA expression in PTC-containing XP-C cells with G418, paromomycin, neomycin and kanamycin and increased XPC protein expression with G418. We conclude that in selected patients with XP, topical PTC therapy can be investigated as a method of personalized medicine to alleviate their cutaneous symptoms. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Intracellular high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1) represses HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, Mojgan H.; Nowak, Piotr; Andersson, Jan; Soennerborg, Anders; Yang Huan; Tracey, Kevin J.; Vahlne, Anders

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the high mobility group B 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein in all mammalian cells, affects HIV-1 transcription. Intracellular expression of human HMGB1 repressed HIV-1 gene expression in epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect of HMGB1 was caused by repression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription. Other viral promoters/enhancers, including simian virus 40 or cytomegalovirus, were not inhibited by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C expression was dependent on the number of NFκB sites in the LTR region. The inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on viral gene expression observed in HeLa cells was confirmed by an upregulation of viral replication in the presence of antisense HMGB1 in monocytic cells. In contrast to what was found in HeLa cells and monocytic cells, endogenous HMGB1 expression did not affect HIV-1 replication in unstimulated Jurkat cells. Thus, intracellular HMGB1 affects HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

  2. HLA-DRB1*16-restricted recognition of myeloid cells, including CD34+ CML progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebeling, Saskia B.; Ivanov, Roman; Hol, Samantha; Aarts, Tineke I.; Hagenbeek, Anton; Verdonck, Leo F.; Petersen, Eefke J.

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for the treatment of haematological malignancies is mediated partly by the allogeneic T cells that are administered together with the stem cell graft. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

  3. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  4. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prognosis, and treatment for these diseases.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhen, Haining; Jiang, Xinbiao; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xin; Guo, Geng; Mao, Xinggang; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [ 60 Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [ 60 Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine)-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM). The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [ 60 Co] γ-rays (P < 0.01). Nuclear condensation was determined using both a fluorescence technique and electron microscopy in all cell lines treated with BPA-BNCT. Furthermore, the cellular apoptotic rates in Group D and Group E treated with

  7. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  8. Simulation of E. coli gene regulation including overlapping cell cycles, growth, division, time delays and noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Luo

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of biological systems, simulation of biological networks is necessary but sometimes complicated. The classic stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA by Gillespie and its modified versions are widely used to simulate the stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction systems. However, it has remained a challenge to implement accurate and efficient simulation algorithms for general reaction schemes in growing cells. Here, we present a modeling and simulation tool, called 'GeneCircuits', which is specifically developed to simulate gene-regulation in exponentially growing bacterial cells (such as E. coli with overlapping cell cycles. Our tool integrates three specific features of these cells that are not generally included in SSA tools: 1 the time delay between the regulation and synthesis of proteins that is due to transcription and translation processes; 2 cell cycle-dependent periodic changes of gene dosage; and 3 variations in the propensities of chemical reactions that have time-dependent reaction rates as a consequence of volume expansion and cell division. We give three biologically relevant examples to illustrate the use of our simulation tool in quantitative studies of systems biology and synthetic biology.

  9. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  10. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  11. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  12. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  13. The Poincar group in a demisemidirect product with a non-associative algebra with representations that Include particles and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2008-01-01

    The quarks have always been a puzzle, as have the particles' mass and mass/spin relations as they seemed to have no coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space. The solution to this seems to lie in the marriage of ordinary Poincare group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product. Then, the work of G. Dixon applies; so, we may obtain all the relations between masses, mass and spin, and the attribution of position and momentum to quarks--this in spite of the old restriction that the Poincare group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will briefly discuss a possible connection between the phase space representations of the Poincare group and the phase space representations of the object we will obtain. This will take us into Leibniz (co)homology.

  14. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...... and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification...

  15. Human chromosome 9 can complement UV sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanji; Sasaki, Masao S.; Ikenaga, Mituo; Nakamura, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    A single human chromosome derived from normal human fibroblasts and tagged with the G418 resistance gene was transferred into SV40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) cells via microcell fusion. When chromosome 1 or 12 was transferred, UV sensitivity of microcell hybrid cells was not changed. By contrast, after transferring chromosome 9,7 of 11 reipient clones were as UV-resistant as normal human cells. Four other clones were still as UV-sensitive as the parental XP-A cells. Southern hybridization analysis using a polymorphic probe, pEKZ19.3, which is homologous to a sequence of the D9S17 locus on chromosome 9, has confirmed that at least a part of normal human chromosome 9 was transferred into the recipient clones. However, amounts iof UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the UV-resistant clones were only one-third of those in normal human cells. These results indicate that a gene on chromosome 9 can confer complementation of high UV sensitivity of XP-A cells although it is still possible that 2 or more genes might be involved in the defective-repair phenotypes of XP-A. (author). 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Integrating the health and mental health needs of the chronically ill: a group for individuals with depression and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Edna W

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about high rates of depression among persons with sickle cell disease and no effective interventions for treatment of this condition were the impetuses for the study described in this paper. A groupwork service using cognitive-behavioral and self-management techniques were integrated into health care services at a Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center to treat depression in a small group of patients. An interdisciplinary team that included health care and mental health providers from the Center and a social work researcher guided the endeavor. Principles of Intervention Research were applied in the development of the service and to evaluate its effectiveness. Among the findings were that study participants realized a decrease in depressive symptoms.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of two radioiodinated maleimide derivatives targeting peripheral and membrane sulfhydryl groups for in vitro cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amartey, John K., E-mail: amarjk48@hotmail.co [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Parhar, Ranjit S. [Biological and Medical Research Department, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Shi, Yufei [Genetics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mohanna, Futwan [Biological and Medical Research Department, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    A factor impeding the advancement of cell mediated therapy is the inability to track these cells in vivo by noninvasive techniques. It has been shown that cells express high levels of sulfhydryl groups. We sought to explore these groups to covalently label cells with radiolabeled maleimide derivatives. Two maleimide derivatives; N-[2-(2,5-dioxoazolinyl)ethyl](5-iodo(3-pyridyl))carboxamide and N-[2-(2,5-dioxoazolinyl)ethyl](3-iodophenyl)carboxamide ([{sup 125}I]-4 and [{sup 125}I]-8) were synthesized and radioiodinated. These compounds were evaluated for in vitro binding to neutrophils, endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells, and biodistribution of the radiolabeled stem cells in nude mice. These radiotracers were obtained in moderate to high radiochemical yields. Binding to cells were moderate (20-60%/10{sup 6} cells) and the label was retained, although washout (an average of 18-55%) was observed depending on the cell type and the tracer used. The labeled cells initially localized in well perfused organs and at a later time showed a general distribution as expected. The novel tracers labeled several cell types and shown that the stability of the label and viability of the cells were maintained in vitro and in vivo for a reasonable period and warrant further in vivo investigation.

  18. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  19. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  20. Protective effect of Sestrin2 on apoptosis of dendritic cells induced by high mobility group box-1 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xue WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the potential role of Sestrin2 (SESN2 in regulating the apoptosis of dendritic cells (DCs induced by high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1. Methods DCs (the murine DC cell line DC2.4 were cultured with or without HMGB1 stimulation (cultured with 10ng/ml HMGB1 for 8, 24 and 48 hours, or cultured with HMGB1 for 48 hours at different concentrations of 1, 10 and 100ng/ml, respectively, n=4. The protein level of SESN2, cleaved-caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were analyzed with Western blotting. Localization of SESN2 in cells was observed under confocal laser microscope (LSCM. Cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, DC2.4 cells were transfected with lentivirus containing SESN2 LV-RNA, SESN2 siRNA sequence expressing plasmids or blank vector (NC, NS, n=4. These cells were then stimulated with HMGB1 (100ng/ml for 48 hours, and the apoptosis was accessed as mentioned above. Results Compared with the control group, the expression of SESN2 was obviously up-regulated after HMGB1 (10ng/ml stimulation for 24 and 48 hours (P<0.05. In a dose-dependent response, the expression of SESN2 was markedly enhanced in treatment with 1, 10, 100ng/ml HMGB1 for 48 hours (P<0.05. Compared with the control group (7.35%±1.33%, the percentage of apoptosis was significantly increased with 10, 100ng/ml HMGB1 for 48 hours [(17.02%±4.85%, 17.48%±4.04%, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01]. After transfection, compared with blank vector group, the apoptosis of SESN2 siRNA group obviously elevated [(65.96%±2.50% vs. (50.01%±2.07%, P<0.05], and cleaved-caspase-3 expression significantly increased while Bcl-2 expression obviously decreased. In SESN2 LV-RNA group, the apoptosis significantly decreased [(35.57%±1.69% vs. (49.04%±4.87%, P<0.05], and cleaved-caspase-3 expression decreased and Bcl-2 expression obviously increased compared with blank vector group (P<0.05. Conclusion SESN2 has a protective effect against HMGB1 induced apoptosis of DC2

  1. 76 FR 35025 - Nokia, Inc.; a Subsidiary of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and Electronics and Adecco Fort... workers from ATC Logistics and Electronics, Fort Worth, Texas. The workers supplied planning and materials... ATC Logistics and Electronics, and Adecco, Fort Worth, Texas, who became totally or partially...

  2. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Rudisill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years, sexes, races (White, African American, or other, ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban, and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Methods Data from the 2008–2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states’ cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. Results When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, <0.0001 and regions (p-value, 0.0003. Compared to states without universal hand-held cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55 for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38 for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72 in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66 in the South. Conclusions The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  3. Challenges and opportunities for international cooperative studies in pediatric hematopoeitic cell transplantation: priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Rudolph Kirk R; Baker, Kevin Scott; Boelens, Jaap J; Bollard, Catherine M; Egeler, R Maarten; Cowan, Mort; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lankester, Arjan; Locatelli, Franco; Lawitschka, Anita; Levine, John E; Loh, Mignon; Nemecek, Eneida; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Prasad, Vinod K; Rocha, Vanderson; Shenoy, Shalini; Strahm, Brigitte; Veys, Paul; Wall, Donna; Bader, Peter; Grupp, Stephan A; Pulsipher, Michael A; Peters, Christina

    2013-09-01

    More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation's Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Children's Oncology Group's Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrophysiological heterogeneity of pacemaker cells in the rabbit intercaval region, including the SA node: insights from recording multiple ion currents in each cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Tsutsui, Kenta; Ziman, Bruce; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells, including cells of the sinoatrial node, are heterogeneous in size, morphology, and electrophysiological characteristics. The exact extent to which these cells differ electrophysiologically is unclear yet is critical to understanding their functioning. We examined major ionic currents in individual intercaval pacemaker cells (IPCs) sampled from the paracristal, intercaval region (including the sinoatrial node) that were spontaneously beating after enzymatic isolation from rabbit hearts. The beating rate was measured at baseline and after inhibition of the Ca 2+ pump with cyclopiazonic acid. Thereafter, in each cell, we consecutively measured the density of funny current ( I f ), delayed rectifier K + current ( I K ) (a surrogate of repolarization capacity), and L-type Ca 2+ current ( I Ca,L ) using whole cell patch clamp . The ionic current densities varied to a greater extent than previously appreciated, with some IPCs demonstrating very small or zero I f . The density of none of the currents was correlated with cell size, while I Ca,L and I f densities were related to baseline beating rates. I f density was correlated with I K density but not with that of I Ca,L . Inhibition of Ca 2+ cycling had a greater beating rate slowing effect in IPCs with lower I f densities. Our numerical model simulation indicated that 1) IPCs with small (or zero) I f or small I Ca,L can operate via a major contribution of Ca 2+ clock, 2) I f -Ca 2+ -clock interplay could be important for robust pacemaking function, and 3) coupled I f - I K function could regulate maximum diastolic potential. Thus, we have demonstrated marked electrophysiological heterogeneity of IPCs. This heterogeneity is manifested in basal beating rate and response to interference of Ca 2+ cycling, which is linked to I f . NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the present study, a hitherto unrecognized range of heterogeneity of ion currents in pacemaker cells from the intercaval region is demonstrated

  5. Phage T4 endonuclease V stimulates DNA repair replication in isolated nuclei from ultraviolet-irradiated human cells, including xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The repair mode of DNA replication has been demonstrated in isolated nuclei from uv-irradiated human cells. Nuclei are incubated in a mixture containing [ 3 H]thymidine triphosphate and bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate in a 1:5 ratio. The 3 H at the density of parental DNA in alkaline CsCl density gradients is then a measure of repair. In nuclei prepared from WI38 cells 30 min after irradiation, repair replication is uv-dependent and proceeds at approximately the in vivo rate for 5 min. Repair replication is reduced in irradiated nuclei or in nuclei prepared immediately after irradiation. It is Mg 2+ -dependent and stimulated by added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. No repair replication is observed in nuclei from xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group A) cells. However, upon addition of coliphage T4 endonuclease V, which specifically nicks DNA containing pyrimidine dimers, repair replication is observed in nuclei from irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum cells and is stimulated in WI38 nuclei. The reaction then persists for an hour and is dependent upon added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The repair label is in stretches of roughly 35 nucleotides, as it is in intact cells. Added pancreatic DNase does not promote uv-dependent repair synthesis. Our results support the view that xeroderma pigmentosum (group A) cells are defective in the incision step of the DNA excision repair pathway, and demonstrate the utility of this system for probing DNA repair mechanisms

  6. cell-derived IFN-γ downregulates protective group 2 innate lymphoid cells in murine lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düster, Mathis; Becker, Martina; Gnirck, Ann-Christin; Wunderlich, Malte; Panzer, Ulf; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2018-04-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators of the immune response and play a crucial role in the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury. GATA-3 + IL-13- and IL-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been shown to promote tissue repair in barrier organs, but despite extensive research on ILCs in the recent years, their potential role in autoimmune diseases is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of ILC2s in the MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr (MRL-lpr) mouse model for severe organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We show that in these MRL-lpr mice, progression of lupus nephritis is accompanied with a reduction of ILC2 abundance in the inflamed renal tissue. Proliferation/survival and cytokine production of kidney-residing ILC2s was suppressed by IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent, by IL-27 which were produced by activated T cells and myeloid cells in the nephritic kidney, respectively. Most importantly, restoration of ILC2 numbers by IL-33-mediated expansion ameliorated lupus nephritis and prevented mortality in MRL-lpr mice. In summary, we show here that development of SLE-like kidney inflammation leads to a downregulation of the renal ILC2 response and identify an ILC2-expanding therapy as a promising treatment approach for autoimmune diseases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Polycomb Group Protein YY1 Is an Essential Regulator of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanping Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Yin yang 1 (YY1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor and mammalian polycomb group protein (PcG with important functions to regulate embryonic development, lineage differentiation, and cell proliferation. YY1 mediates stable PcG-dependent transcriptional repression via recruitment of PcG proteins that catalyze histone modifications. Many questions remain unanswered regarding how cell- and tissue-specificity is achieved by PcG proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a conditional knockout of Yy1 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs decreases long-term repopulating activity and ectopic YY1 expression expands HSCs. Although the YY1 PcG domain is required for Igκ chain rearrangement in B cells, the YY1 mutant lacking the PcG domain retained the capacity to stimulate HSC self-renewal. YY1 deficiency deregulated the genetic network governing HSC cell proliferation and impaired stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling, disrupting mechanisms conferring HSC quiescence. These results reveal a mechanism for how a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional repressor mediates lineage-specific functions to control adult hematopoiesis.

  8. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the blood group ABO gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Worm, Jesper; Guldberg, Per

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also....... Collectively, we have identified molecular events that may account for loss of A/B antigen expression in 67% of oral squamous cell carcinomas....

  9. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  10. Introduction of functionalizable groups via radiation grafting into polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Y.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A.; Gubler, L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Our work is focused on the introduction of functionalizable groups, so called linkers, to polymer electrolyte membranes. The aim is to attach antioxidant groups to the linkers to enhance the durability of the proton conducting membrane in a fuel cell. The synthetic route we chose is radiation cografting of functionalizable monomers and precursor monomers of a protogenic group into ETFE base film (thickness 25 μm) with subsequent amination. Typically, we performed cografting of styrene with different linkers, such as acryloyl chloride, vinylbenzyl chloride, and glycidyl methacrylate. Styrene is readily sulfonated to introduce proton conductivity. The cografting behavior of the linkers and styrene was investigated to target the desired molar fraction of the monomers in the grafted polymer. All films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Using these data the graft polymerization kinetics of these systems have been determined. The cografted films were first functionalized with amines, such as thyramine and dopamine, and then sulfonated or vice-versa, depending on the stability of the compounds in acidic environment. The synthesized membranes were characterized for conductivity and ion exchange capacity (IEC). Promising membranes were tested in a fuel cell.

  11. Summary Report of Working Group 2: Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, P. H.; Tsung, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The working group on computation addressed three physics areas: (i) plasma-based accelerators (laser-driven and beam-driven), (ii) high gradient structure-based accelerators, and (iii) electron beam sources and transport [1]. Highlights of the talks in these areas included new models of breakdown on the microscopic scale, new three-dimensional multipacting calculations with both finite difference and finite element codes, and detailed comparisons of new electron gun models with standard models such as PARMELA. The group also addressed two areas of advances in computation: (i) new algorithms, including simulation in a Lorentz-boosted frame that can reduce computation time orders of magnitude, and (ii) new hardware architectures, like graphics processing units and Cell processors that promise dramatic increases in computing power. Highlights of the talks in these areas included results from the first large-scale parallel finite element particle-in-cell code (PIC), many order-of-magnitude speedup of, and details of porting the VPIC code to the Roadrunner supercomputer. The working group featured two plenary talks, one by Brian Albright of Los Alamos National Laboratory on the performance of the VPIC code on the Roadrunner supercomputer, and one by David Bruhwiler of Tech-X Corporation on recent advances in computation for advanced accelerators. Highlights of the talk by Albright included the first one trillion particle simulations, a sustained performance of 0.3 petaflops, and an eight times speedup of science calculations, including back-scatter in laser-plasma interaction. Highlights of the talk by Bruhwiler included simulations of 10 GeV accelerator laser wakefield stages including external injection, new developments in electromagnetic simulations of electron guns using finite difference and finite element approaches.

  12. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  13. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  14. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  15. High-efficiency organic solar cells based on end-functional-group-modified poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Ji Hwang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea); Lee, Youngmin; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin Kon; Cho, Kilwon [Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea)

    2010-03-26

    Photovoltaic devices of end-functional-group-modified poly 3-(hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are fabricated with thermal annealing. The surface energies between donor and acceptor were matched by varying the end group, which can be used to control vertical and horizontal phase separation in the active layer, leading mixed nanomorphology with optimized phase separation, low series resistance, and high performance for solar cell devices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  17. "Spider"-shaped porphyrins with conjugated pyridyl anchoring groups as efficient sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G

    2014-11-17

    Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime.

  18. A comparative study of cross sections at few energy groups for thermal reactors fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Prati, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study of nuclear constant calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author)

  19. Necrotic enlargement of cone photoreceptor cells and the release of high-mobility group box-1 in retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Y; Ikeda, Y; Nakatake, S; Tachibana, T; Fujiwara, K; Yoshida, N; Notomi, S; Nakao, S; Hisatomi, T; Miller, J W; Vavvas, DG; Sonoda, KH; Ishibashi, T

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerations resulting form rod and cone photoreceptor cell death. The rod cell death due to deleterious genetic mutations has been shown to occur mainly through apoptosis, whereas the mechanisms and features of the secondary cone cell death have not been fully elucidated. Our previous study showed that the cone cell death in rd10 mice, an animal model of RP, involves necrotic features and is partly mediated by the receptor interacting protein kinase. However, the relevancy of necrotic cone cell death in human RP patients remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that dying cone cells in rd10 mice exhibited cellular enlargement, along with necrotic changes such as cellular swelling and mitochondrial rupture. In human eyes, live imaging of cone cells by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy revealed significantly increased percentages of enlarged cone cells in the RP patients compared with the control subjects. The vitreous of the RP patients contained significantly higher levels of high-mobility group box-1, which is released extracellularly associated with necrotic cell death. These findings suggest that necrotic enlargement of cone cells is involved in the process of cone degeneration, and that necrosis may be a novel target to prevent or delay the loss of cone-mediated central vision in RP. PMID:27551484

  20. One-group transport theory calculation for three slabs cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, C.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    As an idealized model of plate type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors, three-slab cells are analysed numerically based on the exact solution of the transport equation in the one-group isotropic scattering model. From the equations describing the interface conditions, a set of regular integral equations for the coefficients of the singular eigenfunctions expansions is derived using the half-range orthogonality relations of the eigenfunctions and the recently developed method of regularization. Numerical solutions are obtained by solving this set of equations iteratively. The thermal utilization factor and thermal disadvantage factors as well as flux and current distributions are reported for the first time for various sets of parameters. The accuracy of the P sub(N) approximations is also analysed compared to the exact results. (Author) [pt

  1. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  2. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Lynn, E-mail: lmillion@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  3. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  4. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  5. Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)

  6. A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin O-Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Escajadillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS, an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. SLO can trigger macrophage and neutrophil cell death and/or the inactivation of immune cell functions, and promotes tissue injury and bacterial survival in animal models of infection. In the present work, we describe how the pharmacological presentation of red blood cell (RBC derived biomimetic nanoparticles (“nanosponges” can sequester SLO and block the ability of GAS to damage host cells, thereby preserving innate immune function and increasing bacterial clearance in vitro and in vivo. Nanosponge administration protected human neutrophils, macrophages, and keratinocytes against SLO-mediated cytotoxicity. This therapeutic intervention prevented SLO-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased neutrophil extracellular trap formation, allowing increased GAS killing by the respective phagocytic cell types. In a murine model of GAS necrotizing skin infection, local administration of the biomimetic nanosponges was associated with decreased lesion size and reduced bacterial colony-forming unit recovery. Utilization of a toxin decoy and capture platform that inactivates the secreted SLO before it contacts the host cell membrane, presents a novel virulence factor targeted strategy that could be a powerful adjunctive therapy in severe GAS infections where morbidity and mortality are high despite antibiotic treatment.

  7. Repair of damage by ultraviolet radiation in xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains of complementation groups E and F

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, B.; Berends, F.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The xeroderma pignemtosum fibroblast strains XP2RO, complementation group E, and XP23OS, group F were compared with normal human primary fibroblasts UV. regard to repair of damage induced by 254-nn UV> In XP2RO cells, repair DNA synthesis, measured by autoradiography (unscheduled DNA synthesis =

  8. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  9. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  10. Strategies for improving memory: a randomized trial of memory groups for older people, including those with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Glynda J; Ames, David; Storey, Elsdon; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Saling, Michael M; Clare, Linda; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Governments are promoting the importance of maintaining cognitive health into older age to minimize risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are particularly vulnerable to memory challenges in daily activities and are seeking ways to maintain independent living. To evaluate the effectiveness of memory groups for improving memory strategies and memory ability of older people, especially those with aMCI. 113 healthy older adults (HOA) and 106 adults with aMCI were randomized to a six-week memory group or a waitlist control condition. Outcome was evaluated through knowledge and use of memory strategies, memory ability (self-report and neuropsychological tests), and wellbeing. Assessments included a six-month follow-up. Using intention to treat analyses, there were intervention effects for HOA and aMCI groups in strategy knowledge (HOA: η2= 0.20; aMCI: η2= 0.06), strategy use (HOA: η2= 0.18; aMCI: η2= 0.08), and wellbeing (HOA: η2= 0.11; aMCI: η2= 0.05). There were also intervention effects in the HOA group, but not the aMCI group, in self-reported memory ability (η2= 0.06) and prospective memory tests (η2= 0.02). By six-month follow-up, gains were found on most HOA outcomes. In the aMCI group gains were found in strategy use, and by this stage, gains in prospective memory were also found. Memory groups can engage older people in techniques for maintaining cognitive health and improve memory performance, but more modest benefits are seen for older adults with aMCI.

  11. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastad, Jessica L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Green, William R., E-mail: William.R.Green@dartmouth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression. -- Highlights: •LP-BM5-expanded M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, and TGF-β to suppress B cells. •When two major mechanisms of suppression were eliminated through knockouts, M-MDSCs maintained suppression. •M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice decreased proliferation of IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.

  12. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastad, Jessica L.; Green, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression. -- Highlights: •LP-BM5-expanded M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, and TGF-β to suppress B cells. •When two major mechanisms of suppression were eliminated through knockouts, M-MDSCs maintained suppression. •M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice decreased proliferation of IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.

  13. IL-4 production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes food allergy by blocking regulatory T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C; Chatila, Talal

    2016-09-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote allergic inflammation. However their role in food allergy is largely unknown. We sought to investigate the role of ILC2s in food allergy. Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function mutation in the IL-4 receptor α chain (Il4raF709) were orally sensitized with food allergens, and the ILC2 compartment was analyzed. The requirement for ILC2s in food allergy was investigated by using Il4raF709, IL-33 receptor-deficient (Il1rl1(-/-)), IL-13-deficient (Il13(-/-)), and IL-4-deficient (Il4(-/-)) mice and by adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded ILC2s. Direct effects of ILC2s on regulatory T (Treg) cells and mast cells were analyzed in coculture experiments. Treg cell control of ILC2s was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Il4raF709 mice with food allergy exhibit increased numbers of ILC2s. IL-4 secretion by ILC2s contributes to the allergic response by reducing allergen-specific Treg cell and activating mast cell counts. IL-33 receptor deficiency in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice protects against allergen sensitization and anaphylaxis while reducing ILC2 induction. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Il13(-/-) but not Il4(-/-) ILC2s restored sensitization in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Treg cells suppress ILC2s in vitro and in vivo. IL-4 production by IL-33-stimulated ILC2s blocks the generation of allergen-specific Treg cells and favors food allergy. Strategies to block ILC2 activation or the IL-33/IL-33 receptor pathway can lead to innovative therapies in the treatment of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein replacement by receptor-mediated endocytosis corrects the sensitivity of Fanconi anemia group C cells to mitomycin C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssoufian, H; Kruyt, FAE; Li, XT

    1999-01-01

    Current methods for direct gene transfer into hematopoietic cells are inefficient. Here we show that functional complementation of Fanconi anemia (FA) group C cells by protein replacement can be as efficacious as by transfection with wild-type FAC cDNA, We expressed a chimeric protein (called

  15. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  16. CD1a presentation of endogenous antigens by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Clare S; Chen, Yi-Ling; Salimi, Maryam; Jarrett, Rachael; Johnson, David; Järvinen, Valtteri J; Owens, Raymond J; Repapi, Emmanouela; Cousins, David J; Barlow, Jillian L; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham

    2017-12-22

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are effectors of barrier immunity, with roles in infection, wound healing, and allergy. A proportion of ILC2 express MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II) and are capable of presenting peptide antigens to T cells and amplifying the subsequent adaptive immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CD1a-reactive T cells in allergy and infection, activated by the presentation of endogenous neolipid antigens and bacterial components. Using a human skin challenge model, we unexpectedly show that human skin-derived ILC2 can express CD1a and are capable of presenting endogenous antigens to T cells. CD1a expression is up-regulated by TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) at levels observed in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, and the response is dependent on PLA2G4A. Furthermore, this pathway is used to sense Staphylococcus aureus by promoting Toll-like receptor-dependent CD1a-reactive T cell responses to endogenous ligands. These findings define a previously unrecognized role for ILC2 in lipid surveillance and identify shared pathways of CD1a- and PLA2G4A-dependent ILC2 inflammation amenable to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Mast Cells between Oral and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadnia Sarvi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It has been mentioned that mast cells may help to tumor invasion. According to different aggressive behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to cutaneous SCC (CSCC, the aim of this study was to compare mast cells count between OSCC and CSCC to understand the role of them in different biologic behavior of these two tumors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 90 samples including 30 cases of OSCC, 30 cases of CSCC, 15 cases of normal skin and 15 cases of normal oral mucosa (as control groups. Number of mast cells was counted under light microscope in 10 successive fields in invasive front of OSCCs and CSCCs at 400X magnification and mean mast cells count/mm2 were calculated and compared between studied groups using one way ANOVA statistical test. FINDINGS: Mean mast cells count in CSCC, OSCC, normal skin and normal oral mucosa groups were 20.31±14.67, 10.41±8.01, 5.10±8.67 and 4.87±2.68, respectively. There were significant differences in mast cell count between CSCC and normal skin groups (p<0.001 and between CSCC and OSCC groups (p=0.002. This difference wasn’t significant between OSCC and normal oral mucosa groups (p=0.337. CONCLUSION: Lower level of mast cells in OSCCs may reflect less need for activation of mast cells in order to increase angiogenesis in OSCCs .Increase in mast cell density in CSCCs suggests a possible role for mast cell in tumor progression of CSCCs.

  18. Bioprocessing automation in cell therapy manufacturing: Outcomes of special interest group automation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Oliver; Robinson, Sarah; Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A; Mccall, David

    2018-04-01

    Phacilitate held a Special Interest Group workshop event in Edinburgh, UK, in May 2017. The event brought together leading stakeholders in the cell therapy bioprocessing field to identify present and future challenges and propose potential solutions to automation in cell therapy bioprocessing. Here, we review and summarize discussions from the event. Deep biological understanding of a product, its mechanism of action and indication pathogenesis underpin many factors relating to bioprocessing and automation. To fully exploit the opportunities of bioprocess automation, therapeutics developers must closely consider whether an automation strategy is applicable, how to design an 'automatable' bioprocess and how to implement process modifications with minimal disruption. Major decisions around bioprocess automation strategy should involve all relevant stakeholders; communication between technical and business strategy decision-makers is of particular importance. Developers should leverage automation to implement in-process testing, in turn applicable to process optimization, quality assurance (QA)/ quality control (QC), batch failure control, adaptive manufacturing and regulatory demands, but a lack of precedent and technical opportunities can complicate such efforts. Sparse standardization across product characterization, hardware components and software platforms is perceived to complicate efforts to implement automation. The use of advanced algorithmic approaches such as machine learning may have application to bioprocess and supply chain optimization. Automation can substantially de-risk the wider supply chain, including tracking and traceability, cryopreservation and thawing and logistics. The regulatory implications of automation are currently unclear because few hardware options exist and novel solutions require case-by-case validation, but automation can present attractive regulatory incentives. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy

  19. Comparative studies of upconversion luminescence characteristics and cell bioimaging based on one-step synthesized upconversion nanoparticles capped with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ming-Kiu [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Hao, Jianhua, E-mail: jh.hao@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-15

    Herein, three types of upconverting NaGdF{sub 4}:Yb/Er nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal synthesis with polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylenimine (PEI) and 6-aminocapronic acid (6AA) functionalization. To evident the presence of these groups, FTIR spectra and ζ-potentials were measured to support the successful capping of PEG, PEI and 6AA on the UCNPs. The regular morphology and cubic phase of these functionalized UCNPs were attributed to the capping effect of the surfactants. Tunable upconversion luminescence (UCL) from red to green were observed under 980 nm laser excitation and the UCL tuning was attributed to the presence of various surface ligands. Moreover, surface group dependent UCL bioimaging was performed in HeLa cells. The enhanced UCL bioimaging demonstrated by PEI functionalized UCNPs evident high cell uptake. The significant cell uptake is explained by the electrostatic attraction between the amino groups (–NH{sub 2}) and the cell membrane. Moreover, the functionalized UCNPs demonstrated low cytotoxicity in MTT assay. Additional, paramagnetic property was presented by these UCNPs under magnetic field. - Highlights: • Tunable upconversion emission by capped functional groups under fixed composition. • Surface dependent upconversion luminescence bioimaging in HeLa cells. • Low cytotoxicity. • Additional paramagnetic property due to Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Adipogenic differentiation by adipose-derived stem cells harvested from GFP transgenic mice - including relationship of sex differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Rei; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Migita, Makoto; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Shimada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) as well as bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BSCs) differentiate into a variety of cell lineages both in vitro and in vivo. Both types are considered to include mesenchymal stem cells. Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have also previously reported the plasticity of BSCs and ASCs. In this study, we focused on adipogenic differentiation in vitro by ASCs harvested from GFP transgenic mice. Moreover, preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were harvested at the same time, and the cells were cultured to compare them with ASCs. Inguinal fat pads from GFP transgenic mice were used for the isolation of ASCs, preadipocytes, and mature adipocytes. After expansion to three passages of ASCs, the cells were incubated in an adipogenic medium for two weeks. Adipogenic differentiation of ASCs was assessed by Oil Red O staining and the expression of the adipocyte specific peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-γ2) gene. These ASCs stained positively, and expression of PPAR-γ2 was detected. Moreover, we also tried to characterize the influence of sex differences on the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs harvested from both male and female mice. This was assessed by the expression levels of the PPAR-γ2 gene using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of ASCs harvested from female mice were a maximum of 2.89 times greater than those harvested from male mice. This suggests that the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs is closely related to sex differences

  1. Comparison of cell homogenization methods considering interaction effect between fuel cells and control rod cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Uto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods to determine cell-averaged group cross sections and anisotropic diffusion coefficients which consider the interaction effect between core fuel cells and control rods or control rod followers have been compared to discuss the physical meaning included in cell homogenization. As the cell homogenization methods considered are the commonly used flux-weighting method, the reaction rate preservation method and the reactivity preservation method. These homogenization methods have been applied to control rod worth calculations in 1-D slab cores to investigate their applicability. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  2. A cyclopalladated complex interacts with mitochondrial membrane thiol-groups and induces the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine and cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Fabiana A; Machado, Joel Jr; Santos, Edson L; Pesquero, João B; Martins, Rafael M; Travassos, Luiz R; Caires, Antonio CF; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Matsuo, Alisson L; Monteforte, Priscila T; Bechara, Alexandre; Smaili, Soraya S; Santana, Débora P; Rodrigues, Tiago; Pereira, Felipe V; Silva, Luis S

    2011-01-01

    Systemic therapy for cancer metastatic lesions is difficult and generally renders a poor clinical response. Structural analogs of cisplatin, the most widely used synthetic metal complexes, show toxic side-effects and tumor cell resistance. Recently, palladium complexes with increased stability are being investigated to circumvent these limitations, and a biphosphinic cyclopalladated complex {Pd 2 [S (-) C 2 , N-dmpa] 2 (μ-dppe)Cl 2 } named C7a efficiently controls the subcutaneous development of B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma in syngeneic mice. Presently, we investigated the melanoma cell killing mechanism induced by C7a, and extended preclinical studies. B16F10-Nex2 cells were treated in vitro with C7a in the presence/absence of DTT, and several parameters related to apoptosis induction were evaluated. Preclinical studies were performed, and mice were endovenously inoculated with B16F10-Nex2 cells, intraperitoneally treated with C7a, and lung metastatic nodules were counted. The cytotoxic effects and the respiratory metabolism were also determined in human tumor cell lines treated in vitro with C7a. Cyclopalladated complex interacts with thiol groups on the mitochondrial membrane proteins, causes dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, colocalizing with a mitochondrial tracker. C7a also induced an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, mainly from intracellular compartments, and a significant decrease in the ATP levels. Activation of effector caspases, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation, suggested that C7a activates the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine melanoma cells. In the preclinical studies, the C7a complex protected against murine metastatic melanoma and induced death in several human tumor cell lineages in vitro, including cisplatin-resistant ones. The mitochondria-dependent cell death was also induced by C7a in human tumor cells. The cyclopalladated C7a complex is

  3. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Tar Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a, is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a, in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+ red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Materials and Methods: Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Results: Di(a antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a in serum. Conclusion: The prevalence of Di(a antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+ red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  4. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  5. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  6. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  7. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  8. CAUDAL MEDULLARY PATHWAYS TO LUMBOSACRAL MOTONEURONAL CELL GROUPS IN THE CAT - EVIDENCE FOR DIRECT PROJECTIONS POSSIBLY REPRESENTING THE FINAL COMMON PATHWAY FOR LORDOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHORST, VGJM; HOLSTEGE, G

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  9. Caudal Medullary Pathways To Lumbosacral Motoneuronal Cell Groups In The Cat; Evidence For Direct Projections Possibly Representing The Final Common Pathway For Lordosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Holstege, Gert

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  10. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Characterization of HSCs includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD34 and CD45, while characterization of MSC includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD90 and CD105, and the absence of hemopoietic lineage markers. Aim & methods: The aim of the present work was to study the role of bone marrow-derived HSCs and MSCs, renal progenitor cells and SCF in chronic renal allograft nephropathy in relation to renal hemodynamics and histopathological changes. We studied 30 patients with kidney transplantation for more than 6 months, divided into 15 patients with stable serum creatinine and 15 patients who developed CAN. Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and CD106, as well as immunohistochemical detection of CD34, CD133, VEGF and αSMA in transplanted kidney biopsies of patients with CAN were done. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of SCF, number of peripheral blood HSCs and MSCs in both transplanted patient groups than the controls and they were higher in patients of group Ia than patients of group Ib, (F = 39.73, P < 0.001, (F = 13.28, P < 0.001, (F = 11.94, P < 0.001, respectively and this was accompanied by evident expression of markers of renal repair. Conclusion: Stem cells might have a role in renal regeneration in CAN and this may pave the way toward the use of stem cells in correction of CAN. KEYWORDS

  11. The Effect of Various Zinc Binding Groups on Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1–11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Kristensen, Helle M. E.; Lanz, Gyrithe

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε‐N‐acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated in condi......Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε‐N‐acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated...

  12. Modeling Group B Streptococcus and Blood-Brain Barrier Interaction by Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Brain Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Brandon J.; Bee, Olivia B.; McDonagh, Maura A.; Stebbins, Matthew J.; Palecek, Sean P.; Doran, Kelly S.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs after bacteria interact with and penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is comprised of highly specialized brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that function to separate the circulation from the CNS and act as a formidable barrier for toxins and pathogens. Certain bacteria, such as Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]), possess the ability to interact with a...

  13. Role of the Group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae: a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Caliot

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate:lipid phosphate transferase thought to catalyze the first step of GBC synthesis. Indeed, the gbcO mutant was unable to synthesize the GBC polymer, and displayed an important growth defect in vitro. Electron microscopy study of the GBC-depleted strain of S. agalactiae revealed a series of growth-related abnormalities: random placement of septa, defective cell division and separation processes, and aberrant cell morphology. Furthermore, vancomycin labeling and peptidoglycan structure analysis demonstrated that, in the absence of GBC, cells failed to initiate normal PG synthesis and cannot complete polymerization of the murein sacculus. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PG hydrolase PcsB, which has a critical role in cell division of streptococci, was altered in the gbcO mutant. Collectively, these findings show that GBC is an essential component of the cell wall of S. agalactiae whose function is reminiscent of that of conventional wall teichoic acids found in Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that GBC-like molecules play a major role in the growth of most if not all beta-hemolytic streptococci.

  14. The Importance of End Groups for Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruomeng; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yanfei; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Hou, Jianhui; Wagner, Manfred; Baumgarten, Martin; He, Chang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-05-10

    End groups in small-molecule photovoltaic materials are important owing to their strong influence on molecular stability, solubility, energy levels, and aggregation behaviors. In this work, a series of donor-acceptor pentads (D2 -A-D1 -A-D2 ) were designed and synthesized, aiming to investigate the effect of the end groups on the materials properties and photovoltaic device performance. These molecules share identical central A-D1 -A triads (with benzodithiophene as D1 and 6-carbonyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene as A), but with various D2 end groups composed of alkyl-substituted thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), and 2,2'-bithiophene (BT). The results indicate a relationship between conjugated segment/alkyl chain length of the end groups and the photovoltaic performance, which contributes to the evolving molecular design principles for high efficiency organic solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Miglio, Gianluca; Mesturini, Riccardo; Varsaldi, Federica; Mocellin, Marco; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Chiara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Lombardi, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of L-glutamate on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of human activated (1 μg ml−1 phytohemagglutinin plus 2 U ml−1 interleukin-2; 8 days) T lymphocytes were studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (10 μg ml−1; 18 h)-induced cell apoptosis (Annexin V and propidium iodide staining). L-Glutamate (1 × 10−8–1 × 10−4 M) significantly (P⩽0.01) inhibited AICD in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=6.3 × 10−8 M; maximum inhibition 54.8±6.3% at 1 × 10−6 M). The L-glutamate inhibitory effect was pharmacologically characterized as mediated by group I mGlu receptors, since mGlu receptor agonists reproduced this effect. The EC50 values were: 3.2 × 10−7 M for (1S,3R)-ACPD; 4.5 × 10−8 M for quisqualate; 1.0 × 10−6 M for (S)-3,5-DHPG; 2.0 × 10−5 M for CHPG. Group I mGlu receptor antagonists inhibited the effects of quisqualate 1.0 × 10−6 M. The IC50 values calculated were: 8.7 × 10−5, 4.3 × 10−6 and 6.3 × 10−7 M for AIDA, LY 367385 and MPEP, respectively. L-Glutamate (1 × 10−6 M; 18 h) significantly (P⩽0.05) inhibited FasL expression (40.8±11.3%) (cytofluorimetric analysis), whereas it did not affect Fas signalling. Expression of both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA by T lymphocytes and T-cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis, suggests that L-glutamate-mediated inhibition of AICD was exerted on T cells. These data depict a novel role for L-glutamate in the regulation of the immune response through group I mGlu receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16751798

  16. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  17. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  18. Group A Streptococcus Prevents Mast Cell Degranulation to Promote Extracellular Trap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of Group A Streptococcus (GAS infections in the past two decades has been a rising major public health concern. Due to a large number of GAS infections occurring in the skin, mast cells (MCs, innate immune cells known to localize to the dermis, could play an important role in controlling infection. MCs can exert their antimicrobial activities either early during infection, by degranulation and release of antimicrobial proteases and the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide LL-37, or by forming antibacterial MC extracellular traps (MCETs in later stages of infection. We demonstrate that MCs do not directly degranulate in response to GAS, reducing their ability to control bacterial growth in early stages of infection. However, MC granule components are highly cytotoxic to GAS due to the pore-forming activity of LL-37, while MC granule proteases do not significantly affect GAS viability. We therefore confirmed the importance of MCETs by demonstrating their capacity to reduce GAS survival. The data therefore suggests that LL-37 from MC granules become embedded in MCETs, and are the primary effector molecule by which MCs control GAS infection. Our work underscores the importance of a non-traditional immune effector cell, utilizing a non-conventional mechanism, in the defense against an important human pathogen.

  19. Regulation of the proliferation of colon cancer cells by compounds that affect glycolysis, including 3-bromopyruvate, 2-deoxyglucose and biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael A; Qureshi, Mehreen S; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; Desbordes, Charles

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies performed by our group, we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and it had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation, but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable in combined treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and 2-deoxyglucose. The induction of alkaline phosphatase activity by butyrate was not consistently affected by combination with other agents that modified glucose metabolism. The drug combinations that were examined inhibited proliferation of wild-type and p53-null cells and affected colonic cancer lines with different growth rates.

  20. [EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN AMNIOTIC MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS INTO LIGAMENT CELLS IN VITRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Li, Yuwan; Zhang, Chenghao; Wu, Shuhong; Cheng, Daixiong; Liu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    To discuss whether human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) possesses the characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, and could differentiate into ligament cells in vitro after induction. The hAMSCs were separated through enzyme digestion, and the phenotypic characteristics of hAMSCs were tested through flow cytometry. The cells at passage 3 were cultured with L-DMEM/F12 medium containing transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) + basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (group A), containing hyaluronic acid (HA) (group B), containing TGF-beta1+bFGF+HA (group C), and simple L-DMEM/F12 medium (group D) as control group. The morphology changes of cells in each group were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope at 21 days after induction; the cellular activities and proliferation were examined by sulforhodamine (SRB) colorimetric method; and specific mRNA and protein expressions of ligament including collagen type I, collagen type III, and tenascin C (TNC) were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The flow cytometry result indicated that hAMSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell phenotype. After 21 days of induction, the cells in groups A, B, and C grew like spindle-shaped fibroblasts under inverted phase contrast microscope, and cells showed single shape, obvious directivity, and compact arrangement in group C. The SRB result indicated that the cells in each group reached the peak of growth curve at 6 days; the cellular activities of groups A, B, and C were significantly higher than that of group D at 6 days after induction. Also, the immunohistochemical staining results showed that no expressions of TNC were detected in 4 groups at 7 days; expressions of collagen type I in groups A, B, and C were significantly higher than that in group D at 7, 14, and 21 days (Pligament specific genes can be up-regulated and the synthesis of ligament specific proteins can be also strengthened. As a result, it can be used as

  1. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR + ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impact of cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocol on perception of nonpolio enterovirus species C diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-10-01

    There has been under-reporting of nonpolio enterovirus species Cs (NPESCs) in Nigeria despite the fact that most isolates recovered from the Nigerian vaccine derived poliovirus serotype 2 (VDPV2) outbreak were recombinants with nonstructural region of NPESC origin. It has been suggested that cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocols might account for this phenomenon and this study examined this suggestion. Fifteen environmental samples concentrated previously and analysed using L20B and RD cell lines as part of the poliovirus environmental surveillance (ES) program in Nigeria were randomly selected and inoculated into two cell lines (MCF-7 and LLC-MK2). Isolates were identified as enteroviruses and species C members using different RT-PCR assays, culture in L20B cell line and sequencing of partial VP1. Forty-eight (48) isolates were recovered from the 15 samples, 47 (97.9%) of which were enteroviruses. Of the enteroviruses, 32 (68.1%) belonged to enterovirus species C (EC) of which 19 (40.4%) were polioviruses and 13 (27.7%) were NPESC members. All 13 NPESC isolates were recovered on MCF-7. Results of the study show that NPESCs are circulating in Nigeria and their under-reporting was due to the combination of cell lines used for enterovirus isolation in previous reports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  4. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  5. Evaluation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization Rates with Early Plerixafor Administration for Adult Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Jessica T; Shaw, J Ryan; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Engemann, Ashley M

    2017-08-01

    The addition of plerixafor to high-dose colony-stimulating growth factor has been shown to improve stem cell mobilization rates in autologous transplant patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study evaluates the change in administration time of plerixafor to determine if cell mobilization rates are similar between the US Food and Drug Administration-approved administration time of 11 hours before apheresis and an earlier administration time of 16 hours before apheresis. Medical records of patients age ≥ 18 years undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation requiring the use of plerixafor after at least 4 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy to complete stem cell mobilization from January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was CD34 + cell mobilization success rates when plerixafor was administered 11 ± 2 hours (standard administration group) compared with 16 ± 2 hours before cell apheresis (early administration group), as defined as collection of  ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg. Secondary outcomes included the number of plerixafor therapy days required to collect a total of ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the number of apheresis cycles required to achieve ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the median CD34 + cells/kg collected in each apheresis session, and the rates of reported adverse events that occurred in the standard administration time group compared with the early administration time group. Of the 197 patients included, 114 patients received plerixafor 11 ± 2 hours before apheresis and 83 patients received plerixafor 16 hours ± 2 hours before apheresis. Ninety-four percent of patients in the early administration group achieved successful stem cell mobilization compared with 81.6% in the standard administration group (P = .0111). The median number of plerixafor days to reach the collection goal of  ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg was 1 day for

  6. A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, M. J.

    1988-09-01

    A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera. Eight genera are assigned to the Hypoglossum Kützing, Phitymophora J. Agardh, Pseudobranchioglossum Bodard, and Zellera Martens. The circumscription of the group is emended to include forms with network-forming ( Zellera) an dspirally twisted ( Duckerella) thalli. The definition of the group is lalso modified to include members (e.g. some species of Hypoglossum) in which tetrasporangia are produced by primary cells as in the Caloglossa group. Exogenous branching, a distinguishing feature of the closely related Caloglossa group, never occurs in the Hypoglossum group.

  7. Molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups in some population groups from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabita; Gorakshakar, Ajit C; Vasantha, K; Nadkarni, Anita; Italia, Yazdi; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2014-01-01

    Indian population is characterized by the presence of various castes and tribal groups. Various genetic polymorphisms have been used to differentiate among these groups. Amongst these, the ABO blood group system has been extensively studied. There is no information on molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups from India. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to characterize the common A, B and O alleles by molecular analysis in some Indian population groups. One hundred samples from the mixed population from Mumbai, 101 samples from the Dhodia tribe and 100 samples from the Parsi community were included in this study. Initially, the samples were phenotyped by standard serologic techniques. PCR followed by single strand conformational polymorphsim (SSCP) was used for molecular ABO genotyping. Samples showing atypical SSCP patterns were further analysed by DNA sequencing to characterize rare alleles. Seven common ABO alleles with 19 different genotypes were found in the mixed population. The Dhodias showed 12 different ABO genotypes and the Parsis revealed 15 different ABO genotypes with six common ABO alleles identified in each of them. Two rare alleles were also identified. This study reports the distribution of molecular genotypes of ABO alleles among some population groups from India. Considering the extremely heterogeneous nature of the Indian population, in terms of various genotype markers like blood groups, red cell enzymes, etc., many more ABO alleles are likely to be encountered.

  8. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Hunting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are.This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.. Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included.

  9. Effects of carboxyl and ester anchoring groups on solar conversion efficiencies of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrifard, A.; Stublla, A.; Haftchenary, S.; Chen, S.; Potvin, P.; Morin, S. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 2 new Ruthenium (Ru(2)) dyes bearing different anchoring groups were applied to sensitize TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The solar conversion efficiencies were measured. Results for 2 of the dyes which carried ester and carboxyl anchoring groups were presented. The extent and nature of the surface binding was studied using electrochemical, UV-visible, fluorescence and FTIR measurements. Solar cell performance was discussed in terms of surface concentration of chemisorbed dyes, electronic properties of the photoanodes and electrochemical properties of adsorbed dyes. The study showed that carboxylic acid groups offer better dye adsorption than ester groups. However, sensitization with warm solutions improved the adsorption of the esterified dye, most likely through transesterification. It was concluded that this may be a useful means of improving solar conversion efficiencies of ester-bearing dyes. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  11. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Boyle, Glen M; McIntyre, Lachlan; Nolan, Matthew J; Parsons, Peter G; Smith, Jennifer J; Tribolet, Leon; Loukas, Alex; Liddell, Michael J; Rash, Lachlan D; Daly, Norelle L

    2017-10-27

    Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA 366 , containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA 366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  12. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  13. Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ping; He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-γ and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-α decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10 3 , 1 x 10 4 or 1 x 10 5 cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-γ and TNF-α were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10 4 cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P 4 cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli cells can effectively suppress INF-γ-induced MHC II antigen expression in co-cultured ECs compared with single

  14. Identification of the Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group I Gene, FANCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine C. Dorsman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the gene underlying Fanconi anemia (FA complementation group I we studied informative FA-I families by a genome-wide linkage analysis, which resulted in 4 candidate regions together encompassing 351 genes. Candidates were selected via bioinformatics and data mining on the basis of their resemblance to other FA genes/proteins acting in the FA pathway, such as: degree of evolutionary conservation, presence of nuclear localization signals and pattern of tissue-dependent expression. We found a candidate, KIAA1794 on chromosome 15q25-26, to be mutated in 8 affected individuals previously assigned to complementation group I. Western blots of endogenous FANCI indicated that functionally active KIAA1794 protein is lacking in FA-I individuals. Knock-down of KIAA1794 expression by siRNA in HeLa cells caused excessive chromosomal breakage induced by mitomycin C, a hallmark of FA cells. Furthermore, phenotypic reversion of a patient-derived cell line was associated with a secondary genetic alteration at the KIAA1794 locus. These data add up to two conclusions. First, KIAA1794 is a FA gene. Second, this gene is identical to FANCI, since the patient cell lines found mutated in this study included the reference cell line for group I, EUFA592.

  15. Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent evidence of safety and efficacy of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNC in spinal cord injury makes the Bone Marrow (BM CD34+ percentage and the BMMNC count gain significance. The indices of BM that change with body mass index and aging in general population have been reported but seldom in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI victims, whose parameters of relevance differ from general population. Herein, we report the indices of BMMNC in SCI victims. Materials and Methods. BMMNCs of 332 SCI patients were isolated under GMP protocols. Cell count by Trypan blue method and CD34+ cells by flow cytometry were documented and analysed across ages and gender. Results. The average BMMNC per ml in the age groups 0–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years were 4.71, 4.03, 3.67, and 3.02 million and the CD34+ were 1.05%, 1.04%, 0.94%, and 0.93% respectively. The decline in CD34+ was sharp between 20–40 and 40–60 age groups. Females of reproductive age group had lesser CD34+. Conclusion. The BMMNC and CD34+ percentages decline with aging in SCI victims. Their lower values in females during reproductive age should be analysed for relevance to hormonal influence. This study offers reference values of BMMNC and CD34+ of SCI victims for successful clinical application.

  16. One group neutron flux at a point in a cylindrical reactor cell calculated by Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1974-01-15

    Mean values of the neutron flux over material regions and the neutron flux at space points in a cylindrical annular cell (one group model) have been calculated by Monte Carlo. The results are compared with those obtained by an improved collision probability method (author)

  17. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  18. Lineage specific expression of Polycomb Group Proteins in human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Prasad; Pursani, Varsha; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2015-05-01

    Human embryonic (hES) stem cells are an excellent model to study lineage specification and differentiation into various cell types. Differentiation necessitates repression of specific genes not required for a particular lineage. Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are key histone modifiers, whose primary function is gene repression. PcG proteins form complexes called Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs), which catalyze histone modifications such as H2AK119ub1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3. PcG proteins play a crucial role during differentiation of stem cells. The expression of PcG transcripts during differentiation of hES cells into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineage is yet to be shown. In-house derived hES cell line KIND1 was differentiated into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages; followed by characterization using RT-PCR for HNF4A, CDX2, MEF2C, TBX5, SOX1, and MAP2. qRT-PCR and western blotting was performed to compare expression of PcG transcripts and proteins across all the three lineages. We observed that cells differentiated into endoderm showed upregulation of RING1B, BMI1, EZH2, and EED transcripts. Mesoderm differentiation was characterized by significant downregulation of all PcG transcripts during later stages. BMI1 and RING1B were upregulated while EZH2, SUZ12, and EED remained low during ectoderm differentiation. Western blotting also showed distinct expression of BMI1 and EZH2 during differentiation into three germ layers. Our study shows that hES cells differentiating into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages show distinct PcG expression profile at transcript and protein level. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Differences in Intracellular Fate of Two Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Macrophage-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Pedro; Simões, Isaura; Riley, Sean P; Martinez, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (Rickettsia conorii) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii). Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen) and Rickettsia montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG) to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated

  20. Differences in intracellular fate of two spotted fever group Rickettsia in macrophage-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (R. conorii and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R. rickettsii. Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen and R. montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated with

  1. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  2. Comparison of closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent designs in carotid artery stenting: clinical and procedural outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan TatlI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carotid artery stenting (CAS is a promising alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, the impact of stent cell design on outcomes in CAS is a matter of continued debate. Aim : To compare the periprocedural and clinical outcomes of different stent designs for CAS with distal protection devices. Material and methods : All CAS procedures with both closed- and hybrid-cell stents performed at our institution between February 2010 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Adverse events were defined as death, major stroke, minor stroke, transient ischemic attack and myocardial infarction. Periprocedural and 30-day adverse events and internal carotid artery (ICA vasospasm rates were compared between the closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent groups. Results : The study included 234 patients comprising 146 patients with a closed-cell stent (Xact stent, Abbott Vascular (mean age: 68.5 ±8.6; 67.1% male and 88 patients with a hybrid-cell stent (Cristallo Ideale, Medtronic (mean age: 67.2 ±12.8; 68.2% male. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to periprocedural or 30-day adverse event rates. While there was no difference in terms of tortuosity index between the groups, there was a higher procedural ICA vasospasm rate in the closed-cell stent group (35 patients, 23% compared with the hybrid-cell stent group (10 patients, 11% (p = 0.017. Conclusions : The results of this study showed no significant difference in the clinical adverse event rates after CAS between the closed-cell stent group and the hybrid-cell stent group. However, procedural ICA vasospasm was more common in the closed-cell stent group.

  3. Controlling the Morphology of BDTT-DPP-Based Small Molecules via End-Group Functionalization for Highly Efficient Single and Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Yang, Hoichang; Jung, In Hwan; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Kim, Dongwook; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-11-04

    A series of narrow-band gap, π-conjugated small molecules based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) electron acceptor units coupled with alkylthienyl-substituted-benzodithiophene (BDTT) electron donors were designed and synthesized for use as donor materials in solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells. In particular, by end-group functionalization of the small molecules with fluorine derivatives, the nanoscale morphologies of the photoactive layers of the photovoltaic cells were successfully controlled. The influences of different fluorine-based end-groups on the optoelectronic and morphological properties, carrier mobilities, and the photovoltaic performances of these materials were investigated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.00% under simulated solar light (AM 1.5G) illumination has been achieved for organic photovoltaic cells based on a small-molecule bulk heterojunction system consisting of a trifluoromethylbenzene (CF3) end-group-containing oligomer (BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor. As a result, the introduction of CF3 end-groups has been found to enhance both the short circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). A tandem photovoltaic device comprising an inverted BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3:PC71BM cell and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60-bisadduct (IC60BA)-based cell as the top and bottom cell components, respectively, showed a maximum PCE of 8.30%. These results provide valuable guidelines for the rational design of conjugated small molecules for applications in high-performance organic photovoltaic cells. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the design of fluorine-functionalized BDTT-DPP-based small molecules, which have been shown to be a viable candidate for use in inverted tandem cells.

  4. Defective homing is associated with altered Cdc42 activity in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia group A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Shang, Xun; Guo, Fukun; Murphy, Kim; Kirby, Michelle; Kelly, Patrick; Reeves, Lilith; Smith, Franklin O.; Williams, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Fanconi anemia (FA) murine stem cells have defective reconstitution after bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The mechanism underlying this defect is not known. Here, we report defective homing of FA patient BM progenitors transplanted into mouse models. Using cells from patients carrying mutations in FA complementation group A (FA-A), we show that when transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) recipient mice, FA-A BM cells exhibited impaired homing activity. FA-A cells also showed defects in both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Complementation of FA-A deficiency by reexpression of FANCA readily restored adhesion of FA-A cells. A significant decrease in the activity of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 was found associated with these defective functions in patient-derived cells, and expression of a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant was able to rescue the adhesion defect of FA-A cells. These results provide the first evidence that FA proteins influence human BM progenitor homing and adhesion via the small GTPase Cdc42-regulated signaling pathway. PMID:18565850

  5. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate and exhibit disease-induced activation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julianne K; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are immune cells that reside in tissues that interface with the external environment and contribute to the first line defense against pathogens. However, they also have roles in promoting chronic inflammation. Here we demonstrate that group 3 ILCs, (ILC3s - CD45+Lin-IL-7Rα+RORγt+), are normal residents of the meninges and exhibit disease-induced accumulation and activation in EAE. In addition to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF, ILC3s constitutively express CD30L and OX40L, molecules required for memory T cell survival. We show that disease-induced trafficking of transferred wild type T cells to the meninges is impaired in ILC3-deficient Rorc-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a c-kit+ ILC3 subset that promotes ectopic lymphoid follicle development, a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, are reduced in the meninges of EAE-resistant c-kit mutant Kit(W/Wv) mice. We propose that ILC3s sustain neuroinflammation by supporting T cell survival and reactivation in the meninges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating cell-free biosyntheses of heme prosthetic group and apoenzyme for the synthesis of functional P450 monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Oh, In-Seok; Lee, Nahum; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Byung-Gee; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2013-04-01

    Harnessing the isolated protein synthesis machinery, cell-free protein synthesis reproduces the cellular process of decoding genetic information in artificially controlled environments. More often than not, however, generation of functional proteins requires more than simple translation of genetic sequences. For instance, many of the industrially important enzymes require non-protein prosthetic groups for biological activity. Herein, we report the complete cell-free biogenesis of a heme prosthetic group and its integration with concurrent apoenzyme synthesis for the production of functional P450 monooxygenase. Step reactions required for the syntheses of apoenzyme and the prosthetic group have been designed so that these two separate pathways take place in the same reaction mixture, being insulated from each other. Combined pathways for the synthesis of functional P450 monooxygenase were then further integrated with in situ assay reactions to enable real-time measurement of enzymatic activity during its synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cockayne syndrome group B (Csb) and group a (Csa) deficiencies predispose to hearing loss and cochlear hair cell degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, A Paul; Rainey, Robert N; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata M C; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Borst, J Gerard G; Segil, Neil

    2015-03-11

    Sensory hair cells in the cochlea, like most neuronal populations that are postmitotic, terminally differentiated, and non-regenerating, depend on robust mechanisms of self-renewal for lifelong survival. We report that hair cell homeostasis requires a specific sub-branch of the DNA damage nucleotide excision repair pathway, termed transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Cockayne syndrome (CS), caused by defects in TCR, is a rare DNA repair disorder with a broad clinical spectrum that includes sensorineural hearing loss. We tested hearing and analyzed the cellular integrity of the organ of Corti in two mouse models of this disease with mutations in the Csb gene (CSB(m/m) mice) and Csa gene (Csa(-/-) mice), respectively. Csb(m/m) and Csa(-/-) mice manifested progressive hearing loss, as measured by an increase in auditory brainstem response thresholds. In contrast to wild-type mice, mutant mice showed reduced or absent otoacoustic emissions, suggesting cochlear outer hair cell impairment. Hearing loss in Csb(m/m) and Csa(-/-) mice correlated with progressive hair cell loss in the base of the organ of Corti, starting between 6 and 13 weeks of age, which increased by 16 weeks of age in a basal-to-apical gradient, with outer hair cells more severely affected than inner hair cells. Our data indicate that the hearing loss observed in CS patients is reproduced in mouse models of this disease. We hypothesize that accumulating DNA damage, secondary to the loss of TCR, contributes to susceptibility to hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354280-07$15.00/0.

  8. Microinjection of Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease restores UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells of 9 xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.R. de Jonge; W. Vermeulen (Wim); W. Keijzer; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in cultured cells of excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups A through I was assayed after injection of Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease using glass microneedles. In all complementation groups a restoration of

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  10. β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Saya; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Moeller, Jesper B; Klose, Christoph S N; Rankin, Lucille C; Yudanin, Naomi A; Monticelli, Laurel A; Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Artis, David

    2018-03-02

    The type 2 inflammatory response is induced by various environmental and infectious stimuli. Although recent studies identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as potent sources of type 2 cytokines, the molecular pathways controlling ILC2 responses are incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate that murine ILC2s express the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) and colocalize with adrenergic neurons in the intestine. β 2 AR deficiency resulted in exaggerated ILC2 responses and type 2 inflammation in intestinal and lung tissues. Conversely, β 2 AR agonist treatment was associated with impaired ILC2 responses and reduced inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the β 2 AR pathway is a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of ILC2 responses through inhibition of cell proliferation and effector function. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of a neuronal-derived regulatory circuit that limits ILC2-dependent type 2 inflammation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Radically altered T cell receptor signaling in glycopeptide-specific T cell hybridoma induced by antigen with minimal differences in the glycan group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Nielsen, M; Gad, Monika

    2001-01-01

    A T cell hybridoma raised against the synthetic glycopeptide T(72)(Tn) was used to study whether the initial TCR signaling events are markedly different when the hybridoma is stimulated with glycopeptides closely related to the cognate glycopeptide antigen. T(72)(Tn) has an alpha-D-GalNAc group O......)(alpha-D-GlcNAc), which differs from T(72)(Tn) solely by the orientation of a hydroxy group in the carbohydrate structure, completely failed to induce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-2 secretion. APC pulsed with S(72)(Tn), which differs from T(72)(Tn) by not having a methyl group in the serine......-linked to the central threonine in the decapeptide VITAFTEGLK, and the hybridoma is known to be highly specific for this carbohydrate group. T(72)(Tn)-pulsed APC induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-zeta 21- and 23-kDa proteins and the downstream p42/44 MAP kinase and strong IL-2 secretion. APC pulsed with T(72...

  12. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  13. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  14. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  15. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  16. Changes of Langerhans cells during skin ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zegarska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : During the process of skin ageing, changes occur in all skin layers and all cells, including the Langerhans cells. Aim: To assess whether any quantitative difference in the number of CD1a+ LC cells/mm 2 and HLA-DR+ LC cells/mm 2 as well as in their morphological features can be observed during the course of different types of skin ageing. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 60 women, which was divided into three independent groups: group I with symptoms of menopausal skin ageing, group II with symptoms of photoageing, group III with symptoms of chronological ageing. Skin biopsy samples were taken from the pre-auricular region from all of the participants. The number of CD1a+ LC cells/mm 2 and HLA-DR+ LC cells/mm 2 as well as their morphological features were evaluated. Results : The frequency of CD1a+ LC and HLA-DR+ LC in all the studied groups was diverse. In groups I and III, the LC with large cell bodies and long, multi-branched processes were the majority. In group II, the LC had small cell bodies and their processes were mainly short and unbranched. Conclusions : The obtained results indicate the presence of quantitative and morphological changes of the CD1a+ LC and HLA-DR+ LC during the course of different types of skin ageing.

  17. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-dependent cell responses by extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pedrazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein can operate in a synergistic fashion with different signal molecules promoting an increase of cell Ca(2+ influx. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect of HMGB1 are still unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that, at concentrations of agonist per se ineffective, HMGB1 potentiates the activation of the ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals and in a neuroblastoma cell line. This effect was abolished by the NMDA channel blocker MK-801. The HMGB1-facilitated NMDAR opening was followed by activation of the Ca(2+-dependent enzymes calpain and nitric oxide synthase in neuroblastoma cells, resulting in an increased production of NO, a consequent enhanced cell motility, and onset of morphological differentiation. We have also identified NMDAR as the mediator of HMGB1-stimulated murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation, induced by hexamethylenebisacetamide. The potentiation of NMDAR activation involved a peptide of HMGB1 located in the B box at the amino acids 130-139. This HMGB1 fragment did not overlap with binding sites for other cell surface receptors of HMGB1, such as the advanced glycation end products or the Toll-like receptor 4. Moreover, in a competition assay, the HMGB1((130-139 peptide displaced the NMDAR/HMGB1 interaction, suggesting that it comprised the molecular and functional site of HMGB1 regulating the NMDA receptor complex. CONCLUSION: We propose that the multifunctional cytokine-like molecule HMGB1 released by activated, stressed, and damaged or necrotic cells can facilitate NMDAR-mediated cell responses, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, independently of other known cell surface receptors for HMGB1.

  18. Diagnosis of eight groups of xeroderma pigmentosum by genetic complementation using recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiharu; Okura, Masae; Ishii-Osai, Yasue; Hida, Tokimasa

    2016-10-01

    Because patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) must avoid ultraviolet (UV) light from an early age, an early diagnosis of this disorder is essential. XP is composed of seven genetic complementation groups, XP-A to -G, and a variant type (XP-V). To establish an easy and accurate diagnosis of the eight disease groups, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses that expressed one of the XP cDNA. When fibroblasts derived from patients with XP-A, -B, -C, -D, -F or -G were infected with the adenovirus expressing XPA, XPB, XPC, XPD, XPF or XPG, respectively, and UV-C at 5-20 J/m 2 was irradiated, cell viability was clearly recovered by the corresponding recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, XP-E and XP-V cells were not significantly sensitive to UV irradiation and were barely complemented by the matched recombinant adenoviruses. However, co-infection of Ad-XPA with Ad-XPE increased survival rate of XP-E cells after UV-C exposure. When XP-V cell strains, including one derived from a Japanese patient, were infected with Ad-XPV, exposed to UV-B and cultured with 1 mmol/L of caffeine, flow cytometry detected a characteristic decrease in the S phase in all the XP-V cell strains. From these results, the eight groups of XP could be differentiated by utilizing a set of recombinant adenoviruses, indicating that our procedure provides a convenient and correct diagnostic method for all the XP groups including XP-E and XP-V. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. AKR1B10 induces cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin by reducing C13 ketonic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Linlin; Shen Honglin; Huang Chenfei; Jing, Hongwu; Cao Deliang

    2011-01-01

    Daunorubicin, idarubicin, doxorubicin and epirubicin are anthracyclines widely used for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, and breast, lung, and liver cancers, but tumor resistance limits their clinical success. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 (AKR1B10) is an NADPH-dependent enzyme overexpressed in liver and lung carcinomas. This study was aimed to determine the role of AKR1B10 in tumor resistance to anthracyclines. AKR1B10 activity toward anthracyclines was measured using recombinant protein. Cell resistance to anthracycline was determined by ectopic expression of AKR1B10 or inhibition by epalrestat. Results showed that AKR1B10 reduces C13-ketonic group on side chain of daunorubicin and idarubicin to hydroxyl forms. In vitro, AKR1B10 converted daunorubicin to daunorubicinol at V max of 837.42 ± 81.39 nmol/mg/min, K m of 9.317 ± 2.25 mM and k cat /K m of 3.24. AKR1B10 showed better catalytic efficiency toward idarubicin with V max at 460.23 ± 28.12 nmol/mg/min, K m at 0.461 ± 0.09 mM and k cat /K m at 35.94. AKR1B10 was less active toward doxorubicin and epirubicin with a C14-hydroxyl group. In living cells, AKR1B10 efficiently catalyzed reduction of daunorubicin (50 nM) and idarubicin (30 nM) to corresponding alcohols. Within 24 h, approximately 20 ± 2.7% of daunorubicin (1 μM) or 23 ± 2.3% of idarubicin (1 μM) was converted to daunorubicinol or idarubicinol in AKR1B10 expression cells compared to 7 ± 0.9% and 5 ± 1.5% in vector control. AKR1B10 expression led to cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin, but inhibitor epalrestat showed a synergistic role with these agents. Together our data suggest that AKR1B10 participates in cellular metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, resulting in drug resistance. These data are informative for the clinical use of idarubicin and daunorubicin. - Highlights: → This study defines enzyme activity of AKR1B10 protein towards daunorubicin, idarubicin, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. → This study pinpoints

  20. Overexpression of xeroderma pigmentosum group C decreases the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Cao, Jia; Meng, Yanni; Qu, Chunying; Shen, Feng; Xu, Leiming

    2018-05-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a DNA-damage-recognition gene active at the early stage of DNA repair. XPC also participates in regulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the expression levels of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) were assessed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. This analysis revealed that expression of XPC mRNA significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma tissues compared with matched normal controls. Expression of XPC gradually increased along with the degree of progression of CRC. In vitro , an XTT assay demonstrated that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting XPC significantly increased the sensitivity of CRC SW480 cells to cisplatin, whereas cells transfected with a XPC-overexpression plasmid became more resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of apoptotic cells significantly increased in XPC-knockdown cells upon cisplatin treatment. However, the overexpression XPC significantly increased the resistance of cells to cisplatin. In vivo , tumor growth was significantly reduced in tumor-bearing mice when the XPC gene was knocked down. Upregulation of the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-associated X and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 proteins was observed in the implanted tumor tissue. In conclusion, XPC serves a key role in chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CRC to cisplatin, meaning that it may be a potential target for chemotherapy of CRC.

  1. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  2. The cell death factor, cell wall elicitor of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes metabolic alterations including GABA shunt in rice cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    An elicitor derived from the cell wall of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes cell death in suspension cultured cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To elucidate the role of M. grisea elicitor on metabolic pathway of rice cells, we performed metabolite profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE/MS). Treatment with M. grisea elicitor increased the amounts of antioxidants and free amino acids and decreased the amount of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycl...

  3. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  4. NULIF: neutron spectrum generator, few-group constant calculator, and fuel depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittkopf, W.A.; Tilford, J.M.; Andrews, J.B. II; Kirschner, G.; Hassan, N.M.; Colpo, P.N.

    1977-02-01

    The NULIF code generates a microgroup neutron spectrum and calculates spectrum-weighted few-group parameters for use in a spatial diffusion code. A wide variety of fuel cells, non-fuel cells, and fuel lattices, typical of PWR (or BWR) lattices, are treated. A fuel depletion routine and change card capability allow a broad range of problems to be studied. Coefficient variation with fuel burnup, fuel temperature change, moderator temperature change, soluble boron concentration change, burnable poison variation, and control rod insertion are readily obtained. Heterogeneous effects, including resonance shielding and thermal flux depressions, are treated. Coefficients are obtained for one thermal group and up to three epithermal groups. A special output routine writes the few-group coefficient data in specified format on an output tape for automated fitting in the PDQ07-HARMONY system of spatial diffusion-depletion codes

  5. Amide group anchored glucose oxidase based anodic catalysts for high performance enzymatic biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Ahn, Yeonjoo; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Kwon, Yongchai

    2017-01-01

    A new enzyme catalyst is formed by fabricating gold nano particle (GNP)-glucose oxidase (GOx) clusters that are then attached to polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with cross-linkable terephthalaldehyde (TPA) (TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP]). Especially, amide bonds belonging to TPA play an anchor role for incorporating rigid bonding among GNP, GOx and CNT/PEI, while middle size GNP is well bonded with thiol group of GOx to form strong GNP-GOx cluster. Those bonds are identified by chemical and electrochemical characterizations like XPS and cyclic voltammogram. The anchording effect of amide bonds induces fast electron transfer and strong chemical bonding, resulting in enhancements in (i) catalytic activity, (ii) amount of immobilized GOx and (ii) performance of enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) including the catalyst. Regarding the catalytic activity, the TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP] produces high electron transfer rate constant (6 s-1), high glucose sensitivity (68 μA mM-1 cm-2), high maximum current density (113 μA cm-2), low charge transfer resistance (17.0 Ω cm2) and long-lasting durability while its chemical structure is characterized by XPS confirming large portion of amide bond. In EBC measurement, it has high maximum power density (0.94 mW cm-2) compatible with catalytic acitivity measurements.

  6. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  7. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  8. Tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation are predictors of disease recurrence in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including among just the human papillomavirus-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James S; Scantlebury, Juliette B; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L

    2012-07-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all surgically resected cases (149) were reviewed. Anaplasia was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor nuclei with diameters ≥ 5 lymphocyte nuclei (~25 μm), and multinucleation was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor cells with multiple nuclei. p16 was positive in 128 cases (85.9%), 64 cases (43.0%) showed anaplasia, and 71 (47.7%) showed multinucleation. Anaplasia and multinucleation were highly related (Panaplasia or multinucleation had worse overall, disease-specific, and disease-free survival (Panaplasia and multinucleation both predicted worse disease-specific survival (hazard ratio 9.9, P=0.04; and hazard ratio 11.9, P=0.02, respectively) independent of the other variables. In summary, among surgically resectable oropharyngeal SCC (including among just the p16-positive cohort), tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation independently correlated with disease recurrence and poorer survival.

  9. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  10. Preclinical correction of human Fanconi anemia complementation group A bone marrow cells using a safety-modified lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P S; Taylor, J A; Trobridge, G D; Zhao, X; Beard, B C; Chien, S; Adair, J; Kohn, D B; Wagner, J E; Shimamura, A; Kiem, H-P

    2010-10-01

    One of the major hurdles for the development of gene therapy for Fanconi anemia (FA) is the increased sensitivity of FA stem cells to free radical-induced DNA damage during ex vivo culture and manipulation. To minimize this damage, we have developed a brief transduction procedure for lentivirus vector-mediated transduction of hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA). The lentiviral vector FancA-sW contains the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter, the FANCA cDNA, and a synthetic, safety-modified woodchuck post transcriptional regulatory element (sW). Bone marrow mononuclear cells or purified CD34(+) cells from patients with FANCA were transduced in an overnight culture on recombinant fibronectin peptide CH-296, in low (5%) oxygen, with the reducing agent, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and a combination of growth factors, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), Flt3 ligand, stem cell factor, and thrombopoietin. Transduced cells plated in methylcellulose in hypoxia with NAC showed increased colony formation compared with 21% oxygen without NAC (Pgene-corrected cells in patients with FANCA.

  11. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Rouq, F A; Suraya, F; Zaidi, S Z

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic "ABO" blood groups are inherited antigenic substances which are found on the surface of red blood cells in addition to other tissues. Certain hypothesis advocates that genetic predisposition like "ABO" blood group would be associated with occurrence of diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with type 2 diabetes. We identified 47 research documents in a data based search including ISI-Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed. Literature was explored using the key terms including "ABO blood groups" "type 2 diabetes". Studies in which "ABO" blood types and diabetes mellitus were discussed included without restrictions of research documents, types, status and language of the publications. Finally, 15 publications which matched our criteria were included, and remaining studies were excluded. Blood group "B" was associated with high incidence of type 2 diabetes and blood group "O" has a minimum association with type 2 diabetes. Blood group "A" and "AB" were almost equally distributed in both diabetic and non-diabetic population. However, we were unable to find an association between "Rh+ve" and "Rh-ve" blood groups with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with blood group "B" are at high risk while individuals with blood group "O" are at low peril of evolving type 2 diabetes. It is suggested that subjects with blood group "B" should be closely monitored by physicians as these subjects have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  12. The T Cell Response to Major Grass Allergens Is Regulated and Includes IL-10 Production in Atopic but Not in Non-Atopic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domdey, A.; Liu, A.; Millner, A.

    2010-01-01

    in allergen-specific responses. The aim was to determine whether major grass allergens induce production of suppressive cytokines in allergic and healthy subjects and to examine the inhibitory effect of these cytokines on allergic responses. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated...... from healthy and grass-allergic donors and stimulated with the major grass allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5. The effects of endogenous IL-10 and/or TGF-beta on proliferation and cytokine production were determined by use of blocking antibodies. In addition, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...... in PBMCs in the two groups, but fewer cells from atopic donors were CD4(+)CD25(+)CCR4(+) and more cells were CD4(+)CD25(+)CLA(+) compared to healthy donors. Conclusion: Allergen-specific responses of grass allergic patients but not in non-atopic subjects are influenced by regulatory cytokines produced...

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinomas Arising in Autoimmune Disease Affected Patients Treated with Biologic Drugs, Including Anti-TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Bononi, Ilaria; Puozzo, Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Foschi, Valentina; Lanza, Giovanni; Gafà, Roberta; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Touzé, Françoise Antoine; Selvatici, Rita; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) arisen in patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologic drugs. Experimental Design: Serum samples from patients with MCC were analyzed for the presence and titer of antibodies against antigens of the oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). IgG antibodies against the viral oncoproteins large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigens and the viral capsid protein-1 were analyzed by indirect ELISA. Viral antigens were recombinant LT/ST and virus-like particles (VLP), respectively. MCPyV DNA sequences were studied using PCR methods in MCC tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were carried out in MCC tissues to reveal MCPyV LT oncoprotein. Results: MCPyV DNA sequences identified in MCC tissues showed 100% homology with the European MKL-1 strain. PBMCs from patients tested MCPyV-negative. Viral DNA loads in the three MCC tissues were in the 0.1 to 30 copy/cell range. IgG antibodies against LT/ST were detected in patients 1 and 3, whereas patient 2 did not react to the MCPyV LT/ST antigen. Sera from the three patients with MCC contained IgG antibodies against MCPyV VP1. MCC tissues tested MCPyV LT-antigen-positive in IHC assays, with strong LT expression with diffuse nuclear localization. Normal tissues tested MCPyV LT-negative when employed as control. Conclusions: We investigated three new MCCs in patients affected by rheumatologic diseases treated with biologic drugs, including TNF. A possible cause-effect relationship between pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatment and MCC onset is suggested. Indeed, MCC is associated with MCPyV LT oncoprotein activity. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3929-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Invite, include, and involve: racial groups, ethnic groups, and leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2000-01-01

    All people recreate. Most of us read book and/or magazines, take walks, watch television, tend gardens. Some people enjoy high-risk activities, such as bungee jumping, others prefer to participate in karate at the local boys' club or bingo at the local senior center, while others prefer family-oriented leisure adivities such-as miniature golf. Whatever the leisure...

  15. DSP30 and interleukin-2 as a mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders including those with a low disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Karen A; Riley, Louise A; Diano, Giuseppe; Adams, Leanne B; Chiu, Eleanor; Sharma, Archna

    2018-05-01

    Chromosome abnormalities detected during cytogenetic investigations for B-cell malignancy offer prognostic information that can have wide ranging clinical impacts on patients. These impacts may include monitoring frequency, treatment type, and disease staging level. The use of the synthetic oligonucleotide DSP30 combined with interleukin 2 (IL2) has been described as an effective mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders, not only in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but also in a range of other B-cell malignancies. Here, we describe the comparison of two B-cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and DSP30 combined with IL2 as mitogens in a range of common B-cell disorders excluding CLL. The results showed that DSP30/IL2 was an effective mitogen in mature B-cell disorders, revealing abnormal cytogenetic results in a range of B-cell malignancies. The abnormality rate increased when compared to the use of LPS to 64% (DSP30/IL2) from 14% (LPS). In a number of cases the disease burden was proportionally very low, less than 10% of white cells. In 37% of these cases, the DSP30 culture revealed abnormal results. Importantly, we also obtained abnormal conventional cytogenetics results in 3 bone marrow cases in which immunophenotyping showed an absence of an abnormal B-cell clone. In these cases, the cytogenetics results correlated with the provisional diagnosis and altered their staging level. The use of DSP30 and IL2 is recommended for use in many B-cell malignancies as an effective mitogen and their use has been shown to enable successful culture of the malignant clone, even at very low levels of disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An Effective Approach for Immunotherapy Using Irradiated Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, D.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been aimed to investigate the effect of injection of Irradiated Ehrlich tumor cells alone or concurrent with immunomodulator in mice before and after challenge with viable Ehrlich tumor cells for enhancement of immune system. This study includes the estimation of survival, tumor size, lymphocyte count, LDH, MTT, granzyme B, and DNA fragmentation. In order to fulfill the target of this study, a total of 120 female swiss albino mice were used. They were divided into two classes vaccinated (injection of vaccine before challenge) and therapeutic class (injection of vaccine after challenge). Each class was divided into four groups, group (1) mice injected with viable Ehrlich tumor cells (G1), group (2) mice injected with irradiated tumor cells (G2), group (3) mice injected with immunomodulator (G3), and group (4) mice injected with irradiated tumor cells + immunomodulator (G4). Results obtained from this study demonstrated that, the lymphocyte count and granzyme B activity were increased in both the vaccinated and therapeutic classes compared with control group. LDH activity was decreased in all groups of vaccinated class and also in G2 and G4 groups of therapeutic class compared with control group. There was a significant increase in percent apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with spleenocytes of the groups of vaccinated class as compared with control group. Cellular DNA from Ehrlich tumor cell line cultured with spleenocytes of immunized groups was fragmented into discrete bands of approximate multiples of 200 bp. Revealing significant apoptosis in tumor cells due to vaccination. It is concluded that, vaccination with irradiated tumor cells is an effective approach in stimulation of immune system against viable tumor cells.

  17. Fibrin network pattern changes of platelet-rich fibrin in young versus old age group of individuals: A cell block cytology study

    OpenAIRE

    Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya; Anirban Chatterjee; Chaitanya Nischay Babu; Deepika Karunanithi

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20?39 years); Group 2: (40?59 years); and Group 3: (60 years and above). PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i) fibrin...

  18. On groups of pl-homeomorphisms of the real line

    CERN Document Server

    Bieri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Richard Thompson's famous group F has the striking property that it can be realized as a dense subgroup of the group of all orientation-preserving homeomorphisms of the unit interval, but it can also be given by a simple 2-generator-2-relator presentation, in fact as the fundamental group of an aspherical complex with only two cells in each dimension. This monograph studies a natural generalization of F that also includes Melanie Stein's generalized F-groups. The main aims of this monograph are the determination of isomorphisms among the generalized F-groups and the study of their automorphism groups. This book is aimed at graduate students (or teachers of graduate students) interested in a class of examples of torsion-free infinite groups with elements and composition that are easy to describe and work with, but have unusual properties and surprisingly small presentations in terms of generators and defining relations.

  19. T-regulatory cells in chronic rejection versus stable grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wedaie, Fatima; Farid, Eman; Tabbara, Khaled; El-Agroudy, Amgad E; Al-Ghareeb, Sumaya M

    2015-04-01

    Studying regulatory T cells in kidney allograft acceptance versus chronic rejection may help in the understanding of more mechanisms of immune tolerance and, in the future, may enable clinicians to induce immune tolerance and decrease the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate regulatory T cells in kidney transplant patients with stable graft versus transplant with biopsy-proven chronic rejection. The 3 groups that were studied included: kidney transplanted patients with no rejection episodes (n = 43); transplanted patients with biopsy-proven renal rejection (n = 27); and healthy age-matched nontransplanted individuals as controls (n = 42).The percentage of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) in blood was determined by flow cytometry. The regulatory T cell percentage was significantly lower in chronic rejection patients than control or stable graft groups. No significant difference was observed in regulatory T cell percentage between the stable graft and control groups. In the stable graft group, patients on rapamycin had a significantly higher regulatory T cell percentage than patients on cyclosporine. No effect of donor type, infection, or duration after transplant was observed on regulatory T cell percentage. The results of the current study are consistent with previous studies addressing the function of regulatory T cells in inducing immunotolerance after kidney transplant. Considering the established role of regulatory T cells in graft maintenance and our observation of high regulatory T cell percentage in patients receiving rapamycin than cyclosporine, we recommend including rapamycin when possible in immunosuppressive protocols. The findings from the current study on the chronic rejection group support ongoing research of having treatment with regulatory T cells, which may constitute a novel, efficient antirejection therapy in the future.

  20. Branched multifunctional polyether polyketals: variation of ketal group structure enables unprecedented control over polymer degradation in solution and within cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rajesh A; Narayanannair, Jayaprakash K; Hamilton, Jasmine L; Lai, Benjamin F L; Horte, Sonja; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Varghese, Jos P; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Manoharan, Muthiah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-09-12

    Multifunctional biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials incorporating specific degradable linkages that respond to various stimuli and with defined degradation profiles are critical to the advancement of targeted nanomedicine. Herein we report, for the first time, a new class of multifunctional dendritic polyether polyketals containing different ketal linkages in their backbone that exhibit unprecedented control over degradation in solution and within the cells. High-molecular-weight and highly compact poly(ketal hydroxyethers) (PKHEs) were synthesized from newly designed α-epoxy-ω-hydroxyl-functionalized AB(2)-type ketal monomers carrying structurally different ketal groups (both cyclic and acyclic) with good control over polymer properties by anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization. Polymer functionalization with multiple azide and amine groups was achieved without degradation of the ketal group. The polymer degradation was controlled primarily by the differences in the structure and torsional strain of the substituted ketal groups in the main chain, while for polymers with linear (acyclic) ketal groups, the hydrophobicity of the polymer may play an additional role. This was supported by the log P values of the monomers and the hydrophobicity of the polymers determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as the probe. A range of hydrolysis half-lives of the polymers at mild acidic pH values was achieved, from a few minutes to a few hundred days, directly correlating with the differences in ketal group structures. Confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated similar degradation profiles for PKHEs within live cells, as seen in solution and the delivery of fluorescent marker to the cytosol. The cell viability measured by MTS assay and blood compatibility determined by complement activation, platelet activation, and coagulation assays demonstrate that PKHEs and their degradation products are highly biocompatible. Taken together, these data

  1. Analysis of myelomonocytic leukemic differentiation by a cell surface marker panel including a fucose-binding lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, L; Van Epps, D E

    1984-06-01

    The fucose-binding lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus ( FBL -L) has been previously shown to bind specifically to normal cells of the myeloid and monocytic lineages. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of fluoresceinated FBL -L as a leukemia differentiation marker in conjunction with a panel of other frequently used surface markers (Fc receptor, HLA-DR, OKM1, and antimonocyte antibody). FBL -L reacted with leukemic cells in 8/9 cases of clinically recognized acute myeloid leukemia, including myeloid blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia, 3/3 cases of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia, and in 2/7 cases of clinically undifferentiated acute leukemia. Correlations were noted between reactivity with FBL -L, and DR and Fc receptor expression. Among continuous cell lines, FBL -L bound with high intensity to a majority of HL-60 and U937 cells. The less well differentiated myeloblast cell lines, KG-1, KG1a , and HL-60 blast II, exhibited less FBL -L binding than HL-60 and U937. A moderate proportion of K562 cells exhibited low level binding of FBL -L. Several lymphoblastic cell lines exhibited a pattern of low intensity binding that was distinguishable from the high intensity binding pattern of the myeloblastic lines. FBL -L reactivity of U937 was enhanced by induction of differentiation with leukocyte conditioned medium, but not dimethylsulfoxide. Such treatments induced contrasting patterns of change of HL-60 and U937 when labeled with OKM1, alpha-Mono, and HLA-DR. These studies demonstrate the application of FBL -L to analysis and quantitation of myelomonocytic leukemic differentiation.

  2. A review of cell-scale multiphase flow modeling, including water management, in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Beale, S.B.; Espinoza, M.; Wu, Z.; Lehnert, W.

    2016-01-01

    on the transport processes inside the porous GDL are extensively discussed. The selection of a computational approach, for the two-phase flow within a GDL or GC, for example, should be based on the computational resources available, concerns about time and scale (microscale, cell scale, stack scale or system scale), as well as accuracy requirements. One important feature, included in some computational approaches, is the possibility to track the front between the liquid and the gas phases. To build a PEFC model, one must make a large number of assumptions. Some assumptions have a negligible effect on the results and reliability of the model. However, other assumptions may significantly affect the result. It is strongly recommended in any modeling paper to clearly state the assumptions being implemented, for others to be able to judge the work. It is important to note that a large fraction of the expressions that presently are used to describe the transport processes inside PEFC GDLs were originally developed to describe significantly different systems, such as sand or rocks. Moreover, the flow pattern maps and pressure drop correlations of two phase flow in micro channels may not be applicable for GCs due to one side wall being porous, with the resulting interaction between the GDL and GC.

  3. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Arzu; Unal, Dilek; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karahan, Samet; Aykas, Fatma; Mutlu, Hasan; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

  4. A human repair gene ERCC5 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    In E. coli, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage is removed by the coordinated action of UVR A, B, C, and D proteins (1). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than ten genes have been reported to be involved in excision repair (2). The nucleotide excision repair pathway has been extensively studied in these organisms. To facilitate studying nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. Ultraviolet-sensitive rodent cell mutants have been isolated and classified into 11 complementation groups (9,10). The human nucleotide excision repair genes which complement the defects of the mutants have been designated as the ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes; a number is added to refer to the particular rodent complementation group that is corrected by the gene. Recently, several human DNA repair genes have been cloned using rodent cell lines sensitive to ultraviolet. These include ERCC2 (3), ERCC3 (4), and ERCC6 (5), which correspond to the defective genes in the ultraviolet-sensitive human disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group D (6) and group B (4), and Cockayne's syndrome (CS) group B (7), respectively. The human excision repair gene ERCC5 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer of human HeLa cell genomic DNA into the ultraviolet-sensitive mouse mutant XL216, a member of rodent complementation group 5 (11,12) and the gene was mapped on human chromosome 13q32.3-q33.1 by the replication R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization method (13). The ERCC5 cDNA encodes a predicted 133 kDa nuclear protein that shares some homology with product of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD 2. Transfection with mouse ERCC5 cDNA restored normal levels of ultraviolet-resistance to XL216 cells. Microinjection of ERCC5 cDNA specifically restored the defect of XP group G cells (XP-G) as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), and XP-G cells stably transformed with ERCC5 cDNA showed nearly normal ultraviolet resistance. (J.P.N.)

  5. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma With Chromosome 6p Amplification Including the TFEB Gene: A Novel Mechanism of Tumor Pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang; Favazza, Laura; Gondim, Dibson D; Carskadon, Shannon; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2017-03-01

    Amplification of chromosome 6p has been implicated in aggressive behavior in several cancers, but has not been characterized in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We identified 9 renal tumors with amplification of chromosome 6p including the TFEB gene, 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and 6 from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Patients' ages were 28 to 78 years (median, 61 y). Most tumors were high stage (7/9 pT3a, 2/9 pN1). Using immunohistochemistry, 2/4 were positive for melanocytic markers and cathepsin K. Novel TFEB fusions were reported by TCGA in 2; however, due to a small composition of fusion transcripts compared with full-length transcripts (0.5/174 and 3.3/132 FPKM), we hypothesize that these represent secondary fusions due to amplification. Five specimens (4 TCGA, 1 fluorescence in situ hybridization) had concurrent chromosome 3p copy number loss or VHL deletion. However, these did not resemble clear cell RCC, had negative carbonic anhydrase IX labeling, lacked VHL mutation, and had papillary or unclassified histology (2/4 had gain of chromosome 7 or 17). One tumor each had somatic FH mutation and SMARCB1 mutation. Chromosome 6p amplification including TFEB is a previously unrecognized cytogenetic alteration in RCC, associated with heterogenous tubulopapillary eosinophilic and clear cell histology. The combined constellation of features does not fit cleanly into an existing tumor category (unclassified), most closely resembling papillary or translocation RCC. The tendency for high tumor stage, varied tubulopapillary morphology, and a subset with melanocytic marker positivity suggests the possibility of a unique tumor type, despite some variation in appearance and genetics.

  7. MiR-7 triggers cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition by targeting multiple genes including Skp2 and Psme3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sanchez

    Full Text Available MiR-7 acts as a tumour suppressor in many cancers and abrogates proliferation of CHO cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that miR-7 targets key regulators of the G1 to S phase transition, including Skp2 and Psme3, to promote increased levels of p27(KIP and temporary growth arrest of CHO cells in the G1 phase. Simultaneously, the down-regulation of DNA repair-specific proteins via miR-7 including Rad54L, and pro-apoptotic regulators such as p53, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic factors like p-Akt, promoted cell survival while arrested in G1. Thus miR-7 can co-ordinate the levels of multiple genes and proteins to influence G1 to S phase transition and the apoptotic response in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. This work provides further mechanistic insight into the role of miR-7 as a regulator of cell growth in times of cellular stress.

  8. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkapongpisit, Maneerat; Giovia, Antonino; Follo, Carlo; Caputo, Giuseppe; Isidoro, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm), type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene), and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups) on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles. Results We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles. Conclusion These data highlight the importance of considering both the physicochemical characteristics (ie, material, size and surface charge on chemical groups) of nanoparticles and the biochemical composition of the cell membrane when choosing the most suitable nanotheranostics for targeting cancer cells. PMID:22904626

  9. Electron diffraction study of {alpha}-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    The structure of crystalline {alpha}-AlMnSi is examined by electron diffraction. Six distinct zone axes are examined, including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes, allowing the space group symmetry to be studied. Electron diffraction patterns characteristic of Pm3-bar were obtained for thicker specimens. However, for very thin specimens, as used for HRTEM imaging, the electron diffraction patterns were characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. The structural basis of the Pm3-bar to Im3-bar transformation may be understood in terms of an analysis of the icosahedral structural elements located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. A method for indexing the non-crystallographic zone axis diffraction patterns is described. An electron diffraction pattern of the 5-fold axis of the quasicrystalline phase i-AlMnSi is also included; this is compared with the experimental results and calculations for the [0{tau}1] axis of Pm3-bar and Im3-bar crystalline phases. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. The Fanconi anemia group A protein modulates homologous repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Herceg, Zdenko; Nakanishi, Koji; Demuth, Ilja; Piccoli, Colette; Michelon, Jocelyne; Hildebrand, Gabriele; Jasin, Maria; Digweed, Martin; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2005-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and high levels of chromosome instability. FA gene products have been shown to functionally or physically interact with BRCA1, RAD51 and the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex, suggesting that the FA complex may be involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we have investigated specifically the function of the FA group A protein (FANCA) in the repair of DSBs in mammalian cells. We show that the targeted deletion of Fanca exons 37-39 generates a null for Fanca in mice and abolishes ubiquitination of Fancd2, the downstream effector of the FA complex. Cells lacking Fanca exhibit increased chromosomal aberrations and attenuated accumulation of Brca1 and Rad51 foci in response to DNA damage. The absence of Fanca greatly reduces gene-targeting efficiency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and compromises the survival of fibroblast cells in response to ICL agent treatment. Fanca-null cells exhibit compromised homology-directed repair (HDR) of DSBs, particularly affecting the single-strand annealing pathway. These data identify the Fanca protein as an integral component in the early step of HDR of DSBs and thereby minimizing the genomic instability.

  11. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  12. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,210; TA-W-73,210A] Metlife... negative determination regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of MetLife, Technology... revised certification, and all workers in the group threatened with total or partial separation from...

  13. In a patient with biclonal Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia only one clone expands in three-dimensional culture and includes putative cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Julia; Thulien, Kyle J; Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2011-02-01

    A small percentage of cases of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) present with biclonality, defined here as the rearrangement of two distinct VDJ gene segments. Here we investigated the expansion of two clones from a patient with WM expressing molecularly detectable clonotypic gene rearrangements, one V(H)3 and one V(H)4. Biclonality was determined in blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). V(H)4 expressing cells but not V(H)3 expressing cells underwent clonal expansion in 3-D culture of reconstructed WM bone marrow. After 3-D culture, secondary culture in a colony forming unit assay, and RQ-PCR, only the V(H)4 clone was shown to harbor a subpopulation with characteristics of cancer stem cells, including proliferative quiescence, self-regeneration, and the ability to generate clonotypic progeny, suggesting that the V(H)4, but not the V(H)3, clone is clinically significant. Enrichment of potential WM stem cells in 3-D cultures holds promise for monitoring their response to treatment and for testing new therapies.

  14. Generation of thyroid follicular cells from pluripotent stem cells: Potential for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will eSewell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 12 percent of the population in the United States will be afflicted with a thyroid related disorder during their lifetime. Common treatment approaches are tailored to the specific disorder and include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation, antithyroid drugs, thyroid hormone replacement, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Regenerative medicine endeavors to combat disease by replacing or regenerating damaged, diseased or dysfunctional body parts. A series of achievements in pluripotent stem cell research have transformed regenerative medicine in many ways by demonstrating repair of a number of body parts in mice, of which, the thyroid has now been inducted into this special group. Seminal work in pluripotent cells, namely embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have made possible their path to becoming key tools and biological building blocks for cell-based regenerative medicine to combat the gamut of human diseases, including those affecting the thyroid.

  15. Proteomic plasma membrane profiling reveals an essential role for gp96 in the cell surface expression of LDLR family members, including the LDL receptor and LRP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Michael P; Antrobus, Robin; Talbot, Suzanne; Hör, Simon; Simecek, Nikol; Smith, Duncan L; Bloor, Stuart; Randow, Felix; Lehner, Paul J

    2012-03-02

    The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is required for the cell surface expression of a narrow range of proteins, including toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To identify a more comprehensive repertoire of proteins whose cell surface expression is dependent on gp96, we developed plasma membrane profiling (PMP), a technique that combines SILAC labeling with selective cell surface aminooxy-biotinylation. This approach allowed us to compare the relative abundance of plasma membrane (PM) proteins on gp96-deficient versus gp96-reconstituted murine pre-B cells. Analysis of unfractionated tryptic peptides initially identified 113 PM proteins, which extended to 706 PM proteins using peptide prefractionation. We confirmed a requirement for gp96 in the cell surface expression of certain TLRs and integrins and found a marked decrease in cell surface expression of four members of the extended LDL receptor family (LDLR, LRP6, Sorl1 and LRP8) in the absence of gp96. Other novel gp96 client proteins included CD180/Ly86, important in the B-cell response to lipopolysaccharide. We highlight common structural motifs in these client proteins that may be recognized by gp96, including the beta-propeller and leucine-rich repeat. This study therefore identifies the extended LDL receptor family as an important new family of proteins whose cell surface expression is regulated by gp96.

  16. Identification of risk groups in patients with completely resected N1 non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, T.E.; Bonner, J.A.; Gould, P.J.; Foote, R.L.; Deschamps, C.; Trastek, V.F.; Pairolero, P.C.; Allen, M.S.; Lange, C. M.; Li, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the potential benefits of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the management of completely resected AJCC N1 non-small cell lung cancer are unknown, the majority of studies have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit with any neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. While it is possible that radiation therapy and chemotherapy are ineffective adjunctive therapies in this disease, it is also possible that previous studies have been diluted by the inclusion of patients at low risk for local recurrence and/or distant metastasis and therefore, this study was undertaken to assess these risks. Methods: From 1987 through 1990, 107 patients underwent complete resection of AJCC N1 non-small cell lung carcinoma and received no other treatment. These patients were the subject of a retrospective review to separate patients into high-, medium-, and low-risk groups with respect to freedom from local recurrence (FFLR), freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) utilizing a regression analysis of Cox and a regression tree analysis (Breiman LI et al, Wadsworth International Group, Belmont, CA 1984). Results: The 5-year rates of FFLR, FFDM, and OS were 62%, 53%, and 32% respectively. The following factors were assessed for potential relationships with FFLR, FFDM, and OS: status of the pre-operative bronchoscopy, type of surgery performed (segmentectomy/wedge resection vs. lobectomy vs. bilobectomy/pneumonectomy), number of involved N1 nodes, number of involved N1 stations, number of N1 nodes removed, number of N2 nodes removed, number of lung lobes involved, tumor grade, tumor histology (squamous vs non-squamous), AJCC T-stage, pathologic tumor size, and pathologic margin status. Regression analyses revealed that the factors independently associated with an improved outcome included a positive bronchoscopy (FFLR, p=.005), a greater number of N1 nodes dissected (FFDM, p=.02), and a lesser T-stage (OS, p=.01). Regression tree analyses were then

  17. Epigenetic profiling of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes including BCL7a, PTPRG, and p73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Remco; Zoutman, Willem H; Dijkman, Remco; de Menezes, Renee X; Commandeur, Suzan; Mulder, Aat A; van der Velden, Pieter A; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Tim H; Tensen, Cornelis P

    2005-06-10

    To analyze the occurrence of promoter hypermethylation in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) on a genome-wide scale, focusing on epigenetic alterations with pathogenetic significance. DNA isolated from biopsy specimens of 28 patients with CTCL, including aggressive CTCL entities (transformed mycosis fungoides and CD30-negative large T-cell lymphoma) and an indolent entity (CD30-positive large T-cell lymphoma), were investigated. For genome-wide DNA methylation screening, differential methylation hybridization using CpG island microarrays was applied, which allows simultaneous detection of the methylation status of 8640 CpG islands. Bisulfite sequence analysis was applied for confirmation and detection of hypermethylation of eight selected tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methylation patterns of CTCLs emerging from differential methylation hybridization analysis included 35 CpG islands hypermethylated in at least four of the 28 studied CTCL samples when compared with benign T-cell samples. Hypermethylation of the putative tumor suppressor genes BCL7a (in 48% of CTCL samples), PTPRG (27%), and thrombospondin 4 (52%) was confirmed and demonstrated to be associated with transcriptional downregulation. BCL7a was hypermethylated at a higher frequency in aggressive (64%) than in indolent (14%) CTCL entities. In addition, the promoters of the selected tumor suppressor genes p73 (48%), p16 (33%), CHFR (19%), p15 (10%), and TMS1 (10%) were hypermethylated in CTCL. Malignant T cells of patients with CTCL display widespread promoter hypermethylation associated with inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis signaling pathways. In view of this, CTCL may be amenable to treatment with demethylating agents.

  18. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio Liver Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS on apoptosis and cell cycle in a zebrafish (Danio rerio liver cell line (ZFL. Treatment groups included a control group, PFOA-IC50, PFOA-IC80, PFOS-IC50 and PFOS-IC80 groups. IC50 and IC80 concentrations were identified by cellular modeling and MTT assays. mRNA levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were detected by qPCR. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry and the protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were determined by western blotting. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited the growth of zebrafish liver cells, and the inhibition rate of PFOS was higher than that of PFOA. Bcl-2 expression levels in the four groups were significantly higher than the control group and Bcl-2 increased significantly in the PFOA-IC80 group. However, the expression levels of Bax in the four treatment groups were higher than the control group. The percentage of cell apoptosis increased significantly with the treatment of PFOA and PFOS (p < 0.05. Cell cycle and cell proliferation were blocked in both the PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC80 groups, indicating that PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC50 enhanced apoptosis in ZFL cells.

  20. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Deficiency Alters Cigarette Smoke DNA Damage Cell Fate and Accelerates Emphysema Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Catherine R; Zhou, Huaxin; Justice, Matthew J; Fisher, Amanda J; Saliba, Jacob; Lamb, Isaac; Wicker, Jessica; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Petrache, Irina

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for the development of emphysema, a common disease characterized by loss of cells comprising the lung parenchyma. The mechanisms of cell injury leading to emphysema are not completely understood but are thought to involve persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA damage induced by CS. Using complementary cell culture and mouse models of CS exposure, we investigated the role of the DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), on CS-induced DNA damage repair and emphysema. Expression of XPC was decreased in mouse lungs after chronic CS exposure and XPC knockdown in cultured human lung epithelial cells decreased their survival after CS exposure due to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Similarly, cell autophagy and apoptosis were increased in XPC-deficient mouse lungs and were further increased by CS exposure. XPC deficiency was associated with structural and functional changes characteristic of emphysema, which were worsened by age, similar to levels observed with chronic CS exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that repair of DNA damage by XPC plays an important and previously unrecognized role in the maintenance of alveolar structures. These findings support that loss of XPC, possibly due to chronic CS exposure, promotes emphysema development and further supports a link between DNA damage, impaired DNA repair, and development of emphysema.

  1. Allergen-induced Increases in Sputum Levels of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Subjects with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruchong; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; El-Gammal, Amani; Oliveria, John Paul; Obminski, Caitlin; Watson, Rick; O'Byrne, Paul M; Gauvreau, Gail M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-09-15

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), a major source of type 2 cytokines, initiate eosinophilic inflammatory responses in murine models of asthma. To investigate the role of ILC2 in allergen-induced airway eosinophilic responses in subjects with atopy and asthma. Using a diluent-controlled allergen challenge crossover study, where all subjects (n = 10) developed allergen-induced early and late responses, airway eosinophilia, and increased methacholine airway responsiveness, bone marrow, blood, and sputum samples were collected before and after inhalation challenge. ILC2 (lin - FcεRI - CD45 + CD127 + ST2 + ) and CD4 + T lymphocytes were enumerated by flow cytometry, as well as intracellular IL-5 and IL-13 expression. Steroid sensitivity of ILC2 and CD4 + T cells was investigated in vitro. A significant increase in total, IL-5 + , IL-13 + , and CRTH2 + ILC2 was found in sputum, 24 hours after allergen, coincident with a significant decrease in blood ILC2. Total, IL-5 + , and IL-13 + , but not CRTH2 + , CD4 + T cells significantly increased at 24 and 48 hours after allergen in sputum. In blood and bone marrow, only CD4 + cells demonstrated increased activation after allergen. Airway eosinophilia correlated with IL-5 + ILC2 at all time points and allergen-induced changes in IL-5 + CD4 + cells at 48 hours after allergen. Dexamethasone significantly attenuated IL-2- and IL-33-stimulated IL-5 and IL-13 production by both cell types. Innate and adaptive immune cells are increased in the airways associated with allergic asthmatic responses. Total and type 2 cytokine-positive ILC2 are increased only within the airways, whereas CD4 + T lymphocytes demonstrated local and systemic increases. Steroid sensitivity of both cells may explain effectiveness of this therapy in those with mild asthma.

  2. Fibrin network pattern changes of platelet-rich fibrin in young versus old age group of individuals: A cell block cytology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20–39 years; Group 2: (40–59 years; and Group 3: (60 years and above. PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs within fibrin meshwork. Results: Two types of fibrin network pattern arrangements noticed: Dense and loose types in three age groups. However, there was a noticeable decrease in the dense type of fibrin network with progressing age and increase in the loose type of fibrin arrangement. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and WBCs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: From the current study it can be concluded that age can be considered as one of the influencing factors on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network patterns and hence, platelet and WBCs entrapment within these fibrin networks.

  3. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Fiona M.; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M.; Simms, Matthew S.; Boyle, Ross W.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer

  4. Tissue engineering and the use of stem/progenitor cells for airway epithelium repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Roomans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells can be used to repair defects in the airway wall, resulting from e.g., tumors, trauma, tissue reactions following long-time intubations, or diseases that are associated with epithelial damage. Several potential sources of cells for airway epithelium have been identified. These can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of endogenous progenitor cells present in the respiratory tract. This group can be subdivided according to location into (a a ductal cell type in the submucosal glands of the proximal trachea, (b basal cells in the intercartilaginous zones of the lower trachea and bronchi, (c variant Clara cells (Clarav-cells in the bronchioles and (d at the junctions between the bronchioles and the alveolar ducts, and (e alveolar type II cells. This classification of progenitor cell niches is, however, controversial. The second group consists of exogenous stem cells derived from other tissues in the body. This second group can be subdivided into: (a embryonic stem (ES cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, or amniotic fluid stem cells, (b side-population cells from bone marrow or epithelial stem cells present in bone marrow or circulation and (c fat-derived mesenchymal cells. Airway epithelial cells can be co-cultured in a system that includes a basal lamina equivalent, extracellular factors from mesenchymal fibroblasts, and in an air-liquid interface system. Recently, spheroid-based culture systems have been developed. Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema.

  5. Molecular network including eIF1AX, RPS7, and 14-3-3γ regulates protein translation and cell proliferation in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Luo, Chaochao; Qu, Bo; Khudhair, Nagam; Gu, Xinyu; Zang, Yanli; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Na; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-12-15

    14-3-3γ, an isoform of the 14-3-3 protein family, was proved to be a positive regulator of mTOR pathway. Here, we analyzed the function of 14-3-3γ in protein synthesis using bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). We found that 14-3-3γ interacted with eIF1AX and RPS7 by 14-3-3γ coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. These interactions of 14-3-3γ with eIF1AX and RPS7 were further confirmed by colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. We also found that methionine could promote protein synthesis and trigger the protein expression levels of 14-3-3γ, eIF1AX and RPS7. Analysis of overexpression and inhibition of 14-3-3γ confirmed that it positively affected the protein expression levels of eIF1AX, RPS7, Stat5 and mTOR pathway to promote protein synthesis and cell proliferation in BMECs. We further showed that overexpression of eIF1AX and RPS7 also triggered protein translation and cell proliferation. From these results, we conclude that molecular network including eIF1AX, RPS7, and 14-3-3γ regulates protein translation and cell proliferation in BMECs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oncolytic Group B Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Mediates Non-apoptotic Cell Death with Membrane Disruption and Release of Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Dyer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enadenotucirev (EnAd is a chimeric group B adenovirus isolated by bioselection from a library of adenovirus serotypes. It replicates selectively in and kills a diverse range of carcinoma cells, shows effective anticancer activity in preclinical systems, and is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials. EnAd kills cells more quickly than type 5 adenovirus, and speed of cytotoxicity is dose dependent. The EnAd death pathway does not involve p53, is predominantly caspase independent, and appears to involve a rapid fall in cellular ATP. Infected cells show early loss of membrane integrity; increased exposure of calreticulin; extracellular release of ATP, HSP70, and HMGB1; and influx of calcium. The virus also causes an obvious single membrane blister reminiscent of ischemic cell death by oncosis. In human tumor biopsies maintained in ex vivo culture, EnAd mediated release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1. In accordance with this, EnAd-infected tumor cells showed potent stimulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells in a mixed tumor-leukocyte reaction in vitro. Whereas many viruses have evolved for efficient propagation with minimal inflammation, bioselection of EnAd for rapid killing has yielded a virus with a short life cycle that combines potent cytotoxicity with a proinflammatory mechanism of cell death.

  7. Low Frequencies of Autoimmunity-Associated PTPN22 Polymorphisms in MODY Patients, Including Those Transiently Expressing Islet Cell Autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Malá, Milena; Yorifuji, Tohru; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Lebenthal, Yael; Tajima, Toshihiro; Nogaroto, Viviane; Rypáčková, Blanka; Kocková, Lucie; Urbanová, Jana; Anděl, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), which is expressed primarily in lymphoid tissues. The functional but geographically highly variable PTPN22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), particularly c.1858C>T, contribute to the onset and progression of autoimmunity-associated diseases and facilitate the expression of disease-associated autoantibodies. In Central Europe, 17-25% of patients with monogenic diabetes (maturity-onset diabetes of the young, MODY) transiently express islet cell autoantibodies. We addressed the links between the functional and geographically variable PTPN22 SNPs with MODY manifestation and the expression of islet cell autoantibodies in 276 MODY patients who originated from four regions (the Czech Republic, Israel, Japan and Brazil). The frequency of PTPN22 polymorphisms in the MODY patients was similar to those in geographically matched healthy populations, with the exception of c.788G>A, the minor allele frequency of which was significantly elevated in the Czech hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) MODY patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-10.7] and the Brazilian MODY patients (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.8-39.1). A barely significant increase in the c.788G>A minor allele was also detected in the islet cell autoantibody-positive Czech MODY patients. However, c.788A behaves as a loss-of-function mutant in T cells, and thus protects against autoimmunity. MODY patients (including islet cell autoantibody-positive cases) do not display any increase in autoimmunity-associated PTPN22 alleles. The absence of autoimmunity-associated PTPN22 alleles was also demonstrated in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, which suggests that the slow kinetics of the onset of autoantibodies is subject to a regulation that is different from that experienced in type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Antimicrobial and anti-virulence activity of capsaicin against erythromycin-resistant, cell-invasive Group A streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMarini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide is the active component of Capsicum plants (chilli peppers, which are grown as food and for medicinal purposes since ancient times, and is responsible for the pungency of their fruit. Besides its multiple pharmacological and physiological properties (pain relief, cancer prevention, and beneficial cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects capsaicin has recently attracted considerable attention because of its antimicrobial and anti-virulence activity. This is the first study of its in vitro antibacterial and anti-virulence activity against Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococci (GAS], a major human pathogen. The test strains were previously characterized, erythromycin-susceptible (n=5 and erythromycin-resistant (n=27, cell-invasive pharyngeal isolates. The MICs of capsaicin were 64-128 μg/mL (the most common MIC was 128 µg/mL. The action of capsaicin was bactericidal, as suggested by MBC values that were equal or close to the MICs, and by early detection of dead cells in the live/dead assay. No capsaicin-resistant mutants were obtained in single-step resistance selection studies. Interestingly, growth in presence of sublethal capsaicin concentrations induced an increase in biofilm production (p ≤ 0.05 and in the number of bacteria adhering to A549 monolayers, and a reduction in cell-invasiveness and haemolytic activity (both p ≤ 0.05. Cell invasiveness fell so dramatically that a highly invasive strain became non-invasive. The dose-response relationship, characterized by opposite effects of low and high capsaicin doses, suggests a hormetic response. The present study documents that capsaicin has promising bactericidal activity against erythromycin-resistant, cell-invasive pharyngeal GAS isolates. The fact that sublethal concentrations inhibited cell invasion and reduced haemolytic activity, two important virulence traits of GAS, is also interesting, considering that cell

  10. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  11. All polymer chip for amperometric studies of transmitter release from large groups of neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We present an all polymer electrochemical chip for simple detection of transmitter release from large groups of cultured PC 12 cells. Conductive polymer PEDOT:tosylate microelectrodes were used together with constant potential amperometry to obtain easy-to-analyze oxidation signals from potassium......-induced release of transmitter molecules. The nature of the resulting current peaks is discussed, and the time for restoring transmitter reservoirs is studied. The relationship between released transmitters and potassium concentration was found to fit to a sigmoidal dose–response curve. Finally, we demonstrate...

  12. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links

  13. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  14. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Significance of neo-angiogenesis and immuno-surveillance cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma O. Alkhabuli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neo-angiogenesis is an essential process in physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is a complex process. Several studies demonstrated that intra-tumoural microvessel number is a significant predictor of metastasis and clinical outcome in many tumours, including oral malignancies. The immuno-surveillance cells, mast cells and eosinophils are implicated in the biological behaviour of tumours. Nevertheless, their function in tissues is uncertain. Mast cells are involved in homeostatic regulation of blood vessels as well as host defence. In some malignancies, high mast cell density has been found to correlate with favourable prognosis. However, others reported unfavourable associations. Tumour associated tissue eosinophilia is a well-known phenomena. It has been associated with good and poor prognosis. However, the role of eosinophils in tumours remains controversial. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of microvessel, mast cell and eosinophil densities in the context of clinico-pathological parameters and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.Materials and Methods: Anti-CD105 and anti-tryptase monoclonal antibodies were utilized to highlight and count microvessels and mast cells respectively in 81 cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Eosinophils were demonstrated using carbol chromotrope histochemical stain. The densities were counted per mm2 and correlated with patients’ outcome and other clinico-pathological parameters using non-parametric tests and student’s t-test. Clinically, the cases were divided into 4 main groups depending on survival time, lymph-node or distant metastasis.Results: The 5 year survival was significantly lower in patients with a low mast cell density than those with a high density (p=0.006, Kruskal-Wallis test. The survival group-A demonstrated significantly higher mast cell and microvessel numbers than group-D (p=0.007, student’s t

  16. Dendritic thickness: a morphometric parameter to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Loopuijt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the dendritic morphology of retinal ganglion cells in wild-type mice we intracellularly injected these cells with Lucifer yellow in an in vitro preparation of the retina. Subsequently, quantified values of dendritic thickness, number of branching points and level of stratification of 73 Lucifer yellow-filled ganglion cells were analyzed by statistical methods, resulting in a classification into 9 groups. The variables dendritic thickness, number of branching points per cell and level of stratification were independent of each other. Number of branching points and level of stratification were independent of eccentricity, whereas dendritic thickness was positively dependent (r = 0.37 on it. The frequency distribution of dendritic thickness tended to be multimodal, indicating the presence of at least two cell populations composed of neurons with dendritic diameters either smaller or larger than 1.8 µm ("thin" or "thick" dendrites, respectively. Three cells (4.5% were bistratified, having thick dendrites, and the others (95.5% were monostratified. Using k-means cluster analysis, monostratified cells with either thin or thick dendrites were further subdivided according to level of stratification and number of branching points: cells with thin dendrites were divided into 2 groups with outer stratification (0-40% and 2 groups with inner (50-100% stratification, whereas cells with thick dendrites were divided into one group with outer and 3 groups with inner stratification. We postulate, that one group of cells with thin dendrites resembles cat ß-cells, whereas one group of cells with thick dendrites includes cells that resemble cat a-cells.

  17. Epigenetics targeted protein-vorinostat nanomedicine inducing apoptosis in heterogeneous population of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells including refractory and relapsed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Kavalakatt, Anu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Vasanthakumari, Divya Rani Vikraman Nair; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Pavithran, Keechilat; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetics play a key role in the onset and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein we report in silico modelling based development of a novel, protein-vorinostat nanomedicine exhibiting selective and superior anti-leukemic activity against heterogeneous population of AML patient samples (n=9), including refractory and relapsed cases, and three representative cell lines expressing CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cell phenotype (KG-1a), promyelocytic phenotype (HL-60) and FLT3-ITD mutation (MV4-11). Nano-vorinostat having ~100nm size exhibited enhanced cellular uptake rendering significantly lower IC50 in AML cell lines and patient samples, and induced enhanced HDAC inhibition, oxidative injury, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis compared to free vorinostat. Most importantly, nanomedicine showed exceptional single-agent activity against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. Collectively, this epigenetics targeted nanomedicine appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British (FAB) classes of AML. Through the use of a protein-vorinostat agent, exceptional single-agent activity was demonstrated against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. The studied epigenetics targeted nanomedicine approach is a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British classes of acute myeloid leukemia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. INCREASED VASOOCCLUSIVE CRISIS IN “O” BLOOD GROUP SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH UNDERLYING THROMBOSPONDIN LEVELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Huneini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To explore the incidence of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in Blood Group “O” sickle cell disease (SCD patients, and correlate it with the blood group and thrombospondin (TSP levels. Methods: In 89 consecutive SCD patients, blood samples were obtained for vWF antigen, collagen binding activity, blood group typing, C-reactive protein, variant hemoglobin analysis (HPLC, Serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels, complete blood counts, liver function tests, LDH and renal function tests during VOC episodes and in steady state conditions. Results: In the steady state SCD patients (n=72, “O” blood group patients (n=37 showed significantly higher median serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels than the non “O” blood group patients [n=35] [p <0.05, Mann-Whitney test], with an inverse relation between VWF:Ag, Factor VIII:C and TSP levels. Furthermore, the serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with acute VOC [n=17], and in those with repeated VOC’s (group 1, n=16 especially amongst those patients with blood group “O” [p, <0.05, Mann-Whitney test]. Conclusions: The study shows that there was an inverse relation between TSP and vWF levels, in blood group “O” SCD patients with an upregulation of the TSP levels. Expectedly, during active VOC crisis, the TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly elevated.    Key Words: VOC; SCD; TSP; vWD; Blood groups

  19. Radiotherapeutic management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An overview based on the clinical trials of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Byhardt, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical trials clarified the role of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The evolution of this research is illustrated by a systemic succession of studies conducted during the last twenty years by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). This article reviews past and present RTOG research efforts in NSCLC. For unresectable NSCLS, major research themes have included radiation dose intensification using both standard and altered fractionation (hyperfractionation or accelerated fraction RT), treatment intensification using combined modality RT and chemotherapy (CT), as well as noncytotoxic adjuvants to RT. These trials have shown that treatment intensification can yield improved survival with acceptable toxicity. Local control and survival was improved with induction CT followed by standard RT to 60 Gy. Current studies will evaluate the timing and sequencing of CT and RT and the combination of CT with altered fractionation RT. Hypoxic cell sensitizers and nonspecific immune stimulants, two noncytotoxic adjuvants to RT, have shown no survival benefit. Biologic response modifiers, including recombinant interferon-beta, will also be evaluated as adjuvants to standard RT, based on interferon-beta radiosensitization observed in the laboratory and clinical investigations suggesting improved survival. Overall, RTOG studies have demonstrated small, but definite, incremental improvements in treatment outcome in NSCLS and provide a solid foundation on which to develop future investigations. (N.K.) 51 refs

  20. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rudisill, Toni M.; Zhu, Motao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Methods Data from the...

  1. Comparative study of few energy group of cross sections for fuel cells of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    A comparative study of nuclear constants calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index, burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author) and safety concern with the transport of radioactive materials, looking for the control of eventual exposure of radiation to men, properties and environment, that is: specification of radioactive materials to be transported; choice of loaded materials; specification of requisites of loaded materials; general specification for any way of transport (earth, water and air), and responsibilities and administrative requisites. (author)

  2. Incorporation of ester groups into low band-gap diketopyrrolopyrrole containing polymers for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiaolian; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei

    2012-01-01

    To increase the open circuit voltage (VOC) of polymer solar cells based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) containing polymers, the weakly electron-withdrawing thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate unit was introduced into the polymer backbone. Two ester group functionalized DPP containing polymers, PCTDPP...... with a random structure and PDCTDPP with a regular structure, were designed and synthesized by the Stille coupling reaction. The resulting copolymers exhibit broad and strong absorption bands from 350 to 1000 nm with low optical band gaps below 1.40 eV. Through cyclic voltammetry measurements, it is found...

  3. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  4. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  5. Studies of insulin secretory responses and of arachidonic acid incorporation into phospholipids of stably transfected insulinoma cells that overexpress group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta ) indicate a signaling rather than a housekeeping role for iPLA2beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Ramanadham, S; Wohltmann, M; Bohrer, A; Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-04-20

    A cytosolic 84-kDa group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) that does not require Ca(2+) for catalysis has been cloned from several sources, including rat and human pancreatic islet beta-cells and murine P388D1 cells. Many potential iPLA(2)beta functions have been proposed, including a signaling role in beta-cell insulin secretion and a role in generating lysophosphatidylcholine acceptors for arachidonic acid incorporation into P388D1 cell phosphatidylcholine (PC). Proposals for iPLA(2)beta function rest in part on effects of inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with a bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate, but BEL also inhibits phosphatidate phosphohydrolase-1 and a group VIB phospholipase A(2). Manipulation of iPLA(2)beta expression by molecular biologic means is an alternative approach to study iPLA(2)beta functions, and we have used a retroviral construct containing iPLA(2)beta cDNA to prepare two INS-1 insulinoma cell clonal lines that stably overexpress iPLA(2)beta. Compared with parental INS-1 cells or cells transfected with empty vector, both iPLA(2)beta-overexpressing lines exhibit amplified insulin secretory responses to glucose and cAMP-elevating agents, and BEL substantially attenuates stimulated secretion. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of arachidonic acid incorporation into INS-1 cell PC indicate that neither overexpression nor inhibition of iPLA(2)beta affects the rate or extent of this process in INS-1 cells. Immunocytofluorescence studies with antibodies directed against iPLA(2)beta indicate that cAMP-elevating agents increase perinuclear fluorescence in INS-1 cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)beta associates with nuclei. These studies are more consistent with a signaling than with a housekeeping role for iPLA(2)beta in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

  6. Sex Differences in Stress and Group Housing Effects on the Number of Newly Proliferated Cells and Neuroblasts in Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Wang, Ching-Yi; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yu, Lung; Cherng, Chianfang G

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress and coping responses have been frequently documented in aged people, while whether such differences in aged people may appear at the middle age are unknown. This study was undertaken to study the impact of acute stress and social interaction on early neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampus-related memory in two sexes of middle-aged mice. The number of newly proliferated cells, neuroblasts in DG, the object recognition and location memory in 9-month-old male and female C57BL/6N mice were assessed under baseline conditions as well as following an acute stressor regimen and group housing. Three conspecific companions, serving as "the housing group," were used to model the social interaction throughout the stressor regimen. Males had lower numbers of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts under baseline conditions as compared to females. The stressor regimen caused rapid decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG but no obvious changes were observed in male DG. Group housing, regardless of companions' age, prevented the stress-induced decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG. In contrast, the presence of young or age-matched companions potentiated the stress effect in males by decreasing the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts. Finally, neither the stressor regimen nor group housing affected mouse performances in the object recognition and location memory in either sex. These findings, taken together, provide evidence to support a notion that middle-aged females appear to demonstrate more stress susceptibility on early neurogenesis in DG as compared to middle-aged males, although the hippocampus-related memory performances are comparable and not affected by stress in these males and females. Experiencing stress, middle-aged females are more prone to benefit from social interaction as compared to middle-aged males in this regard. We

  7. Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum

    KAUST Repository

    Latasa, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.

  8. 76 FR 13667 - Chrysler Group LLC; Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC; Kenosha Engine Plant; Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Prodriver Leasing Systems, Inc., Teksystems, Inc., Arcadis and the PIC Group, Kenosha, WI; Amended.... The workers at the subject firm were engaged in employment related to the production of V-6 automobile... Leasing Systems, Inc., Teksystems, Inc., Arcadis, and The PIC Group, Kenosha, Wisconsin, who became...

  9. Prophylactic red blood cell exchange may be beneficial in the management of sickle cell disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Tarım, Ebru; Sarıturk, Cagla; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Akdeniz, Aydan; Kasar, Mutlu; Turgut, Nurhilal H; Yeral, Mahmut; Kandemir, Fatih; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with chronic hemolysis and painful episodes. Pregnancy accelerates sickle cell complications, including prepartum and postpartum vasoocclusive crisis, pulmonary complications, and preeclampsia or eclampsia. Fetal complications include preterm birth and its associated risks, intrauterine growth restriction, and a high rate of perinatal mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in patients with SCD who underwent planned preventive red blood cell exchange (RBCX). We retrospectively evaluated the complications of SCD in 37 pregnant patients. Patients with SCD who had undergone prophylactic RBCX were compared with a control group who had not undergone RBCX during pregnancy. Forty-three exchange procedures were performed in 24 patients. The control group comprised 13 patients with a mean age of 27.4 ± 3.3 years who had not undergone RBCX during pregnancy. Four of the five patients who developed a vasoocclusive crisis died. There was a significant difference in maternal mortality between the study and control groups (p = 0.011). There was also a significant difference in the incidence of vasoocclusive crisis between the study and control groups. One fetal death occurred in the 20th gestational week in a patient in the control group, although there were no postpartum complications in either the babies or the mothers in the control group. This study has demonstrated that prophylactic RBCX during pregnancy is a feasible and safe procedure for prevention of complications. Given the decrease in the risks of transfusion, RBCX warrants further study. © 2014 AABB.

  10. I-L-C-2 it: type 2 immunity and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moltke, Jakob; Locksley, Richard M

    2014-12-01

    Innate type 2 immune cells are activated in response to helminths, allergens, and certain types of proteases and particulates. Recently, innate type 2 immune pathways have also been implicated in protective host responses to homeostatic perturbations, such as metabolic dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and tissue injury. In this context, innate type 2 cytokines stimulate local tissues, recruit eosinophils, and alternatively activate macrophages to restore homeostasis. As the major source of innate interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, group 2 innate lymphoid cells are positioned to initiate and maintain homeostatic type 2 responses. The absence of exogenous stimuli in these processes implicates endogenous pathways in the activation of type 2 immunity and suggests an alternative evolutionary trajectory for type 2 immunity, apart from its role in response to helminths and allergens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Barrett’s Oesophagus in an Achalasia Patient: Immunological Analysis and Comparison with a Group of Achalasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Torres-Landa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize the presence of diverse CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and regulatory cells in peripheral blood and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES from a young patient with BE/achalasia without treatment versus achalasia group. In order to characterize the circulating cells in this patient, a cytometric analysis was performed. LES tissue was evaluated by double-immunostaining procedure. Five healthy blood donors, 5 type achalasia patients, and 5 oesophagus tissue samples (gastrooesophageal junction from transplant donors were included as control groups. A conspicuous systemic inflammation was determined in BE/achalasia patient and achalasia versus healthy volunteer group. Nonetheless, a predominance of Th22, Th2, IFN-α-producing T cells, Tregs, Bregs, and pDCregs was observed in BE/achalasia patient versus achalasia group. A low percentage of Th1 subset in BE/achalasia versus achalasia group was determined. A noticeable increase in tissue of Th22, Th17, Th2, Tregs, Bregs, and pDCregs was observed in BE/achalasia versus achalasia group. Th1 subset was lower in the BE/achalasia patient versus achalasia group. This study suggests that inflammation is a possible factor in the pathogenesis of BE/achalasia. Further research needs to be performed to understand the specific cause of the correlation between BE and achalasia.

  12. Assessment of the HBV vaccine response in a group of HIV-infected children in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haban, Houda; Benchekroun, Soumia; Sadeq, Mina; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Amzazi, Said; Oumzil, Hicham; Elharti, Elmir

    2017-09-29

    Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country. Forty-nine HIV-infected children (HIV group) and 112 HIV uninfected children (control group) were enrolled in this study. Samples were tested by Elisa (Monolisa Anti-HBs, Biorad) to quantify the anti-HBs antibodies. The % of lymphocyte subsets i.e. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK, was determined by flow cytometry, using CellQuest Pro software (Becton-Dickinson), and for HIV group, HIV viral load was measured by real time PCR assay (Abbott). All variables were statistically compared in the two groups. The median age was 51 ± 35 months for the HIV group and 50 ± 36 months (p > 0.05) for the control group. Female represented 63% and 41% (p = 0.01), among the HIV group and the control group, respectively. Among HIV-infected children, 71.4% (35/49) were under HAART therapy at the enrollment in the study. Seroprotection titer i.e. anti-HBs ≥10mUI/ml among control group was 76% (85/112), and only 29% (14/49) among the perinatally HIV-infected children (p Morocco, in order to revaccinate non-immunized children.

  13. ICOS regulates the pool of group 2 innate lymphoid cells under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclik, Daniela; Stehle, Christina; Lahmann, Annette; Hutloff, Andreas; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate effectors playing an important role in the defense against helminthic infections and in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Cytokines have been identified as the major stimuli driving ILC2 activation and expansion. Conversely, it is unclear whether costimulatory molecules contribute to regulation of ILC2 functions. ILC2s display high expression of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which belongs to the CD28 superfamily, and which has been shown to control late effector T-cell functions, and is of utmost importance for the humoral immune response. However, the biological function of ICOS expression on ILC2s is unknown. Here, we show that ICOS signaling in mice regulates ILC2 homeostasis independently of T cells and B cells, by promoting proliferation and accumulation of mature ILC2s in lung and intestine. In a model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation, ICOS controls ILC2 activation and eosinophil infiltration in the lung. Our data identify a role of ICOS in innate immunity and indicate that not only cytokines, but also costimulatory pathways such as those involving ICOS, can contribute to regulate the ILC2 pool. Thus, ICOS costimulation blockade, which is currently under clinical evaluation for inhibiting the humoral immune response, could also target innate inflammatory circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Leaf anatomy of the genus Ehrharta (Poaceae in southern Africa: the Setacea group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of the taxa of the Setacea group of species of the genus Ehrharta is described and illustrated. This group includes E. rupestris Nees ex Trin. subsp.  rupestris, subsp.  tricostata (Stapf Gibbs Russell and subsp.  dodii (Stapf Gibbs Russell, as well as E. setacea Nees subsp.  setacea, subsp.  scabra (Stapf Gibbs Russell, subsp.  uniflora (Burch, ex Stapf Gibbs Russell and subsp.  disticha Gibbs Russell. All these taxa share a very characteristic leaf anatomy with inrolled or infolded leaves without keels and have adaxial ribs with interlocking prickles. The chlorenchyma is dense and compact with inwardly projecting invaginations visible in all taxa except  E. setacea subsp.  setacea. In E .  setacea subsp. scabra typical arm cells are present. Abaxial costal and intercostal zones are not differentiated and stomata are absent. The long cells are hexagonal or inflated with sinuous walls. Silica bodies are single or paired and rounded in shape. Small hook-like prickles with short barbs are common. Microhairs with a short, truncated distal cell occur. This leaf anatomical structure differs considerably from that of the other species groups recognized in African  Ehrharta and the Setacea group appears to be more distinct from the other groups than they are from each other.

  15. Effects of rooting via out-groups on in-group topology in phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Brown, Daniel G; Loker, David

    2014-01-01

    Users of phylogenetic methods require rooted trees, because the direction of time depends on the placement of the root. While phylogenetic trees are typically rooted by using an out-group, this mechanism is inappropriate when the addition of an out-group changes the in-group topology. We perform a formal analysis of phylogenetic algorithms under the inclusion of distant out-groups. It turns out that linkage-based algorithms (including UPGMA) and a class of bisecting methods do not modify the topology of the in-group when an out-group is included. By contrast, the popular neighbour joining algorithm fails this property in a strong sense: every data set can have its structure destroyed by some arbitrarily distant outlier. Furthermore, including multiple outliers can lead to an arbitrary topology on the in-group. The standard rooting approach that uses out-groups may be fundamentally unsuited for neighbour joining.

  16. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  17. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  18. Conjugated polymer zwitterions and solar cells comprising conjugated polymer zwitterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas; Page, Zachariah; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-05

    A conjugated polymer zwitterion includes repeating units having structure (I), (II), or a combination thereof ##STR00001## wherein Ar is independently at each occurrence a divalent substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 arylene or heteroarylene group; L is independently at each occurrence a divalent C1-16 alkylene group, C6-30arylene or heteroarylene group, or alkylene oxide group; and R1 is independently at each occurrence a zwitterion. A polymer solar cell including the conjugated polymer zwitterion is also disclosed.

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  20. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post-natal m...

  1. Vesicles mimicking normal and cancer cell membranes exhibit differential responses to the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarwani, Bashiyar; Phambu, Esther Nzuzi; Alexander, Christopher; Nguyen, Ha Aimee T; Phambu, Nsoki; Sunda-Meya, Anderson

    2018-06-01

    The cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Pep-1 presents a great potential in drug delivery due to its intrinsic property to cross plasma membrane. However, its mechanism of entry into the cell remains unresolved. In this study, we compare the selectivity of Pep-1 towards vesicles mimicking normal and cancer cell membranes. The interaction was performed in a wide range of peptide-to-lipid molar ratios using infrared (IR), fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. At low peptide concentration, fluorescence experiments show that lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) seems to enable Pep-1 translocation into cancer cell membrane as evidenced by the blue shift of its maximal emission wavelength. DSC data show that Pep-1 induces segregation of lipids. At high peptide concentration, IR data indicate that the interaction of Pep-1 is relatively stronger with normal cell membrane than with cancer cell membrane through the phosphate groups, while the interaction is weaker with normal cell membrane than with cancer cell membrane through the carbonyl groups. TGA and DSC data reveal that vesicles of normal cell membrane are thermally more stable than vesicles of cancer cell membrane. This suggests that the additional lipid PS included in cancer cell membrane has a destabilizing effect on the membrane structure. SEM images reveal that Pep-1 form superstructures including spherical particles and fibrils in the presence of both model membranes. PS seems to enhance peptide transport across cellular membranes. The biophysical techniques in this study provide valuable insights into the properties of CPPs in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. B-cell activating factor detected on both naïve and memory B cells in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Kusuhara, Masahiro; Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Ishii, Norito; Koga, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Taihei; Ohara, Koji; Karashima, Tadashi; Ohyama, Bungo; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF), an important immune regulatory cytokine, is involved in development of autoimmune diseases. Although BAFF is expressed in various cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, BAFF expression on B cells has not been well documented. In the present study, BAFF molecules on DCs and naïve and memory B cells in autoimmune bullous diseases, including pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus and bullous pemphigoid (BP), were analysed by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy controls (HC), BAFF expression on naïve and memory B cells increased significantly in BP. No difference in BAFF receptor expression in naïve and memory B cells was shown among all study groups. Furthermore, BAFF expression in both naïve and memory B cells of BP, but not HC, was detected by confocal microscopic analysis. These results implied that BAFF expressed by B cells may play a pathogenic role in autoimmune bullous diseases, particularly BP. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (flacs) on endothelial cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Habib, A.; Ishaq, M.; Yaqub, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To compare the change in endothelial cell count after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification. Study Design:Randomized controlled clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2016 to August 2017. Methodology:Patients with senile cataract and age ranging from 40 to 80 years were included in the study. Patients with any other cause of endothelial cell loss, history of trauma, documented diabetes millitis, hypertention and glaucoma were excluded. Preoperative detailed ocular examination, including both anterior and posterior examination, was carried out. Patients were distributed into two groups. Group GP were planned for conventional phacoemulsification, while group GF underwent FLACS. All the surgeries were performed under local anesthesia by same ophthalmic surgeon. Specular microscope (Topcon specular microscope sp-3000p) was utilized to measure the endothelial cell count (ECC) before and 4 weeks after the surgery. Results:Fifty eyes (25 in each group) of 48 patients underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification or FLACS. Twenty-five (52.08%) out of the total were females while 23 (47.91%) were males. Median age of the participants in hacoemulsification group was 55 years (IQR 20.50), while in FLACS group it was 54 years (IQR 8). The median change in endothelial cell count was 228 (IQR 532) in Phaco group, while 23 (IQR 35) in FLACS group. (p<0.05 Mann Whitney U-test). Conclusion:FLACS is a safe and effective modality for cataract treatment and it induces significantly less endothelial cell loss than conventional phacoemulsification. (author)

  4. Protective effects of trehalose on the corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Colosi, Pietro; Rania, Laura; Colosi, Francesca; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE) and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE), the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  5. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  6. Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2018-03-09

    This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.

  7. Influence of VB group doped TiO2 on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia; Duan, Yandong; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell with V B group (vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta)) doped TiO 2 prepared by hydrothermal method shows a higher photovoltaic efficiency compared with the undoped TiO 2 . All the V B doping shift the flat band potential positively and increase the doping density which is investigated by Mott–Schottky plot. The positive shift of flat band potential improves the driving force of injecting electron from the LUMO of dye to the conduction band of TiO 2 and the photocurrent. On the other hand, the increase of doping density accelerates transfer rate of electrons in TiO 2 than the un-doped, which is confirmed by intensity-modulated photocurrent. V-, Nb-, Ta-doped TiO 2 exhibited photovoltaic performance with 7.80%, 8.33%, 8.18%, respectively, compared with that of the cells based on pure TiO 2 (7.42%).

  8. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkapongpisit M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit,1 Antonino Giovia,1 Carlo Follo,1 Giuseppe Caputo,2,3 Ciro Isidoro11Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A Avogadro”, Novara, 2Dipartimento di Chimica dell’Università di Torino, Torino, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, ItalyBackground and methods: Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm, type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene, and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles.Results: We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles.Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of considering both the

  9. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  10. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative...... beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution....

  11. Cell surface groups of two picocyanobacteria strains studied by zeta potential investigations, potentiometric titration, and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Maria; Sibler, Sabine

    2005-06-15

    In order to clarify the role of picocyanobacteria in aquatic biogeochemical processes (e.g., calcite precipitation), cell surface properties need to be investigated. An experimental study of the cell surface characteristics of two Synechococcus-type unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains was carried out. One strain was isolated from Lake Plon and contained phycocyanin, the other strain came from Lago Maggiore and was rich in phycoerythrin. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine the different types of sites present on the bacteria cell walls. Infrared spectroscopy allowed characterization of the various functional groups (RNH(2), RCOOH, ROH, RPO(2)) and investigations of zeta potential provided insight into the isoelectrical points of the strains. Titrations reveal three distinct sites on the bacterial surfaces of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich strains with pK values of 4.8+/-0.3/5.0+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2/6.7+/-0.4, and 8.8+/-0.1/8.7+/-0.2, corresponding to carboxyl, phosphate, and amine groups with surface densities of 2.6+/-0.4/7.4+/-1.6 x 10(-4), 1.9+/-0.5/4.4+/-0.8 x 10(-4), and 2.5+/-0.4/4.8+/-0.7 x 10(-4) mol/g of dry bacteria. The deprotonation constants are similar to those of bacterial strains and site densities are also within an order of magnitude of other strains. The phycoerythrin-rich strain had a higher number of binding sites than the phycocyanin-rich strain. The results showed that picocyanobacteria may adsorb either calcium cations or carbonate anions and therefore strongly influence the biogeochemical cycling of calcite in pelagic systems.

  12. Kazhdan-Lusztig cells with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnafé, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive introduction to the Kazhdan-Lusztig theory of cells in the broader context of the unequal parameter case. Serving as a useful reference, the present volume offers a synthesis of significant advances made since Lusztig’s seminal work on the subject was published in 2002. The focus lies on the combinatorics of the partition into cells for general Coxeter groups, with special attention given to induction methods, cellular maps and the role of Lusztig's conjectures. Using only algebraic and combinatorial methods, the author carefully develops proofs, discusses open conjectures, and presents recent research, including a chapter on the action of the cactus group. Kazhdan-Lusztig Cells with Unequal Parameters will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in related subject areas, such as Lie theory, representation theory, and combinatorics of Coxeter groups. Useful examples and various exercises make this book suitable for self-study and use alongside lecture c...

  13. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Jia

    Full Text Available Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652 between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  14. Update on International Cooperative Groups Studies in Thoracic Malignancies: The Emergence of Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Navika D; Salahudeen, Ameen A; Taylor, Gregory A; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E; Goss, Glenwood D; Decker, Roy H; Kelly, Karen; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Mok, Tony S; Wakelee, Heather A

    2018-03-17

    Cancer cooperative groups have historically played a critical role in the advancement of non-small-cell lung cancer therapy. Representatives from cooperative groups worldwide convene at the International Lung Cancer Congress annually. The International Lung Cancer Congress had its 17th anniversary in the summer of 2016. The present review highlights the thoracic malignancy studies discussed by presenters. The included studies are merely a sample of the trials of thoracic malignancies ongoing globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Promotes Autophagy to Facilitate Cisplatin Resistance in Melanoma Cells through the Activation of PARP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Rui; Liu, Lin; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Weigang; Yang, Yuqi; Wang, Huina; Shi, Qiong; Guo, Sen; Yi, Xiuli; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Luan, Qi; Li, Chunying

    2016-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a key protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, has been shown to promote the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by facilitating the DNA repair process. However, the role of XPA in the resistance of melanoma to platinum-based drugs like cisplatin is largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that XPA was expressed at higher levels in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells than in cisplatin-sensitive ones. Furthermore, the knockdown of XPA not only increased cellular apoptosis but also inhibited cisplatin-induced autophagy, which rendered the melanoma cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, we discovered that the increased XPA in resistant melanoma cells promoted poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and that the inhibition of PARP1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced autophagy. Finally, we proved that the inhibition of PARP1 and the autophagy process made resistant melanoma cells more susceptible to cisplatin treatment. Our study shows that XPA can promote cell-protective autophagy in a DNA repair-independent manner by enhancing the activation of PARP1 in melanoma cells resistant to cisplatin and that the XPA-PARP1-mediated autophagy process can be targeted to overcome cisplatin resistance in melanoma chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: a study from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masson, Adèle; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Bouaziz, Jean-David; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Aubin, François; Garciaz, Sylvain; d’Incan, Michel; Dereure, Olivier; Dalle, Stéphane; Dompmartin, Anne; Suarez, Felipe; Battistella, Maxime; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Rivet, Jacqueline; Adamski, Henri; Brice, Pauline; François, Sylvie; Lissandre, Séverine; Turlure, Pascal; Wierzbicka-Hainaut, Ewa; Brissot, Eolia; Dulery, Rémy; Servais, Sophie; Ravinet, Aurélie; Tabrizi, Reza; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Joly, Pascal; Socié, Gérard; Bagot, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas remains challenging. In particular, large-cell transformation of mycosis fungoides is associated with a median overall survival of two years for all stages taken together. Little is known regarding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in this context. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 37 cases of advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation, including 20 (54%) transformed mycosis fungoides. Twenty-four patients (65%) had stage IV disease (for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome) or disseminated nodal or visceral involvement (for non-epidermotropic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas). After a median follow up of 29 months, 19 patients experienced a relapse, leading to a 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 56% (95%CI: 0.38–0.74). Estimated 2-year overall survival was 57% (95%CI: 0.41–0.77) and progression-free survival 31% (95%CI: 0.19–0.53). Six of 19 patients with a post-transplant relapse achieved a subsequent complete remission after salvage therapy, with a median duration of 41 months. A weak residual tumor burden before transplantation was associated with increased progression-free survival (HR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.1–0.8; P=0.01). The use of antithymocyte globulin significantly reduced progression-free survival (HR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.3–6.2; P=0.01) but also transplant-related mortality (HR=10−7, 95%CI: 4.10−8–2.10−7; P<0.001) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, the use of antithymocyte globulin was the only factor significantly associated with decreased progression-free survival (P=0.04). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered in advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including transformed mycosis fungoides. PMID:24213148

  17. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  18. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  19. The Role of Adenoid Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Secretory Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faruk Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the possible role of adenoid mast cells in the etiology of secretory otitis media. Between 2001-2002, 25 patients with chronic adenoitis and chronic secretory otitis media and 25 patients with isolated adenoid hypertrophy were included to the study. Adenoidectomy performed to the all patients under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy specimens were evaluated under the light microscopy and the number of mast cells were calculated for each patient. The number of mast cells were compared between two groups. The number of mast cells were between 4-84 in the otitis media with effusion and adenoid hypertrophy group (median:52, however it was between 2-63 (median: 23 in the isolated adenoid hypertrophy group. When comparing the two groups using Mann-Withney U test, the number of mast cells found to be significantly higher in the chronic secretory otitis media group (p<0.001.Based on our findings there is a relationship between increased adenoid mast cells and otitis media with effusion and these cells may have a possible role in the etiology of chronic secretory otitis media.

  20. Design and Synthesis of New Chacones Substituted with Azide/Triazole Groups and Analysis of Their Cytotoxicity Towards HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. P. Villar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new chalcones substituted with azide/triazole groups were designed and synthesized, and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against the HeLa cell line. O-Alkylation, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and Cu(I-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes were applied in key steps. Fifteen compounds were tested against HeLa cells. Compound 8c was the most active molecule, with an IC50 value of 13.03 µM, similar to the value of cisplatin (7.37 µM.

  1. Genetic Basis for Developmental Homeostasis of Germline Stem Cell Niche Number: A Network of Tramtrack-Group Nuclear BTB Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, Fabienne; Netter, Sophie; Dos Santos, Nicolas; Poisot, Emilie; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Cumenal, Delphine; Peronnet, Frédérique; Pret, Anne-Marie; Théodore, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The potential to produce new cells during adult life depends on the number of stem cell niches and the capacity of stem cells to divide, and is therefore under the control of programs ensuring developmental homeostasis. However, it remains generally unknown how the number of stem cell niches is controlled. In the insect ovary, each germline stem cell (GSC) niche is embedded in a functional unit called an ovariole. The number of ovarioles, and thus the number of GSC niches, varies widely among species. In Drosophila, morphogenesis of ovarioles starts in larvae with the formation of terminal filaments (TFs), each made of 8–10 cells that pile up and sort in stacks. TFs constitute organizers of individual germline stem cell niches during larval and early pupal development. In the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, the number of ovarioles varies interspecifically from 8 to 20. Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab) locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ovarioles in D. melanogaster. At least two different processes are differentially perturbed by reducing the function of these genes. We found that when the bab dose is reduced, sorting of TF cells into TFs was affected such that each TF contains fewer cells and more TFs are formed. In contrast, psq mutants exhibited a greater number of TF cells per ovary, with a normal number of cells per TF, thereby leading to formation of more TFs per ovary than in the wild type. Our results indicate that two parallel genetic pathways under the control of a network of nuclear BTB factors are combined in order to negatively control the number of germline stem cell niches. PMID:23185495

  2. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  3. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  4. Frequency of γδ T Cells and Invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Helicobacter Pylori-infected Patients with Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Mojtaba; Rajabian, Zeinab; Ajami, Abolghasem; Hussein-Nattaj, Hadi; Rafiei, Alireza; Hosseini, Vahid; Taghvaei, Tarang; Abbasi, Ali; Tehrani, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the effect of γδ T cells and invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells in pathophysiology of dyspeptic disorders, number of these two cells in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastric cancer (GC) were compared.Patients with dyspepsia were divided into three groups of NUD, PUD, and GC according to their endoscopic and histopathological examinations. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test and histopathology. The number of peripheral blood CD3+TCRγδ(+) T cells and CD3+Va24Ja18+ iNKT cells were determined by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also used for identifying the TCRγδ+ cells.Forty two patients with NUD (31.6%), 44 with PUD (33.1%), and 47 with GC (35.3%) were included in the study. The frequency of CD3+TCRγδ(+) T cells in peripheral blood of patients with GC (2.71±0.25) was significantly lower than that in NUD (3.97±0.32, p<0.05) and PUD groups (3.87±0.32, p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in CD3+TCRγδ(+) T cell percentage between the NUD and PUD groups. The frequency of TCRγδ(+) lymphocytes was significantly lower in tissue samples from patients with GC (4.81±0.53) than in NUD (11.09±1.09, p<0.0001) and PUD groups (11.11±1.01, p<0.0001). Also, we could not find any significant difference in the percentage of mucosal TCRγδ+ cells between the NUD and PUD groups. The results showed no significant difference in iNKT cells percentage among the three groups of patients.The results suggest that decreasing number of γδ T cells may be related to development and progression of gastric cancer.

  5. MicroRNA-101 inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell apoptosis and increases sensitivity of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Lin Ke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect that miR-101 inhibits breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and increases the chemosensitivity of paclitaxel to breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and its influence on protein expression level of target gene Bcl2. Methods: miR-101 was artificially synthesized, it used liposome 3000 to transfect MDA-MB-231 cells, and experiment was divided into three groups: blank control group, negative control group and miR-101 group. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of miR-101 on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and chemosensitivity of paclitaxel-mediated MDA-MB-231 cells; flow cytometer was used to detect cell apoptosis. Real-time PCR and Western bloting were used to detect the changes of mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl2. Results: After miR-101 transfected MDA-MB- 231 cells, cell proliferation ability significantly decreased compared with negative control group, and differences had statistical significance (P<0.01; after paclitaxel was used to process cells, IC50 of miR-101-processing group decreased by 2.45 times compared with blank control group, differences had statistical significance (P<0.05 and differences between blank control group and negative control group had no statistical significance; detection results by flow cytometer showed that both early-stage and late-stage apoptosis rates of MDA-MB-231 cells of miR-101 group were significantly higher than those of negative control group (P<0.05, and early-stage apoptosis rate was more significant (P<0.01; after transfection of miR-101, mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2 of MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased, and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusion: miR-101 can inhibit breast cancer MDAMB- 231 cell proliferation through targeting and downregulating Bcl2, thereby increasing the chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel and promoting cell apoptosis.

  6. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  7. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...... for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...

  8. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  9. Hematogenous osteoarticular infections of the hand and the wrist in children with sickle cell anemia: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Daniel; Holvoet, Laurent; Benkerrou, Malika; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges F; Fitoussi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Hematogenous osteoarticular infections of the hand and the wrist in children with sickle cell anemia are rare and no specific studies for this location have been published. This retrospective and comparative study reviewed 34 children who carry the diagnosis of osteoarticular infections of the wrist and the hand at our institution during a 10-year period extending from January 2000 to December 2010. The first group included 8 patients with sickle cell anemia (Hg SS). The second group or control group included 26 children without sickle cell disease or any immune deficiency. Differences between groups were established by χ tests. The most common site of osteomyelitis for the sickle cell group was the metacarpals and the fingers phalanx (87.5%) whereas the most common site for the control group was the wrist and the carpus (96.2%; P<0.005).The most common pathogens responsible for osteomyelitis was Salmonella sp. (37.5%) for children with SCD, whereas it was Staphylococcus aureus (70%) for the nonsicklers. There was a significant difference between both groups regarding the treatment. Indeed, a surgical procedure was needed for the sickle cell group in all cases (100%) whereas a surgical debridement was needed in only 19.2% patients in the control group (P<0.001). At long-term follow-up, there were more long-term complications in the sickle cell group (62.5%) with epiphysiodesis of the metacarpals and metacarpophalangeal joint destruction whereas only 11.5% cases with complications were present in the control group including distal ulna epiphysiodesis, proximal interphalangeal joint stiffness, and a central radius epiphysiodesis (P<0.004). Our results confirm the severity of hand osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell disease. A systematic approach is needed to perform early diagnosis and treatment. Identification of the causative organism is required (blood culture, bone aspiration). With antibiotic therapy, surgical treatment is the rule. Parents have to be

  10. Molecular Characteristics in MRI-classified Group 1 Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Haskins

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous brain tumor. Previous study of MRI-classified GBM has revealed a spatial relationship between Group 1 GBM (GBM1 and the subventricular zone (SVZ. The SVZ is an adult neural stem cell niche and is also suspected to be the origin of a subtype of brain tumor. The intimate contact between GBM1 and the SVZ raises the possibility that tumor cells in GBM1 may be most related to SVZ cells. In support of this notion, we found that neural stem cell and neuroblast markers are highly expressed in GBM1. Additionally, we identified molecular characteristics in this type of GBM that include up-regulation of metabolic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, heat shock proteins, and c-Myc oncoprotein. As GBM1 often recurs at great distances from the initial lesion, the rewiring of metabolism and ribosomal biogenesis may facilitate cancer cells’ growth and survival during tumor migration. Taken together, combined our findings and MRI-based classification of GBM1 would offer better prediction and treatment for this multifocal GBM.

  11. Effect of Cell-Phone Radiation in Pregnancy on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Dynastic Cells in adult Female Offspring in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The teratogenic effects of electromagnetic radiation on different processes of growth caused many concerns related to the harmful effects of cell-phone radiation on human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cell-phone radiation on estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones together with dynastic sexual cells of adult female offspring of pregnant rats affected by these radiations. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 pregnant female rats divided into 3 groups including the control, sham and experimental groups were used. The control group received no radiation and the experimental group was exposed to cell-phone radiation at the beginning of pregnancy (4 hours daily for 14 days. The control group was exposed around turning-on cell-phone without conversation over the same period. After giving birth and after maturity, 10 female offsprings of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, sexual hormones levels was measured and by separating the ovaries, ovarian follicles species were counted. The results analyzed using ANOVA and T tests. Differences in statistical analysis of data were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that the pregnant female exposure to cell-phone radiation caused significant increase in the size and weight of the ovaries and atresic follicles (p<0.05 without significant effect on the number of primary and secondary follicles, antral, graph, primordial, corpus luteum and sexual hormones. Conclusion: Exposure to cell-phone radiations caused increase in the size, weight and atresic follicles of offspring’s ovaries in pregnant females

  12. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  13. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  14. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  15. Relationship between secretion of the Anton blood group antigen in saliva and adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to oropharynx epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, L.; van Ham, M.; Geelen-van den Broek, L.; Pieters, T.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells contributes to a reduction of infections by these bacteria. We have shown that the Anton blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for Haemophilus influenzae (van Alphen et al. 1986, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37, 69-71), occurs in saliva, that

  16. Effect of carboxyl anchoring groups in asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wenye; Peng, Bosi; Lin, Li; Li, Renjie; Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jzhang03@whu.edu.cn; Peng, Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines containing tribenzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with six bulky diphenylphenoxy and one or two carboxyl groups are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that Zn-tri-PcNc-4 having two carboxyl groups shows a slight redshift in the Q-band absorption but a significantly decreased absorbance as compared with Zn-tri-PcNc-8 having one carboxyl group, and Zn-tri-PcNc-4 can be more stably and perpendicularly grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} surface than Zn-tri-PcNc-8, which further leads to the differences in the interfacial charge transfer dynamics and dye-loaded amount. Zn-tri-PcNc-4 with two carboxyl groups grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface of DSSC results in a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.22%, higher than that (3.01%) of the analog with one carboxyl group (Zn-tri-PcNc-8), which exhibits a lower short-circuit current but much higher open-circuit voltage. The additional carboxyl group in Zn-tri-PcNc-4 leads to the enhanced dye-loaded amount and the molecular orbital energy level shift toward positive direction, causing more efficient electron injection and higher short-circuit current than Zn-tri-PcNc-8; while the two carboxyl groups of Zn-tri-PcNc-4 would cause more protonation of TiO{sub 2} surface, which possibly leads to the downward shift of TiO{sub 2} conduction band edge, and then to the decreased open-circuit voltage. The present results demonstrate the molecular engineering aspect of ZnPc dyes in which the fine tuning of the energy levels and molecular structures is crucial for high conversion efficiency of DSSCs. - Highlights: • ZnPcs with six diphenylphenoxy and one/two carboxyl groups are used as dyes for DSSCs. • Effect of carboxyl group number on the ZnPc-sensitized cell property are scrutinized. • Grafting two carboxyl groups on ZnPc leads to the enhanced photocurrent and efficiency. • ZnPc with one COOH has a higher open-circuit voltage than its analog with two

  17. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...... offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models...

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in farmers: an occupation group at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mateusz; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Golusiński, Paweł; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Łuczewski, Łukasz; Marszałek, Sławomir; Majchrzak, Ewa; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type worldwide, and 80 % of skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The main risk factor for developing BCC is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly high-dose exposure at a young age. Outdoor workers, particularly farmers, are at high risk of developing BCC. However, studies of BCC in this population are scant. To comprehensively evaluate all cases of BCC of the head and neck region treated during the years 2007-2013 at our hospital in Poland, and to compare the tumour characteristics in farmers to non-farmers. Retrospective analysis of 312 patients treated for head and neck BCC during the study period (2007-2013). Most patients (198 cases; 63 %) were males, with 114 females (37 %). Median age was 73 years (range 32-96 years). The most common tumour location was the nose and cheek (114 pts; 37 %) followed by the auricle (82 pts; 26 %), lips (54 pts; 18 %), scalp (26 pts; 8 %), and eye (36 pts; 12 %). The most common disease stage on presentation was stage T2 (104 pts, 33 %), followed by stage T1 (79 pts; 25 %), stage T3 (89 pts; 28 %), and stage T4 (40 pts; 14 %). By occupation, farmers accounted for 33 % of all patients (102 of 312 pts). The most common tumour localisations in the farmer subgroup were the nose and cheek (50 pts; 49 %; p farmer group were significantly younger than non-farmers (62 vs. 73 years; p Farmers were significantly more likely to present disease recurrence (27 vs. 12 % of cases; p farmers. It is therefore necessary to consider enhancing educational programmes and other preventative measures in this occupational group and to evaluate the effectiveness of such programmes.

  19. Mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells with emphasis on thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHombach-Klonisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance to anti-cancer treatments are common and main causes of death in cancer patients. Tumor cells mount complex and still poorly understood molecular defense mechanisms to counteract and evade oxygen deprivation, nutritional restrictions as well as radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens aimed at destabilizing their genomes and important cellular processes. In thyroid cancer, as in other tumors, such defense strategies include the reactivation in cancer cells of early developmental programs normally active exclusively in stem cells, the stimulation of cancer stem-like cells resident within the tumor tissue and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors into the tumor (Thomas et al., 2008;Klonisch et al., 2009;Derwahl, 2011. Metastasis and therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells involves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- mediated enhancement in cellular plasticity, which includes coordinated dynamic biochemical and nuclear changes (Ahmed et al., 2010. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the role of DNA repair mechanisms contributing to therapeutic resistance in thyroid cancer and highlight the emerging roles of autophagy and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP responses in EMT and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Finally, we use the stem cell factor and nucleoprotein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2 as an example to demonstrate how factors intended to protect stem cells are wielded by cancer (stem cells to gain increased transformative cell plasticity which enhances metastasis, therapeutic resistance and cell survival. Wherever possible, we have included information on these cellular processes and associated factors as they relate to thyroid cancer cells.

  20. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance.

  1. Investigation of the performance of fermentation processes using a mathematical model including effects of metabolic bottleneck and toxic product on cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide

    2010-11-01

    A number of recent research studies have focused on theoretical and experimental investigation of a bottleneck in a metabolic reaction network. However, there is no study on how the bottleneck affects the performance of a fermentation process when a product is highly toxic and remarkably influences the growth and death of cells. The present work therefore studies the effect of bottleneck on product concentrations under different product toxicity conditions. A generalized bottleneck model in a fed-batch fermentation is constructed including both the bottleneck and the product influences on cell growth and death. The simulation result reveals that when the toxic product strongly influences the cell growth and death, the final product concentration is hardly changed even if the bottleneck is removed, whereas it is markedly changed by the degree of product toxicity. The performance of an ethanol fermentation process is also discussed as a case example to validate this result. In conclusion, when the product is highly toxic, one cannot expect a significant increase in the final product concentration even if removing the bottleneck; rather, it may be more effective to somehow protect the cells so that they can continuously produce the product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  3. Bacterial cell-cell communication in the host via RRNPP peptide-binding regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerez-Pascual

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  4. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  5. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuisen, B.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human

  6. [gammadelta T cells stimulated by zoledronate kill osteosarcoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chao; Cao, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of human γδT cells from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo and evaluate the relavent pathways. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of healthy donors were stimulated by single dose zoledronate and cultured in the present of IL-2 for two weeks, analysising the percentage of γδT cells on a FACSCalibur cytometer.Study the cytotoxicity of γδT cells against the osteosarcoma line HOS using LDH release assay kit. Pre-treatment of γδT cells with anti-human γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A to bolck the relavent pathways for evaluating the mechenisms of its cytotoxicity. In vivo, BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously osteosarcoma cell HOS for developing hypodermal tumors. And they were randomized into two groups: unteated group, γδT cell therapy group. Tumor volume and weight of the two groups were compared. After two weeks of culture, γδT cells from zoledronate-stimulated PBMCs could reach (95±3)%. When the E:T as 6:1, 12:1, 25:1, 50:1, the percentage of osteosarcoma cell HOS killed by γδT cells was 26.8%, 31.5%, 37.8%, 40.9%, respectively.When anti-huma γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A blocked the relavent pathways, the percentage was 32.3%, 4.7%, 16.7% ( E:T as 25:1), respectively. In vivo, the tumor inhibition rate of the group of γδT cell therapy was 42.78%. γδT cells derived from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate can acquired pure γδT cells. And they show strong cytoxicity against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  8. Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Progenitor Cells May Be Sustained by a Positive Feedback Loop Involving High Mobility Group Box-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor in diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 in diabetes-induced oxidative stress. HMGB-1 was upregulated in both serum and bone marrow-derived monocytes from diabetic mice compared with control mice. In vitro, advanced glycation end productions (AGEs induced, expression of HMGB-1 in EPCs and in cell culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. However, inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially inhibited the induction of HMGB-1 induced by AGEs. Furthermore, p66shc expression in EPCs induced by AGEs was abrogated by incubation with glycyrrhizin (Gly, while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in cell culture supernatants was observed in the Gly treated group. Thus, HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in EPCs via a positive feedback loop involving the AGE/reactive oxygen species/HMGB-1 pathway.

  9. Physical forces shape group identity of swimming Pseudomonas putida cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Espeso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving towards each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact. The dynamics behind this phenomenon (i.e. intolerance to mix in time and space with otherwise identical others has been traditionally explained in terms of cell-to-cell competition/cooperation regarding nutrient availability. In this work, the same scenario has been revisited from an alternative perspective: the effect of the physical mechanics that frame the process, in particular the consequences of collisions between moving bacteria and the semi-solid matrix of the swimming medium. To this end we set up a simple experimental system in which the swimming patterns of Pseudomonas putida were tested with different geometries and agar concentrations. A computational analysis framework that highlights cell-to-medium interactions was developed to fit experimental observations. Simulated outputs suggested that the medium is compressed in the direction of the bacterial front motion. This phenomenon generates what was termed a compression wave that goes through the medium preceding the swimming population and that determines the visible high-level pattern. Taken together, the data suggested that the mechanical effects of the bacteria moving through the medium created a factual barrier that impedes to merge with neighboring cells swimming from a different site. The resulting divide between otherwise clonal bacteria is thus brought about by physical forces –not genetic or metabolic

  10. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  11. Exploiting natural killer group 2D receptors for CAR T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Benjamin; Cook, W James; Murad, Joana; Graber, David J; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Lonez, Caroline; Gilham, David E; Sentman, Charles L; Agaugue, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered proteins that combine an extracellular antigen-specific recognition domain with one or several intracellular T-cell signaling domains. When expressed in T cells, these CARs specifically trigger T-cell activation upon antigen recognition. While the clinical proof of principle of CAR T-cell therapy has been established in hematological cancers, CAR T cells are only at the early stages of being explored to tackle solid cancers. This special report discusses the concept of exploiting natural killer cell receptors as an approach that could broaden the specificity of CAR T cells and potentially enhance the efficacy of this therapy against solid tumors. New data demonstrating feasibility of this approach in humans and supporting the ongoing clinical trial are also presented.

  12. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Leonardo; Vallerini, Daniela; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Gilioli, Andrea; Forghieri, Fabio; Candoni, Anna; Cesaro, Simone; Quadrelli, Chiara; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Codeluppi, Mauro; Mussini, Cristina; Colaci, Elisabetta; Messerotti, Andrea; Paolini, Ambra; Maccaferri, Monica; Fantuzzi, Valeria; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Maffei, Rossana; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Fanin, Renato; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Beauvais, Anne; Viale, Pier Luigi; Latgè, Jean Paul; Lewis, Russell E; Luppi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients. By using an enzyme linked immunospot assay, the presence of Mucorales-specific T cells in peripheral blood (PB) samples has been investigated at three time points during high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 were analysed in order to detect a correlation between the immune response and the clinical picture. Twenty-one (10.3%) of 204 patients, accounting for 32 (5.3%) of 598 PB samples, tested positive for Mucorales-specific T cells. Two groups could be identified. Group 1, including 15 patients without signs or symptoms of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), showed a predominance of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-gamma. Group 2 included 6 patients with a clinical picture consistent with invasive fungal disease (IFD): 2 cases of proven IM and 4 cases of possible IFD. The proven patients had significantly higher number of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 and higher rates of positive samples by using derived diagnostic cut-offs when compared with the 15 patients without IFD. Mucorales-specific T cells can be detected and monitored in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for IM. Mucorales-specific T cells polarized to the production of T helper type 2 cytokines are associated with proven IM and may be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker for IM.

  13. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Potenza

    Full Text Available Invasive mucormycosis (IM is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients.By using an enzyme linked immunospot assay, the presence of Mucorales-specific T cells in peripheral blood (PB samples has been investigated at three time points during high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 were analysed in order to detect a correlation between the immune response and the clinical picture. Twenty-one (10.3% of 204 patients, accounting for 32 (5.3% of 598 PB samples, tested positive for Mucorales-specific T cells. Two groups could be identified. Group 1, including 15 patients without signs or symptoms of invasive fungal diseases (IFD, showed a predominance of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-gamma. Group 2 included 6 patients with a clinical picture consistent with invasive fungal disease (IFD: 2 cases of proven IM and 4 cases of possible IFD. The proven patients had significantly higher number of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 and higher rates of positive samples by using derived diagnostic cut-offs when compared with the 15 patients without IFD.Mucorales-specific T cells can be detected and monitored in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for IM. Mucorales-specific T cells polarized to the production of T helper type 2 cytokines are associated with proven IM and may be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker for IM.

  14. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  15. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Aragona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE, the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  16. Analysis of multiple types of human cells subsequent to bioprinting with electrospraying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiangsheng; Qu, Miao; Tan, Andy; Bogari, Melia; Zhu, Ming; Lin, Li; Hu, Qingxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate bioprinting with electrospraying technology using multiple types of human cell suspensions as bio-ink, in order to lay the initial foundations for the application of the bioprinting technology in tissue engineering. In the current study, six types of human cells were selected and cultured, including human fibroblasts, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs), adult human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Each cell type was divided into two groups, the experimental and control group. All the experimental group cells were electrosprayed using an electrospraying printer (voltage, 15 kV; flow rate, 150 µl/min) and collected in a petri dish placed 15 cm away from the needle (needle diameter, 0.5 mm). Subsequently, cell viability was detected by flow cytometry with a Live/Dead Viability kit. In addition, the cell morphological characteristics were observed with a phase-contrast microscope after 6 h of culturing in order to obtain adherent cells, while cell proliferation was analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The control groups, without printing, were subjected to the same procedures as the experimental groups. The results of the cell viability and proliferation assays indicated a statistically significant difference after printing between the experiments and control groups only for the hADSCs (P0.05). In addition, there were no observable differences between all experimental and the control groups at any examined time point in the terms of cell morphological characteristics. In conclusion, bioprinting based on electrospraying technology demonstrated no distinct negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and morphology in the present study, and thus the application of this novel technology to cell printing may provide a promising method in tissue engineering.

  17. Transient correction of excision repair defects in fibroblasts of 9 xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups by microinjection of crude human cell extract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Vermeulen (Wim); P. Osseweijer; A.J.R. de Jonge; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractCrude extracts from human cells were microinjected into the cytoplasm of cultured fibroblasts from 9 excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups. The level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was measured to determine the effect of the extract on the

  18. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  19. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  20. Expression of blood group I and i active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, R.A.; Kapadia, A.; Feizi, T.

    1980-01-01

    Human monoclonal anti-I and anti-i, reactive with known carbohydrate sequences, have been used as reagents to quantitate (by radioimmunoassay) and visualize (by immunofluorescence) the expression of the various blood group I and i antigenic determinants in a variety of cultured cell lines commonly used in laboratory investigations. It has been shown that the antigens they recognize are widely distributed on the surface of human and animal cell lines, expressed in varying amounts in different cell lines and on individual cells within a given cell line. In two cell lines, a transformation-associated increase in the expression of I antigen was observed. Because of their precise specificity for defined carbohydrate chain domains, these autoantibodies have become valuable reagents in biological chemistry. (orig.) [de

  1. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dain, R.P.; Gresham, G.; Groenewold, G.S.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.; van Stipdonk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+))

  2. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Julie Ladeby; Blaabjerg, Morten; Bogetofte Thomasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    differentiated an immortalized, forebrain-derived stem cell line in the presence or absence of glutamate and with addition of either the group I mGluR agonist DHPG or the selective antagonists; MPEP (mGluR5) and LY367385 (mGluR1). Characterization of differentiated cells revealed that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were...

  3. Impact of sickle cell trait on the thrombotic risk associated with non-O blood groups in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sagir G; Kagu, Modu B; Ibrahim, Umma A; Bukar, Audu A

    2015-10-01

    The non-O blood group is an established risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while controversy surrounds the role of sickle cell trait (SCT) as a risk factor for DVT. We hypothesised that if SCT is a risk factor for DVT, individuals with non-O blood groups and SCT (Hb AS) would have a higher risk of DVT than their counterparts with non-O blood groups and normal haemoglobin phenotype (Hb AA). We retrospectively analysed the prevalence of SCT and non-O blood groups among 148 DVT patients with control subjects in order to determine the role of SCT as a risk factor for DVT and its impact on the risk of DVT among patients with non-O blood groups. In comparison with control subjects, DVT patients had significantly higher prevalences of SCT (35.1% vs 27.7%, p=0.04) and non-O blood groups (68.9% vs 45.9%, p=0.02). The odds ratios for DVT due to SCT, non-O blood groups with normal Hb phenotype (Hb AA) and non-O blood groups with SCT (Hb AS) were 1.3, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. These results suggest that SCT by itself is a weak risk factor for DVT but it has the potential of escalating the DVT risk among patients with non-O blood groups. The combined effects of elevated clotting factors (non-O group effect) and increased clotting factor activation (SCT effect) were responsible for the escalated DVT risk among patients with co-inheritance of non-O blood groups and SCT. Co-inheritance of SCT and non-O blood group is, therefore, an important mixed risk factor for DVT. This should be taken into account when assessing DVT risk profiles of patients in Africa and other parts of the world where the SCT is prevalent.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  5. Diazo groups endure metabolism and enable chemoselectivity in cellulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kristen A; Aronoff, Matthew R; McGrath, Nicholas A; Raines, Ronald T

    2015-02-25

    We introduce a stabilized diazo group as a reporter for chemical biology. ManDiaz, which is a diazo derivative of N-acetylmannosamine, is found to endure cellular metabolism and label the surface of a mammalian cell. There its diazo group can undergo a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a strained alkyne, providing a signal comparable to that from the azido congener, ManNAz. The chemoselectivity of diazo and alkynyl groups enables dual labeling of cells that is not possible with azido and alkynyl groups. Thus, the diazo group, which is approximately half the size of an azido group, provides unique opportunities for orthogonal labeling of cellular components.

  6. Ambiguous roles of innate lymphoid cells in chronic development of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Li, Jing; Wang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Wei

    2018-05-14

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are defined as a distinct arm of innate immunity. According to their profile of secreted cytokines and lineage-specific transcriptional factors, ILCs can be categorized into the following three groups: group 1 ILCs (including natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s) are dependent on T-bet and can produce interferon-γ; group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are dependent on GATA3 and can produce type 2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13; and, group 3 ILCs (including lymphoid tissue-like cells and ILC3s) are dependent on RORγt and can produce IL-22 and IL-17. Collaborative with adaptive immunity, ILCs are highly reactive innate effectors that promptly orchestrate immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Dysregulation of ILCs might result in inflammatory disorders. Evidence regarding the function of intrahepatic ILCs is emerging from longitudinal studies of inflammatory liver diseases wherein they exert both physiological and pathological functions, including immune homeostasis, defenses and surveillance. Their overall effect on the liver depends on the balance of their proinflammatory and antiinflammatory populations, specific microenvironment and stages of immune responses. Here, we review the current data about ILCs in chronic liver disease progression, to reveal their roles in different stages as well as to discuss their therapeutic potency as intervention targets.

  7. Derivation of corneal endothelial cell-like cells from rat neural crest cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Ju

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of inducing rat neural crest cells (NCC to differentiate to functional corneal endothelial cell (CEC-like cells in vitro. Rat NCC were induced with adult CEC-derived conditioned medium. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR assay were used to detect expression of the corneal endothelium differentiation marker N-cadherin and transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2. CFDA SE-labeled CEC-like cells were transplanted to the corneal endothelium of a rat corneal endothelium deficiency model, and an eye-down position was maintained for 24 hours to allow cell attachment. The animals were observed for as long as 2 months after surgery and underwent clinical and histological examination. Spindle-like NCC turned to polygonal CEC-like after induction and expressed N-cadherin, FoxC1, Pitx2, zonula occludens-1 and sodium-potassium pump Na(+/K(+ ATPase. The corneas of the experimental group were much clearer than those of the control group and the mean corneal thickness in the experimental group was significantly less than in the control group7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery. Confocal microscopy through focusing and histological analysis confirmed that green fluorescence-positive CEC-like cells formed a monolayer covering the Descemet's membrane in the experimental group. In conclusion, CEC-like cells derived from NCCs displayed characters of native CEC, and the induction protocol provides guidance for future human CEC induction from NCC.

  8. Quantitative analysis of mast cell count and density in chronic periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Surekha; Raj, Anubha; Wanikar, Ishita

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells play a crucial role in activation of acquired immune response to inflammatory conditions of periodontal diseases. They promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators and bring about angiogenesis, degeneration of the extracellular matrix, and tissue remodeling. Since there is little literature regarding the role of mast cells in periodontitis, the present study was aimed to evaluate mast cell count (MCC) and density in periodontitis. A total of eighty participants, Group I ( n = 40) healthy participants and Group II ( n = 40) participants with moderate chronic periodontitis, were included in the study. Tissue samples of 5 micron were obtained from each participant and were fixed in 10% formalin. Inflammation assessment was carried out after staining the sections with hematoxylin/eosin (H and E) followed by toluidine blue and mast cells were counted. MCC in healthy group (1.32 ± 0.43) was significantly smaller than periodontitis group (10.28 ± 1.15) and also mast cell density in healthy group (98.08 ± 37.40) was smaller than periodontitis group (803.43 ± 89.94) with P < 0.0001. It could be concluded that participants with chronic periodontitis have a higher MCC and density when compared with healthy participants.

  9. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Troia; Massimo Giunti; Stefano Calipa; Robert Goggs

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDN...

  10. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  11. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  12. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.V. Ezenwa

    The content of the data obtained included the ethnicity categorized as Chinese, Malays, Indians and others (Indonesians, Vietnamese and other minor groups). Other data collected included age, gender and the histological subtype categorized as clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, collecting duct and unclassified subtypes.

  13. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  14. An ABO blood grouping discrepancy: Probable B(A) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Anubhav; Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2017-06-01

    In B(A) phenotype, an autosomal dominant phenotype, there is a weak A expression on group B RBCs. We herein report a case of a probable B(A) phenotype in a first time 20-year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card (Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland). The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. The cell grouping was A weak B RhD positive while the serum grouping was B. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. It was a group II ABO discrepancy with or without group IV discrepancy. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. One lot of anti-A was showing 'weak +' agglutination while the other lot was showing 'negative' reaction with the donor RBCs by tube technique. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin. Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B(A) phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency Distribution of Blood Groups ABO, MN and Rh Factor in Philippine Cosmopolitan, Regional and the National Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Marian S. Guzman; Ricardo Noel R. Gervasio; Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla; Ernelea P. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. Blood groups include the ABO, Rh and the MN red cell antigens. The frequency distribution of these three blood groups were obtained and assessed for differences from three populations: (1) a regional population from the town of Cabagan located in Isabela province; (2) a cosmopolitan population from the University of the Philippines’ r...

  16. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin; Kim, Yun Gi; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Hoguen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  17. Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, C; Neimark, H; Ragozzino, A; Lauer, U; Seemüller, E

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome sizes of 71 phytoplasmas belonging to 12 major phylogenetic groups including several of the aster yellows subgroups were estimated from electrophoretic mobilities of full-length chromosomes in pulsed-field gels. Considerable variation in genome size, from 660 to 1,130 kilobases (kb), was observed among aster yellows phytoplasmas. Chromosome size heterogeneity was also observed in the stolbur phytoplasma group (range 860 to 1,350 kb); in this group, isolate STOLF contains the largest chromosome found in a phytoplasma to date. A wide range of chromosome sizes, from 670 to 1,075 kb, was also identified in the X-disease group. The other phytoplasmas examined, which included members of the apple proliferation, Italian alfalfa witches' broom, faba bean phyllody, pigeon pea witches' broom, sugarcane white leaf, Bermuda grass white leaf, ash yellows, clover proliferation, and elm yellows groups, all have chromosomes smaller than 1 megabase, and the size ranges within each of these groups is narrower than in the aster yellows, stolbur, and X-disease groups. The smallest chromosome, approximately 530 kb, was found in two Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma isolates. This not only is the smallest mollicute chromosome found to date, but also is the smallest chromosome known for any cell. More than one large DNA band was observed in several phytoplasma preparations. Possible explanations for the occurrence of more than one band may be infection of the host plant by different phytoplasmas, the presence of more than one chromosome in the same organism, or the presence of large extrachromosomal DNA elements.

  18. Effects of 3-AB on PARP expression of Hela cells and apoptosis and cell cycle progression of Hela cells after X-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiang; Zhao Hongguang; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Wang Wen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of apoptosis and cell cycle progression of Hela cells after the poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase (PARP) was inhibited by its inhibitor 3-aminobenzamid (3-AB) and the mechanisms of PARP interaction with Hela cells damaged by irradiation. Methods: Hela cell line was used. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to examine the PARP expression of control and 3 AB groups at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 h alter administration with 5 mmol·L -1 3-AB. The percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle progression ol control, irradiation, 3-AB plus irradiation groups were measured with FCM at 2, 8, 12, 24 h after exposure to 2 Gy irradiation following administration with 5 mmol·L -1 3-AB. Results: The percentage of Hela cells with positive expression of PARP protein decreased after administration with 3-AB and there was significant difference between 3-AB plus irradiation group and control group (P 2 cells in the 3-AB plus irradiation group were lower than those in the irradiation group (P 2 arrest induced by irradiation. (authors)

  19. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  20. Shaanxi Youser Group Signs Strategic Cooperation Agreement with China XD Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On November 6, the signing ceremony for the strategic cooperation agreement between four provincial enterprises including Shaanxi Youser Group and China XD Group was heldin Xi’an. This was a strategic move taken by the group to carry out the gist of the provincial CPC committee

  1. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  2. Photodynamic synchrotron x-ray therapy in Glioma cell using superparamagnetic iron nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Jheon, Sanghoon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Bong-Il; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate cytotoxic effects of secondary Auger electron emission(Photon Activation Therapy:PAT) from alginate-coated iron nanoparticles(Alg-SNP), Alg-SNP-uptaken C6 glioma cell lines were irradiated with 6.89/7.2 Kev synchrotron X-ray. 0-125 Gy were irradiated on three experimental groups including No-SNP group incubating without SNP as control group, 6hr-SNP group incubating with SNP for 6hr and ON-SNP group incubating with SNP overnight. Irradiated cells were stained with Acridine Orange(AO) and Edithium Bromide(EB) to count their viability with fluorescent microscopy in comparison with control groups. AO stained in damaged DNA, giving FL color change in X-ray plus SNP group. EB did not or less enter inside the cell nucleus of control group. In contrast, EB entered inside the cell nucleus of Alg-SNP group which means more damage compared with Control groups. The results of MTT assay demonstrated a X-ray dose-dependent reduction generally in cell viability in the experimental groups. 3 or 9 times increase in cell survival loss rate was observed at 6hr-SNP and ON-SNP groups, respectively compared to No-SNP control group in first experiment that was done to test cell survival rate at relatively lower dose, from 0 to 50 Gy. In second experiment X-ray dose was increased to 125 Gy. Survival loss was sharply decreased in a relatively lower dose from 5 to 25 Gy, and then demonstrated an exponentially decreasing behavior with a convergence until 125 Gy for each group. This observation suggests PAT effects on the cell directly by X-ray in the presence of Alg-SNP occurs within lower X-ray dose, and conventional X-ray radiation effect becomes dominant in higher X-ray dose. The cell viability loss of ON-SNP group was three times higher compared with that of 6hr-SNP group. In conclusion, it is possible to design photodynamic X-ray therapy study using a monochromatic x-ray energy and metal nanoparticle as x-ray sensitizer, which may enable new X-ray PDT to

  3. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Matthew G; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Read, Russell W; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss.

  4. Aptitude for Destruction. Volume 1: Organizational Learning in Terrorist Groups and Its Implications for Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    jihad in Af- ghanistan. Over its history, the group has had active cells in several different coun- tries, including Indonesia, Malaysia , the...and South Armagh, London, UK: Coronet Books, LIR, 2000. Hedberg, Bo, "How Organizations Learn and Unlearn?" in Paul C. Nystrim and William H. Starbuck

  5. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok and a low producer (p2F. Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01. When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05. Significant survival (40% was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  6. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  7. Propofol alleviate oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in endothelial cells after heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the protective effect of propofol on endothelial cells during heat stress and its protective effect to mitochondra. Methods Heat stress model of human umbilical vein endothelial cell was established when cells were incubated at 43℃ for 2h, then further incubted at 37℃, 5%CO2 for 6h. The experimental group was subdivided into six groups, including 37℃ group, 37℃ plus intralipid group (negative control group, 37℃ plus propofol group, 43℃ plus propofol group, 43℃ plus intralipid group, H2O2 plus propofol group (positive control group; Pretreated with 50μmol/L propofol, 0.2ml intralipid or 25μmol/L H2O2 before heat stress at 43℃, while the cells in the control group were incubated at 37℃. Cell viability was tested by CCK-8. ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential and the changes in mitochondrial permeability transition pore were determined by flow cytometry. The level of ATP was detected by fluorescein-luciferase. The changes of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were analyzed by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. Results HUVESs cell viability and damage of mitochondra were significantly decreased after heat stress. Compared with 43℃ heat stress group, pretreatment with propofol induced the recovery of cell viability and the ROS levels were significantly decreased in HUVEC cells (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the number of cells representing the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (the proportion of JC-1 monomer was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by propofol. The average fluorescence intensity of calcein which representing the MPTP changes and intracellular ATP content was significantly increased (P<0.05. In addition, the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated by caspase-9/3 was also inhibited. Conclusions Propofol have anti-oxidative, anti-apoptosis and mitochondria protective effect against endothelial cell injury during heat stress. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.04

  8. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell production of IL-5 is regulated by NKT cells during influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann Gorski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit⁺ IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM, are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit⁺ ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.

  9. Risk-group definition by recursive partitioning analysis of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Slotman, BJ; van der Waal, [No Value; Doornaert, P; Berkof, J; Leemans, CR

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to define different prognostic groups with regard to locoregional control (LRC) derived from recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). METHODS. Eight hundred one patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma underwent with primary surgery and received

  10. Working with Difficult Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes types of group members who are challenging in group settings including entitled, manipulative, and character-disordered clients. Provides suggestions for working with these group members, either as isolated cases or as homogenous populations, emphasizing the protection of other clients' rights. Includes 31 references. (Author/CRR)

  11. Working group 'Reglementat'hy'on'; Groupe de travail reglementat'hy'on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells applications, created in 2008. This working group deals with the french regulation concerning the hydrogen fuels. It presents the problems of the existing regulation, the objectives and the actions planing of the group. (A.L.B.)

  12. Skin Mast Cell Promotion in Random Skin Flaps in Rats using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Tavafi, Magid

    2018-03-06

    Skin flap procedures are employed in plastic surgery, but failure can lead to necrosis of the flap. Studies have used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to improve flap viability. BM-MSCs and acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) have been introduced as alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BM-MSCs and AAM on mast cells of random skin flaps (RSF) in rats. RSFs (80 × 30 mm) were created on 40 rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including (I) AAM, (II) BM-MSCs, (III) BM-MSCs/AAM, and (IV) saline (control). Transplantation was carried out during the procedure (zero day). Flap necrosis was observed on day 7, and skin samples were collected from the transition line of the flap to evaluate the total number and types of mast cells. The development and the total number of mast cells were related to the development of capillaries. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean numbers of mast cell types for different study groups. However, the difference between the total number of mast cells in the study groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The present study suggests that the use of AAM/BM-MSCs can improve the total number of mast cells and accelerate the growth of capillaries at the transient site in RSFs in rats.

  13. Modeling Human Natural Killer Cell Development in the Era of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D; Freud, Aharon G; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the discovery of natural killer (NK) cells, their developmental pathways in mice and humans have not yet been completely deciphered. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cells can develop in multiple tissues throughout the body. Moreover, detailed and comprehensive models of NK cell development were proposed soon after the turn of the century. However, with the recent identification and characterization of other subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which show some overlapping functional and phenotypic features with NK cell developmental intermediates, the distinct stages through which human NK cells develop from early hematopoietic progenitor cells remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to reassess and refine older models of NK cell development in the context of new data and in the era of ILCs. Our group has focused on elucidating the developmental pathway of human NK cells in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs), including tonsils and lymph nodes. Here, we provide an update of recent progress that has been made with regard to human NK cell development in SLTs, and we discuss these new findings in the context of contemporary models of ILC development.

  14. Hydrocortisone Increases the Vinblastine-Induced Chromosomal Damages in L929 Cells Investigated by the Micronucleus Assay on Cytokinesis-Blocked Binucleated Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Ebrahimipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress may cause damages to DNA or/and change the ability of the cells to overcome these damages. It may also cause irregularities in the cell cycle and induce abnormal cell divisions through glucocorticoid-dependent functions. The abnormal cell divisions, in turn, lead to chromosomal mal-segregation and aneuploidy. In this study, the effects of the stress hormone, hydrocortisone (HYD, were investigated on the induced chromosomal abnormalities by vinblastine (VIN during cell cycle in L929 cells. Methods: This work was performed in winter 2013 at Department of Biology, University of Ferdowsi, Mashhad, Iran. Cultured cells were divided into different groups including control, VIN-treated, HYD treated and VIN+HYD co-treated cells. The induced chromosomal damages were investigated by micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: Although HYD by itself did not increase the micronuclei (Mn frequency, co-treatment of cells with VIN and HYD led to significant increase (P<0.05 in the frequency of Mn in comparison to control and VIN treated groups. Conclusion: Cells treated with stress hormone are more sensitive to damages induced by VIN. Therefore, stress may not directly result in genetic instability, it can increase the harmful effects associated with other genotoxic agents.

  15. Influence of androgens on bone mass in young women with sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Sultan, Osama A.; Al-Turki, Haifa A.; Sadat-Ali, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between the gender hormonal levels and bone mineral density in premenopausal women suffering with sickle cell disease. Method was a cross-sectional study including consecutive female adult patients with sickle cell anemia attending the outpatient hematology/orthopedic clinics, or admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between August 2006 and June 2007. Patient's age was documented and body mass index was calculated. Blood was drawn for complete blood picture, biochemistry and hormonal profile including total estradiol E2 and total testosterone Te. Bone mineral density BMD was measured for all patients using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan at the hip and lumbar spine. We analyzed the data of 51 patients with an average age of 26+/-3.1 years. Patients were divided into two groups group A and group B. Group A had normal BMD and group B with low BMD. Thirty-one (60.8%) were in group A and 20 (39.2%) were in group B. The E-2 level was not statistically different between the 2 groups, while Te level was significantly lower in women with low BMD 38+/-11.8 versus 22.3+/-11.7 ng/dl, p<0.001. Our study indicates that in menopausal female patients with sickle cell anemia, testosterone may play a role in the preservation of bone mass. (author)

  16. Musashi1 modulates cell proliferation genes in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Jaclyn Y

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musashi1 (Msi1 is an RNA binding protein with a central role during nervous system development and stem cell maintenance. High levels of Msi1 have been reported in several malignancies including brain tumors thereby associating Msi1 and cancer. Methods We used the human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy as model system in this study to knock down the expression of Msi1 and determine the effects upon soft agar growth and neurophere formation. Quantitative RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Msi1 depleted Daoy cells. Results We observed that MSI1 expression was elevated in Daoy cells cultured as neurospheres compared to those grown as monolayer. These data indicated that Msi1 might be involved in regulating proliferation in cancer cells. Here we show that shRNA mediated Msi1 depletion in Daoy cells notably impaired their ability to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as neurospheres in culture. Moreover, differential expression of a group of Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathway related genes including MYCN, FOS, NOTCH2, SMO, CDKN1A, CCND2, CCND1, and DKK1, was also found in the Msi1 knockdown, demonstrating that Msi1 modulated the expression of a subset of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Daoy. Conclusion Our data suggested that Msi1 may promote cancer cell proliferation and survival as its loss seems to have a detrimental effect in the maintenance of medulloblastoma cancer cells. In this regard, Msi1 might be a positive regulator of tumor progression and a potential target for therapy.

  17. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  18. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia T. Soderholm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS commonly causes pharyngitis in children and adults, with severe invasive disease and immune sequelae being an infrequent consequence. The ability of GAS to invade the host and establish infection likely involves subversion of host immune defenses. However, the signaling pathways and innate immune responses of epithelial cells to GAS are not well-understood. In this study, we utilized RNAseq to characterize the inflammatory responses of primary human tonsil epithelial (TEpi cells to infection with the laboratory-adapted M6 strain JRS4 and the M1T1 clinical isolate 5448. Both strains induced the expression of genes encoding a wide range of inflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed genes between mock and JRS4- or 5448-infected TEpi cells were enriched in transcription factor networks that regulate IL-8 expression, such as AP-1, ATF-2, and NFAT. While JRS4 infection resulted in high levels of secreted IL-8, 5448 infection did not, suggesting that 5448 may post-transcriptionally dampen IL-8 production. Infection with 5448ΔcepA, an isogenic mutant lacking the IL-8 protease SpyCEP, resulted in IL-8 secretion levels comparable to JRS4 infection. Complementation of 5448ΔcepA and JRS4 with a plasmid encoding 5448-derived SpyCEP significantly reduced IL-8 secretion by TEpi cells. Our results suggest that intracellular infection with the pathogenic GAS M1T1 clone induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in primary tonsil epithelial cells, but modulates this host response by selectively degrading the neutrophil-recruiting chemokine IL-8 to benefit infection.

  1. Contribution of the RgfD Quorum Sensing Peptide to rgf Regulation and Host Cell Association in Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Parker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro. To do this, we created a deletion in rgfD, which encodes the putative autoinducing peptide, in a GBS strain belonging to multilocus sequence type (ST-17 and made comparisons to the wild type. Sequence variation in the rgf operon was detected in 40 clinical strains and a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in rgfD in all of the ST-17 genomes that resulted in a truncation. Using qPCR, expression of rgf operon genes was significantly decreased in the ST-17 ΔrgfD mutant during exponential growth with the biggest difference (3.3-fold occurring at higher cell densities. Association with decidualized endometrial cells was decreased 1.3-fold in the mutant relative to the wild type and rgfC expression was reduced 22-fold in ΔrgfD following exposure to the endometrial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that this putative quorum sensing molecule is important for attachment to human tissues and demonstrate a role for RgfD in GBS pathogenesis through regulation of rgfC.

  2. Periodic mesoporous organosilica-doped nanocomposite membranes and systems including same

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen

    2017-12-28

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticle functionalized nanocomposite membrane (NCM) for membrane distillation, the NCM including: polymer fibers such as polyetherimide fibers aggregated into a matrix; and hydrophobic PMO nanoparticles disposed on the polymer fibers. The PMO nanoparticles include a framework connected by organic groups and pentafluorophenyl groups. Good membrane flux and anti-fouling was demonstrated. Membranes can be prepared by electrospinning.

  3. Periodic mesoporous organosilica-doped nanocomposite membranes and systems including same

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen; Francis, Lijo; Croissant, Jonas; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaiari, Shahad; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticle functionalized nanocomposite membrane (NCM) for membrane distillation, the NCM including: polymer fibers such as polyetherimide fibers aggregated into a matrix; and hydrophobic PMO nanoparticles disposed on the polymer fibers. The PMO nanoparticles include a framework connected by organic groups and pentafluorophenyl groups. Good membrane flux and anti-fouling was demonstrated. Membranes can be prepared by electrospinning.

  4. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Gi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeon-Soo [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen, E-mail: hkyonsei@yuhs.ac [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  6. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  7. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Nicole Amoyal; Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-06-22

    Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal's look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions (Introduction to Stress, Stress and the

  8. Collective cell motion in endothelial monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, A; Ünnep, R; Méhes, E; Czirók, A; Twal, W O; Argraves, W S; Cao, Y

    2010-01-01

    Collective cell motility is an important aspect of several developmental and pathophysiological processes. Despite its importance, the mechanisms that allow cells to be both motile and adhere to one another are poorly understood. In this study we establish statistical properties of the random streaming behavior of endothelial monolayer cultures. To understand the reported empirical findings, we expand the widely used cellular Potts model to include active cell motility. For spontaneous directed motility we assume a positive feedback between cell displacements and cell polarity. The resulting model is studied with computer simulations and is shown to exhibit behavior compatible with experimental findings. In particular, in monolayer cultures both the speed and persistence of cell motion decreases, transient cell chains move together as groups and velocity correlations extend over several cell diameters. As active cell motility is ubiquitous both in vitro and in vivo, our model is expected to be a generally applicable representation of cellular behavior

  9. A Zinc Porphyrin Sensitizer Modified with Donor and Acceptor Groups for Dye-ensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, See Woo; Sarker, K. Ashis; Hong, Jong Dal [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In this article, we have designed and synthesized a novel donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) type porphyrin-based sensitizer (denoted UI-5), in which a carboxyl anchoring group and a 9,9-dimethyl fluorene were introduced at the meso-positions of porphyrin ring via phenylethynyl and ethynyl bridging units, respectively. Long alkoxy chains in ortho-positions of the phenyls were supposed to reduce the degree of dye aggregation, which tends to affect electron injection yield in a photovoltaic cell. The cyclic voltammetry was employed to determine the band gap of UI-5 to be 1.41 eV based on the HOMO and LUMO energy levels, which were estimated by the onset oxidation and reduction potentials. The incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency of the UI-5 DSSC assembled with double-layer (20 nm-sized TiO{sub 2}/400 nm-sized TiO{sub 2}) film electrodes appeared lower upon overall ranges of the excitation wavelengths, but exhibited a higher value over the NIR ranges (λ = 650-700 nm) compared to the common reference sensitizer N719. The UI-5-sensitized cell yielded a relatively poor device performance with an overall conversion efficiency of 0.74% with a short circuit photocurrent density of 3.05 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.54 mV and a fill factor of 0.44 under the standard global air mass (AM 1.5) solar conditions. However, our report about the synthesis and the photovoltaic characteristics of a porphyrin-based sensitizer in a D-π-A structure demonstrated a significant complex relationship between the sensitizer structure and the cell performance.

  10. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  11. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1 + group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1 + ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1 + ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1 - cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1 + ILC3s. NRP1 + ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy Innovation 1998. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P; Laiho, Y; Kaikkonen, H; Leisio, C; McConchie, R; Fletcher, R [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The IVO Group is a Finnish company mastering all aspects of the entire energy chain, and also operating extensively on the international market. The Group`s operations concentrate on five business areas: energy, engineering, operation and maintenance, grid services, and energy measurement. The personnel numbers well over 8 800, and the turnover is about FIM 14 billion. The services to customers include the supply of electricity and heat, the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of power plants and transmission systems, the transmission of power, and other services requiring expertise in all the key fields of energy engineering. Mastery of the entire energy chain gives us a substantial competitive edge on international markets, where the IVO Group has been a player for decades. The operations have expanded to the other Nordic countries, which now constitute the home market. Focal areas also include Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The IVO Group annually invests some FIM 250 million in research and development. A large proportion of this money is used for the development of environmentally benign solutions

  13. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Genipin (GNP effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH and C1 (1-OH of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1 proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1 and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2 lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1 and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2 exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  14. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yifu; Hou, Jianwei; Ding, Yue; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jianying; Shi, Chenchen; Fu, Wenwei; Cai, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    Genipin (GNP) effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH) and C1 (1-OH) of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1) proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1) and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2) lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1) and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2) exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  15. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. © FEMS 2015.

  16. Temozolomide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with and without brain metastases. a phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Group (08965).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziadziuszko, R; Ardizzoni, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Smit, E.F.; Price, A; Debruyne, C.; Legrand, C; Giaccone, G.

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the activity of single-agent temozolomide in two groups of chemotherapy-naive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, with (12 patients) and without (13 patients) brain metastases (BM). Patients in both groups were treated with temozolomide 200 mg/m(2)/day,

  17. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Kristensen, Ellids

    Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found in a random......Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found...... in a randomized study of systemic versus psychodynamic group therapy, that the short-term outcome for patients who received systemic group psychotherapy was significantly better than the outcome for patients who received psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The current study assessed the group milieu in both groups....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...

  18. Size-dependent nonlinear bending of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials including a refined truncated cube cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Morphology and pore size plays an essential role in the mechanical properties as well as the associated biological capability of a porous structure made of biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of nanoporous biomaterials including refined truncated cube cells based on a hyperbolic shear deformable beam model. Analytical relationships for the mechanical properties of nanoporous biomaterials are given as a function of the refined cell's dimensions. After that, the size dependency in the nonlinear bending behavior of micro/nano-beams made of such nanoporous biomaterials is analyzed using the nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory. It is assumed that the micro/nano-beam has one movable end under axial compression in conjunction with a uniform distributed lateral load. The Galerkin method together with an improved perturbation technique is employed to propose explicit analytical expression for nonlocal strain gradient load-deflection curves of the micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials subjected to uniform transverse distributed load. It is found that through increment of the pore size, the micro/nano-beam will undergo much more deflection corresponding to a specific distributed load due to the reduction in the stiffness of nanoporous biomaterial. This pattern is more prominent for lower value of applied axial compressive load at the free end of micro/nano-beam.

  19. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Bostick, John W.; Zhou, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin) at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease. PMID:29354125

  20. Exploring Radiotherapy Targeting Strategy and Dose: A Pooled Analysis of Cooperative Group Trials of Combined Modality Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Steven E; Fan, Wen; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Vokes, Everett E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2018-04-21

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is standard therapy for locally-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(LA-NSCLC)patients. This study was performed to examine thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) parameters and their impact on patient survival. We collected Individual patient data(IPD) from 3600LA-NSCLC patients participating in 16 cooperative group trials of concurrent CRT. The primary TRT parameters examined included field design strategy(elective nodal irradiation(ENI) compared to involved field TRT(IF-TRT)), total dose, and biologically effective dose(BED). Hazard ratios(HRs) for overall survival were calculated with univariable and multivariable Cox models. TRT doses ranged from 60 to 74 Gy with most treatments administered once-daily. ENI was associated with poorer survival than IF-TRT(univariable HR,1.37;95%CI,1.24-1.51,pENI patients were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 dose groups: low total dose(60 Gy), medium total dose(>60Gy-66Gy) and high total dose(>66Gy-74 Gy). With reference to the low dose group, the multivariable HR's were 1.08 for the medium dose group(95%CI=0.93-1.25) and 1.12 for the high dose group(CI=0.97-1.30).The univariate p=0.054 and multivariable p=0.17. BED was grouped as follows: low(55.5 Gy 10 ). With reference to the low BED group, the HR was 1.00(95%CI=0.85-1.18) for the medium BED group and 1.10(95%CI=0.93-1.31) for the high BED group. The univariable p=0.076 and multivariable p=0.16. For LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT, IF-TRT was associated with significantly better survival than ENI-TRT. TRT total and BED dose levels were not significantly associated with patient survival. Future progress will require research focusing on better systemic therapy and TRT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Correlation between E-cadherin-regulated cell adhesion and human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell anoikis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding-Sheng; Cai, Le-Yi; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wei-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell adhesion and anoikis evasion among human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), and to further study the molecular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were assessed for apoptosis, and caspase-3, E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in EDTA and control non-EDTA groups. MG-63 cells were predominantly aggregated when in suspension, and the suspended cells were more dispersed in the EDTA group. Following culture in suspension for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h, the rates of apoptosis were 34.88%±3.64%, 59.3%±7.22% and 78.5%±5.21% in the experimental group and 7.34%±2.13%, 14.7%±3.69%, and 21.4%±3.60% in the control group, respectively. Caspase-3 expression progressively increased and E-cadherin and β-catenin were decreased in the experimental group, whereas there was no change in the control group. MG-63 cells could avoid anoikis through cell adhesion, and E-cadherin might play a role in this process.

  2. Polycomb Group Protein PHF1 Regulates p53-dependent Cell Growth Arrest and Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Chenji; Zhang, Pingzhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dejie; Yu, Hongxiu; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Sirui; Hexige, Saiyin; Hong, Zehui; Yasui, Akira; Liu, Jun O.; Huang, Haojie; Yu, Long

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group protein PHF1 is well known as a component of a novel EED-EZH2·Polycomb repressive complex 2 complex and plays important roles in H3K27 methylation and Hox gene silencing. PHF1 is also involved in the response to DNA double-strand breaks in human cells, promotes nonhomologous end-joining processes through interaction with Ku70/Ku80. Here, we identified another function of PHF1 as a potential p53 pathway activator in a pathway screen using luminescence reporter assay. Subsequent studies showed PHF1 directly interacts with p53 proteins both in vivo and in vitro and co-localized in nucleus. PHF1 binds to the C-terminal regulatory domain of p53. Overexpression of PHF1 elevated p53 protein level and prolonged its turnover. Knockdown of PHF1 reduced p53 protein level and its target gene expression both in normal state and DNA damage response. Mechanically, PHF1 protects p53 proteins from MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, we showed that PHF1 regulates cell growth arrest and etoposide-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Finally, PHF1 expression was significantly down-regulated in human breast cancer samples. Taken together, we establish PHF1 as a novel positive regulator of the p53 pathway. These data shed light on the potential roles of PHF1 in tumorigenesis and/or tumor progression. PMID:23150668

  3. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  4. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  5. Comparison of the effect of three autogenous bone harvesting methods on cell viability in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Haghgoo, Janet; Arabi, Seyed Reza; Hosseinipanah, Seyyed Mohammad; Solgi, Ghasem; Rastegarfard, Neda; Farhadian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to compare the viability of autogenous bone grafts, harvested using different methods, in order to determine the best harvesting technique with respect to more viable cells. Methods. In this animal experimental study, three harvesting methods, including manual instrument (chisel), rotary device and piezosurgery, were used for harvesting bone grafts from the lateral body of the mandible on the left and right sides of 10 rabbits. In each group, 20 bone samples were collected and their viability was assessed using MTS kit. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests, were used for evaluating significant differences between the groups. Results. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between all the groups (P=0.000). Data analysis using post hoc Tukey tests indicated that manual instrument and piezosurgery had no significant differences with regard to cell viability (P=0.749) and the cell viability in both groups was higher than that with the use of a rotary instrument (P=0.000). Conclusion. Autogenous bone grafts harvested with a manual instrument and piezosurgery had more viable cells in comparison to the bone chips harvested with a rotary device. PMID:28748046

  6. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Troia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA, high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, and procalcitonin (PCT in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLEfast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls (P = 0.0009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.009, respectively. PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.008. Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis (P = 0.0005. The APPLEfast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated (rs 0.51, P = 0.0005. Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively.

  7. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLE fast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls ( P  = 0.0009, P  = 0.004, and P  = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors ( P  = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis ( P  = 0.0005). The APPLE fast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated ( r s 0.51, P  = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively.

  8. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLEfast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls (P = 0.0009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis (P = 0.0005). The APPLEfast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated (rs 0.51, P = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively. PMID:29686994

  9. Responses of human normal osteoblast cells and osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, to pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vitro study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF on cellular proliferation and osteocalcin production of osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, and human normal osteoblast cells (NHOC obtained from surgical bone specimens. The cells were placed in 24-well culture plates in the amount of 3x104 cell/wells with 2 ml αMEM media supplemented with 10% FBS. The experimental plates were placed between a pair of Helmoltz coils powered by a pulse generator (PEMF, 50 Hz, 1.5 mV/cm in the upper compartment of a dual incubator (Forma. The control plates were placed in the lower compartment of the incubator without Helmotz coils. After three days, the cell proliferation was measured by the method modified from Mossman (J. Immunol Methods 1983; 65: 55-63. Other sets of plates were used for osteocalcin production assessment. Media from these sets were collected after 6 days and assessed for osteocalcin production using ELISA kits. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that MG-63 cells from the experimental group proliferated significantly more than those from the control group (20% increase, p<0.05. No significant difference in osteocalcin production was detected between the two groups. On the other hand, NHOC from the experimental group produced larger amount of osteocalcin (25% increase, p<0.05 and proliferated significantly more than those from the control group (100% increase, p<0.05. In conclusion, PEMF effect on osteoblasts might depend on their cell type of origin. For osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, PEMF increased proliferation rate but not osteocalcin production of the cells. However, PEMF stimulation effect on human normal osteoblast cells was most likely associated with enhancement of both osteocalcin production and cell proliferation.

  10. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  11. Introduction to Louis Michel's lattice geometry through group action

    CERN Document Server

    Zhilinskii, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Group action analysis developed and applied mainly by Louis Michel to the study of N-dimensional periodic lattices is the central subject of the book. Different basic mathematical tools currently used for the description of lattice geometry are introduced and illustrated through applications to crystal structures in two- and three-dimensional space, to abstract multi-dimensional lattices and to lattices associated with integrable dynamical systems. Starting from general Delone sets the authors turn to different symmetry and topological classifications including explicit construction of orbifolds for two- and three-dimensional point and space groups. Voronoï and Delone cells together with positive quadratic forms and lattice description by root systems are introduced to demonstrate alternative approaches to lattice geometry study. Zonotopes and zonohedral families of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-dimensional lattices are explicitly visualized using graph theory approach. Along with crystallographic applications, qualitative ...

  12. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdis......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser...... protocols, and present two staining protocols for frozen sections, one for fast and specific staining of fetal germ cells, testicular carcinoma in situ cells, and other cells with embryonic stem cell-like properties that express the alkaline phosphatase, and one for specific staining of lipid droplet...

  13. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santosuosso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues.Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation.We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  14. Propagation of Arthropod-Borne Rickettsia spp. in Two Mosquito Cell Lines▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2007-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that include pathogenic species in the spotted fever, typhus, and transitional groups. The development of a standardized cell line in which diverse rickettsiae can be grown and compared would be highly advantageous to investigate the differences among and between pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of rickettsiae. Although several rickettsial species have been grown in tick cells, tick cells are more difficult to maintain and they gr...

  15. Bio-Orthogonal Mediated Nucleic Acid Transfection of Cells via Cell Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul J; Elahipanah, Sina; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-24

    The efficient delivery of foreign nucleic acids (transfection) into cells is a critical tool for fundamental biomedical research and a pillar of several biotechnology industries. There are currently three main strategies for transfection including reagent, instrument, and viral based methods. Each technology has significantly advanced cell transfection; however, reagent based methods have captured the majority of the transfection market due to their relatively low cost and ease of use. This general method relies on the efficient packaging of a reagent with nucleic acids to form a stable complex that is subsequently associated and delivered to cells via nonspecific electrostatic targeting. Reagent transfection methods generally use various polyamine cationic type molecules to condense with negatively charged nucleic acids into a highly positively charged complex, which is subsequently delivered to negatively charged cells in culture for association, internalization, release, and expression. Although this appears to be a straightforward procedure, there are several major issues including toxicity, low efficiency, sorting of viable transfected from nontransfected cells, and limited scope of transfectable cell types. Herein, we report a new strategy (SnapFect) for nucleic acid transfection to cells that does not rely on electrostatic interactions but instead uses an integrated approach combining bio-orthogonal liposome fusion, click chemistry, and cell surface engineering. We show that a target cell population is rapidly and efficiently engineered to present a bio-orthogonal functional group on its cell surface through nanoparticle liposome delivery and fusion. A complementary bio-orthogonal nucleic acid complex is then formed and delivered to which chemoselective click chemistry induced transfection occurs to the primed cell. This new strategy requires minimal time, steps, and reagents and leads to superior transfection results for a broad range of cell types

  16. Distribution of the minimum path on percolation clusters: A renormalization group calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipsh, Lior.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis uses the renormalization group for the research of the chemical distance or the minimal path on percolation clusters on a 2 dimensional square lattice. Our aims are to calculate analytically (iterative calculation) the fractal dimension of the minimal path. d min. , and the distributions of the minimum paths, l min for different lattice sizes and for different starting densities (including the threshold value p c ). For the distributions. We seek for an analytic form which describes them. The probability to get a minimum path for each linear size L is calculated by iterating the distribution of l min for the basic cell of size 2*2 to the next scale sizes, using the H cell renormalization group. For the threshold value of p and for values near to p c . We confirm a scaling in the form: P(l,L) =f1/l(l/(L d min ). L - the linear size, l - the minimum path. The distribution can be also represented in the Fourier space, so we will try to solve the renormalization group equations in this space. A numerical fitting is produced and compared to existing numerical results. In order to improve the agreement between the renormalization group and the numerical simulations, we also present attempts to generalize the renormalization group by adding more parameters, e.g. correlations between bonds in different directions or finite densities for occupation of bonds and sites. (author) 17 refs

  17. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  18. Fabrication of Mediatorless/Membraneless Glucose/Oxygen Based Biofuel Cell using Biocatalysts Including Glucose Oxidase and Laccase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-07-01

    Mediatorless and membraneless enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs) employing new catalytic structure are fabricated. Regarding anodic catalyst, structure consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx), poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered, while three cathodic catalysts consist of glutaraldehyde (GA), laccase (Lac), PEI and CNT that are stacked together in different ways. Catalytic activities of the catalysts for glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions (GOR and ORR) are evaluated. As a result, it is confirmed that the catalysts work well for promotion of GOR and ORR. In EBC tests, performances of EBCs including 150 μm-thick membrane are measured as references, while those of membraneless EBCs are measured depending on parameters like glucose flow rate, glucose concentration, distance between two electrodes and electrolyte pH. With the measurements, how the parameters affect EBC performance and their optimal conditions are determined. Based on that, best maximum power density (MPD) of membraneless EBC is 102 ± 5.1 μW · cm-2 with values of 0.5 cc · min-1 (glucose flow rate), 40 mM (glucose concentration), 1 mm (distance between electrodes) and pH 3. When membrane and membraneless EBCs are compared, MPD of the membraneless EBC that is run at the similar operating condition to EBC including membrane is speculated as about 134 μW · cm-2.

  19. Early autologous stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term follow-up of the German CLL Study Group CLL3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Peter; Döhner, Hartmut; McClanahan, Fabienne; Busch, Raymonde; Ritgen, Matthias; Greinix, Hildegard; Fink, Anna-Maria; Knauf, Wolfgang; Stadler, Michael; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Dührsen, Ulrich; Brittinger, Günter; Hensel, Manfred; Schetelig, Johannes; Winkler, Dirk; Bühler, Andreas; Kneba, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Hallek, Michael; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2012-05-24

    The CLL3 trial was designed to study intensive treatment including autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) as part of first-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we present the long-term outcome of the trial with particular focus on the impact of genomic risk factors, and we provide a retrospective comparison with patients from the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) arm of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) CLL8 trial. After a median observation time of 8.7 years (0.3-12.3 years), median progression-free survival (PFS), time to retreatment, and overall survival (OS) of 169 evaluable patients, including 38 patients who did not proceed to autoSCT, was 5.7, 7.3, and 11.3 years, respectively. PFS and OS were significantly reduced in the presence of 17p- and of an unfavorable immunoglobulin heavy variable chain mutational status, but not of 11q-. Five-year nonrelapse mortality was 6.5%. When 110 CLL3 patients were compared with 126 matched patients from the FCR arm of the CLL8 trial, 4-year time to retreatment (75% vs 77%) and OS (86% vs 90%) was similar despite a significant benefit for autoSCT in terms of PFS. In summary, early treatment intensification including autoSCT can provide very effective disease control in poor-risk CLL, although its clinical benefit in the FCR era remains uncertain. The trial has been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00275015.

  20. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  1. Analysis of point mutations in an ultraviolet-irradiated shuttle vector plasmid propagated in cells from Japanese xeroderma pigmentosum patients in complementation groups A and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Tatsumi-Miyajima, J.; Sato, M.; Kraemer, K.H.; Takebe, H.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the contribution to mutagenesis by human DNA repair defects, a UV-treated shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, was passed through fibroblasts derived from Japanese xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients in two different DNA repair complementation groups (A and F). Patients with XP have clinical and cellular UV hypersensitivity, increased frequency of skin cancer, and defects in DNA repair. The XP DNA repair defects represented by complementation groups A (XP-A) and F (XP-F) are more common in Japan than in Europe or the United States. In comparison to results with DNA repair-proficient human cells (W138-VA13), UV-treated pZ189 passed through the XP-A [XP2OS(SV)] or XP-F [XP2YO(SV)] cells showed fewer surviving plasmids (XP-A less than XP-F) and a higher frequency of mutated plasmids (XP-A greater than XP-F). Base sequence analysis of more than 200 mutated plasmids showed the major type of base substitution mutation to be the G:C----A:T transition with all three cell lines. The XP-A and XP-F cells revealed a higher frequency of G:C----A:T transitions and a lower frequency of transversions among plasmids with single or tandem mutations and a lower frequency of plasmids with multiple point mutations compared to the normal line. The spectrum of mutations in pZ189 with the XP-A cells was similar to that with the XP-F cells. Seventy-six to 91% of the single base substitution mutations occurred at G:C base pairs in which the 5'-neighboring base of the cytosine was thymine or cytosine. These studies indicate that the DNA repair defects in Japanese XP patients in complementation groups A and F result in different frequencies of plasmid survival and mutagenesis but in similar types of mutagenic abnormalities despite marked differences in clinical features

  2. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  3. Lectures on Chevalley groups