WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell factory aspergillus

  1. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools, te...

  2. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Wu, Bo; Ram, Arthur F J

    2011-03-01

    Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools, techniques and products. New trends and concepts related to Aspergillus genomics and systems biology will be discussed as well as the challenges that have to be met to integrate omics data with metabolic engineering attempts.

  3. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data. PMID:25616499

  4. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data.

  5. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.;

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...... clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis....

  6. 曲霉菌细胞工厂的现状及前景%Aspergillus as a potential cell factory:current status and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丰颖; 高洁; 何国庆

    2012-01-01

    曲霉菌是一类重要的工业微生物,在传统发酵工业中是多种食品成分、酶制剂及有机酸等的主要生产者。随着技术的发展,曲霉菌的开发利用得到了更广泛的关注,亦逐步被开发成为多表达的细胞工厂、本文从新技术新产品等方面对曲霉作为细胞工厂近年来在基础研究及应用上的进展及突破做一概述。对以曲霉菌为表达平台而进行的基因组学、代谢组学、蛋白组学等组学研究予以综述,并对以曲霉菌为代表的细胞工厂的发展前景及趋势提出新的构思。%The genus Aspergilli is an important industrial workhorse with extensive application in variety of fermentation industrial process, like producing food ingredient, enzymic preparations and organic acid etc.With the development of the technologies, the exploitation of Aspergilli has attracted more attention and gradually been developed to be the multi-purpose of cell factories. The review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools and products. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics of Aspergilli has been summarized. New trends and concepts related to Aspergillus as the cell factory will be discussed.

  7. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    cerevisiae. Both organisms have well-known genetic tools available for gene targeting and heterologous expression. It has been the aim to create a stable expression platform with all genes integrated in the genome. This has been achieved through the use of two advanced genetic engineering systems for A...... sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces...... through the use of adaptive evolution, random mutagenesis and screening as well as metabolic engineering. Firstly, in silico guided metabolic engineering was used as a tool to direct metabolism towards higher levels of 6-MSA production in A. nidulans. 6-MSA was stably expressed in the A. nidulans genome...

  8. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of palm kernel cake (PKC and palm oil mill effluent (POME, substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase, B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by Eupenicillium javanicum and Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 on the submerged culture containing 3% coconut meal were selected to hydrolyze PKC or dry POME. Enzyme from E. javanicum contained higher CMCase, B-D-mannanase, and a-D- galactosidase activities, while that from A. niger NRRL 337 contained more p-D-glucosidase and p-D-mannosidase activities. Saccharification (hydrolytic activities of enzyme mixtures on PKC and POME were determined at pH 5.0, the optimal pH for p-D-mannanase from E. javanicum, and at 5.4 the optimal pH for a-D-galactosidase from E. javanicum and P-D-glucosidase from A. niger NRRL 337. The enzyme proportions of E. javanicum and A. niger NRRL 337 were 100 : 0, 80 : 20, 60 : 40, 40 : 60, and 0 : 100%. The highest Saccharification activity on both substrates was observed on the mixture of 80% A. niger NRRL 337. The pH levels did not significantly affect Saccharification activity. Fiber components in PKC were more digestable than in POME. Further analysis on the reducing sugar components using thin layer chromatography showed that more monomers were produced in the 60 or 80% of A. niger NRRL 337. The glycosidases of A. niger NRRL 337 played more important role in the Saccharification activity.

  9. Novel and improved yeast cell factories for biosustainable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    utilizing traditionally applied cell factories are generally based on a limited range of substrates (mainly glucose). However, a wider diversity in substrate range is highly desirable in developing biorefinery scenarios where feed-stocks containing a number of carbon sources are typically employed....... In addition to plant biomass hydrolysates, glycerol is of interest here, being available in amounts relevant for industrial scale bioprocesses due to increased production of biodiesel. The well characterised cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a clear preference for glucose as a carbon source...... with relevant applications as cell factories (including Pichia spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica) and other less well characterized strains (e.g. Pachysolen tannophilus). This presentation will address how we evaluate cellular performance with a view to utilizing yeast species in industrial biotechnology...

  10. Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methyl...

  11. Fructooligosaccharides production using immobilized cells of Aspergillus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Dragone, Giuliano; Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production using immobilized cells of the fungus Aspergillus japonicus ATCC 20236 was evaluated. Polyurethane foam, stainless steel sponge, vegetal fiber sponge, pumice stones, zeolites and cork were tested as immobilization carrier during the fermentation under submerged conditions. Experiments were carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 1 g of carrier and 100 ml of sucrose medium (165 g/l) enriched with nutrient sources. The flasks...

  12. Synthetic biology of cyanobacterial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Angermayr

    2014-01-01

    In the field of microbial biotechnology rational design approaches are employed for the generation of microbial cells with desired functions, such as the ability to produce precursor molecules for biofuels or bioplastics. In essence, that is the introduction of a (new) biosynthetic pathway into a mi

  13. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    chemicals, fine and specialty chemicals, nutritional supplements. CFB has ongoing research/development activities in the field of: 1. Providing upgraded CHO cells for production of therapeutic proteins and mAb’s, 2. Actinomycetes research program within discovery of natural compounds that are broad...

  14. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.;

    , substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells and affect their metabolism and consequently affect......To achieve an efficient production process, it is essential to optimize both the strain and the cultivation conditions. Traditionally, a microbial population has been considered homogeneous in optimization studies of fermentation processes. However, research has shown that a typical microbial...... population in a fermentor is heterogeneous. There are indications that such heterogeneity may be both beneficial (facilitates quick adaptation to new conditions) and harmful (reduces yields and productivities) for the robustness of the fermentation process. Significant gradients of e.g. dissolved oxygen...

  15. Nanotechnology, bionanotechnology and microbial cell factories

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology is increasingly using both materials and nano-objects synthesized by living beings, most of them produced by microbial cells. Emerging technologies and highly integrative approaches (such as 'omics and systems biology), that have been largely proven successful for the production of proteins and secondary metabolites are now expected to become fully adapted for the improved biological production of nanostructured materials with tailored properties. The so far underestim...

  16. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections. PMID:27140698

  17. Chitosan Obtained from Cell Wall of Aspergillus Niger Mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui-li; LIN Wen-luan; LIN Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    Chitin from cell walls of Aspergillus Niger mycelium was prepared. A new method for the preparation of high deacetylation degree chitosan was studied in a dilute sodium hydroxide solution at a high pressure. The experimental results indicate that the deacetylation degree of the chitosan can reach 80% under the condition of a 5.00 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution at 0.1 MPa of pressure for 1 h. This method shows the advantages of the applications in the industry production and environment protection.

  18. BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI BY RESTING CELLS OF ASPERGILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sen , M. Ghosh Dastidar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cr(VI from aqueous solution was studied in a batch bioreactor using the resting cells of filamentous fungal biomass (Aspergillus sp. isolated from industrial wastewaters. The specific Cr(VI removal (mg/g of dried biomass decreased with increase in pH and increased with increase in initial Cr(VI concentration, upto 500 mg/L. By increasing biomass concentration from 2.4 to 5.2 g/L, the specific metal removal remained almost constant. The studies carried out by using the resting cells from various stages of growth indicated maximum Cr(VI removal of 34.8 mg/g using the biomass from the beginning of the stationary phase. The adsorption equilibrium constants Qº (42.9 mg/g and b (0.0091/mg were obtained from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  19. Cell biology of the Koji mold Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has been used for the production of sake, miso, and soy sauce for more than one thousand years in Japan. Due to the importance, A. oryzae has been designated as the national micro-organism of Japan (Koku-kin). A. oryzae has been intensively studied in the past century, with most investigations focusing on breeding techniques and developing methods for Koji making for sake brewing. However, the understanding of fundamental biology of A. oryzae remains relatively limited compared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we have focused on studying the cell biology including live cell imaging of organelles, protein vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and Woronin body functions using the available genomic information. In this review, I describe essential findings of cell biology of A. oryzae obtained in our study for a quarter of century. Understanding of the basic biology will be critical for not its biotechnological application, but also for an understanding of the fundamental biology of other filamentous fungi.

  20. Choosing the right platform for the right product: Sustainable production of chemicals in microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a new non-profit research center focused on sustainable production of biochemicals and therapeutic proteins using microbial and mammalian cell factories. The work at CFB is organized around an iterative loop where cell factories...

  1. Decolorization of reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R by immobilized cells of Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus ficuum was immobilized with sodium alginate, and decolorization of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R was studied on immobilized and free Aspergillus ficuum. The optimal preparation condition of the strain immobilization was obtained by the orthogonal test, it is sodium alginate 3%, CaCl2 5%, wet mycelia 30 g/L, calcific time 8 h. It was found that the immobilized cells could effectively decolorize Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R, the optimum temperature and pH were 33℃ and 5.0, respectively. The kinetics study of decolorization of immobilized cells showed that the decolorization of Aspergillus ficuum immobilized conformed to zero-order reaction model. The decolorization efficiency of immobilized cell compared with that of free cell in different physical conditions. Results showed that the decolorization of immobilized cells with mycelia had the best efficiency. The immobilized cells could be reused after the first decolorization.

  2. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... of developing improved yeast cell factories....

  3. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF PECTINOLYTIC ENZYMES FROM IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF MIXED ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cells of isolated mixed culture of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus sydowii were immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Studies were carried out on different parameters like alginate concentration, incubation time and bead inoculum which affects the productivity and stability of the immobilized system. The best enzymatic activities were obtained with 3% alginate concentration, 48h of incubation time and 200 beads/flask of inoculum. Optimization of these factors causes an increase in enzymatic activities and the possibility of semicontinuous cultivation. Immobilized cells could be reused in five successive reaction cycles with a slight decrease in activities.

  4. Biocatalytic Resolution of para-Nitrostyrene Oxide by Resting Cells of Different Aspergillus niger Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 李祖义; 王清

    2001-01-01

    Biocatalytic resolution of racemic para-nitrostyrene oxide was accomplished by employing the epoxide hydrolases from the whole cells of several Aspergillus niger (A. niger) strains. In the cases investigated, excellent selectivity was achieved with such strains as A, niger 5450, A. niger 5320.

  5. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen levels in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients given total parenteral nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Pauw, B.E. de

    2002-01-01

    False-positive tests for Aspergillus galactomannan have been reported in neutropenic patients. We failed to detect any circulating antigen during the 2 weeks following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation of 12 patients who had severe mucositis but were unable to eat.

  6. Evaluation of cell factory performance through determination of intracellular metabolites using LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdenoska, Olivera; Martinussen, Jan; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2012-01-01

    A major objective in biotechnology is the improvement of the efficiency of host microorganisms used as cell factories. Engineering a strain capable of producing high amounts of a desired biochemical is a multi-step process consisting of design, construction, and analysis of the constructed cell...... factory. In order to address the function or disfunction of the engineered cells,systems biology tools are employed by using the multi “omics” approach (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and fluxomics). Metabolomics is a tool aimed at a quantitative understanding of metabolism. By......; (ii) quantitative analysis, (iii) data analysis and interpretation. The established analytical method covers analysis of sixty metabolites from glycolysis,cofactors, coenzymes and nucleotides. Implementation of this method provides a powerful new tool in future cell factory design and characterization....

  7. Transcription factors as targets for improving Aspergillus niger as cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Bruno, K.S.; Thykær, Jette;

    the potential of controlling several fluxes in an organism, hence manipulating expression of these proteins can provide an alternative tool for overcoming metabolic bottlenecks. This approach has previously been demonstrated in yeast with great success for production of ethanol (Schuurmans et al., 2008...

  8. Comparative modelling of protein structure and its impact on microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Baldomero

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparative modeling is becoming an increasingly helpful technique in microbial cell factories as the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a protein would be an invaluable aid to solve problems on protein production. For this reason, an introduction to comparative modeling is presented, with special emphasis on the basic concepts, opportunities and challenges of protein structure prediction. This review is intended to serve as a guide for the biologist who has no special expertise and who is not involved in the determination of protein structure. Selected applications of comparative modeling in microbial cell factories are outlined, and the role of microbial cell factories in the structural genomics initiative is discussed.

  9. Development of a screening approach for exploring cell factory potential through metabolic flux analysis and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thykær, Jette

    2012-01-01

    of the recombinant strains in order to evaluate their potential as fungal cell factories and for guiding further metabolic engineering strategies. To meet the demand for a fast and reliable method for physiological characterisation of fungal strains, a screening approach using a micro titer format was developed......The recent developments within the field of metabolic engineering have significantly increased the speed by which fungal recombinant strains are being constructed, pushing focus towards physiological characterisation and analysis. This raises demand for a tool for diligent analysis...... in the strains of interest during exponential growth. The novelty of this screening approach, is that potential cell factories are selected based on their metabolic capacity for producing various products on interest and these cell factories may in turn be characterised based on their flux distributions. As part...

  10. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is essential for cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hechun; Ouyang, Haomiao; Zhou, Hui; Jin, Cheng

    2008-09-01

    GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP) catalyses the synthesis of GDP-mannose, which is the precursor for the mannose residues in glycoconjugates, using mannose 1-phosphate and GTP as substrates. Repression of GMPP in yeast leads to phenotypes including cell lysis, defective cell wall, and failure of polarized growth and cell separation. Although several GMPPs have been isolated and characterized in filamentous fungi, the physiological consequences of their actions are not clear. In this study, Afsrb1, which is a homologue of yeast SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, was identified in the Aspergillus fumigatus genome. The Afsrb1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant AfSrb1 was functionally confirmed as a GMPP. By the replacement of the native Afsrb1 promoter with an inducible Aspergillus nidulans alcA promoter, the conditional inactivation mutant strain YJ-gmpp was constructed. The presence of 3 % glucose completely blocked transcription of P(alcA)-Afsrb1, and was lethal to strain YJ-gmpp. Repression of Afsrb1 expression in strain YJ-gmpp led to phenotypes including hyphal lysis, defective cell wall, impaired polarity maintenance, and branching site selection. Also, rapid germination and reduced conidiation were documented. However, in contrast to yeast, strain YJ-gmpp retained the ability to direct polarity establishment and septation. Our results showed that the Afsrb1 gene is essential for cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  12. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei;

    2016-01-01

    -level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l−1 of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous...... alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l−1) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l−1), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories...

  13. Studies on Aspergillus oryzae Mutants for the Production of Single Cell Proteins from Deoiled Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder, Rudravaram; Venkateshwar Rao, Linga; Ravindra, Pogaku

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl methyl sulphonate was used to induce point mutation in Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC 1846). Incubation with ethyl methyl sulphonate for 1 h resulted in 98 % killing of spores. By screening the survived colonies three hypermorphs were found (Shan1, Shan2 and Shan3). These three mutants along with the A. oryzae (MTCC 1846) were used for the production of single cell proteins. They grew profusely on deoiled rice bran and produced higher percentage of protein. Among the three mutants Shan2 ha...

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: application and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E.;

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used production host for therapeutic proteins.With the recent emergence of CHO genome sequences, CHO cell line engineering has takenon a new aspect through targeted genome editing. The bacterial clustered regularly interspacedshort palindromic...... highlighting both future perspectivesand challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineeringwith CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories....

  15. Development of advanced therapies in Italy: Management models and sustainability in six Italian cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaipa, Giuseppe; Introna, Martino; Golay, Josee; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Vallanti, Giuliana; Parati, Eugenio; Giordano, Rosaria; Romagnoli, Luca; Melazzini, Mario; Biondi, Andrea; Biagi, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    On November 10, 2014, the representatives of all six certified Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) cell factories operating in the Lombardy Region of Italy convened a 1-day workshop in Milan titled "Management Models for the Development And Sustainability of Cell Factories: Public-Private Partnership?" The speakers and panelists addressed not only the many scientific, technological and cultural challenges faced by Lombardy Cell Factories, but also the potential impact of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) on public health and the role played by translational research in this process. Future perspectives for research and development (R&D) and manufacturing processes in the field of regenerative medicine were discussed as well. This report summarizes the most important issues raised by the workshop participants with particular emphasis on strengths and limitations of the R&D and manufacturing processes for innovative therapeutics in Lombardy and what can be improved in this context while maintaining GMP standards. The participants highlighted several strategies to translate patient-specific advanced therapeutics into scaled manufacturing products for clinical application. These included (i) the development of a synergistic interaction between public and private institutions, (ii) better integration with Italian regulatory agencies and (iii) the creation of a network among Lombardy cell factories and other Italian and European institutions.

  16. The Uses and Future Prospects of Metabolomics and Targeted Metabolite Profiling in Cell Factory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Scott James; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The development of cell factories for the production of chemicals has traditionally relied on measurements of product metabolite titers to assess the performance of genetically manipulated strains. With the development of improved metabolomics and targeted metabolite profiling methods, these broa......The development of cell factories for the production of chemicals has traditionally relied on measurements of product metabolite titers to assess the performance of genetically manipulated strains. With the development of improved metabolomics and targeted metabolite profiling methods......, these broader measurements of the cellular metabolic state are now becoming part of the toolbox used to characterize cell factories. In this review we briefly summarize the benefits and challenges of global metabolomics and targeted metabolite profiling methods and discuss the application of these methods...... in both pathway discovery and cell factory engineering. We focus particularly on exploring the potential of global metabolomics to complement more traditional targeted methods. We conclude the review by discussing emerging trends in metabolomics and how these developments can aid the engineering of better...

  17. On the Use of Metabolic Control Analysis in the Optimization of Cyanobacterial Biosolar Cell Factories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Angermayr; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis will have a key role in a sustainable future. It is therefore significant that this process can be engineered in organisms such as cyanobacteria to construct cell factories that catalyze the (sun)light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into products like ethanol, butanol, or

  18. Development of advanced therapies in Italy: Management models and sustainability in six Italian cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaipa, Giuseppe; Introna, Martino; Golay, Josee; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Vallanti, Giuliana; Parati, Eugenio; Giordano, Rosaria; Romagnoli, Luca; Melazzini, Mario; Biondi, Andrea; Biagi, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    On November 10, 2014, the representatives of all six certified Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) cell factories operating in the Lombardy Region of Italy convened a 1-day workshop in Milan titled "Management Models for the Development And Sustainability of Cell Factories: Public-Private Partnership?" The speakers and panelists addressed not only the many scientific, technological and cultural challenges faced by Lombardy Cell Factories, but also the potential impact of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) on public health and the role played by translational research in this process. Future perspectives for research and development (R&D) and manufacturing processes in the field of regenerative medicine were discussed as well. This report summarizes the most important issues raised by the workshop participants with particular emphasis on strengths and limitations of the R&D and manufacturing processes for innovative therapeutics in Lombardy and what can be improved in this context while maintaining GMP standards. The participants highlighted several strategies to translate patient-specific advanced therapeutics into scaled manufacturing products for clinical application. These included (i) the development of a synergistic interaction between public and private institutions, (ii) better integration with Italian regulatory agencies and (iii) the creation of a network among Lombardy cell factories and other Italian and European institutions. PMID:26971677

  19. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  20. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value.

  1. Materials for the stem cell factories of the future

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Morgan R.

    2014-01-01

    The materials community is now identifying polymeric substrates that could permit translation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) from lab-based research to industrial scale biomedicine. Well defined materials are required to allow cell banking and to provide the raw material for reproducible differentiation into lineages for large scale drug screening programs and clinical use, wherein >1 billion cells for each patient are needed to replace losses during heart attack, multiple sclerosis ...

  2. Development of tools for quantitative intracellular metabolomics of Aspergillus niger chemostat cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameiras, F.; Heijnen, J.J.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In view of the high citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger, it should be well suited as a cell factory for the production of other relevant acids as succinic, fumaric, itaconic and malic. Quantitative metabolomics is an important omics tool in a synthetic biology approach to develop A.

  3. Materials for stem cell factories of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiz, Adam D.; Smith, James G. W.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Winkler, David A.; Barrett, David A.; Davies, Martyn C.; Young, Lorraine E.; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2014-06-01

    Polymeric substrates are being identified that could permit translation of human pluripotent stem cells from laboratory-based research to industrial-scale biomedicine. Well-defined materials are required to allow cell banking and to provide the raw material for reproducible differentiation into lineages for large-scale drug-screening programs and clinical use. Yet more than 1 billion cells for each patient are needed to replace losses during heart attack, multiple sclerosis and diabetes. Producing this number of cells is challenging, and a rethink of the current predominant cell-derived substrates is needed to provide technology that can be scaled to meet the needs of millions of patients a year. In this Review, we consider the role of materials discovery, an emerging area of materials chemistry that is in large part driven by the challenges posed by biologists to materials scientists.

  4. Rapid and high-throughput construction of microbial cell-factories with regulatory noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Na, Dokyun; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    Due to global crises such as pollution and depletion of fossil fuels, sustainable technologies based on microbial cell-factories have been garnering great interest as an alternative to chemical factories. The development of microbial cell-factories is imperative in cutting down the overall manufacturing cost. Thus, diverse metabolic engineering strategies and engineering tools have been established to obtain a preferred genotype and phenotype displaying superior productivity. However, these tools are limited to only a handful of genes with permanent modification of a genome and significant labor costs, and this is one of the bottlenecks associated with biofactory construction. Therefore, a groundbreaking rapid and high-throughput engineering tool is needed for efficient construction of microbial cell-factories. During the last decade, copious small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been discovered in bacteria. These are involved in substantial regulatory roles like transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation by modulating mRNA elongation, stability, or translational efficiency. Because of their vulnerability, ncRNAs can be used as another layer of conditional control over gene expression without modifying chromosomal sequences, and hence would be a promising high-throughput tool for metabolic engineering. Here, we review successful design principles and applications of ncRNAs for high-throughput metabolic engineering or physiological studies of diverse industrially important microorganisms. PMID:26027891

  5. Design, Modeling, and Development of Microbial Cell Factories

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we will express desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals.

  6. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glieder Anton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

  7. Pseudallescheria boydii with Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus in a Critically Ill Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipient with ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmer, Tobias; Messer, Marlena; Ehmer, Ursula; Eser, Stefan; Beitz, Analena; Fekecs, Lisa; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Pseudallescheria boydii is a fungal organism known to affect immunocompromised patients. This organism is known to cause, in severe cases, invasive infection of various organs such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We report an unusual case of pulmonary P. boydii pneumonia in an immunocompromised critically ill patient with a co-infection of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus with ARDS. This case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for superimposed fungal infections in patients who are critically ill and immunocompromised. Uncommon fungal pathogens should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory failure, especially if diagnostic markers such as galactomannan (from BAL and serum) or 1,3-beta-D-glucan are elevated. Further diagnostic interventions are warranted when insufficient clinical improvement is observed to prevent treatment failure and adverse outcomes. PMID:26455910

  8. Novel Methods for Development of Cell Factories and Laboratory Simultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads

    addressed in this work is the ability to precisely modify the expression level of genes. We constructed an Escherichia coli genomic cell library with at least 99.3 % of the possible Shine Dalgarno (SD) sequences. We then comprehensively assessed their differential contribution to protein expression using...... by improving education and making these technologies accessible to students. The second part of the thesis relates to innovative methods for enhancing science education through technology. Traditional teaching methods are dominating science education, but new IT-based approaches provide an opportunity...... for increasing the skill level of students and motivate young people to pursue studies within the field. Many practical barriers such as cost, safety and time limit laboratory teaching, making it an especially relevant area for implementing simulations. We show a 76 % increase in learning outcomes by using...

  9. Characterizing Yarrowia lipolytica as a cell factory for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubuta, Patrice; Workman, Mhairi

    With current global focus on renewable and sustainable technologies, there is a strong need to develop innovative solutions in industrial biotechnology. The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has considerable potential as a versatile cell factory, especially when compared to the typically...... applied organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which utilizes glycerol very slowly and requires genetic engineering for conversion of lignocellulosic sugar monomers xylose and arabinose. In this study we could show that Y. lipolytica IBT 446 is versatile and interesting as a biorefinery cell factory......, as it is natural capable to utilize sugars typically found in plant hydrolysates (glucose, xylose, arabinose) together with glycerol in mixed carbon cultivations. Furthermore the strains W29 and H222 are naturally capable of conversion of glycerol, glucose and xylose....

  10. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  11. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  12. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  13. Isolate-dependent growth, virulence, and cell wall composition in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is a mediator of allergic sensitization and invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The significant genetic and phenotypic variability between and among clinical and environmental isolates are important considerations in host-pathogen studies of A. fumigatus-mediated disease. We observed decreased radial growth, rate of germination, and ability to establish colony growth in a single environmental isolate of A. fumigatus, Af5517, when compared to other clinical and environmental isolates. Af5517 also exhibited increased hyphal diameter and cell wall β-glucan and chitin content, with chitin most significantly increased. Morbidity, mortality, lung fungal burden, and tissue pathology were decreased in neutropenic Af5517-infected mice when compared to the clinical isolate Af293. Our results support previous findings that suggest a correlation between in vitro growth rates and in vivo virulence, and we propose that changes in cell wall composition may contribute to this phenotype.

  14. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  15. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Bernardo, Maria E.; Locatelli, Franco [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Pavia (Italy); Meloni, Giulia [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Institute of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Spinazzola, Angelo [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore, Crema CR (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: Application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E; Faustrup Kildegaard, Helene

    2015-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used production host for therapeutic proteins. With the recent emergence of CHO genome sequences, CHO cell line engineering has taken on a new aspect through targeted genome editing. The bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system enables rapid, easy and efficient engineering of mammalian genomes. It has a wide range of applications from modification of individual genes to genome-wide screening or regulation of genes. Facile genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 empowers researchers in the CHO community to elucidate the mechanistic basis behind high level production of proteins and product quality attributes of interest. In this review, we describe the basis of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and its application for development of next generation CHO cell factories while highlighting both future perspectives and challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineering with CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories.

  17. Human Invariant Natural Killer T cells possess immune-modulating functions during Aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzen-Heineke, Antonia; Bouzani, Maria; Schmitt, Anna-Lena; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin; Einsele, Hermann; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause for invasive fungal infections, a disease associated with high mortality in immune-compromised patients. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells compose a small subset of T cells known to impact the immune response toward various infectious pathogens. To investigate the role of human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection, we studied their activation as determined by CD69 expression and cytokine production in response to distinct fungal morphotypes in the presence of different CD1d(+) antigen presenting cells using flow cytometry and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among CD1d(+) subpopulations, CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs showed the highest potential to activate iNKT cells on a per cell basis. The presence of A. fumigatus decreased this effect of CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs on iNKT cells and led to reduced secretion of TNF-α, G-CSF and RANTES. Production of other Th1 and Th2 cytokines was not affected by the fungus, suggesting an immune-modulating function for human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection.

  18. Aspergillus nidulans cell wall composition and function change in response to hosting several Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-galactopyranose mutase activity mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Kausar Alam

    Full Text Available Deletion or repression of Aspergillus nidulans ugmA (AnugmA, involved in galactofuranose biosynthesis, impairs growth and increases sensitivity to Caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthesis antagonist. The A. fumigatus UgmA (AfUgmA crystal structure has been determined. From that study, AfUgmA mutants with altered enzyme activity were transformed into AnugmA▵ to assess their effect on growth and wall composition in A. nidulans. The complemented (AnugmA::wild type AfugmA strain had wild type phenotype, indicating these genes had functional homology. Consistent with in vitro studies, AfUgmA residues R182 and R327 were important for its function in vivo, with even conservative amino (RK substitutions producing AnugmA? phenotype strains. Similarly, the conserved AfUgmA loop III histidine (H63 was important for Galf generation: the H63N strain had a partially rescued phenotype compared to AnugmA▵. Collectively, A. nidulans strains that hosted mutated AfUgmA constructs with low enzyme activity showed increased hyphal surface adhesion as assessed by binding fluorescent latex beads. Consistent with previous qPCR results, immunofluorescence and ELISA indicated that AnugmA▵ and AfugmA-mutated A. nidulans strains had increased α-glucan and decreased β-glucan in their cell walls compared to wild type and AfugmA-complemented strains. Like the AnugmA▵ strain, A. nidulans strains containing mutated AfugmA showed increased sensitivity to antifungal drugs, particularly Caspofungin. Reduced β-glucan content was correlated with increased Caspofungin sensitivity. Aspergillus nidulans wall Galf, α-glucan, and β-glucan content was correlated in A. nidulans hyphal walls, suggesting dynamic coordination between cell wall synthesis and cell wall integrity.

  19. A systems-level approach for metabolic engineering of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Kwon; Roldão, António; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-03-01

    The generation of novel yeast cell factories for production of high-value industrial biotechnological products relies on three metabolic engineering principles: design, construction, and analysis. In the last two decades, strong efforts have been put on developing faster and more efficient strategies and/or technologies for each one of these principles. For design and construction, three major strategies are described in this review: (1) rational metabolic engineering; (2) inverse metabolic engineering; and (3) evolutionary strategies. Independent of the selected strategy, the process of designing yeast strains involves five decision points: (1) choice of product, (2) choice of chassis, (3) identification of target genes, (4) regulating the expression level of target genes, and (5) network balancing of the target genes. At the construction level, several molecular biology tools have been developed through the concept of synthetic biology and applied for the generation of novel, engineered yeast strains. For comprehensive and quantitative analysis of constructed strains, systems biology tools are commonly used and using a multi-omics approach. Key information about the biological system can be revealed, for example, identification of genetic regulatory mechanisms and competitive pathways, thereby assisting the in silico design of metabolic engineering strategies for improving strain performance. Examples on how systems and synthetic biology brought yeast metabolic engineering closer to industrial biotechnology are described in this review, and these examples should demonstrate the potential of a systems-level approach for fast and efficient generation of yeast cell factories. PMID:22188344

  20. Th and Treg response induced by Aspergillus fumigatus pulsed dendritic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Runchao; Wan Zhe; Li Ruoyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) can recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of Aspergillus fumigatus (A.fumigatus),activating the immune response.During A.fumigatus infection,a Th and Treg response induced in the fungi-pulsed DCs is not yet well understood.Methods In this study,bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were separated and proliferated from C57BL/6 mice.A.fumigatus pulsed DCs were generated and cultured with CD4+ T cells derived from the spleen of C57BL/6 mice in vitro.CD4+ T cells differentiation after co-culture were analyzed by flow cytometry,ELISA,and real-time PCR analysis.Results The A.fumigatus pulsed DCs exhibited increased Th1 and Treg frequency,Th1-related cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12),Treg-related cytokines (TGF-β) and T-bet,and Foxp3 mRNA levels compared with the control group.There was no significant difference between A.fumigatus pulsed DCs group and the control group about Th17 and Th2 frequency.Conclusions The inactivated conidia of A.fumigatus were able to activate BMDCs and made them capable of triggering T cell responses in vitro.A.fumigatus loaded DCs was a weak inducer of Th17 and Th2,but induced a strong Th1 and Treg response.

  1. E-cadherin mediates adhesion and endocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus blastospores in human epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yong; SHI Yi; ZHANG Peng-peng; ZHANG Feng; SHEN Yu-ying; SU Xin; ZHAO Bei-lei

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus (A.fumigatus) is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus responsible for the majority of invasive mold infections in patients undergoing chemotherapy,organ transplantation or with persistent neutropenia.This study aimed to determine the role of E-cadherin for adhesion and endocytosis of A.fumigatus blastospores in the human epithelial cell line A549.Methods A.fumigatus blastospores were incubated with the total protein of A549 to investigate the binding of E-cadherin and blastospores followed by an affinity purification procedure.After establishing the adhesion model,the adhesion and endocytosis of A.fumigatus blastospores by A549 cells were evaluated by down-regulating E-cadherin of A549 cells using blocking antibody or small interfering RNA (siRNA).Results E-cadherin was adhered to the surface of A.fumigatus blastospore.Adhesion and endocytosis of the blastospores were reduced by blocking or down-regulating E-cadherin in A549 cells.Conclusions E-cadherin is a receptor for adhesion and endocytosis of A.fumigatus blastospores in epithelial cells.This may open a new approach to treat this fungal infection.

  2. Expression and secretion in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger of a cell surface glycoprotein from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, by using the fungal amdS promoter system.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, I F; Smith, D R; Sharp, P. J.; Cobon, G S; Hynes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A cell surface glycoprotein (Bm86) from cells of the digestive tract of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, which has been shown to elicit a protective immunological response in vaccinated cattle, was expressed and secreted in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger by using the fungal amdS promoter system. The cloned gene coded for the Bm86 secretory signal and all of the Bm86 mature polypeptide except for the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal segment. High levels of Bm8...

  3. EVALUATION OF CELL CYCLE OF Aspergillus nidulans EXPOSED TO THE EXTRACT OF Copaifera officinalis L PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta, Uériton Dias de Oliveira e Josy Fraccaro de Marins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil extracted from the Copaifera officinalis L plant has been used in popular medicine to the treatment of several diseases, like cancer. In eukaryotic cells, the process of cellular proliferation follows a standard cycle, named cellular cycle. The transformation of a normal cell in a malignant one requires several steps, in which genes that control normal cellular division or cellular death are modified. Aspergillus nidulans fungus is an excellent system for the study of the cellular differentiation. Its asexual cycle results in the formation of conidia, which are disposed like chains, constituting a structure named conidiophore. This structure consists in an aerial hifae, multinucleate vesicle and uninucleate cells. Current research evaluated the capacity of the C. officinalis L plant extract in promoting alterations in the cellular cycle of A. nidulans diploid strains, by observing macroscopic and microscopic alterations in cellular growth of this fungus. Results shown that no macroscopic alterations were observed in cellular growth of strains exposed to the extract, however, microscopic alterations of conidiophore have been observed in the different extract concentrations analyzed. In this way, the study of the action of C. officinalis L plant extract becomes important considering the fact that this substance is capable to promote alterations in cellular cycle of eukaryotic cells.

  4. Nanoscale biophysical properties of the cell surface galactosaminogalactan from the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Fontaine, Thierry; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-09-28

    Many fungal pathogens produce cell surface polysaccharides that play essential roles in host-pathogen interactions. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the newly discovered polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) mediates adherence to a variety of substrates through molecular mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we use atomic force microscopy to unravel the localization and adhesion of GAG on living fungal cells. Using single-molecule imaging with tips bearing anti-GAG antibodies, we found that GAG is massively exposed on wild-type (WT) germ tubes, consistent with the notion that this glycopolymer is secreted by the mycelium of A. fumigatus, while it is lacking on WT resting conidia and on germ tubes from a mutant (Δuge3) deficient in GAG. Imaging germ tubes with tips bearing anti-β-glucan antibodies shows that exposure of β-glucan is strongly increased in the Δuge3 mutant, indicating that this polysaccharide is masked by GAG during hyphal growth. Single-cell force measurements show that expression of GAG on germ tubes promotes specific adhesion to pneumocytes and non-specific adhesion to hydrophobic substrates. These results provide a molecular foundation for the multifunctional adhesion properties of GAG, thus suggesting it could be used as a potential target in anti-adhesion therapy and immunotherapy. Our methodology represents a powerful approach for characterizing the nanoscale organization and adhesion of cell wall polysaccharides during fungal morphogenesis, thereby contributing to increase our understanding of their role in biofilm formation and immune responses.

  5. Thermodynamics-based design of microbial cell factories for anaerobic product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; van Maris, A J A; Wahl, S Aljoscha; Heijnen, J J

    2015-09-01

    The field of metabolic engineering has delivered new microbial cell factories and processes for the production of different compounds including biofuels, (di)carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amino acids. Most of these processes are aerobic, with few exceptions (e.g., alcoholic fermentation), and attention is focused on assembling a high-flux product pathway with a production limit usually set by the oxygen transfer rate. By contrast, anaerobic product synthesis offers significant benefits compared to aerobic systems: higher yields, less heat generation, reduced biomass production, and lower mechanical energy input, which can significantly reduce production costs. Using simple thermodynamic calculations, we demonstrate that many products can theoretically be produced under anaerobic conditions using several conventional and non-conventional substrates.

  6. In Silico Constraint-Based Strain Optimization Methods: the Quest for Optimal Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-03-01

    Shifting from chemical to biotechnological processes is one of the cornerstones of 21st century industry. The production of a great range of chemicals via biotechnological means is a key challenge on the way toward a bio-based economy. However, this shift is occurring at a pace slower than initially expected. The development of efficient cell factories that allow for competitive production yields is of paramount importance for this leap to happen. Constraint-based models of metabolism, together with in silico strain design algorithms, promise to reveal insights into the best genetic design strategies, a step further toward achieving that goal. In this work, a thorough analysis of the main in silico constraint-based strain design strategies and algorithms is presented, their application in real-world case studies is analyzed, and a path for the future is discussed.

  7. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb;

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought...... production. Glycine and serine, both essential amino acids required for biomass formation, are formed from both glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates. Succinate formation results from the isocitrate lyase catalyzed conversion of isocitrate, and from the α-keto-glutarate dehydrogenase catalyzed conversion...... after added-value chemical for which there is no native pre-disposition for production and accmulation in S. cerevisiae. The genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of S. cerevisiae enabled in silico gene deletion predictions using an evolutionary programming method to couple biomass and succinate...

  8. A novel cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from dairy waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Würtz, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    and focus has mostly been on developing bio-processes involving non-food plant biomass feedstocks. The high cost of the enzymes needed to degrade such feedstocks into its constituent sugars as well as problems due to various inhibitors generated in pretreatment are two challenges that have to be addressed...... if cost-effective processes are to be established. Various industries, especially within the food sector, often have waste streams rich in carbohydrates and/or other nutrients, and these could serve as alternative feedstocks for such bio-processes. The dairy industry is a good example, where large amounts...... hydrolysate (CSLH) as the nitrogen source. The outcome was efficient ethanol production with a titer of 41 g/L and a yield of 70 % of the theoretical maximum using a fed-batch strategy. The combination of a low-cost medium from industrial waste streams and an efficient cell factory should make the developed...

  9. Enantioselective hydrolysis of epichlorohydrin using whole Aspergillus niger ZJB-09173 cells in organic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huo-Xi Jin; Zhong-Ce Hu; Yu-Guo Zheng

    2012-09-01

    The enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin for the production of enantiopure ()-epichloro-hydrin using whole cells of Aspergillus niger ZJB-09173 in organic solvents was investigated. Cyclohexane was used as the reaction medium based on the excellent enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolase from A. niger ZJB-09173 in cyclohexane. However, cyclohexane had a negative effect on the stability of epoxide hydrolase from A. niger ZJB-09173. In the cyclohexane medium, substrate inhibition, rather than product inhibition of catalysis, was observed in the hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin using A. niger ZJB-09173. The racemic epichlorohydrin concentration was markedly increased by continuous feeding of substrate without significant decline of the yield. Ultimately, 18.5% of ()-epichlorohydrin with 98% enantiomeric excess from 153.6 mM of racemic epichlorohydrin was obtained by the dry cells of A. niger ZJB-09173, which was the highest substrate concentration in the production of enantiopure ()-epichlorohydrin by epoxide hydrolases using an organic solvent medium among the known reports.

  10. Hypoxia attenuates anti-Aspergillus fumigatus immune responses initiated by human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliesser, Mirjam; Wallstein, Marion; Kurzai, Oliver; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic mould that causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. During the course of IPA, localised areas of tissue hypoxia occur. Bacterial infection models revealed that hypoxic microenvironments modulate the function of host immune cells. However, the influence of hypoxia on anti-fungal immunity has been largely unknown. We evaluated the impact of hypoxia on the human anti-A. fumigatus immune response. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated in vitro with germ tubes of A. fumigatus under normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2 ), followed by analysis of DC viability, maturation and cytokine release. While DC viability was unaffected, hypoxia attenuated cytokine release from DCs and maturation of DCs upon stimulation with A. fumigatus. These data suggest that hypoxia at the site of A. fumigatus infection inhibits full activation and function of human DCs. Thereby, this study identified hypoxia as a crucial immune-modulating factor in the human anti-fungal immune response that might influence the course and outcome of IPA in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27005862

  11. Surfactant Protein-A inhibits Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Scott J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pulmonary surfactant protein (SP-A has potent immunomodulatory activities but its role and regulation during allergic airway inflammation is unknown. Methods We studied changes in SP-A expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL using a murine model of single Aspergillus fumigatus (Af challenge of sensitized animals. Results SP-A protein levels in the BAL fluid showed a rapid, transient decline that reached the lowest values (25% of controls 12 h after intranasal Af provocation of sensitized mice. Decrease of SP-A was associated with influx of inflammatory cells and increase of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein levels. Since levels of SP-A showed a significant negative correlation with these BAL cytokines (but not with IFN-γ, we hypothesized that SP-A exerts an inhibitory effect on Th2-type immune responses. To study this hypothesis, we used an in vitro Af-rechallenge model. Af-induced lymphocyte proliferation of cells isolated from sensitized mice was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by addition of purified human SP-A (0.1–10 μg/ml. Flow cytometric studies on Af-stimulated lymphocytes indicated that the numbers of CD4+ (but not CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in the parental population and decreased in the third and fourth generation in the presence of SP-A. Further, addition of SP-A to the tissue culture inhibited Af-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production suggesting that SP-A directly suppressed allergen-stimulated CD4+ T cell function. Conclusion We speculate that a transient lack of this lung collectin following allergen exposure of the airways may significantly contribute to the development of a T-cell dependent allergic immune response.

  12. Dexamethasone enhances invasiveness of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and fibronectin expression in A549 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; LI Jing-chao; QI Qian; LI Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacies of current treatments for invasive aspergillus (IA) are unsatisfactory and new therapeutic targets or regimens to treat IA are urgently needed.Previous studies have indicated that the ability of conidia to invade host cells is critical in IA development and fibronectin has a hand in the conidia adherence process.In the clinical setting,many patients who receive glucocorticoid for extended periods are susceptible to Aspergillus fumigatus (A.fumigatus) infection,for this reason we investigated the effect of glucocorticoid on conidia invasiveness by comparing the invasiveness of A.fumigatus conidia in the type Ⅱ human alveolar cell line (A549) cultured with different concentrations of dexamethasone.We also explored the relationships between dexamethasone and fibronectin expression.Methods Following culture with anti-fibronectin antibodies and/or dexamethasone,type Ⅱ human alveolar A549 cells were infected with conidia of A.fumigatus.After 4 hours,the extracellular free conidia were washed away and the remaining immobilized conidia were released using Triton-X 100 and quantified by counting the colony-forming units.The invasiveness of conidia was measured by calculating the invasion rate (%).The transcription of the fibronectin gene in cells cultured with different concentrations of dexamethasone for 24 hours was tested by fiuorogenic quantitative RT-PCR while the expression of fibronectinin cells cultured for 48 hours was tested by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry.Results A significant reduction in the invasiveness of conidia was seen in the cells cultured with anti-fibronectin antibody ((14.42±1.68)% vs.(19.17±2.53)%,P <0.05),but no significant difference was observed in cells cultured with a combination of anti-fibronectin antibody and dexamethasone (6.37×10-5 mol/L).There was no correlation between the dexamethasone concentration and the invasiveness of conidia after dexamethasone pretreatment of cells for 4 hours

  13. Development of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a Phototrophic Cell Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae play profound roles in ecology and biogeochemistry. One model cyanobacterial species is the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This species is highly amenable to genetic modification. Its genome has been sequenced and many systems biology and molecular biology tools are available to study this bacterium. Recently, researchers have put significant efforts into understanding and engineering this bacterium to produce chemicals and biofuels from sunlight and CO2. To demonstrate our perspective on the application of this cyanobacterium as a photosynthesis-based chassis, we summarize the recent research on Synechocystis 6803 by focusing on five topics: rate-limiting factors for cell cultivation; molecular tools for genetic modifications; high-throughput system biology for genome wide analysis; metabolic modeling for physiological prediction and rational metabolic engineering; and applications in producing diverse chemicals. We also discuss the particular challenges for systems analysis and engineering applications of this microorganism, including precise characterization of versatile cell metabolism, improvement of product rates and titers, bioprocess scale-up, and product recovery. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of Synechocystis 6803 as a phototrophic cell factory, the biotechnology for “Compounds from Synechocystis” is still significantly lagging behind those for heterotrophic microbes (e.g., Escherichia coli.

  14. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  15. Recent Progress on Systems and Synthetic Biology Approaches to Engineer Fungi As Microbial Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Gerardo Ruiz; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Arruda, Letícia Magalhães; Silva-Rocha, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Filamentous fungi are remarkable organisms naturally specialized in deconstructing plant biomass and this feature has a tremendous potential for biofuel production from renewable sources. The past decades have been marked by a remarkable progress in the genetic engineering of fungi to generate industry-compatible strains needed for some biotech applications. In this sense, progress in this field has been marked by the utilization of high-throughput techniques to gain deep understanding of the molecular machinery controlling the physiology of these organisms, starting thus the Systems Biology era of fungi. Additionally, genetic engineering has been extensively applied to modify wellcharacterized promoters in order to construct new expression systems with enhanced performance under the conditions of interest. In this review, we discuss some aspects related to significant progress in the understating and engineering of fungi for biotechnological applications, with special focus on the construction of synthetic promoters and circuits in organisms relevant for industry. Different engineering approaches are shown, and their potential and limitations for the construction of complex synthetic circuits in these organisms are examined. Finally, we discuss the impact of engineered promoter architecture in the single-cell behavior of the system, an often-neglected relationship with a tremendous impact in the final performance of the process of interest. We expect to provide here some new directions to drive future research directed to the construction of high-performance, engineered fungal strains working as microbial cell factories. PMID:27226765

  16. Industrial systems biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables novel succinic acid cell factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Otero

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol, and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought after added-value chemical for which there is no native pre-disposition for production and accmulation in S. cerevisiae. The genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of S. cerevisiae enabled in silico gene deletion predictions using an evolutionary programming method to couple biomass and succinate production. Glycine and serine, both essential amino acids required for biomass formation, are formed from both glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates. Succinate formation results from the isocitrate lyase catalyzed conversion of isocitrate, and from the α-keto-glutarate dehydrogenase catalyzed conversion of α-keto-glutarate. Succinate is subsequently depleted by the succinate dehydrogenase complex. The metabolic engineering strategy identified included deletion of the primary succinate consuming reaction, Sdh3p, and interruption of glycolysis derived serine by deletion of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, Ser3p/Ser33p. Pursuing these targets, a multi-gene deletion strain was constructed, and directed evolution with selection used to identify a succinate producing mutant. Physiological characterization coupled with integrated data analysis of transcriptome data in the metabolically engineered strain were used to identify 2(nd-round metabolic engineering targets. The resulting strain represents a 30-fold improvement in succinate titer, and a 43-fold improvement in succinate yield on biomass, with only a 2.8-fold decrease in the specific growth rate compared to the reference strain. Intuitive genetic targets for either over-expression or interruption of succinate producing or consuming pathways, respectively, do not lead to increased succinate. Rather, we

  17. Localization and function of calmodulin in live-cells of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaochun; Song, Yiju; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Gang; Wei, Hua; Xu, Xushi; Lu, Ling

    2010-03-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a small, eukaryotic protein that reversibly binds Ca(2+). Study of CaM localization in genetically tractable organisms has yielded many insights into CaM function. Here, we described the dynamic localization of Aspergillus nidulans CaM (AnCaM) in live-cells by using recombination strains with homologous, single cross-over insertions at the target gene which placed the GFP fused copy under the inducible alcA promoter and the RFP-CaM integration under the native cam promoter. We found that the localization of CaM fusion was quite dynamic throughout the hypha and was concentrated to the active growing sites during germination, hyphal growth, cytokinesis and conidiation. The depletion of CaM by alcA promoter repression induced the explicit abnormalities of germlings with the swollen germ tubes. In addition, the position of highly concentrated GFP-CaM in the extreme apex seemed to determine the hyphal orientation. These data collectively suggest that CaM is constantly required for new hyphal growth. In contrast to this constant accumulation at the apex, GFP-CaM was only transiently localized at septum sites during cytokinesis. Notably, depletion of CaM caused the defect of septation with a completely blocked septum formation indicating that the transient CaM accumulation at the septum site is essential for septation. Moreover, the normal localization of CaM at a hyphal tip required the presence of the functional actin cytoskeleton and the motor protein KipA, which is indispensable for positioning Spitzenkörper. This is the first report of CaM localization and function in live-cells by the site-specific homologous integration in filamentous fungi.

  18. Melanin is an essential component for the integrity of the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeault Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common agent of invasive aspergillosis, a feared complication in severely immunocompromised patients. Despite the recent commercialisation of new antifungal drugs, the prognosis for this infection remains uncertain. Thus, there is a real need to discover new targets for therapy. Particular attention has been paid to the biochemical composition and organisation of the fungal cell wall, because it mediates the host-fungus interplay. Conidia, which are responsible for infections, have melanin as one of the cell wall components. Melanin has been established as an important virulence factor, protecting the fungus against the host's immune defences. We suggested that it might also have an indirect role in virulence, because it is required for correct assembly of the cell wall layers of the conidia. Results We used three A. fumigatus isolates which grew as white or brown powdery colonies, to demonstrate the role of melanin. Firstly, sequencing the genes responsible for biosynthesis of melanin (ALB1, AYG1, ARP1, ARP2, ABR1 and ABR2 showed point mutations (missense mutation, deletion or insertion in the ALB1 gene for pigmentless isolates or in ARP2 for the brownish isolate. The isolates were then shown by scanning electron microscopy to produce numerous, typical conidial heads, except that the conidia were smooth-walled, as previously observed for laboratory mutants with mutations in the PKSP/ALB1 gene. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the fibronectin binding capacity of conidia from mutant isolates, together with a marked decrease in the binding of laminin to the conidial surface. A marked decrease in the electronegative charge of the conidia and cell surface hydrophobicity was also seen by microelectrophoresis and two-phase partitioning, respectively. Ultrastructural studies of mutant isolates detected considerable changes in the organisation of the conidial wall, with the loss of the outermost

  19. Differential Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor on Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraean, Z.; Ayatollahi, M.; Yaghobi, R.; Ziaei, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell-based therapy has been implicated in the treatment of liver diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells from various sources such as bone marrow are available. These cells are one of the major candidates in cell therapy. The production of insulin-like growth factor-I increases in the regenerating organ. The insulin-like growth factor-I in liver regeneration is effective after binding to insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. Objective: To test our hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor-α...

  20. Complete factorial design experiment for 3D load cell instrumented crank validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Valle-Casas; Rafael, Dalazen; Vinicius, Cene; Alexandre, Balbinot

    2015-08-01

    Developing of instrumentation systems for sport medicine is a promising area, that's why this research evaluates the design of a new instrumented crank arm prototype for a race bicycle projecting an experiment for indoor - outdoor comparison. This study investigated the viability of an instrumentation 3D load cell for force measurement crank, implementing a design of experiment. A Complete factorial design experiment was developed for data validation, with an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) throwing significant results for controlled factors with response variables rms, mean and variance. A software routine allowed to obtained system variables metrics for Symmetry and Cadence analysis, which came out from Effective force bilateral comparing and speed computation. Characterization allowed achieving calibration curves that were used for data conversion in force projection channels with a linearity error of 0.29% (perpendicular), 0.55% (parallel) and 0.10% (lateral). Interactions of factors resulted significant mainly for indoor tests in symmetry and cadence was significant in interactions generally for outdoor tests. Implemented system was able to generate Effective Force graph for 3D plot symmetry analysis, torque and power symmetry for specialist's analysis. PMID:26737085

  1. Physiological characteristics of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: an efficient hydrogen cell factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global concerns about climate changes and their association with the use of fossil fuels have accelerated research on biological fuel production. Biological hydrogen production from hemicellulose-containing waste is considered one of the promising avenues. A major economical issue for such a process, however, is the low substrate conversion efficiency. Interestingly, the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus can produce hydrogen from carbohydrate-rich substrates at yields close to the theoretical maximum of the dark fermentation process (i.e., 4 mol H2/mol hexose. The organism is able to ferment an array of mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and is relatively tolerant to high partial hydrogen pressures, making it a promising candidate for exploitation in a biohydrogen process. The behaviour of this Gram-positive bacterium bears all hallmarks of being adapted to an environment sparse in free sugars, which is further reflected in its low volumetric hydrogen productivity and low osmotolerance. These two properties need to be improved by at least a factor of 10 and 5, respectively, for a cost-effective industrial process. In this review, the physiological characteristics of C. saccharolyticus are analyzed in view of the requirements for an efficient hydrogen cell factory. A special emphasis is put on the tight regulation of hydrogen production in C. saccharolyticus by both redox and energy metabolism. Suggestions for strategies to overcome the current challenges facing the potential use of the organism in hydrogen production are also discussed.

  2. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  3. Dectin-1 agonist curdlan modulates innate immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus in human corneal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Cheng; Zhu; Gui-Qiu; Zhao; Jing; Lin; Li-Ting; Hu; Qiang; Xu; Xu-Dong; Peng; Xue; Wang; Sheng; Qiu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To explore the immunomodulatory effects of curdlan on innate immune responses against Aspergillus fumigatus(A. fumigatus) in cultured human corneal epithelial cells(HCECs), and whether C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 mediates the immunomodulatory effects of curdlan.·METHODS: The HCECs were stimulated by curdlan in different concentrations(50, 100, 200, 400 μg/m L) for various time. Then HCECs pretreated with or without laminarin(Dectin-1 blocker, 0.3 mg/m L) and curdlan were stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. The m RNA and protein production of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The protein level of Dectin-1 was measured by Western blot.· RESULTS: Curdlan stimulated m RNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose and time dependent manner in HCECs. Curdlan pretreatment before A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation significantly enhanced the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 at m RNA and protein levels compared with A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation group(P <0.05).Both curdlan and A. fumigatus hyphae up-regulated Dectin-1 protein expression in HCECs, and Dectin-1expression was elevated to 1.5- to 2-fold by curdlan pretreatment followed hyphae stimulation. The Dectin-1blocker laminarin suppressed the m RNA expression and protein production of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by curdlan and hyphae(P <0.05).· CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that curdlan pretreatment enhanced the inflammatory response induced by A. fumigatus hyphae in HCECs.Dectin-1 is essential for the immunomodulatory effectsof curdlan. Curdlan may have high clinical application values in fungal keratitis treatment.

  4. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  5. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  6. Studies on production of single cell protein by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of rice bran

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama; Ravindra Pogaku

    2001-01-01

    An attempt was made to apply the solid state fermentation (SSF) for the production of single cell protein (SCP) using oil free rice bran waste as substrate. A local isolate of Aspergillus niger, was used as protein source for the studies. Total proteins were extracted to estimate the mycelial biomass from the moldy bran. Carbonate-bicarbonate extraction buffer and a pH 10 was found to be most efficient among the buffers used for the extraction of the proteins from the organism. The effect of ...

  7. beta-1,3-Glucan-Induced Host Phospholipase D Activation Is Involved in Aspergillus fumigatus Internalization into Type II Human Pneumocyte A549 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Xuelin; Yu, Rentao; Zhen, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2011-01-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is a process that depends on host cell actin dynamics. The host membrane phosphatidylcholine cleavage driven by phospholipase D (PLD) is closely related to cellular actin dynamics. However, little is known about the impact of PL

  8. New Transposon Tools Tailored for Metabolic Engineering of Gram-Negative Microbial Cell Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Aparicio, Tomás; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Nikel, Pablo I.

    2014-01-01

    Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5-vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic-resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin). After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5-vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the structural genes

  9. New transposon tools tailored for metabolic engineering of Gram-negative microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban eMartínez-García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena, but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5 vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin. After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the

  10. Slime Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  11. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

    2014-12-01

    Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

  12. Endocytosis Is Crucial for Cell Polarity and Apical Membrane Recycling in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Establishing the occurrence of endocytosis in filamentous fungi was elusive in the past mainly due to the lack of reliable indicators of endocytosis. Recently, however, it was shown that the fluorescent dye N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethyl-aminophenyl-hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide (FM4-64) and the plasma membrane protein AoUapC (Aspergillus oryzae UapC) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were internalized from the plasma membrane by endocytosis. Although the occurr...

  13. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  14. Neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precisi...

  15. Disordered Cell Integrity Signaling Caused by Disruption of the kexB Gene in Aspergillus oryzae†

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Osamu; Nojima, Akira; Yamamoto, Morimasa; Furukawa, Kentaro; Fujioka, Tomonori; Yamagata, Youhei; Abe, Keietsu; Nakajima, Tasuku

    2004-01-01

    We isolated the kexB gene, which encodes a subtilisin-like processing enzyme, from a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae. To examine the physiological role of kexB in A. oryzae, we constructed a kexB disruptant (ΔkexB), which formed shrunken colonies with poor generation of conidia on Czapek-Dox (CD) agar plates and hyperbranched mycelia in CD liquid medium. The phenotypes of the ΔkexB strain were restored under high osmolarity in both solid and liquid culture conditions. We found that tra...

  16. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients-particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus...... chemical diversity and biodiversity of ascomycetous fungi. This rationale could be very handy for the selection of potentially safe fungal cell factories not only for polyketide pigments but also for the other industrially important polyketides; the molecular and genetic basis for the biosynthesis of which...

  17. Yarrowia lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform for the production of fatty acid-based biofuel and bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eAbghari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s biotechnologists seek new biocatalysts to meet the growing demand for the bioproducts. This review critically evaluates the potential use of Y. lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform. This yeast has undergone extensive modifications for converting a wide range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic biomass, including alkane, oil, glycerol and sugars to fatty acid-based products. This article highlights challenges in the development of this platform and provides an overview of strategies to enhance its potential in the sustainable production of biodiesel, functional dietary lipid compounds and other value-added oleochemical compounds. Future applications of the recombinant Y. lipolytica platform are also discussed.

  18. Repeated-batch production of kojic acid in a cell-retention fermenter using Aspergillus oryzae M3B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H M; Chen, C C; Giridhar, R; Chang, T S; Wu, W T

    2005-06-01

    A cell-retention fermenter was used for the pilot-scale production of kojic acid using an improved strain of Aspergillus oryzae in repeated-batch fermentations. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources used, sucrose and yeast extract promoted pellet morphology of fungi and higher kojic acid production. Repeated-batch culture using a medium replacement ratio of 75% gave a productivity of 5.3 gL(-1)day(-1) after 11.5 days of cultivation. While batch culture in shake-flasks resulted in a productivity of 5.1 gL(-1)day(-1), a productivity of 5 gL(-1)day(-1) was obtained in a pilot-scale fermenter. By converting the batch culture into repeated batches, the non-productive downtime of cleaning, filling and sterilizing the fermenter between each batch were eliminated, thereby increasing the kojic acid productivity. PMID:15895266

  19. Studies on production of single cell protein by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to apply the solid state fermentation (SSF for the production of single cell protein (SCP using oil free rice bran waste as substrate. A local isolate of Aspergillus niger, was used as protein source for the studies. Total proteins were extracted to estimate the mycelial biomass from the moldy bran. Carbonate-bicarbonate extraction buffer and a pH 10 was found to be most efficient among the buffers used for the extraction of the proteins from the organism. The effect of supplementation by various sources of nitrogen and mineral solution on the final biomass yield was compared. The influence of C/N ratio on the protein yield was also studied. Sodium nitrate at C/N ratio of 1.387 was found to be an effective nitrogen-supplementing source, as it gave the higher biomass yield.

  20. Triggering of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 by Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells to induce inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jie; WU Xin-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Cornea epithelial cells play early and crucial roles in the initiation of ocular surface responses to pathogens.Participation of toll-like receptor(TLR)2 and TLR4,which are major forms of fungi receptors,may be involved in Aspergillus fumigatus induced immune responses.The obiective of the present study was to examine whether inactive Aspergillus fumigatus conidia induce NF-κB activation and production of proinflammaory cytokines,and whether the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were amplified by conidia in cultured immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (THCEs).This may contribute to our knowledge of the mechanism by which the host cornea can successfully defend against invasive fungi.Methods Aspergillus fumigatus conidia were used to challenge THCE cells.THCE cells were harvested after 0.5,1,2or 4 hours incubation.Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression of TLR2,TLR4,TNF-α and IL-8.Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of NF-κB.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EUSA)was performed to determine the expression of TNF-α and IL-8.And the release of TNF-α and IL-8 in the cell supematant were also assessed by ELISA with or without pretreatment with TLR2 and TLR4 neutralizing antibodies.Results Aspergillus fumigatus conidia elicited the expression of TLR2,TLR4,TNF-α and IL-8 mRNA in THCEs.Exposure of THCE cells to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia resulted in NF-κB activation,which increased at 30 minutes (increased from 11.35±2.74 in the controls to 19.12±3.48,P<0.05)and thereafter increased steadily up to 4 hours after challenge(P<0.01).Concomitant with NF-κB acfivation,secretion of TNF-α and IL-8 in conidia-challenged cells was increased in a time-dependent manner.Incubation of THCE cells with TLR2 antibody or TLR4 antibody before conidia challenge resulted in jnhibifion of conidia-induced TNF-α and IL-8 secretion(P<0.05),TLR2 antibody and TLR4 antibody together significantly increased

  1. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  2. The stimulatory effect of growth hormone, prolactin, and placental lactogen on beta-cell proliferation is not mediated by insulin-like growth factor-I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1991-01-01

    The effects of GH, PRL, and placental lactogen (PL) on the proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro were studied as well as the possible effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in mediating this effect. Proliferating beta-cells were identified by staining with a monoclonal antibody ...

  3. Four ardeemin analogs from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus SPS-02 and their reversal effects on multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Wei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Four ardeemin derivatives, 5-N-acetylardeemin (1), 5-N-acetyl-15bβ-hydroxyardeemin (2), 5-N-acetyl-15b-didehydroardeemin (3), and 5-N-acetyl-16α-hydroxyardeemin (4), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus SPS-02 associated with Artemisia annua L. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic data, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS. In vitro chemosensitization assay indicated that these ardeemins had different activities of reversing the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype in three cancer cell lines, leukemia doxorubicin resistant cell K562/DOX, human lung adenocarcinoma cis-platin-resistant cell A549/DDP, and ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cell SK-OV-S/DDP. Compound 4 exhibited the strongest MDR reversing effect at 5 μM concentration in K562/DOX and A549/DDP cell lines 5.2±0.18-fold, 8.2±0.23-fold, respectively, while compound 2 had the highest reversal capacity in SK-OV-S/DDP cell line with 10.8±0.28 fold. Preliminary investigation of their structureactivity relationship suggested that a OH group at C(15b) or C(16) in ardeemin plays a key role in reversing the MDR effect. It is the first report on ardeemin analogs from endophytic A. fumigatus with reversal effects on MDR cancer cell lines K562/DOX, A549/DDP and SK-OV-S/DDP. PMID:24443428

  4. Biotransformation of natural compounds: unexpected thio conjugation of Sch-642305 with 3-mercaptolactate catalyzed by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bricot, Marie-Françoise; Cortial, Sylvie; Retailleau, Pascal; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2012-12-01

    Sch-642305 is produced by the endophytic fungi Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA and exhibits both antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The incubation of Sch-642305 with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 resting cells leads to two unexpected thio conjugates. Compound (1) is formed by the addition of the cysteine metabolite 3-mercaptolactate to the double bond of Sch-642305. Compound (1) undergoes an intramolecular rearrangement to give compound (2), which contains two rings: a five-membered hydroxylactone ring and a five-membered thiophene ring. The absolute configuration of compound (1) is similar to that of the parent compound, but the configuration of the mercaptolactate side-chain was not determined. The absolute configuration of compound (2) was deduced from the crystal structure and confirmed by the anomal effect of the sulfur atom. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a conjugation rearrangement reactions were observed. The biological significance and the reaction mechanisms are discussed. Compound (1) exhibits a weak antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas derivatives (1) and (2) showed an IC₅₀ of 1 and 1.2 μM, respectively, against colonic epithelial cancer cells. PMID:22975164

  5. Mesenchymal stromal cells mediate Aspergillus hyphal extract-induced allergic airway inflammation by inhibition of the Th17 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Melissa J; Brooks, Elice M; Bonenfant, Nick R; Sokocevic, Dino; Borg, Zachary D; Goodwin, Meagan; Loi, Roberto; Cruz, Fernanda; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Systemic administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppresses airway inflammation and methacholine-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of T helper cell (Th) type 2-mediated eosinophilic allergic airway inflammation (AAI); however, the efficacy of MSCs in mouse models of severe Th17-mediated neutrophilic AAI has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed MSC effects in a mouse model of mixed Th2/Th17 AAI produced by mucosal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphal extract (AHE). Following sensitization produced by oropharyngeal AHE administration, systemic (tail vein) administration of syngeneic MSCs on the first day of challenge significantly reduced acute AHR predominantly through reduction of Th17-mediated airway inflammation. In parallel experiments, MSCs also mitigated AHR when administered during recurrent challenge 10 weeks after initial sensitization and challenge through reduction in systemic Th17-mediated inflammation. Investigation into potential mechanistic actions of MSCs in this model demonstrated that although T regulatory cells were increased in all AHE-treated mice, MSC administration did not alter T regulatory cell numbers in either the acute or recurrent model. Differential induction of interleukin-17a secretion was observed in ex vivo restimulation of mediastinal lymph node mixed-cell cytokine analyses. Although the mechanisms by which MSCs act to decrease inflammation and AHR in this model are not yet fully elucidated, decrease in Th17-mediated airway inflammation appears to play a significant role. These results provide a basis for further investigations of MSC administration as a potential therapeutic approach for severe refractory neutrophilic asthma. PMID:24436442

  6. Doxorubicin and etoposide induce somatic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans Doxorubicina e etoposida induzem a recombinação somática em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin and etoposide are intercalating agents that inhibit the action of the enzyme topoisomerase II. Both drugs present therapeutic activity in numerous human neoplasms In the present work the recombinagenic potential of these drugs was evaluated by ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Their effects on the asexual cycle of A. nidulans was also appraised. Two heterozygous diploid strains of A. nidulans, a wild (uvsH+//uvsH+ and a defective to the DNA repair (uvsH//uvsH were used. The drugs' recombinagenic potential was evaluated by their capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous cells. Both drugs have a recombinagenic effect on diploid cells of A. nidulans. Doxorubicin and etoposide are potentially capable to induce secondary malignancies, mediated by the mitotic crossing-over in eukaryotic cells.Doxorubicina e etoposida são agentes intercalantes que inibem a ação da enzima topoisomerase II. Ambas drogas são amplamente utilizadas no tratamento de neoplasias. O potencial recombinagênico destes agentes e seus efeitos sobre o ciclo assexual de Aspergillus nidulans foram avaliados no presente trabalho. Duas linhagens diplóides heterozigotas foram utilizadas: uma selvagem (uvsH+//uvsH+ e outra deficiente para o reparo do DNA (uvsH//uvsH. O potencial recombinagênico destas drogas foi avaliado pela indução de homozigose de genes recessivos a partir de células heterozigotas. Doxorubicina e etoposida apresentaram efeitos recombinagênicos em ambas linhagens utilizadas. Os resultados permitem concluir que doxorubicina e etoposida são agentes potencialmente capazes de induzir malignidades secundárias, mediadas pelo crossing-over mitótico, em células diplóides eucariotas.

  7. The temporal dynamics of differential gene expression in Aspergillus fumigatus interacting with human immature dendritic cells in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Charles O

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most important antigen presenting cells and play a pivotal role in host immunity to infectious agents by acting as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDC) were infected with viable resting conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af293) for 12 hours at an MOI of 5; cells were sampled every three hours. RNA was extracted from both organisms at each time point and hybridised to microarrays. iDC cell death increased at 6 h in the presence of A. fumigatus which coincided with fungal germ tube emergence; >80% of conidia were associated with iDC. Over the time course A. fumigatus differentially regulated 210 genes, FunCat analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes involved in fermentation, drug transport, pathogenesis and response to oxidative stress. Genes related to cytotoxicity were differentially regulated but the gliotoxin biosynthesis genes were down regulated over the time course, while Aspf1 was up-regulated at 9 h and 12 h. There was an up-regulation of genes in the subtelomeric regions of the genome as the interaction progressed. The genes up-regulated by iDC in the presence of A. fumigatus indicated that they were producing a pro-inflammatory response which was consistent with previous transcriptome studies of iDC interacting with A. fumigatus germ tubes. This study shows that A. fumigatus adapts to phagocytosis by iDCs by utilising genes that allow it to survive the interaction rather than just up-regulation of specific virulence genes.

  8. The temporal dynamics of differential gene expression in Aspergillus fumigatus interacting with human immature dendritic cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O Morton

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are the most important antigen presenting cells and play a pivotal role in host immunity to infectious agents by acting as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDC were infected with viable resting conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af293 for 12 hours at an MOI of 5; cells were sampled every three hours. RNA was extracted from both organisms at each time point and hybridised to microarrays. iDC cell death increased at 6 h in the presence of A. fumigatus which coincided with fungal germ tube emergence; >80% of conidia were associated with iDC. Over the time course A. fumigatus differentially regulated 210 genes, FunCat analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes involved in fermentation, drug transport, pathogenesis and response to oxidative stress. Genes related to cytotoxicity were differentially regulated but the gliotoxin biosynthesis genes were down regulated over the time course, while Aspf1 was up-regulated at 9 h and 12 h. There was an up-regulation of genes in the subtelomeric regions of the genome as the interaction progressed. The genes up-regulated by iDC in the presence of A. fumigatus indicated that they were producing a pro-inflammatory response which was consistent with previous transcriptome studies of iDC interacting with A. fumigatus germ tubes. This study shows that A. fumigatus adapts to phagocytosis by iDCs by utilising genes that allow it to survive the interaction rather than just up-regulation of specific virulence genes.

  9. Aspergillus oryzae-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Consortium Allows Bio-Hybrid Fuel Cell to Run on Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P; Hoyt, Thomas; LeFors, Hannah M; Sumner, James J; Mackie, David M

    2016-01-01

    Consortia of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are examined for their abilities to turn complex carbohydrates into ethanol. To understand the interactions between microorganisms in consortia, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to follow the concentrations of various metabolites such as sugars (e.g., glucose, maltose), longer chain carbohydrates, and ethanol to optimize consortia conditions for the production of ethanol. It is shown that with proper design A. oryzae can digest food waste simulants into soluble sugars that S. cerevisiae can ferment into ethanol. Depending on the substrate and conditions used, concentrations of 13% ethanol were achieved in 10 days. It is further shown that a direct alcohol fuel cell (FC) can be coupled with these A. oryzae-enabled S. cerevisiae fermentations using a reverse osmosis membrane. This "bio-hybrid FC" continually extracted ethanol from an ongoing consortium, enhancing ethanol production and allowing the bio-hybrid FC to run for at least one week. Obtained bio-hybrid FC currents were comparable to those from pure ethanol-water mixtures, using the same FC. The A. oryzae-S. cerevisiae consortium, coupled to a bio-hybrid FC, converted food waste simulants into electricity without any pre- or post-processing. PMID:27681904

  10. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Nakashima, Kazunori [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki [Ozeki Co., Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5{sup '} untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL1 and 2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time. (orig.)

  11. Early expression of mannose-binding lectin 2 during Aspergillus fumigatus infection in human corneal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Ye; Che; Jing-Fen; Zhang; Ji-Eun; Lee; Jing; Lin; Li-Ting; Hu; Nan; Jiang; Qian; Wang; Qiang; Xu; Gui-Qiu; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the early expression of mannose-binding lectin 2(MBL2) in human corneal epithelial cells(HCECs) infected by Aspergillus fumigatus(AF).METHODS: HCECs cultured in vitro with AF antigens and sampled at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h. The expression of MBL2 m RNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The expression of MBL2 protein in supernatant fluid was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). MBL2 protein in HCECs was detected by immunocytochemistry at 0 and 24 h.RESULTS: MBL2 m RNA and protein are expressed in normal HCECs. The expression of MBL2 m RNA and protein in supernatant fluid begin to increase after being stimulated with AF antigens. The most significantly peak of MBL2 m RNA is in 2h. The protein of MBL2 in supernatant fluid decrease gradually after 0.5h. The protein in HCECs expression increase after stimulation of24 h.· CONCLUSION: MBL2 receptor expressed in normal HCECs in vitro. The stimulation by AF antigens can increase the early expression of it.

  12. Biodegradation of methyl parathion by whole cells of marine-derived fungi Aspergillus sydowii and Penicillium decaturense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Natália; Birolli, Willian G; Seleghim, Mirna H R; Porto, André L M

    2014-12-01

    Seven marine fungi strains (Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 934, A. sydowii CBMAI 935, A. sydowii CBMAI 1241, Penicillium decaturense CBMAI 1234, Penicillium raistrickii CBMAI 931, P. raistrickii CBMAI 1235, and Trichoderma sp. CBMAI 932) were screened by their growth in the presence of methyl parathion (MP) in a solid culture medium. The strains with best growth were A. sydowii CBMAI 935 and P. decaturense CBMAI 1234. Biodegradation reactions were performed in 10, 20 and 30d in a malt extract liquid medium containing commercial MP and whole cells of A. sydowii CBMAI 935 and P. decaturense CBMAI 1234. In 20d, A. sydowii CBMAI 935 was able to degrade all pesticide, whereas P. decaturense CBMAI 1234 promoted a complete degradation in 30d. A. sydowii CBMAI 935 and P. decaturense CBMAI 1234 could degrade the product of the MP enzymatic hydrolysis, p-nitrophenol, on average of 51 and 40% respectively. Both strains used MP as a sole source of carbon and provided satisfactory results. Metabolites detected in the medium showed that the presumable reaction pathway occurred through the activation of MP to its more toxic form, methyl paraoxon, which was further degraded to p-nitrophenol.

  13. Verruculogen associated with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and conidia modifies the electrophysiological properties of human nasal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordonnier Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Aspergillus fumigatus mycotoxins in the colonization of the respiratory tract by conidia has not been studied extensively, even though patients at risk from invasive aspergillosis frequently exhibit respiratory epithelium damage. In a previous study, we found that filtrates of A. fumigatus cultures can specifically alter the electrophysiological properties of human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC compared to those of non pathogenic moulds. Results We fractionated the organic phase of filtrate from 3-day old A. fumigatus cultures using high-performance liquid chromatography. The different fractions were tested for their ability to modify the electrophysiological properties of HNEC in an in vitro primary culture model. The fraction collected between 20 and 30 min mimicked the effects of the whole filtrate, i.e. decrease of transepithelial resistance and increase of potential differences, and contained secondary metabolites such as helvolic acid, fumagillin, and verruculogen. Only verruculogen (10-8 M had effects similar to the whole filtrate. We verified that verruculogen was produced by a collection of 67 human, animal, plant and environmental A. fumigatus isolates. Using MS-MS analysis, we found that verruculogen was associated with both mycelium and conidia extracts. Conclusion Verruculogen is a secondary metabolite that modifies the electrophysiological properties of HNEC. The role of these modifications in the colonization and invasion of the respiratory epithelium by A. fumigatus on first contact with the epithelium remains to be determined.

  14. Characterization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System Based on a Factorial Design of Experiments Using Hardware Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Bernardo; Banta, Larry E; Tucker, David

    2012-10-01

    A full factorial experimental design and a replicated fractional factorial design were carried out using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project facility installed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy to simulate gasifer/fuel cell/turbine hybrid power systems. The HyPer facility uses hardware in the loop (HIL) technology that couples a modified recuperated gas turbine cycle with hardware driven by a solid oxide fuel cell model. A 34 full factorial design (FFD) was selected to study the effects of four factors: cold-air, hot-air, bleed-air bypass valves, and the electric load on different parameters such as cathode and turbine inlet temperatures, pressure and mass flow. The results obtained, compared with former results where the experiments were made using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), show that no strong interactions between the factors are present in the different parameters of the system. This work also presents a fractional factorial design (ffd) 34-2 in order to analyze replication of the experiments. In addition, a new envelope is described based on the results of the design of experiments (DoE), compared with OFAT experiments, and analyzed in an off-design integrated fuel cell/gas turbine framework. This paper describes the methodology, strategy, and results of these experiments that bring new knowledge concerning the operating state space for this kind of power generation system.

  15. A molecular analysis of L-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a molecular study of the genetics ofL-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans. These saprophytic hyphal fungi produce an extracellular hydrolytic enzyme system to depolymerize the plant cell wall polysaccharideL<

  16. Human Cortical Neural Stem Cells Expressing Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I: A Novel Cellular Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Lisa M; Sims, Erika; Lunn, J Simon; Kashlan, Osama N; Chen, Kevin S; Bruno, Elizabeth S; Pacut, Crystal M; Hazel, Tom; Johe, Karl; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia. Current treatment fails to modify underlying disease pathologies and very little progress has been made to develop effective drug treatments. Cellular therapies impact disease by multiple mechanisms, providing increased efficacy compared with traditional single-target approaches. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we have shown that transplanted spinal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate into the spinal cord, form synapses with the host, improve inflammation, and reduce disease-associated pathologies. Our current goal is to develop a similar "best in class" cellular therapy for AD. Here, we characterize a novel human cortex-derived NSC line modified to express insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), HK532-IGF-I. Because IGF-I promotes neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in vivo, this enhanced NSC line offers additional environmental enrichment, enhanced neuroprotection, and a multifaceted approach to treating complex AD pathologies. We show that autocrine IGF-I production does not impact the cell secretome or normal cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, or maintenance of progenitor status. However, HK532-IGF-I cells preferentially differentiate into gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurons, a subtype dysregulated in AD; produce increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels; and display an increased neuroprotective capacity in vitro. We also demonstrate that HK532-IGF-I cells survive peri-hippocampal transplantation in a murine AD model and exhibit long-term persistence in targeted brain areas. In conclusion, we believe that harnessing the benefits of cellular and IGF-I therapies together will provide the optimal therapeutic benefit to patients, and our findings support further preclinical development of HK532-IGF-I cells into a disease-modifying intervention for AD.

  17. Human Cortical Neural Stem Cells Expressing Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I: A Novel Cellular Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Lisa M; Sims, Erika; Lunn, J Simon; Kashlan, Osama N; Chen, Kevin S; Bruno, Elizabeth S; Pacut, Crystal M; Hazel, Tom; Johe, Karl; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia. Current treatment fails to modify underlying disease pathologies and very little progress has been made to develop effective drug treatments. Cellular therapies impact disease by multiple mechanisms, providing increased efficacy compared with traditional single-target approaches. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we have shown that transplanted spinal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate into the spinal cord, form synapses with the host, improve inflammation, and reduce disease-associated pathologies. Our current goal is to develop a similar "best in class" cellular therapy for AD. Here, we characterize a novel human cortex-derived NSC line modified to express insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), HK532-IGF-I. Because IGF-I promotes neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in vivo, this enhanced NSC line offers additional environmental enrichment, enhanced neuroprotection, and a multifaceted approach to treating complex AD pathologies. We show that autocrine IGF-I production does not impact the cell secretome or normal cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, or maintenance of progenitor status. However, HK532-IGF-I cells preferentially differentiate into gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurons, a subtype dysregulated in AD; produce increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels; and display an increased neuroprotective capacity in vitro. We also demonstrate that HK532-IGF-I cells survive peri-hippocampal transplantation in a murine AD model and exhibit long-term persistence in targeted brain areas. In conclusion, we believe that harnessing the benefits of cellular and IGF-I therapies together will provide the optimal therapeutic benefit to patients, and our findings support further preclinical development of HK532-IGF-I cells into a disease-modifying intervention for AD. PMID:26744412

  18. The Supportive Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in the Differentiation of Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Corneal-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosan, Peter; Javorkova, Eliska; Zajicova, Alena; Hajkova, Michaela; Hermankova, Barbora; Kossl, Jan; Krulova, Magdalena; Holan, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    This study was focused on characterizing the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into corneal-like cells. Mouse MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow, grown in cell culture for 3 weeks, and purified using a magnetic activated cell sorter. Purified MSCs were cultured with an extract prepared from excised corneas and in the presence or absence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of corneal specific markers, such as cytokeratin 12 (K12), keratocan, and lumican, was already induced after a 3-day cultivation and gradually increased during the 10-day incubation of MSCs with the extract. The presence of IGF-I significantly increased differentiation. Immunofluorescence analysis of differentiated MSCs showed positive results for the K12 protein. The morphology of the differentiated cells and the expression of cell surface markers CD45, CD11b, CD73, CD44, and CD105 were comparable in the control and differentiated MSCs. Proliferative activity was even higher in differentiated cells than in untreated MSCs. Both untreated and differentiated MSCs inhibited the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ in spleen cells stimulated with Concanavalin A. The results thus show that MSCs cultured in the presence of corneal extract and IGF-I efficiently differentiate into corneal-like cells. The differentiated cells possess characteristics of corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes, while at the same time maintaining MSC properties. PMID:27050039

  19. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Reuß, Daniel R; Zhu, Bingyao; Commichau, Fabian M

    2014-11-01

    Investigation of essential genes, besides contributing to understanding the fundamental principles of life, has numerous practical applications. Essential genes can be exploited as building blocks of a tightly controlled cell 'chassis'. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12 are both well-characterized model bacteria used as hosts for a plethora of biotechnological applications. Determination of the essential genes that constitute the B. subtilis and E. coli minimal genomes is therefore of the highest importance. Recent advances have led to the modification of the original B. subtilis and E. coli essential gene sets identified 10 years ago. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the area of genome minimization of both model bacteria. This review provides an update, with particular emphasis on the current essential gene sets and their comparison with the original gene sets identified 10 years ago. Special attention is focused on the genome reduction analyses in B. subtilis and E. coli and the construction of minimal cell factories for industrial applications. PMID:25092907

  20. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisvad Jens C

    2009-04-01

    of chemotaxonomic tools and a priori knowledge of fungal extrolites is a rational approach towards selection of fungal polyketide pigment producers considering the enormous chemical diversity and biodiversity of ascomycetous fungi. This rationale could be very handy for the selection of potentially safe fungal cell factories not only for polyketide pigments but also for the other industrially important polyketides; the molecular and genetic basis for the biosynthesis of which has not yet been examined in detail. In addition, 4 out of the 10 chemotaxonomically selected promising Penicillium strains were shown to produce extracellular pigments in the liquid media using a solid support indicating future cell factory possibilities for polyketide natural food colorants.

  1. Transcriptomic and molecular genetic analysis of the cell wall salvage response of Aspergillus niger to the absence of galactofuranose synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohae; Hulsman, Mark; Arentshorst, Mark; Breeman, Matthijs; Alazi, Ebru; Lagendijk, Ellen L; Rocha, Marina C; Malavazi, Iran; Nitsche, Benjamin M; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Meyer, Vera; Ram, Arthur F J

    2016-09-01

    The biosynthesis of cell surface-located galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycostructures such as galactomannan, N-glycans and O-glycans in filamentous fungi is important to secure the integrity of the cell wall. UgmA encodes an UDP-galactopyranose mutase, which is essential for the formation of Galf. Consequently, the ΔugmA mutant lacks Galf-containing molecules. Our previous work in Aspergillus niger work suggested that loss of function of ugmA results in activation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway which is characterized by increased expression of the agsA gene, encoding an α-glucan synthase. In this study, the transcriptional response of the ΔugmA mutant was further linked to the CWI pathway by showing the induced and constitutive phosphorylation of the CWI-MAP kinase in the ΔugmA mutant. To identify genes involved in cell wall remodelling in response to the absence of galactofuranose biosynthesis, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using RNAseq. Over 400 genes were higher expressed in the ΔugmA mutant compared to the wild-type. These include genes that encode enzymes involved in chitin (gfaB, gnsA, chsA) and α-glucan synthesis (agsA), and in β-glucan remodelling (bgxA, gelF and dfgC), and also include several glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall protein-encoding genes. In silico analysis of the 1-kb promoter regions of the up-regulated genes in the ΔugmA mutant indicated overrepresentation of genes with RlmA, MsnA, PacC and SteA-binding sites. The importance of these transcription factors for survival of the ΔugmA mutant was analysed by constructing the respective double mutants. The ΔugmA/ΔrlmA and ΔugmA/ΔmsnA double mutants showed strong synthetic growth defects, indicating the importance of these transcription factors to maintain cell wall integrity in the absence of Galf biosynthesis. PMID:27264789

  2. Targeting population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch fermentation for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lundin, L.;

    )). Significant gradients of e.g. dissolved oxygen, substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells......To achieve an efficient production process, it is essential to optimize both the strain and the cultivation conditions. Traditionally, a microbial population has been considered homogeneous in optimization studies of fermentation processes. However, research has shown that a typical microbial...... population in a fermentor is heterogeneous. There are indications that such heterogeneity may be both beneficial (facilitates quick adaptation to new conditions) and harmful (reduces yields and productivities) for the robustness of the fermentation process (Bylund et al. (1998); Enfors et al. (2001...

  3. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  4. In silico model-driven cofactor engineering strategies for improving the overall NADP(H) turnover in microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Yu, Kai; Koduru, Lokanand; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the overall NADPH turnover is one of the key challenges in various value-added biochemical syntheses. In this work, we first analyzed the NADPH regeneration potentials of common cell factories, including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Pichia pastoris across multiple environmental conditions and determined E. coli and glycerol as the best microbial chassis and most suitable carbon source, respectively. In addition, we identified optimal cofactor specificity engineering (CSE) enzyme targets, whose cofactors when switched from NAD(H) to NADP(H) improve the overall NADP(H) turnover. Among several enzyme targets, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was recognized as a global candidate since its CSE improved the NADP(H) regeneration under most of the conditions examined. Finally, by analyzing the protein structures of all CSE enzyme targets via homology modeling, we established that the replacement of conserved glutamate or aspartate with serine in the loop region could change the cofactor dependence from NAD(H) to NADP(H). PMID:26254041

  5. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  6. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

    2012-04-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid.

  7. A robust whole-cell biocatalyst that introduces a thermo- and solvent-tolerant lipase into Aspergillus oryzae cells: characterization and application to enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koh, FookHee; Hama, Shinji; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-10

    To develop a robust whole-cell biocatalyst that works well at moderately high temperature (40-50°C) with organic solvents, a thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (BTL2) was introduced into an Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst. The lipase-hydrolytic activity of the immobilized A. oryzae (r-BTL) was highest at 50°C and was maintained even after an incubation of 24-h at 60°C. In addition, r-BTL was highly tolerant to 30% (v/v) organic solvents (dimethyl carbonate, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol or acetone). The attractive characteristics of r-BTL also worked efficiently on palm oil methanolysis, resulting in a nearly 100% conversion at elevated temperature from 40 to 50°C. Moreover, r-BTL catalyzed methanolysis at a high methanol concentration without a significant loss of lipase activity. In particular, when 2 molar equivalents of methanol were added 2 times, a methyl ester content of more than 90% was achieved; the yield was higher than those of conventional whole-cell biocatalyst and commercial Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435). On the basis of the results regarding the excellent lipase characteristics and efficient biodiesel production, the developed whole-cell biocatalyst would be a promising biocatalyst in a broad range of applications including biodiesel production. PMID:23608501

  8. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes of aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, R. A.; Yuan, X.-L.; Franken, A.; Ram, A. F. J.; Punt, P. J.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der

    2007-01-01

    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal alpha-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal alpha-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidyllinosit

  9. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored α-glucanotransferase enzymes of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, R.M. van der; Yuan, X.L.; Franken, A.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal α-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal α-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor

  10. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  11. Accurate Dna Assembly And Direct Genome Integration With Optimized Uracil Excision Cloning To Facilitate Engineering Of Escherichia Coli As A Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a vast diversity of valuable compounds with medical properties, but these are often difficult to purify from the natural source or produce by organic synthesis. An alternative is to transfer the biosynthetic pathways to an efficient production host like the bacterium Escherichia coli......-excision-based cloning and combining it with a genome-engineering approach to allow direct integration of whole metabolic pathways into the genome of E. coli, to facilitate the advanced engineering of cell factories....

  12. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo-Ramos Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid (ABTS, and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

  13. Production in a factory (the cell) requires high level of organisation : the cell: The plant’s smallest building block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.

    2015-01-01

    The cell is the plant’s smallest building block. Many cultivation techniques and climate control measures have an effect at this level. Some knowledge about the functioning of the cell is therefore very useful. Many components of the cell have bizarre names so to understand it all better, for the pu

  14. [Aspergillus infection and chronic septic granulomatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouy, R; Bremard, C; Fischer, A; Huu Trong, P; Vilmer, E; Griscelli, C

    1985-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood is a hereditary abnormality of phagocytic cells, frequently associated with Aspergillus infections. From 1969 to 1984, 14 of 37 children with chronic granulomatous disease have presented with pulmonary (13 cases) and/or osteo-articular (1 case) aspergillosis. The paucity of symptoms was a characteristic of these infections. Lung lesions extending to the thoracic chest wall carried the bad prognosis. Neither the Aspergillus skin test nor the Aspergillus serology could definitely confirm the diagnosis. Only broncho-alveolar lavage and biopsy with isolation of Aspergillus could confirm the diagnosis. Long-term therapy with amphotericin B alone or associated with other antifungal agents is necessary. For the past 3 years, ketoconazole prophylaxis has been used in 23 children and none of these children has developed aspergillosis.

  15. Role of Aspergillus fumigatus in Triggering Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Airway Epithelial Cells and Skewing the Cells toward a T-helper 2 Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tetsuya; Kato, Atsushi; Bhushan, Bharat; Norton, James E; Suh, Lydia A; Carter, Roderick G; Gupta, Dave S; Schleimer, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) infection and sensitization are common and promote Th2 disease in individuals with asthma. Innate immune responses of bronchial epithelial cells are now known to play a key role in determination of T cell responses upon encounter with inhaled pathogens. We have recently shown that extracts of AF suppress JAK-STAT signaling in epithelial cells and thus may promote Th2 bias. To elucidate the impact of AF on human bronchial epithelial cells, we tested the hypothesis that AF can modulate the response of airway epithelial cells to favor a Th2 response and explored the molecular mechanism of the effect. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were treated with AF extract or fractionated AF extract before stimulation with poly I:C or infection with human rhinovirus serotype 16 (HRV16). Expression of CXCL10 mRNA (real-time RT-PCR) and protein (ELISA) were measured as markers of IFN-mediated epithelial Th1-biased responses. Western blot was performed to evaluate expression of IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), NF-κB, and tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11), which are other markers of Th1 skewing. Knockdown experiments for protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and PTPN11 were performed to analyze the role of PAR-2 in the mechanism of suppression by AF. AF and a high-molecular-weight fraction of AF extract (HMW-AF; > 50 kD) profoundly suppressed poly I:C- and HRV16-induced expression of both CXCL10 mRNA and protein from NHBE cells via a mechanism that relied upon PAR-2 activation. Both AF extract and a specific PAR-2 activator (AC-55541) suppressed the poly I:C activation of phospho-IRF-3 without affecting activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HMW-AF extract enhanced the expression of PTPN11, a phosphatase known to inhibit IFN signaling, and concurrently suppressed poly I:C-induced expression of both CXCL10 mRNA and protein from NHBE cells. These results show that exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to AF extract

  16. High-affinity insulin binding to an atypical insulin-like growth factor-I receptor in human breast cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Milazzo, G.; Yip, C. C.; Maddux, B A; Vigneri, R; Goldfine, I D

    1992-01-01

    We studied the nature of insulin receptor binding in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In both intact cells and solubilized receptor preparations, high-affinity insulin binding was seen. However, unlabeled insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was five-fold more potent in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding than insulin itself. With monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor, 30% of 125I-insulin binding was inhibited. In contrast when alpha-IR3, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes typical IGF-I rece...

  17. Increasing cell biomass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases recombinant protein yield: the use of a respiratory strain as a microbial cell factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedfalk Kristina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein production is universally employed as a solution to obtain the milligram to gram quantities of a given protein required for applications as diverse as structural genomics and biopharmaceutical manufacture. Yeast is a well-established recombinant host cell for these purposes. In this study we wanted to investigate whether our respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TM6*, could be used to enhance the productivity of recombinant proteins over that obtained from corresponding wild type, respiro-fermentative strains when cultured under the same laboratory conditions. Results Here we demonstrate at least a doubling in productivity over wild-type strains for three recombinant membrane proteins and one recombinant soluble protein produced in TM6* cells. In all cases, this was attributed to the improved biomass properties of the strain. The yield profile across the growth curve was also more stable than in a wild-type strain, and was not further improved by lowering culture temperatures. This has the added benefit that improved yields can be attained rapidly at the yeast's optimal growth conditions. Importantly, improved productivity could not be reproduced in wild-type strains by culturing them under glucose fed-batch conditions: despite having achieved very similar biomass yields to those achieved by TM6* cultures, the total volumetric yields were not concomitantly increased. Furthermore, the productivity of TM6* was unaffected by growing cultures in the presence of ethanol. These findings support the unique properties of TM6* as a microbial cell factory. Conclusions The accumulation of biomass in yeast cell factories is not necessarily correlated with a proportional increase in the functional yield of the recombinant protein being produced. The respiratory S. cerevisiae strain reported here is therefore a useful addition to the matrix of production hosts currently available as its improved biomass

  18. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  19. Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various pl...

  20. The Aspergillus nidulans cetA and calA genes are involved in conidial germination and cell wall morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaish, Ravit; Sharon, Haim; Levdansky, Emma; Greenstein, Shulamit; Shadkchan, Yana; Osherov, Nir

    2008-03-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans genes cetA (AN3079.2) and calA (AN7619.2) encode a novel class of fungal thaumatin-like proteins of unknown function. Deletion of cetA does not result in an observable phenotype [Greenstein, S., Shadkchan, Y., Jadoun, J., Sharon, C., Markovich, S., Osherov, N., 2006. Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans thaumatin-like cetA gene and evidence for transcriptional repression of pyr4 expression in the cetA-disrupted strain. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43, 42-53]. We prepared knockout calA and calA/cetA A. nidulans strains. The calA mutants were phenotypically identical to the wild-type. In contrast, the cetA/calA double mutant showed a synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that the two genes affect a single function or pathway: most of its conidia were completely inhibited in germination. Many collapsed and underwent lysis. A few showed abnormal germination characterized by short swollen hyphae and abnormal hyphal branching. Nongerminated conidia contained a single condensed nucleus suggesting a block in early germination. This is the first functional analysis of the novel cetA/calA family of thaumatin-like genes and their role in A. nidulans conidial germination. We show that CETA and CALA are secreted proteins that together play an essential role in early conidial germination. PMID:17703972

  1. A WDR Gene Is a Conserved Member of a Chitin Synthase Gene Cluster and Influences the Cell Wall in Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Silvestrini, Lucia; Obersriebnig, Michael; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ezcurra, Inés

    2016-01-01

    WD40 repeat (WDR) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. We identify a WDR gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in Ascomycetes. The WDR gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called Fungal Plant WD (FPWD). FPWD is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the Ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) comprising chsD, a Chs activator and a GH17 glucanase. The FPWD, AN1556.2 locus was deleted in Aspergillus nidulans strain SAA.111 by gene replacement and only heterokaryon transformants were obtained. The re-annotation of Aspergilli genomes shows that AN1556.2 consists of two tightly linked separate genes, i.e., the WDR gene and a putative beta-flanking gene of unknown function. The WDR and the beta-flanking genes are conserved genomic neighbors localized within a recently identified metabolic cell wall gene cluster in genomes of Aspergilli. The heterokaryons displayed increased susceptibility to drugs affecting the cell wall, and their phenotypes, observed by optical, confocal, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, suggest cell wall alterations. Quantitative real-time PCR shows altered expression of some cell wall-related genes. The possible implications on cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:27367684

  2. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D Fedorova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT, but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL. The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories".

  3. Deciphering the signaling mechanisms of the plant cell wall degradation machinery in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Topakas, Evangelos; Salazar, Margarita Pena;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The gene expression and secretion of fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are tightly controlled at the transcription level using independent mechanisms to respond to distinct inducers from plant biomass. An advanced systems-level understanding of transcriptional regulatory networks...... is required to rationally engineer filamentous fungi for more efficient bioconversion of different types of biomass. Results: In this study we focused on ten chemically defined inducers to drive expression of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae....... oryzae genome were only partially explained by the chemical similarity of the enzyme inducers. Genes encoding enzymes that have attracted considerable interest such as cellobiose dehydrogenases and copper-dependent polysaccharide mono-oxygenases presented a substrate-specific induction. Several homology...

  4. Efficacy of anti-insulin-like growth factor I receptor monoclonal antibody cixutumumab in mesothelioma is highly correlated with insulin growth factor-I receptor sites/cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Neetu; Zhang, Jingli; Yu, Yunkai; Ho, Mitchell; Merino, Maria; Cao, Liang; Hassan, Raffit

    2012-11-01

    Insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is expressed in mesothelioma and therefore an attractive target for therapy. The antitumor activity of cixutumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IGF-IR, in mesothelioma and relationship to IGF-IR expression was investigated using eight early passage tumor cells obtained from patients, nine established cell lines and an in vivo human mesothelioma tumor xenograft model. Although IGF-IR expression at the mRNA and protein level was present in all mesothelioma cells, using a quantitative ELISA immunoassay, there was considerable variability of IGF-IR expression ranging from 1 to 14 ng/mg of lysate. Using flow cytometry, the number of IGF-IR surface receptors varied from ≈ 2,000 to 50,000 sites/cell. Cells expressing >10,000 sites/cell had greater than 10% growth inhibition when treated with cixutumumab (100 μg/ml). Cixutumumab also induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity (>10% specific lysis) in cell lines, which had >20,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. Treatment with cixutumumab decreased phosphorylation of IGF-IR, Akt and Erk in cell lines, H226 and H28 having 24,000 and 51,000 IGF-IR sites/cell, respectively, but not in the cell line H2052 with 3,000 IGF-IR sites/cell. In vivo, cixutumumab treatment delayed growth of H226 mesothelioma tumor xenografts in mice and improved the overall survival of these mice compared to mice treated with saline (p < 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the antitumor efficacy of cixutumumab including inhibition of IGF-IR downstream signaling is highly correlated with IGF-IR sites/cell. A phase II clinical trial of cixutumumab is currently ongoing for the treatment of patients with mesothelioma. PMID:22323052

  5. GH16 and GH81 family β-(1,3)-glucanases in Aspergillus fumigatus are essential for conidial cell wall morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyna, Isabelle; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Hartl, Lukas; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Jagla, Bernd; Legendre, Rachel; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    The fungal cell wall is a rigid structure because of fibrillar and branched β-(1,3)-glucan linked to chitin. Softening of the cell wall is an essential phenomenon during fungal morphogenesis, wherein rigid cell wall structures are cleaved by glycosylhydrolases. During the search for glycosylhydrolases acting on β-(1,3)-glucan, we identified seven genes in the Aspergillus fumigatus genome coding for potential endo-β-(1,3)-glucanase. ENG1 (previously characterized and named ENGL1, Mouyna et al., ), belongs to the Glycoside-Hydrolase 81 (GH81) family, while ENG2 to ENG7, to GH16 family. ENG1 and four GH16 genes (ENG2-5) were expressed in the resting conidia as well as during germination, suggesting an essential role during A. fumigatus morphogenesis. Here, we report the effect of sequential deletion of AfENG2-5 (GH16) followed by AfENG1 (GH81) deletion in the Δeng2,3,4,5 mutant. The Δeng1,2,3,4,5 mutant showed conidial defects, with linear chains of conidia unable to separate while the germination rate was not affected. These results show, for the first time in a filamentous fungus, that endo β-(1,3)-glucanases are essential for proper conidial cell wall assembly and thus segregation of conidia during conidiation. PMID:27306610

  6. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants.

  7. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth;

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  8. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  9. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  10. Conidial Hydrophobins of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Sophie; Debeaupuis, Jean-Paul; Crameri, Reto; Carey, Marilyn; Charlès, Franck; Prévost, Marie Christine; Schmitt, Christine; Philippe, Bruno; Latgé, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    The surface of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the first structure recognized by the host immune system, is covered by rodlets. We report that this outer cell wall layer contains two hydrophobins, RodAp and RodBp, which are found as highly insoluble complexes. The RODA gene was previously characterized, and ΔrodA conidia do not display a rodlet layer (N. Thau, M. Monod, B. Crestani, C. Rolland, G. Tronchin, J. P. Latgé, and S. Paris, Infect. Immun. 62:4380-4388, 1994). The RODB gene was cloned...

  11. Raman Imaging Spectroscopy as a Tool To Investigate the Cell Damage on Aspergillus ochraceus Caused by an Antimicrobial Packaging Containing Benzyl Isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Isabel; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Raman imaging spectroscopy is a nondestructive analytical method that can be a useful tool to obtain detailed information about the molecular composition and morphology of biological samples. Its high spatial resolution was used to collect spectra of Aspergillus ochraceus, a mold producer of ochratoxin A (OTA), in order to investigate the cell damage caused on it by the action of the antimicrobial benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). The study was performed in both direct contact and vapor phase, in order to check the use of BITC as active agent in food packaging material. The results showed that there were morphologic alteration and a characteristic Raman spectrum on spore and hyphae exposed to BITC. BITC was accumulated in the mold cells where it caused an enormous amount of alterations in cellular components (lipids, proteins, saccharides, amino acids...) and cellular functions (cell cycle, respiration, metabolism, transcription of genes, fluidity of the cellular wall). All these structural, composition, and metabolic changes will affect the production of OTA. Pattern recognition with chemometrics using principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated an excellent separation between control and BITC treated samples, both in spores and hyphae. PCA results also showed two different affection levels when samples were exposed to BITC in the vapor phase. PMID:27032001

  12. Increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Zhang, Silai; Sano, Motoaki; Nakayama, Mayumi; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. Previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. Therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus A. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleΔ). Although the hyphae of the tripleΔ mutant were not fully dispersed, the mutant strain did form smaller pellets than the wild-type strain. We next examined enzyme productivity under liquid culture conditions by transforming the cutinase-encoding gene cutL1 into A. oryzae wild-type and the tripleΔ mutant (i.e. wild-type-cutL1, tripleΔ-cutL1). A. oryzae tripleΔ-cutL1 formed smaller hyphal pellets and showed both greater biomass and increased CutL1 productivity compared with wild-type-cutL1, which might be attributable to a decrease in the number of tripleΔ-cutL1 cells under anaerobic conditions. PMID:27442340

  13. Characterisation of Aspergillus niger prolyl aminopeptidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, E.J.W.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have cloned a gene (papA) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus niger. Homologous genes are present in the genomes of the Eurotiales A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and Talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts

  14. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Photon collider Higgs factories

    CERN Document Server

    Telnov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  16. Expression of agsA, one of five 1,3-α-d-glucan synthase-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger, is induced in response to cell wall stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Kuyk, P.A. van; Arentshorst, M.; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    1,3-α-d-Glucan is an important component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. We have identified a family of five 1,3-α-d-glucan synthase-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger. The agsA gene was sequenced and the predicted protein sequence indicated that the overall domain structure of 1,3-α-d-gluca

  17. Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolate with the TR34/L98H mutation in both a fungicide-sprayed field and the lung of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Steffi; Daguindau, Etienne; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Deconinck, Eric; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Bretagne, Stéphane; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    A French farmer developed invasive aspergillosis with azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus with the TR34/L98H mutation following a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. He had worked in fungicide-sprayed fields where a non-genetically related A. fumigatus TR34/L98H isolate was collected. If azole resistance detection increases, voriconazole as first-line therapy might be questioned in agricultural areas.

  18. Humoral and Cell-mediated Autoimmune Reactions to Human Acidic Ribosomal P2 Protein in Individuals Sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus P2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christina; Appenzeller, Ulrich; Seelbach, Heike; Achatz, Gernot; Oberkofler, Hannes; Breitenbach, Michael; Blaser, Kurt; Crameri, Reto

    1999-01-01

    A panel of cDNAs encoding allergenic proteins was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus cDNA library displayed on the surface of filamentous phage. Solid phase–immobilized serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) from A. fumigatus–allergic individuals was used to enrich phage displaying IgE-binding molecules. One of the cDNAs encoded a 11.1-kD protein that was identified as acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein type 2 (P2 protein). The allergen, formally termed rAsp f 8, shares >62% sequence identity and >84% sequence homology to corresponding eukaryotic P2 proteins, including human P2 protein. The sequences encoding human and fungal P2 protein were subcloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as His6-tagged fusion proteins, and purified by Ni2+–chelate affinity chromatography. Both recombinant P2 proteins were recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic individuals sensitized to the A. fumigatus P2 protein and elicited strong type 1–specific skin reactions in these individuals. Moreover, human and fungal P2 proteins induced proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of A. fumigatus– allergic subjects sensitized to the fungal P2 protein. These data provide strong evidence for in vitro and in vivo humoral and cell-mediated autoreactivity to human P2 protein in patients suffering from chronic A. fumigatus allergy. PMID:10224291

  19. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  20. A pericentrin-related protein homolog in Aspergillus nidulans plays important roles in nucleus positioning and cell polarity by affecting microtubule organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Gao, Rongsui; Chen, Shaochun; Pu, Li; Li, Pin; Huang, Ying; Lu, Ling

    2012-12-01

    Pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. Recent studies have linked numerous human disorders with mutated or elevated levels of pericentrin, suggesting unrecognized contributions of pericentrin-related proteins to the development of these disorders. In this study, we characterized AnPcpA, a putative homolog of pericentrin-related protein in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and found that it is essential for conidial germination and hyphal development. Compared to the hyphal apex localization pattern of calmodulin (CaM), which has been identified as an interactive partner of the pericentrin homolog, GFP-AnPcpA fluorescence dots are associated mainly with nuclei, while the accumulation of CaM at the hyphal apex depends on the function of AnPcpA. In addition, the depletion of AnPcpA by an inducible alcA promoter repression results in severe growth defects and abnormal nuclear segregation. Most interestingly, in mature hyphal cells, knockdown of pericentrin was able to significantly induce changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal remodeling; it resulted in some enlarged compartments with condensed nuclei and anucleate small compartments as well. Moreover, defects in AnPcpA significantly disrupted the microtubule organization and nucleation, suggesting that AnPcpA may affect nucleus positioning by influencing microtubule organization.

  1. Krüppel-like Factor 4 modulates interleukin-6 release in human dendritic cells after in vitro stimulation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Dix, Andreas; Bonin, Michael; Linde, Joerg; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Loeffler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are associated with high mortality rates and are mostly caused by the opportunistic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Immune responses against these fungi are still not fully understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial players in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against fungal infections. The immunomodulatory effects of fungi were compared to the bacterial stimulus LPS to determine key players in the immune response to fungal infections. A genome wide study of the gene regulation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) confronted with A. fumigatus, C. albicans or LPS was performed and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was identified as the only transcription factor that was down-regulated in DCs by both fungi but induced by stimulation with LPS. Downstream analysis demonstrated the influence of KLF4 on the interleukine-6 expression in human DCs. Furthermore, KLF4 regulation was shown to be dependent on pattern recognition receptor ligation. Therefore KLF4 was identified as a controlling element in the IL-6 immune response with a unique expression pattern comparing fungal and LPS stimulation. PMID:27346433

  2. Dual silencing of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor in colorectal cancer cells is associated with decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfuss, Silke; Burfeind, Peter; Gaedcke, Jochen; Scharf, Jens-Gerd

    2009-04-01

    Overexpression and activation of tyrosine kinase receptors are common features of colorectal cancer. Using the human colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and Caco-2, we evaluated the role of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cellular functions of these cells. We used the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to specifically down-regulate IGF-IR and EGFR expression. Knockdown of IGF-IR and EGFR resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of DLD-1 and Caco-2 cells. An increased rate of apoptosis was associated with siRNA-mediated silencing of IGF-IR and EGFR as assessed by activation of caspase-3/caspase-7. The combined knockdown of both EGFR and IGF-IR decreased cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis more effectively than did silencing of either receptor alone. Comparable effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed after single and combinational treatment of cells by the IGF-IR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and/or the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Combined IGF-IR and EGFR silencing by either siRNAs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors diminished the phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathways AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 more effectively than did the single receptor knockdown. Single IGF-IR knockdown inhibited IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation of AKT but had no effect on IGF-I- or EGF-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating a role of EGFR in ligand-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The present data show that inhibition of the IGF-IR transduction cascade augments the antipoliferative and proapoptotic effects of EGFR inhibition in colorectal cancer cells. A clinical application of combination therapy targeting both EGFR and IGF-IR could be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  3. Gene expression profiles of human dendritic cells interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus in a bilayer model of the alveolar epithelium/endothelium interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oliver Morton

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the interaction between the host and Aspergillus fumigatus at the alveolar surface of the human lung are critical in the establishment of aspergillosis. Using an in vitro bilayer model of the alveolus, including both the epithelium (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, A549 and endothelium (human pulmonary artery epithelial cells, HPAEC on transwell membranes, it was possible to closely replicate the in vivo conditions. Two distinct sub-groups of dendritic cells (DC, monocyte-derived DC (moDC and myeloid DC (mDC, were included in the model to examine immune responses to fungal infection at the alveolar surface. RNA in high quantity and quality was extracted from the cell layers on the transwell membrane to allow gene expression analysis using tailored custom-made microarrays, containing probes for 117 immune-relevant genes. This microarray data indicated minimal induction of immune gene expression in A549 alveolar epithelial cells in response to germ tubes of A. fumigatus. In contrast, the addition of DC to the system greatly increased the number of differentially expressed immune genes. moDC exhibited increased expression of genes including CLEC7A, CD209 and CCL18 in the absence of A. fumigatus compared to mDC. In the presence of A. fumigatus, both DC subgroups exhibited up-regulation of genes identified in previous studies as being associated with the exposure of DC to A. fumigatus and exhibiting chemotactic properties for neutrophils, including CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL20, and IL1B. This model closely approximated the human alveolus allowing for an analysis of the host pathogen interface that complements existing animal models of IA.

  4. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  5. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  6. Neutrino factory near detector

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomilov, M.; Y. Karadzhov; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Laing, A.; F.J.P. Soler

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino factory is a facility for future precision studies of neutrino oscillations. A so-called near detector is essential for reaching the required precision for a neutrino oscillation analysis. The main task of the near detector is to measure the flux of the neutrino beam. Such a high intensity neutrino source like a neutrino factory provides also the opportunity for precision studies of various neutrino interaction processes in the near detector. We discuss the design concepts of suc...

  7. Automotive factory network renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this applied thesis was to plan, implement, and study the upgrading the network infrastructure in Valmet Automotive Oy, specifically in its Uusikaupunki factory. Valmet Automotive is a Finnish automotive service provider, focusing on premium vehicles, convertible roof systems and electric vehicles. The objective was to plan and implement a networking infrastructure that could support the load of a factory in full-scale production, while ensuring near-constant availability. T...

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protects cultured equine Leydig cells from undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M J; Roser, J F

    2010-12-01

    Leydig cells located in the interstitial space of the testicular parenchyma produce testosterone which plays a critical role in the maintenance and restoration of spermatogenesis in many species, including horses. For normal spermatogenesis, maintaining Leydig cells is critical to provide an optimal and constant level of testosterone. Recently, an anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I in testicular cells in rats has been reported, but a similar effect of IGF-I on equine Leydig cells remains to be elucidated. If IGF-I also protects stallion testicular cells from undergoing apoptosis, then IGF-I may have potential as a treatment regime to prevent testicular degeneration. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I on cultured equine Leydig cells. Testes were collected from 5 post-pubertal stallions (2-4 years old) during routine castrations. A highly purified preparation of equine Leydig cells was obtained from a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Purity of equine Leydig cells was assessed using histochemical 3β-HSD staining. Equine Leydig cells and selected doses of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-I; Parlow A.F., National Hormone and Peptide Program, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) were added to wells of 24 or 96 well culture plates in triplicate and cultured for 24 or 48 h under 95% air:5% CO(2) at 34°C. After 24 or 48 h incubation, apoptotic rate was assessed using a Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were observed in equine Leydig cells cultured with 5, 10, or 50ng/ml of rhIGF-I compared with control cells cultured without rhIGF-I for 24h. Exposure to 1, 5, 10 or 50 ng/ml of rhIGF-I significantly decreased apoptotic rate in equine Leydig cells cultured for 48 h. After 48 h incubation, cells were labeled with Annexin V and propodium iodine to determine the populations of healthy, apoptotic, and necrotic cells by counting stained cells using a Nikon Eclipse inverted fluorescence microscope. As a percentage of

  9. The evaluation of microfungal contamination of dust created during woodworking in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rogoziński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microscopic fungi are the biological agent of occupational risk in the woodworking environment. Microbiological and chemical methods were used for determination of their concentration and species composition in dust. Material and Methods: Dust was sampled in 3 factories producing furniture using different materials. The 1st factory (A processes solid wood, the 2nd (B – chipboards and the 3rd factory (C uses both wood and wood composites. The samples were collected in 12 different workstations and locations in each factory. The quantitative content of fungal biomass was determined basing on analysis of ergosterol (ERG. The species composition of fungi was analyzed using the microbiological method basing on culture morphology. Results: The concentration of ergosterol was relatively low and ranged from 0.012 mg/kg to 3.36 mg/kg. The average value of ERG amounted to 1.25 mg/kg in factories A and C and 1.15 mg/kg in factory B. The most frequently isolated fungi in factory A and B were Penicillum and Aspergillus. However, in the factory C, only Trichoderma was isolated. The maximum concentration of fungi in dust collected in factory B was 2377 cfu/g and it is 3 times more than in the dust from factories A and C. Conclusions: Workers of furniture factories may be exposed to airborne fungi associated with the wood dust posing health hazard. The content of these fungi is relatively small (ERG – max: 3.36 mg/kg but the species, especially genera Penicillum and Aspergillus, found in the dust which were reported as having allergic and toxic properties. Med Pr 2014;65(6:705–713

  10. NKX3.1 activates expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 to mediate insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbradt, Erin; Asatiani, Ekaterina; Ortner, Elizabeth; Wang, Antai; Gelmann, Edward P

    2009-03-15

    NKX3.1 is a homeobox gene that codes for a haploinsufficient prostate cancer tumor suppressor. NKX3.1 protein levels are down-regulated in the majority of primary prostate cancer tissues. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA expression 10-fold as determined by expression microarray analysis. In both stably and transiently transfected PC-3 cells and in LNCaP cells, NKX3.1 expression increased IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression. In prostates of Nkx3.1 gene-targeted mice Igfbp-3 mRNA levels correlated with Nkx3.1 copy number. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells attenuated the ability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to induce phosphorylation of type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and AKT. The effect of NKX3.1 on IGF-I signaling was not seen when cells were exposed to long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-I variant peptide that does not bind to IGFBP-3. Additionally, small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of IGFBP-3 expression partially reversed the attenuation of IGF-IR signaling by NKX3.1 and abrogated NKX3.1 suppression of PC-3 cell proliferation. Thus, there is a close relationship in vitro and in vivo between NKX3.1 and IGFBP-3. The growth-suppressive effects of NKX3.1 in prostate cells are mediated, in part, by activation of IGFBP-3 expression. PMID:19258508

  11. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. PMID:27611026

  12. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka;

    2011-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules...

  13. A novel unidirectional cross-talk from the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor to leptin receptor in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Tuba; Nahta, Rita

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development and progression of breast cancer. Increased circulating levels of the obesity-associated hormones leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and overexpression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) have been detected in a majority of breast cancer cases and during obesity. Due to correlations between increased leptin, Ob-R, IGF-I, and IGF-IR in breast cancer, we hypothesized that molecular interactions may exist between these two signaling pathways. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting showed that IGF-IR and Ob-R interact in the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7, BT474, and SKBR3. Stimulation of cells with IGF-I promoted Ob-R phosphorylation, which was blocked by IGF-IR kinase inhibition. In addition, IGF-I activated downstream signaling molecules in the leptin receptor and IGF-IR pathways. In contrast to IGF-I, leptin did not induce phosphorylation of IGF-IR, indicating that receptor cross-signaling is unidirectional, occurring from IGF-IR to Ob-R. Our results show, for the first time, a novel interaction and cross-talk between the IGF-I and leptin receptors in human breast cancer cells.

  14. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  15. Luteolin decreases IGF-II production and downregulates insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Do

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteolin is a 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone found in various fruits and vegetables. We have shown previously that luteolin reduces HT-29 cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The objective of this study was to examine whether luteolin downregulates the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathway in HT-29 cells. Methods In order to assess the effects of luteolin and/or IGF-I on the IGF-IR signaling pathway, cells were cultured with or without 60 μmol/L luteolin and/or 10 nmol/L IGF-I. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and IGF-IR mRNA levels were evaluated by a cell viability assay, [3H]thymidine incorporation assays, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Western blot analyses, immunoprecipitation, and in vitro kinase assays were conducted to evaluate the secretion of IGF-II, the protein expression and activation of IGF-IR, and the association of the p85 subunit of phophatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K with IGF-IR, the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, and cell division cycle 25c (CDC25c, and PI3K activity. Results Luteolin (0 - 60 μmol/L dose-dependently reduced the IGF-II secretion of HT-29 cells. IGF-I stimulated HT-29 cell growth but did not abrogate luteolin-induced growth inhibition. Luteolin reduced the levels of the IGF-IR precursor protein and IGF-IR transcripts. Luteolin reduced the IGF-I-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-IR and the association of p85 with IGF-IR. Additionally, luteolin inhibited the activity of PI3K activity as well as the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and CDC25c in the presence and absence of IGF-I stimulation. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that luteolin downregulates the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways via a reduction in IGF-IR signaling in HT-29 cells; this may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the observed luteolin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Melanin Modulates Host Cytokine Response

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Louis; Netea, Mihai; SUGUI, JANYCE; Vonk, Alieke; van de Sande, Wendy; Warris, Adilia; Kwon-Chung, Kyung; Jan Kullberg, Bart

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine response. The albino conidia induced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as compared to melanised wild-type conidia. Blocking ...

  17. Electron positron factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we will first indicate the key issues in designing a B-factory and a φ-factory, and illustrate the approaches that are being followed to address them. In general, reaching the B-factory parameter regime offers the most challenges, so we will emphasize it here. Then we will consider an extrapolation of our present understanding of collider performance and assess the maximum luminosity that could be anticipated. To reach extremely high luminosity, it may be necessary to consider possibilities beyond the scope of ''standard'' approaches to collider design; a few illustrative examples are outlined. For both the present designs and the extrapolated parameters, R ampersand D activities in a few key areas are required; these areas are discussed in this paper also

  18. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  19. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel;

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...

  20. The Invention Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  1. Physics at neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Peach, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using intense neutrino beams from a high-energy muon storage ring-the Neutrino Factory-to make precise measurements of the lepton mixing matrix, including the T-violating phase, as well as a diverse programme of other physics.

  2. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  3. Aspergillus: sex and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

  4. Putative PmrA and PmcA are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hechun; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPases are Ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic Ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular Ca(2+) store lumens. In budding yeast, Pmr1 (plasma membrane ATPase related), and Pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-ATPase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. Here, we deleted two putative Ca(2+) pumps, designated AnPmrA and AnPmcA, from Aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants ΔanpmrA and ΔanpmcA, respectively. Then, using ΔanpmrA as the starting strain, the promoter of its anpmcA was replaced with the alcA promoter to secure the mutant ΔanpmrAalcApmcA or its anpmcA was deleted completely to produce the mutant ΔanpmrAΔpmcA. Different from the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double deletion of anpmrA and anpmcA was not lethal in A. nidulans. In addition, deletion of anpmrA and/or anpmcA had produced growth defects, although overexpression of AnPmc1 in ΔanpmrAalcApmcA could not restore the growth defects that resulted from the loss of AnPmrA. Moreover, we found AnPmrA was indispensable for maintenance of normal morphogenesis, especially in low-Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) environments. Thus, our findings suggest AnPmrA and AnPmcA might play important roles in growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in A. nidulans in a different way from that in yeasts.

  5. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele

    2011-08-30

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  6. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroni Alice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF. The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for the delivery of functional biomolecules and ingredients in cereal-based beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Mauch, Alexander; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we aim to describe the mechanisms by which LAB can fulfil the novel role of efficient cell factory for the production of functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of cereal-based beverages. LAB fermentation is a safe, economical, and traditional method of food preservation foremost, as well as having the additional benefits of flavor, texture, and nutrition amelioration. Additionally, LAB fermentation in known to render cereal-based foods and beverages safe, in a chemical-free, consumer-friendly manner, from an antinutrient and toxigenic perspective. Huge market opportunities and potential exist for food manufacturers who can provide the ideal functional beverage fulfilling consumer needs. Newly developed fermented cereal-based beverages must address markets globally including, high-nutrition markets (developing countries), lifestyle choice consumers (vegetarian, vegan, low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie), food-related non-communicable disease sufferers (cardiovascular disease, diabetes), and green label consumers (Western countries). To fulfil these recommendations, a suitable LAB starter culture and cereal-based raw materials must be developed. These strains would be suitable for the biopreservation of cereal beverages and, ideally, would be highly antifungal, anti-mycotoxigenic, mycotoxin-binding and proteolytic (neutralize toxic peptides and release flavor-contributing amino acids) with an ability to ferment cereals, whilst synthesizing oligosaccharides, thus presenting a major opportunity for the development of safe cereal-based prebiotic functional beverages to compete with and replace the existing dairy versions. PMID:24915367

  8. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  9. The strategies at the shop-floor of the Communist Party in Argentina from its beginnings to 1943: cells, factory committees and comisiones internas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Camarero; Diego Rubén Ceruso

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this paper  is to recover the experience driven by the Communist Party (PC) from its creation until the emergence of peronism in the organization of labor movement in the production sites. For years the widespread belief in the historiography was that militancy in the factories start with the peronist union model and installation of comisiones internas. Recent investigations showed extensive basic organizational framework generated by the factory proletariat in the decades pr...

  10. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ramirez-Estrada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM production (the “Plant Cell Factory” concept. Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins.

  11. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni;

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...... data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XInR-binding site to be 5'-GGNTAAA-3'. The composition of the conserved gene......-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross...

  12. Protein and DNA technologies for functional expression of membrane-associated cytochromes P450 in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Albacete, Dario

    , metabolic engineering and protein engineering to provide new solutions to the P450 expression bottleneck in bacteria. The work primarily focuses on developing a fluorescence high-throughput platform to easily assess proper folding and expression levels of plant cytochromes P450. The platform has been...... designed to fit in metabolic engineering and structural biology applications. Furthermore in this thesis a systematic engineering rationale is proposed to improve P450 expression. For this, anew set of N-terminal tags has been developed in order to provide a streamlined optimization scheme for P450......450 engineering guidelines and serves as platform to improve performance of microbial cells, thereby boosting recombinant production of complex plant P450-derived biochemicals. The knowledge generated, could guide future reconstruction of functional plant metabolic pathways leading to high valuable...

  13. Saccharomyces pastorianus as cell factory to improve production of fructose 1,6-diphosphate using novel fermentation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Schiraldi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic phosphorylation of glucose with inorganic phosphate, mediated by permeabilized yeast cells, is one of the methods commonly used to manufacture fructose 1,6-diphosphate, a compound of pharmaceutical interest. This process requires high concentrations of yeast active biomass, that is the catalyst of bioconversion of glucose and inorganic phosphate into fructose 1,6-diphosphate. In this study we firstly describe the high cell density production of a brewer's Saccharomyces strain (Saccharomyces pastorianus DSM 6581, focusing on the optimization of medium composition and exploiting fed-batch strategies and novel technologies based on membrane bioreactors. In fed-batch fermentation an appropriate exponential feed profile was set up to maintain the glucose concentration in the bioreactor below 0.9 g·L-1, thus yielding reproducibly 58 g dry weight biomass per liter in 80 h fermentation, improving eight-fold batch processes output. In addition a higher final biomass density was reached when implementing a microfiltration strategy (70 g dry weight biomass, that led to a productivity of 2.1 gcdw·L-1·h-1, 2.4-fold the fed-batch one. Successively, this biomass was opportunely permeabilized and proved capable of catalyzing the bioconversion of glucose into fructose 1,6-diphosphate. Acting on critical parameters of the bioconversion (substrates molar ratio, catalyst concentration and permeabilization agent, fructose 1,6-diphosphate was produced, after 3 h of process, at 56.3 ± 1 g·L-1 with a yield of 80% of the theoretical value.

  14. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  15. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  16. Beauty-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years a number of proposals for B-factories, i.e. medium energy e+e- colliders with luminosities at the limit of what can be reasonably expected using the most modern techniques in accelerator physics have been made in various parts of the world. The principle of this new type of collider is described, the challenge it presents to accelerator physicists is detailed, the proposed solutions are presented and analyzed. (author) 11 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Antagonism of Aspergillus terreus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antagonismo de Aspergillus terreus contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar S. Melo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An Aspergillus terreus strain showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary. The interaction between A. terreus and sclerotia revealed that the mycoparasite sporulated abundantly on the sclerotial surface. Cell breakdown due to host cell wall disruption was observed in inner rind cells, by a scanning electron microscopy.Uma linhagem de Aspergillus terreus mostrou forte atividade parasítica contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Interações entre o patógeno e o antagonista revelaram que A. terreus esporulou profusamente sobre os escleródios. Quando visto em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o antagonista mostra-se rompendo e lisando a parede celular e penetrando o interior do escleródio, onde se estabelece no tecido medular.

  18. Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...

  19. Cell factories for insulin production

    OpenAIRE

    Baeshen, Nabih A.; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Sheikh, Abdullah; Bora, Roop S; Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed; Ramadan, Hassan A I; Saini, Kulvinder Singh; Redwan, Elrashdy M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of diabetic patients globally and exploration of alternate insulin delivery methods such as inhalation or oral route that rely on higher doses, is bound to escalate the demand for recombinant insulin in near future. Current manufacturing technologies would be unable to meet the growing demand of affordable insulin due to limitation in production capacity and high production cost. Manufacturing of therapeutic recombinant proteins require an appropriate host org...

  20. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I is an autocrine regulator for the brain metastatic variant of a human non-small cell lung cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C C; Fang, K; Li, L; Shih, S H

    1995-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is associated with autocrine and paracrine stimulation for cell growth and development of brain tumor cells. The function of IGF-I in the brain metastatic variant of human lung cancer cells is investigated. The cells used here were derived in vivo with intracarotid injection of human non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H226. The tumor was developed as a cultured cell line, H226Br. Unlike the parental cells, H226Br was tumorigenic in nu/nu nude mice. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that IGF-I transcript of H226Br is increased compared to that of parental cells. The amount of IGF-I secreted in cultured medium of H226Br is higher than that of cultured parental cells. The IGF-I receptor-specific antibody, alpha IR3, inhibits H226Br growth in serum-free culture. The results established that IGF-I is an autocrine growth regulator for human non-small cell lung cancer cells that progressed to brain. PMID:7634243

  4. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  6. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  7. Disruption of the Phospholipase D Gene Attenuates the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xianping; Gao, Meihua; Han, Xuelin; Tao, Sha; Zheng, Dongyu; Cheng, Ying; Yu, Rentao; Han, Gaige; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen that induces serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, knowledge o

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  9. The Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W M; Lee Byung Cheol; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Siegrist, J L; Wang, L; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Copin, Y; Smadja, G; Gangler, E; Castera, A; Adam, G; Bacon, R; Lemonnier, J P; Pecontal, A; Pécontal, E; Kessler, R

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) at redshifts 0.03

  10. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  11. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  12. Sustained low-dose growth hormone therapy optimizes bioactive insulin-like growth factor-I level and may enhance CD4 T-cell number in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Troensegaard, William;

    2010-01-01

    (+15%, P rhGH dose reduction, total IGF-I and CD4 T-cell number remained increased at week 88 (+44%, P = 0.01 and +33%, P ...High-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) (2-6 mg/day) regimes may facilitate T-cell restoration in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, high-dose rhGH regimens increase insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF......-I) to supra-physiological levels associated with severe side effects. The present study investigated whether lower doses of rhGH may improve T-cell restoration in patients infected with HIV following an expedient response of total and bioactive (i.e., free) IGF-I. A previous 16-week pilot-study included six...

  13. The evolutionary imprint of domestication on genome variation and function of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John G; Salichos, Leonidas; Slot, Jason C; Rinker, David C; McGary, Kriston L; King, Jonas G; Klich, Maren A; Tabb, David L; McDonald, W Hayes; Rokas, Antonis

    2012-08-01

    The domestication of animals, plants, and microbes fundamentally transformed the lifestyle and demography of the human species [1]. Although the genetic and functional underpinnings of animal and plant domestication are well understood, little is known about microbe domestication [2-6]. Here, we systematically examined genome-wide sequence and functional variation between the domesticated fungus Aspergillus oryzae, whose saccharification abilities humans have harnessed for thousands of years to produce sake, soy sauce, and miso from starch-rich grains, and its wild relative A. flavus, a potentially toxigenic plant and animal pathogen [7]. We discovered dramatic changes in the sequence variation and abundance profiles of genes and wholesale primary and secondary metabolic pathways between domesticated and wild relative isolates during growth on rice. Our data suggest that, through selection by humans, an atoxigenic lineage of A. flavus gradually evolved into a "cell factory" for enzymes and metabolites involved in the saccharification process. These results suggest that whereas animal and plant domestication was largely driven by Neolithic "genetic tinkering" of developmental pathways, microbe domestication was driven by extensive remodeling of metabolism.

  14. Improving the Secretory Expression of an α-Galactosidase from Aspergillus niger in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianliang; Fang, Bo; Han, Dongfei; Yang, Wenxia; Qi, Feifei; Chen, Hui; Li, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    α-Galactosidases are broadly used in feed, food, chemical, pulp, and pharmaceutical industries. However, there lacks a satisfactory microbial cell factory that is able to produce α-galactosidases efficiently and cost-effectively to date, which prevents these important enzymes from greater application. In this study, the secretory expression of an Aspergillus niger α-galactosidase (AGA) in Pichia pastoris was systematically investigated. Through codon optimization, signal peptide replacement, comparative selection of host strain, and saturation mutagenesis of the P1’ residue of Kex2 protease cleavage site for efficient signal peptide removal, a mutant P. pastoris KM71H (Muts) strain of AGA-I with the specific P1’ site substitution (Glu to Ile) demonstrated remarkable extracellular α-galactosidase activity of 1299 U/ml upon a 72 h methanol induction in 2.0 L fermenter. The engineered yeast strain AGA-I demonstrated approximately 12-fold higher extracellular activity compared to the initial P. pastoris strain. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest yield and productivity of a secreted α-galactosidase in P. pastoris, thus holding great potential for industrial application. PMID:27548309

  15. Improving the Secretory Expression of an -Galactosidase from Aspergillus niger in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianliang; Fang, Bo; Han, Dongfei; Yang, Wenxia; Qi, Feifei; Chen, Hui; Li, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    α-Galactosidases are broadly used in feed, food, chemical, pulp, and pharmaceutical industries. However, there lacks a satisfactory microbial cell factory that is able to produce α-galactosidases efficiently and cost-effectively to date, which prevents these important enzymes from greater application. In this study, the secretory expression of an Aspergillus niger α-galactosidase (AGA) in Pichia pastoris was systematically investigated. Through codon optimization, signal peptide replacement, comparative selection of host strain, and saturation mutagenesis of the P1' residue of Kex2 protease cleavage site for efficient signal peptide removal, a mutant P. pastoris KM71H (Muts) strain of AGA-I with the specific P1' site substitution (Glu to Ile) demonstrated remarkable extracellular α-galactosidase activity of 1299 U/ml upon a 72 h methanol induction in 2.0 L fermenter. The engineered yeast strain AGA-I demonstrated approximately 12-fold higher extracellular activity compared to the initial P. pastoris strain. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest yield and productivity of a secreted α-galactosidase in P. pastoris, thus holding great potential for industrial application. PMID:27548309

  16. Progress in Research on the Methylotrophic Yeast Hansenula polymaorph Cell Factory%多形汉逊酵母作为细胞工厂的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱卫东; 施春阳; 王婷

    2012-01-01

    The thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymarpha has been an important cell factory for the production of pharmaceutical proteins and enzyme preparation, but recently been also gaining interest as a promising host for the production of both bioethanol and efficacious components from medicinal plant. In this paper, some characteristics of H. poly-morpha were outlined,and the progress in research on H. polymorpha as a microbiology cell factory was summarized. Finally, the prospective application of H. polymorpha to biotechnology research was discussed.%多形汉逊酵母以其独特的生物学和遗传学特征已成为一种重要的细胞工厂,被广泛运用于生产药物蛋白、酶制剂、生物能源及药用植物有效成分等.作者概述了多形汉逊酵母的一些基本特性,阐述了其作为微生物细胞工厂的应用研究进展,并对其未来工作的前景进行了展望.

  17. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous of advant......Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous...

  18. Photon factory activity report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)

  19. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  20. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences. (orig.)

  1. Photon factory activity report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)

  2. Substantial decrease in cell wall α-1,3-glucan caused by disruption of the kexB gene encoding a subtilisin-like processing protease in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Osamu; Shiina, Matsuko; Yoshimi, Akira; Sano, Motoaki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yamagata, Youhei; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Disruption of the kexB encoding a subtilisin-like processing protease in Aspergillus oryzae (ΔkexB) leads to substantial morphological defects when the cells are grown on Czapek-Dox agar plates. We previously found that the disruption of kexB causes a constitutive activation of the cell wall integrity pathway. To understand how the disruption of the kexB affects cell wall organization and components, we analyzed the cell wall of ΔkexB grown on the plates. The results revealed that both total N-acetylglucosamine content, which constitutes chitin, and chitin synthase activities were increased. Whereas total glucose content, which constitutes β-1,3-glucan and α-1,3-glucan, was decreased; this decrease was attributed to a remarkable decrease in α-1,3-glucan. Additionally, the β-1,3-glucan in the alkali-insoluble fraction of the ΔkexB showed a high degree of polymerization. These results suggested that the loss of α-1,3-glucan in the ΔkexB was compensated by increases in the chitin content and the average degree of β-1,3-glucan polymerization. PMID:26980104

  3. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... exemptions for experimental use of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio (72 FR 28871, May 23, 2007) (FRL-8129... Findings In the Federal Register of March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9596) (FRL-8811-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant..., 2003 (68 FR 41541) (FRL-7311-6). Those health effects data were the basis for establishing...

  4. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called dikar

  5. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. PMID:27177733

  6. Aspergillus mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Caballero

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The clinical features of postoperative Aspergillus mediastinitis may be paucisymptomatic, emphasizing the need for a low index of suspicion in cases of culture-negative mediastinitis or in indolent wound infections. In addition to surgical debridement, the central component of antifungal therapy should include amphotericin B or voriconazole.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipas

  8. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  9. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  10. Intelligent and fine regulation of microbial cell factory based on riboswitches%核糖核酸开关用于微生物细胞工厂的智能与精细调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雨佳; 张根林; 周晓宏; 李春

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the microbial cell factory is one of the developmental directions of current green chemical industry. The microbial cell factory is a kind of recombined microorganism and its metabolic and regulatory pathways have been reconstructed by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology to synthetic new compounds or to improve the yield of target production. The microbial metabolic pathway is regulated by two points: environment and genetic information. The cell maintains its homeostasis by global transcription factors, messenger molecules and feedback inhibition when the circumstance is changed. Meanwhile, the cell is affected by its own genetic circulate through transcription, translation and post-translational modification to regulate the expression of target gene. The riboswitches are RNA elements which change their conformation when bind to specific ligands such as ions, sugar derivatives, amino acids, nucleic acid derivatives and coenzymes to regulate the process of transcription, translation and splicing of mRNA. The riboswitches are natural biosensors and bioeffectors which can be designed as the intelligent molecular tools to fine regulate microbial cell factories. Using riboswitches in the microbial cell factory can extend the application in the field of chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental protection and food production.%利用代谢工程与合成生物技术对细胞内复杂的代谢网络和调控网络进行重构和改造,以建立合成新化合物或提高目标产物产量的微生物细胞工厂是当今绿色化工技术发展的方向之一。微生物代谢途径的调控受环境和遗传的双重影响,细胞通过全局转录因子、信使分子和反馈抑制等方式响应环境变化来维持细胞的内稳态;同时细胞还受自身遗传基因线路的调控,在转录、翻译以及翻译后修饰过程中调控特定基因的表达。核糖核酸开关是一类调控基因线路表达的 RNA 元件,通过与

  11. Production of Fructooligosaccharides using Free-whole-cell Biotransformation by Aspergillus niger CGMCC No.6640%Aspergillusniger CGMCC No.6640全细胞生物转化制备蔗果低聚糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周康; 刘冬梅; 范梦珂; 叶嘉伦

    2013-01-01

    Fructooligosaecharides (FOS) have received particular interest because of their excellent biological and functional properties for using as a prebiotic compound.The strain Aspergillus niger CGMCC No.6640 with independent intellectual property rights was found capable of producing FOS using sucrose as the substrate.To produce FOS using free-whole-cell biotransformation by A.niger 6640,the effects of production parameters on the biotransformation of sucrose were investigated by HPLC with the column of Rezex RCM-Monosaccharife Cat.The catalysate concentration of the Nystose (or 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose),kestose,sucrose,glucose and fructose were simultaneously detected,and their retention time was 8.403 min,8.853 min,9.705 min,11.473 min and 14.683 min,respectively.The free-whole-cell concentration and substrate concentration positively affected the maximum FOS yield.However CaCl2 concentration negatively affected the FOS yield.The free-whole-cell concentration,the initial reaction pH,the temperature for catalysis,biotransformation time and sucrose concentration were 60g/L,7.0,33 ℃,40 h and 600 g/L,respectively.Under the optimal conditions were as follows,the FOS contents reached 314.60 g/L.In summary,the free-whole-cell biocatalyst of A.niger 6640 can effectively produce FOS indicating a potential for industrial production.%蔗果低聚糖(FOS)作为一种益生元物质,由于其具有极好的生物和功能性质,受到人们极大的关注.具有独立知识产权的菌株Aspergillus niger CGMCC No.6640被发现能利用蔗糖制备FOS.为利用A.niger 6640的全细胞制备FOS,以蔗糖为底物,利用高效液相法对该菌株的全细胞生物转化参数进行了研究.利用色谱柱Rezex RCM-Monosaccharife Cat的高效液相法能同时检测催化产物中蔗果四糖(或蔗果五糖)、蔗果三糖、蔗糖、葡萄糖和果糖的浓度,其保留时间分别为8.403 min,8.853 min,9.705 rmin,11.473min和14.683 min.全细胞生物催化剂浓度和底

  12. HIGHER LUMINOSITY B-FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present B-factories PEP-II and KEKB have reached luminosities of 3-4 x 1033/cm2/s and delivered integrated luminosity at rates in excess of 4fb-1 per month [1,2]. The recent turn on of these two B-Factories has shown that modern accelerator physics, design, and engineering can produce colliders that rapidly reach their design luminosities and deliver integrated luminosities capable of frontier particle physics discoveries. PEP-II and KEK-B with ongoing upgrade programs should reach luminosities of over 1034/cm2/s in a few years and with more aggressive improvements may reach luminosities of order 1035/cm2/s by the end of the decade. However, due to particle physics requirements, the next generation B-Factory may require significantly more luminosity. Initial parameters of a very high luminosity e+e- B-Factory or Super B-Factory (SBF) are being developed incorporating several new ideas from the successful operation of the present generation e+e-accelerators [3,4]. A luminosity approaching 1036 cm-2s-1 appears possible. Furthermore, the ratio of average to peak luminosity may be increased by 30% due to continuous injection. The operation of this accelerator will be qualitatively different from present e+e- colliders due to this continuous injection

  13. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  14. Photon Factory activity report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs

  15. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, Erik; Salazar, Natalia Escobar; Sepehrkhouy, Shahrzad; Meijer, Martin; de Cock, Hans; Haas, Pieter-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclas

  16. Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus extract on human bronchial epithelial cells repair ability%烟曲霉菌提取物对人支气管上皮细胞修复功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙飞; 苏莉莉; 梁斌; 金先桥

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨烟曲霉菌对呼吸道上皮细胞修复功能的影响及其可能机制。方法实验分为正常对照组、不同浓度(10、20、40 mg/L)AFE组、热处理AFE组。分别应用不同浓度和热处理的烟曲霉菌提取物(aspergillus fumig-atus extract,AFE)作用体外培养的人支气管上皮细胞16HBE不同的时间,以细胞体外损伤修复功能、细胞迁移能力、定量细胞黏附能力、细胞伸展面积为指标,观察AFE和热处理的AFE对上皮细胞修复能力的影响。结果20、40 mg/L AFE均明显抑制16HBE细胞的体外损伤修复功能、细胞迁移能力和细胞黏附能力(P<0.05),并呈明显的时间和浓度依赖性。10 mg/L AFE与正常对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。10、20、40 mg/L AFE均明显抑制细胞的伸展能力(P<0.05),并呈明显浓度依赖性。另外,热处理AFE的蛋白酶完全灭活,对上述观察指标无明显影响(P>0.05)。结论 AFE依赖其蛋白酶活性明显抑制细胞的修复功能,并呈明显的浓度和时间依赖性。%Objective To investigate the effects of aspergillus fumigatus extract (AFE)on the human bronchial epithe-lial cells repair ability and its possible mechanism.Methods The cells were divided into medium control group,differ-ent concentrations (10,20 and 40 mg/L)of AFE groups and heat-treated AFE group.Human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE were cultured in vitro,which were exposed to different concentrations of AFE for different time.Wound closure assay,cell migration,quantitative cell attachment assay and spreading of bronchial epithelial cells were observed.AFE and heat-treated AFE were used to investigate the effects of AFE on the human bronchial epithelial cells repair ability. Results Compared with medium control group,the repair capacity,migration ability and adhesion ability of 16HBE cells were inhibited significantly in 20 and 40 mg/L groups (P0.05).The spreading

  17. 烟曲霉菌提取物对人支气管上皮细胞修复功能的影响%Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus extract on human bronchial epithelial cells repair ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙飞; 苏莉莉; 梁斌; 金先桥

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨烟曲霉菌对呼吸道上皮细胞修复功能的影响及其可能机制。方法实验分为正常对照组、不同浓度(10、20、40 mg/L)AFE组、热处理AFE组。分别应用不同浓度和热处理的烟曲霉菌提取物(aspergillus fumig-atus extract,AFE)作用体外培养的人支气管上皮细胞16HBE不同的时间,以细胞体外损伤修复功能、细胞迁移能力、定量细胞黏附能力、细胞伸展面积为指标,观察AFE和热处理的AFE对上皮细胞修复能力的影响。结果20、40 mg/L AFE均明显抑制16HBE细胞的体外损伤修复功能、细胞迁移能力和细胞黏附能力(P<0.05),并呈明显的时间和浓度依赖性。10 mg/L AFE与正常对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。10、20、40 mg/L AFE均明显抑制细胞的伸展能力(P<0.05),并呈明显浓度依赖性。另外,热处理AFE的蛋白酶完全灭活,对上述观察指标无明显影响(P>0.05)。结论 AFE依赖其蛋白酶活性明显抑制细胞的修复功能,并呈明显的浓度和时间依赖性。%Objective To investigate the effects of aspergillus fumigatus extract (AFE)on the human bronchial epithe-lial cells repair ability and its possible mechanism.Methods The cells were divided into medium control group,differ-ent concentrations (10,20 and 40 mg/L)of AFE groups and heat-treated AFE group.Human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE were cultured in vitro,which were exposed to different concentrations of AFE for different time.Wound closure assay,cell migration,quantitative cell attachment assay and spreading of bronchial epithelial cells were observed.AFE and heat-treated AFE were used to investigate the effects of AFE on the human bronchial epithelial cells repair ability. Results Compared with medium control group,the repair capacity,migration ability and adhesion ability of 16HBE cells were inhibited significantly in 20 and 40 mg/L groups (P0.05).The spreading

  18. Ochratoxin A-Produktion durch Aspergillus ochraceus

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlencoert, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A, one of the 5 most important mycotoxins in food safety, is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium strains growing on grain, grapes and coffee. OTA biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. depends more on the complex interaction of diverse environmental conditions than on a single growth factor or even the genetic ability to produce OTA. No apparent connection between biomass and OTA production was observed. OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus could be controlled by the pH of...

  19. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  20. Identification of a Classical Mutant in the Industrial Host Aspergillus niger by Systems Genetics: LaeA Is Required for Citric Acid Production and Regulates the Formation of Some Secondary Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Jing; Arentshorst, Mark; Nair, P. Deepa S.;

    2015-01-01

    The asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important industrial cell factory for citric acid production. In this study, we genetically characterized a UV-generated A. niger mutant that was originally isolated as a nonacidifying mutant, which is a desirable trait for industrial enzyme...... production. Physiological analysis showed that this mutant did not secrete large amounts of citric acid and oxalic acid, thus explaining the nonacidifying phenotype. As traditional complementation approaches to characterize the mutant genotype were unsuccessful, we used bulk segregant analysis in combination...... was caused by a point mutation in the laeA gene. LaeA encodes a putative methyltransferase-domain protein, which we show here to be required for citric acid production in an A. niger lab strain (N402) and in other citric acid production strains. The unexpected link between LaeA and citric acid production...

  1. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J P

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VO...

  2. Two metabolites from Aspergillus flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Robertson, L W

    1977-01-01

    Two novel fungal metabolites, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol (1a) and asperphenamate (2) were isolated from the culture filtrate and mycelium of Aspergillus flavipes ATCC 11013. N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol was identified by direct comparison with an authentic sample. The structure of asperphenamate is proposed as (S)-N-benzoyl-phenylalanine-(S)-2-benzamido-3-phenyl propyl ester, based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:875642

  3. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  4. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipases. In contrast to polysaccharide-degrading enzyme networks, not much is known about the signaling and regulatory processes that control lipase expression and activity in fungi. This project was ai...

  5. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  6. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  8. PI-3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling cascades stimulated by insulin like growth factor-I contribute to multiple myeloma cells proliferation and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng-chang; FU Xue-de; LI Man-xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Multiple myeloma is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Significant progress in molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways underlying the survival and/or proliferation of these cells has been achieved.

  9. The role of thiol species in the hypertolerance of Aspergillus sp. P37 to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, David; Vooijs, Riet; Schat, Henk; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2004-12-01

    Aspergillus sp. P37 is an arsenate-hypertolerant fungus isolated from a river in Spain with a long history of contamination with metals. This strain is able to grow in the presence of 0.2 M arsenate, i.e. 20-fold higher than the reference strain, Aspergillus nidulans TS1. Although Aspergillus sp. P37 reduces As(V) to As(III), which is slowly pumped out of the cell, the measured efflux of oxyanions is insufficient to explain the high tolerance levels of this strain. To gain an insight into this paradox, the accumulation of acid-soluble thiol species in Aspergillus sp. P37 when exposed to arsenic was compared with that of the arsenic-sensitive A. nidulans TS1 strain. Increasing levels of arsenic in the medium did not diminish the intracellular pool of reduced glutathione in Aspergillus sp. P37, in sharp contrast with the decline of glutathione in A. nidulans under the same conditions. Furthermore, concentrations of arsenic that were inhibitory for the sensitive A. nidulans strain (e.g. 50 mM and above) provoked a massive formation of vacuoles filled with thiol species. Because the major fraction of the cellular arsenic was present as the glutathione conjugate As(GS)3, it is plausible that the arsenic-hypertolerant phenotype of Aspergillus sp. P37 is in part due to an enhanced capacity to maintain a large intracellular glutathione pool under conditions of arsenic exposure and to sequester As(GS)3 in vacuoles. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of cell extracts revealed that the contact of Aspergillus sp. P37 (but not A. nidulans) with high arsenic concentrations (> or =150 mM) induced the production of small quantities of a distinct thiol species indistinguishable from plant phytochelatin-2. Yet, we argue that phytochelatins do not explain arsenic resistance in Aspergillus, and we advocate the role of As(GS)3 complexes in arsenic detoxification.

  10. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS, from Aspergillus saitoi and expression of the gene in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Yoshida, T; Ichishima, E

    1995-12-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) from Aspergillus saitoi was cloned. Analysis of the 1718 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA revealed a single open reading frame with 1539 nucleotides of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS. The predicted amino-acid sequence of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase consists of 513 residues with a molecular mass of 55,767 and is 70%, 26% and 35% identity with those of Penicillium citrinum 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase, yeast alpha-mannosidase, and mouse alpha-mannosidase. The cDNA of the msdS gene has been cloned and expressed in yeast cells. To identify the activity of expression product methyl-2-O-alpha-mannopyranosyl-alpha-mannopyranoside (Man alpha 1-->2Man-OMe) was used as a substrate at pH 5.0. PMID:8519794

  11. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions.

  12. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact on the pattern and the amount of organic acids produced by A. saccharolyticus. The wild-type strain produced higher amount of malic acid and succinic acid in the pH buffered condition (pH 6.5) compared with the pH non-buffered condition. The enzyme assays showed that the rTCA branch was active in the acid production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led to an enhanced production of succinic acid in frd transformants compared with the wild-type in both pH buffered and pH non-buffered conditions with highest amount produced in the pH buffered condition (16.2 ± 0.5 g/L). This study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing succinic acid production through the cytosolic reductive pathway by genetic engineering in A. saccharolyticus.

  13. Factory Outlet Stores: Ein Trend in Deutschland?

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Sieber, Dorothea

    2009-01-01

    Der Factory Outlet Store stellt einen neuen Vertriebskanal dar, der es Herstellern ermöglicht, Kunden Markenprodukte zu vergleichsweise günstige Preisen anzubieten. Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Konzept Factory Outlet Store und der Frage, ob es sich hierbei um einen aktuellen Marketing-Trend handelt bzw. welche Mittel unternommen werden müssen, um Factory Outlet Stores nachhaltig zu etablieren. Hierzu werden Factory Outlet Stores aus der Marketing-Perspektive analysiert, bei de...

  14. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  15. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  16. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma associated with Aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckard, J Keith; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Patel, Kishor; Dehner, Louis P; Pfeifer, John D

    2003-01-01

    A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was no microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by other pathogens, and no clinical or laboratory evidence of autoimmune disease. An open lung biopsy was diagnostic of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This novel association with Aspergillus infection not only expands the spectrum of pathogens linked to pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma but also documents a new pattern of lung disease that can be caused by Aspergillus. PMID:12598920

  17. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has...... identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on beta-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 degrees C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns...... National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a dade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 degrees C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov...

  18. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  19. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  20. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  1. Results from the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  2. Dexamethasone enhances insulin-like growth factor-I effects on skeletal muscle cell proliferation. Role of specific intracellular signaling pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Giorgino; R.J. Smith

    1995-01-01

    IGF-I stimulation of cell proliferation and c-Fos expression in skeletal muscle cells is markedly enhanced by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone is not mediated by changes in IGF-binding proteins, as evidenced by similar effects of dexamethasone on the actions of insulin, PDGF-BB, and the IGF-I analogue long R3IGF-I. Dexamethasone also does not alter autocrine IGF-II secretion by muscle cells. To investigate the mechanism of the augmentation of IGF-I action, the effects of dexamethaso...

  3. Conserved secondary structures in Aspergillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Manson McGuire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the number and variety of functional RNAs (ncRNAs as well as cis-acting RNA elements within mRNAs is much higher than previously thought; thus, the ability to computationally predict and analyze RNAs has taken on new importance. We have computationally studied the secondary structures in an alignment of six Aspergillus genomes. Little is known about the RNAs present in this set of fungi, and this diverse set of genomes has an optimal level of sequence conservation for observing the correlated evolution of base-pairs seen in RNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a whole-genome search for evolutionarily conserved secondary structures, as well as the results of clustering these predicted secondary structures by structural similarity. We find a total of 7450 predicted secondary structures, including a new predicted approximately 60 bp long hairpin motif found primarily inside introns. We find no evidence for microRNAs. Different types of genomic regions are over-represented in different classes of predicted secondary structures. Exons contain the longest motifs (primarily long, branched hairpins, 5' UTRs primarily contain groupings of short hairpins located near the start codon, and 3' UTRs contain very little secondary structure compared to other regions. There is a large concentration of short hairpins just inside the boundaries of exons. The density of predicted intronic RNAs increases with the length of introns, and the density of predicted secondary structures within mRNA coding regions increases with the number of introns in a gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are many conserved, high-confidence RNAs of unknown function in these Aspergillus genomes, as well as interesting spatial distributions of predicted secondary structures. This study increases our knowledge of secondary structure in these aspergillus organisms.

  4. Photon Factory activity report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory has grown at a considerable rate, and 600 experiments are carried out in 1991, while the number of users is now 2300 including about 500 from industrial sectors. The use of synchrotron radiation increased from fundamental research to industrial development. The development at the Photon Factory is supported by the capability of the accelerators. At present, the 2.5 GeV PF ring is operated with positrons at the initial beam current of 350 mA. The total operation time was 3500 hours in the fiscal year 1990. The development of an avalanche mode photodiode, the observation of quantum beat in the experiment of nuclear Bragg scattering, the measurement of photo-electron and photo-ion spectroscopy were carried out. The conversion of TRISTAN main ring to an ultrahigh brilliance and high coherence source is planned for the future. The annual PF Symposium was held, and Professor H. Winick gave the lecture 'Ultrahigh brightness and coherent radiation from large storage rings'. In this report, the outline of the Photon Factory and the activities in Divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation are described. (K.I.)

  5. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user's short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  6. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) targeting with monoclonal antibody cixutumumab (IMC-A12) inhibits IGF-I action in endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias-Geva, Zohar; Bentov, Itay; Ludwig, Dale L; Fishman, Ami; Bruchim, Ilan; Werner, Haim

    2011-07-01

    Specific insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) targeting emerged in recent years as a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the Western world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of cixutumumab (IMC-A12, ImClone Systems), a fully human monoclonal antibody against the IGF-IR, to inhibit IGF-I-mediated biological actions and cell signalling events in four endometrial carcinoma-derived cell lines (ECC-1, Ishikawa, USPC-1 and USPC-2). Our results demonstrate that cixutumumab was able to block the IGF-I-induced autophosphorylation of the IGF-IR. In addition, the PI3K and MAPK downstream signalling pathways were also inactivated by cixutumumab in part of the cell lines. Prolonged (24h and 48h) exposures to cixutumumab reduced IGF-IR expression. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of GFP-tagged receptors shows that cixutumumab treatment led to IGF-IR redistribution from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. Antiapoptotic effects were evaluated by cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and mitogenicity and transformation by proliferation and cell cycle assays. Results obtained showed that cixutumumab abrogated the IGF-I-stimulated increase in proliferation rate, and increased caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, two markers of apoptosis. Of importance, cixutumumab had no effect neither on insulin receptor (IR) expression nor on IGF-I activation of IR. In summary, in a cellular model of endometrial cancer cixutumumab was able to inhibit the IGF-I-induced activation of intracellular cascades, apoptosis and proliferation.

  8. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines. PMID:27391523

  9. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Gomes; Roberto da Silva; Alcides Serzedello

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of a...

  10. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  11. Saccharomyces pastorianus as cell factory to improve production of fructose 1,6-diphosphate using novel fermentation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Schiraldi; Alberto D'Avino; Alessandro Ruggiero; Katia Della Corte; Mario De Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic phosphorylation of glucose with inorganic phosphate, mediated by permeabilized yeast cells, is one of the methods commonly used to manufacture fructose 1,6-diphosphate, a compound of pharmaceutical interest. This process requires high concentrations of yeast active biomass, that is the catalyst of bioconversion of glucose and inorganic phosphate into fructose 1,6-diphosphate. In this study we firstly describe the high cell density production of a brewer's Saccharomyces strain (Sacch...

  12. 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR Signaling Pathways Regulate the Inhibition of Dectin-1 Caused by Cyclosporine A in Response to Aspergillus Fumigatus in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yiping; Zhao, Guiqiu; Lin, Jing; Li, Cui; Cong, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to observe whether cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits the expression of dectin-1 in human corneal epithelial cells infected with Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. Methods Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were pretreated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR inhibitor for 1 h, and then they were pretreated with CsA for 12h. After these pretreatments, the HCECs were stimulated with A. fumigatus and curdlan respectively, and the expression of dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) were detected by RT-PCR, western blot and ELISA. Results Dectin-1 mRNA and dectin-1 protein expression increased when HCECs were stimulated with A. fumigatus or curdlan, and CsA inhibited the dectin-1 expression both in mRNA and protein levels specifically. Dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokine expression levels were higher when HCECs were pretreated with VDR inhibitor and CsA compared to pretreatment with CsA alone, while dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokine levels were lower when HCECs were pretreated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and CsA compared to pretreatment with CsA alone. Conclusions These data provide evidence that CsA can inhibit the expression of dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokines through dectin-1 when HCECs are stimulated by A. fumigatus or curdlan. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, and VDR signaling pathway regulate the inhibition of CsA. The inhibition is enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3, and the VDR inhibitor suppresses the inhibition. PMID:27755569

  13. Direct infusion of a variant of insulin-like growth factor-I into the skin of sheep and effects on local blood flow, amino acid utilization and cell replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P M; McBride, B W; Gurnsey, M P; Sinclair, B R; Lee, J

    1993-12-01

    In vivo effects of local infusion of a variant of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), long-R3-IGF-I, into the skin were investigated using six conscious sheep with food available ad libitum. An artery and vein on the abdominal flank of each animal, as well as the saphenous artery, were catheterized so that infusion of isotopically labelled amino acids, with or without IGF-I, could be used to determine amino acid uptake by arteriovenous difference in combination with blood flow determined by dye dilution. Measurements were made on each animal prior to IGF-I infusion, at hourly intervals for the 4 h of IGF-I infusion into the skin artery, then 2 and 4 h after IGF-I infusion ceased. Numbers of cells replicating in the bulbs of wool follicles in the IGF-I-infused area and in the skin on the contralateral side of each animal were measured after labelling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. IGF-I caused a significant increase in the skin blood flow (P IGF-I increased amino acid uptake regardless of whether the skin was in negative or positive amino acid balance prior to infusion. During the recovery period amino acid utilization by skin returned towards preinfusion levels. No effects of IGF-I were found on replicating cell numbers in the bulbs of wool follicles. PMID:8133213

  14. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kai LI; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. Materials and Methods RT-PCR was performed to de...

  15. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes.

  16. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  17. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sheena C; Fischer, Gregory J; Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M; Choera, Tsokyi; Lim, Fang Yun; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P; Fahy, John V

    2016-04-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  18. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis.

  19. N-cadherin as a receptor for adhesion and endocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus by human umbilical vein endothelial cells%N-钙黏蛋白在烟曲霉黏附及侵袭内皮细胞中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小勇; 施毅; 张鹏鹏; 申玉英; 张峰; 宋勇

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the receptor for adhesion and endocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae were incubated with the total protein of HUVEC for investigating the binding of N-cadherin and the fungus. After the model of adhesion and endocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus by HUVEC was established, the capacity of adhesion and endocytosis was evaluated with the presence of the antibody to N-cadherin. Results Ncadherin sticked to the surface of Aspergillus fumigatus. Adhesion and endocytosis were inhibited with the presence of the antibody to N-cadherin. Conclusion N-cadherin is a receptor for adhesion and endocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus by HUVEC.%目的 探讨N-钙黏蛋白在内皮细胞黏附吞噬烟曲霉过程中的作用.方法 观察提取人脐静脉内皮细胞蛋白与烟曲霉的结合过程,了解N-钙黏蛋白是否可与烟曲霉结合,建立内皮细胞黏附及吞噬烟曲霉的体外模型,通过单克隆抗体阻断上皮细胞膜受体N-钙黏蛋白,再次观察脐静脉内皮细胞黏附及吞噬烟曲霉情况.结果 脐静脉内皮细胞膜蛋白N-钙黏蛋白可与烟曲霉结合,抗体阻断N-钙黏蛋白后,脐静脉内皮细胞黏附和吞噬烟曲霉能力明显下降.结论 N-钙黏蛋白是脐静脉内皮细胞黏附吞噬烟曲霉孢子的相关受体.

  20. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri.

  1. Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Physics at a Higgsino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard; Mickelson, Dan; Mustafayev, Azar; Tata, Xerxes

    2014-01-01

    Naturalness arguments applied to supersymmetric theories imply a spectrum containing four light higgsinos \\tz_{1,2} and \\tw_1^+- with masses ~ 100-300 GeV (the closer to M_Z the more natural). The compressed mass spectrum and associated low energy release from \\tw_1 and \\tz_2 three-body decay makes higgsinos difficult to detect at LHC14, while the other sparticles might be heavy, and possibly even beyond LHC14 reach. In contrast, the International Linear e^+e^- Collider (ILC) with \\sqrt{s}>2m(higgsino) would be a {\\it higgsino factory} in addition to a Higgs boson factory and would serve as a discovery machine for natural SUSY! In this case, both chargino and neutralino production %which give rise to distinct event topologies, occur at comparable rates, and lead to observable signals above SM backgrounds. We examine two benchmark cases, one just beyond the LHC8 reach with \\tw_1(\\tz_2)-\\tz_1 mass gap of 15 (21) GeV, and a second more difficult case beyond even the LHC14 reach, where the mass gap is just 10 GeV...

  3. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. B factory collider designs and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical parameters of B factory colliders are presented, along with their justification. Design challenges that arise from these parameter choices are indicated. These challenges appear in both the physics design of the collider and its technological implementation. An overview of the three active B factory projects (PEP-II, KEK-B, and the CESR upgrade) is briefly given, and technical approaches adopted by the projects to deal with the design challenges are outlined. Project status and plans for the various B factory projects are also indicated. Because the problems faced by the designers of B factories are closely related to those that will be faced in the design of a Tau-Charm Factory (τcF), the solutions adopted by the B factory designers can in many cases be carried over to the τcF essentially unchanged. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  6. Putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomee, JFC; Kauffman, HF

    2000-01-01

    Various putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus have been studied over the past decades. A. fumigatus gliotoxin is a potent inhibitor of the mucociliary system. Several fungal metabolites interfere with phagocytosis and opsonization including toxins, 'conidial inhibitory factor', 'A. fum

  7. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...... on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and beta-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  8. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  9. Optimization of conditions for culturing the reassortant rotaviruses strain Ls (G3 type) on cell factory%细胞工厂培养轮状病毒基因重配株 Ls(G3型)条件的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红; 张海红; 王名强; 韩平; 余黎; 周旭

    2014-01-01

    目的:以细胞工厂代替转瓶培养轮状病毒基因重配株Ls的可行性研究。方法采用细胞工厂与相应的转瓶培养工艺作对比,比较两种容器内细胞生长状态与病毒收获液滴度,并对细胞工厂培养条件进行了优化。结果以相同浓度接种细胞时,细胞工厂4 d长成单层,转瓶却需要7 d,经细胞仪计数后单位面积内细胞密度相当;以相同MOI接种病毒后,转瓶内的病毒于第7天病毒滴度达到峰值,细胞已完全脱落;细胞工厂于第3天病毒滴度达到峰值,并实现了3次收获。细胞工厂每次收获的病毒液滴度都稳定在一定范围,与转瓶相当。另外,细胞工厂培养条件优化结果表明,Vero细胞最佳接种浓度为3.0×104细胞/cm2,接种病毒的最适MOI为0.02~0.04。结论使用细胞工厂培养Ls株病毒不仅提高了效率,而且减少了培养空间,可替代转瓶规模化生产轮状病毒疫苗。%Objective To estimate the possibility of culturing the reassortant rotaviruses strain Ls on a cell factory instead of a conventional roller bottle .Methods The growths of cells and titers of harvested virus cultured by the two methods were compared.Furthermore, the condition for culture on the cell factory was optimized .Results The results indicate that the monolayer is formed on the surface of the cell factory within 4 d of cultivation , but on the surface of the roller bottle within 7 d, when the Vero cells are inoculated at the same cell concentration .We found that the cell density of two contain-ers is equal by using the cell counter .The titer of viruses in roller bottle reaches a peak value at 7th day, afterwards cells have completely exfoliated;Those cultured on the cell factory achieve the highest titer of viruses at the 3rd day, and could be harvested for 3 times.The titers of each virus harvest are stable within a certain range on the cell factory , which are equal to those of the

  10. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina;

    2009-01-01

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...

  11. Strategies for the production of difficult-to-express full-length eukaryotic proteins using microbial cell factories: production of human alpha-galactosidase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Vázquez, Felicitas; Accardi, Giulia; Mendoza, Rosa; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Giuliani, Maria; Sannino, Filomena; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Abasolo, Ibane; Schwartz, Simo; Tutino, Maria L; Villaverde, Antonio; Corchero, José L; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining high levels of pure proteins remains the main bottleneck of many scientific and biotechnological studies. Among all the available recombinant expression systems, Escherichia coli facilitates gene expression by its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast cultivation, well-known genetics and the large number of tools available for its biotechnological application. However, recombinant expression in E. coli is not always a straightforward procedure and major obstacles are encountered when producing many eukaryotic proteins and especially membrane proteins, linked to missing posttranslational modifications, proteolysis and aggregation. In this context, many conventional and unconventional eukaryotic hosts are under exploration and development, but in some cases linked to complex culture media or processes. In this context, alternative bacterial systems able to overcome some of the limitations posed by E. coli keeping the simplicity of prokaryotic manipulation are currently emerging as convenient hosts for protein production. We have comparatively produced a "difficult-to-express" human protein, the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (hGLA) in E. coli and in the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 cells (P. haloplanktis TAC125). While in E. coli the production of active hGLA was unreachable due to proteolytic instability and/or protein misfolding, the expression of hGLA gene in P. haloplanktis TAC125 allows obtaining active enzyme. These results are discussed in the context of emerging bacterial systems for protein production that represent appealing alternatives to the regular use of E. coli and also of more complex eukaryotic systems. PMID:25616525

  12. Towards Biocontained Cell Factories: An Evolutionarily Adapted Escherichia coli Strain Produces a New-to-nature Bioactive Lantibiotic Containing Thienopyrrole-Alanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthning, Anja; Durkin, Patrick; Oehm, Stefan; Hoesl, Michael G.; Budisa, Nediljko; Süssmuth, Roderich D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic code engineering that enables reassignment of genetic codons to non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) is a powerful strategy for enhancing ribosomally synthesized peptides and proteins with functions not commonly found in Nature. Here we report the expression of a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), the 32-mer lantibiotic lichenicidin with a canonical tryptophan (Trp) residue replaced by the ncAA L-β-(thieno[3,2-b]pyrrolyl)alanine ([3,2]Tpa) which does not sustain cell growth in the culture. We have demonstrated that cellular toxicity of [3,2]Tpa for the production of the new-to-nature bioactive congener of lichenicidin in the host Escherichia coli can be alleviated by using an evolutionarily adapted host strain MT21 which not only tolerates [3,2]Tpa but also uses it as a proteome-wide synthetic building block. This work underscores the feasibility of the biocontainment concept and establishes a general framework for design and large scale production of RiPPs with evolutionarily adapted host strains. PMID:27634138

  13. Towards Biocontained Cell Factories: An Evolutionarily Adapted Escherichia coli Strain Produces a New-to-nature Bioactive Lantibiotic Containing Thienopyrrole-Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthning, Anja; Durkin, Patrick; Oehm, Stefan; Hoesl, Michael G; Budisa, Nediljko; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-01-01

    Genetic code engineering that enables reassignment of genetic codons to non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) is a powerful strategy for enhancing ribosomally synthesized peptides and proteins with functions not commonly found in Nature. Here we report the expression of a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), the 32-mer lantibiotic lichenicidin with a canonical tryptophan (Trp) residue replaced by the ncAA L-β-(thieno[3,2-b]pyrrolyl)alanine ([3,2]Tpa) which does not sustain cell growth in the culture. We have demonstrated that cellular toxicity of [3,2]Tpa for the production of the new-to-nature bioactive congener of lichenicidin in the host Escherichia coli can be alleviated by using an evolutionarily adapted host strain MT21 which not only tolerates [3,2]Tpa but also uses it as a proteome-wide synthetic building block. This work underscores the feasibility of the biocontainment concept and establishes a general framework for design and large scale production of RiPPs with evolutionarily adapted host strains. PMID:27634138

  14. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%.

  15. Heterologous expression of the Aspergillus nidulans alcR-alcA system in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaev, I.; Mathieu, M.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Visser, J.; Felenbok, B.

    2002-01-01

    The inducible and strongly expressed alcA gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I from Aspergillus nidulans was transferred together with the activator gene alcR, in the industrial fungus Aspergillus niger. This latter organism does not possess an inducible alc system but has an endogenously constitut

  16. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  17. Perspectives for Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2016-01-01

    High brilliance muon beams are needed for future facilities such as a Neutrino Factory, an Higgs-factory or a multi-TeV Muon Collider. The R&D path involves many aspects, of which cooling of the incoming muon beams is essential.

  18. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  19. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.A produção de ribonucleases extracelulares pelos fungos Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus e A. fischeri foi estudada em meio semi-sintético por períodos de 24 a 144 horas, em "shaker" a 30ºC. Após o cultivo, o meio foi separado da massa micelial por filtração, sendo o filtrado utilizado como solução enzimática bruta. As três espécies produziram maior quantidade de biomassa e ribonuclease após 96 horas de cultivo. O estudo das RNases como extrato enzimático bruto demonstrou que existe grande similaridade entre as enzimas das três espécies, com temperaturas ótimas de 55ºC e dois picos de atividade a pH 4,5 e a pH 7,0. A RNAse produzida pelo fungo A. flavipes demonstrou ser mais

  20. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  1. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  2. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus that activates, suppresses or modulates the immune response by changing its cell wall structure and by secreting proteases. In this study, we show that chitin acts as an adjuvant in a murine model of A. fumigatus protease induced allergy...

  3. Systems Analysis Unfolds the Relationship between the Phosphoketolase Pathway and Growth in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus nidulans is an important model organism for studies on fundamental eukaryotic cell biology and on industrial processes due to its close relation to A. niger and A. oryzae. Here we identified the gene coding for a novel metabolic pathway in A. nidulans, namely...

  4. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim;

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of...

  5. Neuroimaging features of cerebral aspergillus abscess: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Bai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Cerebral aspergillus abscesses possess some degree neuroimaging features on traditional CT/MR imaging. Combined with patient's clinical history, CT/MRI examination could facilitate early diagnosis of aspergillus abscesses in central nervous system.

  6. Extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with CARD9 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Hsu, Amy P.; Collar, Amanda L.; Sugui, Janyce A.; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Hoffman, Kevin; Henderson, Carolyn; Clark, Lily; Mezger, Markus; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Engeholm, Maik; Schüle, Rebecca; Neumayer, Bettina; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Prasad, Vinod K.; Singh, Anurag; Milner, Joshua D.; Williams, Kelli W.; Lim, Jean K.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Holland, Steven M.; Hartl, Dominik; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25. Neither patient developed Aspergillus infection of the lungs. One patient had homozygous M1I CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain family member 9) mutation, while the other had homozygous Q295X CARD9 mutation; both patients lacked CARD9 protein expression. The patients had normal monocyte and Th17 cell numbers in peripheral blood, but their mononuclear cells exhibited impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines upon fungus-specific stimulation. Neutrophil phagocytosis, killing, and oxidative burst against Aspergillus fumigatus were intact, but neither patient accumulated neutrophils in infected tissue despite normal neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. The neutrophil tissue accumulation defect was not caused by defective neutrophil-intrinsic chemotaxis, indicating that production of neutrophil chemoattractants in extrapulmonary tissue is impaired in CARD9 deficiency. Taken together, our results show that CARD9 deficiency is the first known inherited or acquired condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with sparing of the lungs, associated with impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. PMID:27777981

  7. Yeast cell factories on the horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, yeast has been used for making beer, bread, and wine. In modern times, it has become a commercial workhorse for producing fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human serum albumin, and vaccines against hepatitis virus and human papillomavirus. Yeast has also...... been engineered to make chemicals at industrial scale (e.g., succinic acid, lactic acid, resveratrol) and advanced biofuels (e.g., isobutanol) (1). On page 1095 of this issue, Galanie et al. (2) demonstrate that yeast can now be engineered to produce opioids (2), a major class of compounds used...... for treating severe pain. Their study represents a tour de force in the metabolic engineering of yeast, as it involved the expression of genes for more than 20 enzymatic activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. It clearly represents a breakthrough advance for making complex natural products...

  8. Photon Factory activity report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Photon Factory about 500 experiments are now running annually with about 50 experimental stations, the total operation time of the 2.5 GeV storage ring was 3400 hour in 1989, and the number of users was more than 2000, including 300 scientists from industry. This wide usage of synchrotron radiation has been supported by good performance of the accelerators. The positron beam current of the linac was increased for rapid injection (injection time: 20 min). The entire roof of the Light Source building was covered with thermal insulator (urethane-foam). This has greatly improved the beam stability of the ring. It has been operated at an initial ring current of 350 mA with a life time of 20 hours. Distinctive instrumentation at the Photon Factory has expanded to various fields such as angle-resolved ion-spectroscopy, dispersive EXAFS, trace impurity X-ray fluorescence analysis, plane-wave topography, structure analysis under high pressure, and imaging plates. Recently, experiments of protein structure analysis have been carried out extensively; Sakabe developed a new type of Weissenberg camera for protein crystallography, and about 50 experiments have been done for the past six months by a combination of Sakabe camera and imaging plates. The 2.5 GeV light source is now at an entrance of its harvest season. The TRISTAN Accumulation Ring has been used throughout this year in a time sharing basis with the TRISTAN experiment; twenty minutes for injection to TRISTAN Main Ring and 2 hours for SR experiment. The main subject has been magnetic Compton scattering with circularly polarized wiggler radiation. Such experiences enable us to expand our perspective for research in the following decade; we are investigating the possibility of operating the TRISTAN Main Ring at 6-8 GeV with 6000-pole undulaters, resulting in an extremely brilliant radiation source (Emittance: 0.1 nm·rad at 5 GeV with damping rings). (J.P.N.)

  9. New promoters to improve heterologous protein production in Aspergillus vadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culleton, H.; Bouzid, O.; McKie, V.; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus is a widely used host organism for the industrial production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Although Aspergillus niger is most commonly used, a close relative of this species, Aspergillus vadensis, has been suggested as a suitable and more favourable alternative due in part, to

  10. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  11. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14 and A. luchuensis (n = 6. The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948 does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  12. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  13. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2001-01-01

    We examined nine Aspergillus japonicus isolates and 10 Aspergillus aculeatus isolates by using molecular and biochemical markers, including DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and secondary-metabolite profiles. The DNA sequence...... of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and pectin...

  14. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...... in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when...

  15. Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

    2005-04-01

    Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P lead and semen lead was significantly (P lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories.

  16. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  17. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  18. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    Objectives: Cystic fibrosis patients are commonly infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but Aspergilli are also frequently isolated. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different Aspergillus. Methods: A suspension of 106 fungal spores/ml was streaked onto WATM...... suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified...

  19. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  20. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  1. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A J; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T; Beneke, M; Beringer, J; Bianchi, F; Bigi, I I; Bona, M; Brambilla, N; Brodzicka, J; Chang, P; Charles, M J; Cheng, C H; Cheng, H -Y; Chistov, R; Colangelo, P; Coleman, J P; Drutskoy, A; Druzhinin, V P; Eidelman, S; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Faccini, R; Flood, K T; Gambino, P; Gaz, A; Gradl, W; Hayashii, H; Higuchi, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Hurth, T; Iijima, T; Itoh, R; Jackson, P D; Kass, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kou, E; Križan, P; Kronfeld, A; Kumano, S; Kwon, Y J; Latham, T E; Leith, D W G S; Lüth, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Meadows, B T; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Ocariz, J; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palano, A; Pich, A; Playfer, S; Poluektov, A; Porter, F C; Robertson, S H; Roney, J M; Roodman, A; Sakai, Y; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekula, S J; Steinhauser, M; Sumisawa, K; Swanson, E S; Tackmann, F; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Uno, S; van der Water, R; Vasseur, G; Verkerke, W; Waldi, R; Wang, M Z; Wilson, F F; Zupan, J; Zupanc, A; Adachi, I; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Ben-Haim, E; Biassoni, P; Cahn, R N; Cartaro, C; Chauveau, J; Chen, C; Chiang, C C; Cowan, R; Dalseno, J; Davier, M; Davies, C; Dingfelder, J C; Echenard, B; Epifanov, D; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Gary, J W; Godang, R; Graham, M T; Hafner, A; Hamilton, B; Hartmann, T; Hayasaka, K; Hearty, C; Iwasaki, Y; Khodjamirian, A; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Lafferty, G D; Lazzaro, A; Li, J; Lindemann, D; Long, O; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinelli, M; Miyabayashi, K; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Muller, D R; Nakazawa, H; Ongmongkolkul, P; Pacetti, S; Palombo, F; Pedlar, T K; Piilonen, L E; Pilloni, A; Poireau, V; Prothmann, K; Pulliam, T; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roudeau, P; Schrenk, S; Schroeder, T; Schubert, K R; Shen, C P; Shwartz, B; Soffer, A; Solodov, E P; Somov, A; Starič, M; Stracka, S; Telnov, A V; Todyshev, K Yu; Tsuboyama, T; Uglov, T; Vinokurova, A; Walsh, J J; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Ye, S; Zhang, C C; Abachi, S; Abashian, A; Abe, N; Abe, R; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adam, I; Adamczyk, K; Adametz, A; Adye, T; Agarwal, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Ahn, B S; Ahn, H S; Aitchison, I J R; Akai, K; Akar, S; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M; Akhmetshin, R; Akre, R; Alam, M S; Albert, J N; Aleksan, R; Alexander, J P; Alimonti, G; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Alsmiller, J R G; Altenburg, D; Alwyn, K E; An, Q; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Andress, J C; Angelini, C; Anipko, D; Anjomshoaa, A; Anthony, P L; Antillon, E A; Antonioli, E; Aoki, K; Arguin, J F; A, K; Arisaka, K; Asai, K; Asai, M; Asano, Y; Asgeirsson, D J; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aspinwall, M L; Aston, D; Atmacan, H; Aubert, B; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Azzolini, V; Azzopardi, D E; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bagnasco, S; Bahinipati, S; Bailey, D S; Bailey, S; Bailly, P; van Bakel, N; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Balagura, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Banas, E; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; 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Spradlin, P; Staengle, H; Stamen, R; Stanek, M; Stanič, S; Stark, J; Steder, M; Steininger, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stevanato, E; Stocchi, A; Stock, R; Stoeck, H; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strother, P; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stypula, J; Su, D; Suda, R; Sugahara, R; Sugi, A; Sugimura, T; Sugiyama, A; Suitoh, S; Sullivan, M K; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Summers, D J; Sun, L; Sun, S; Sundermann, J E; Sung, H F; Susaki, Y; Sutcliffe, P; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, J I; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Swain, J E; Swain, S K; T'Jampens, S; Tabata, M; Tackmann, K; Tajima, H; Tajima, O; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, T; Takasaki, F; Takayama, T; Takita, M; Tamai, K; Tamponi, U; Tamura, N; Tan, N; Tan, P; Tanabe, K; Tanabe, T; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taras, P; Tasneem, N; Tatishvili, G; Tatomi, T; Tawada, M; Taylor, F; Taylor, G N; Taylor, G P; Telnov, V I; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonyan, R; Teramoto, Y; Teytelman, D; Thérin, G; Thiebaux, Ch; Thiessen, D; Thomas, E W; Thompson, J M; Thorne, F; Tian, X C; Tibbetts, M; Tikhomirov, I; Tinslay, J S; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Tocut, V; Toki, W H; Tomassini, E W; Tomoto, M; Tomura, T; Torassa, E; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Toussaint, J C; Tovey, S N; Trapani, P P; Treadwell, E; Triggiani, G; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trischuk, W; Troost, D; Trunov, A; Tsai, K L; Tsai, Y T; Tsujita, Y; Tsukada, K; Tsukamoto, T; Tuggle, J M; Tumanov, A; Tung, Y W; Turnbull, L; Turner, J; Turri, M; Uchida, K; Uchida, M; Uchida, Y; Ueki, M; Ueno, K; Ujiie, N; Ulmer, K A; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Usseglio, M; Usuki, Y; Uwer, U; Va'vra, J; Vahsen, S E; Vaitsas, G; Valassi, A; Vallazza, E; Vallereau, A; Vanhoefer, P; van Hoek, W C; Van Hulse, C; van Winkle, D; Varner, G; Varnes, E W; Varvell, K E; Vasileiadis, G; Velikzhanin, Y S; Verderi, M; Versillé, S; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Vidal, P B; Villa, S; Villanueva-Perez, P; Vinograd, E L; Vitale, L; Vitug, G M; Voß, C; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Vuagnin, G; Vuosalo, C O; Wacker, K; Wagner, A P; Wagner, D L; Wagner, G; Wagner, M N; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Walker, D; Walkowiak, W; Wallom, D; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, J G; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, P; Wang, T J; Wang, W F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wappler, F R; Watanabe, M; Watson, A T; Watson, J E; Watson, N K; Watt, M; Weatherall, J H; Weaver, M; Weber, T; Wedd, R; Wei, J T; Weidemann, A W; W, A J R; Wenzel, W A; West, C A; West, C G; West, T J; White, R M; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Wienands, U; Wilden, L; Wilder, M; Williams, D C; Williams, G; Williams, J C; Williams, K M; Williams, M I; Willocq, S Y; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wittlin, J; Wittmer, W; Wixted, R; Woch, A; Wogsland, B J; Wong, Q K; Wray, B C; Wren, A C; Wright, D M; Wu, C H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xella, S M; Xie, Q L; Xie, Y; Xu, Z Z; Yèche, Ch; Yamada, Y; Yamaga, M; Yamaguchi, A; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, N; Yamamoto, R K; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamaoka, Y; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yan, D S; Yan, Y; Yanai, H; Yanaka, S; Yang, H; Yang, R; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Yashchenko, S; Yashima, J; Yasin, Z; Yasu, Y; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Yi, M; Yin, Z W; Ying, J; Yocky, G; Yokoyama, K; Yokoyama, M; Yokoyama, T; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, M; Yoshimura, Y; Young, C C; Yu, C X; Yu, Z; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Yumiceva, F X; Yusa, Y; Yushkov, A N; Yuta, H; Zacek, V; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zambito, S; Zander, D; Zang, S L; Zanin, D; Zaslavsky, B G; Zeng, Q L; Zghiche, A; Zhang, B; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, L M; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, H W; Zhao, M; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, Y; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhu, R Y; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z M; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, T; Ziegler, V; Zioulas, G; Zisman, M; Zito, M; Zürcher, D; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O; Živko, T; Žontar, D; Bevan, Adrian; Golob, Bostjan; Mannel, Thomas; Prell, Soeren; Yabsley, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  2. Identification of Colour Reconnection using Factorial Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Hua; LIU Lian-Shou

    2000-01-01

    A new signal is proposed for the colour reconnection in the hadronic decay of W+ W- in e+e- collisions. Using Pythia Monte Carlo it is shown that factorial correlators for W+ and W- without colour reconnection are almost identical to unity, while those for the cases with colour reconnection fall down approximately linearly in the log log plot. This signal, being based on the factorial correlator, is more sensitive than the ones using only averaged quantities.

  3. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of A. arachidicola is CBS 117610(T) =IBT 25020(T) and that of A. minisclerotigenes is CBS 117635(T) =IBT 27196(T). The Mycobank accession numbers for Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. and Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov...

  4. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  5. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step. PMID:26837219

  6. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. Th...... is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis....

  7. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. Th...... is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis....

  8. Robots use in the exploitation of Cogema's factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows some aspects of the robot systems currently used in the fuel cycle of Cogema's factories. Two kinds of robots are used: shift working robots for maintenance, decontamination, repetitive and laboratory works in hot cells (manipulation of fuel and fissile material), and mobile robots for cleansing, inspection, modification or dismantling of installations. They comprise specific tools, arms, vision and carrier or stabilization systems. The main objectives in the evolution of robot technologies consist in reducing dosimetry and intervention time of personnel in hot cell, and improving tools and work precision in agreement with the specificity of Cogema's activities. (J.S.). 8 figs

  9. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-02

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  10. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  11. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  12. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed;

    2012-01-01

    are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...

  13. Organic acid production by Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de

    2006-01-01

    . Specielt Aspergillus niger er interessant i forbindelse med produktion af organiske syrer, idet denne organisme tolerer lavt pH, kan give høje produktudbytter, og kan give høje produktiviteter som allerede illustreret i anvendelsen af denne organisme i produktionen af citronsyre. Disse faktorer gør A...

  14. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  15. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence ...

  16. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  17. Interaction between maize seed and Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes maize seeds and contaminates them with aflatoxin. The fungus is localized in the endosperm and aleurone. To investigate the plant microbe interaction, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal co...

  18. New rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Three new  rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes were purified from a commercial enzyme preparation, Pectinex Ultra SP, produced by the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus . Pectinex Ultra SP is industrially used in the mash treatment of apples and pears in juice production, increasing juice yield. Rhamnoga

  19. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Bretagne, S.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Schulz, B.; Finnstrom, N.; Mengoli, C.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2010-01-01

    PCR has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for almost 2 decades. A lack of standardization has limited both its acceptance as a diagnostic tool and multicenter clinical evaluations, preventing its inclusion in disease-defining criteria. In 2006, the European Aspergillus P

  20. Establishment of a new continuous culture and multiple harvests processusing cell factory for rabies vaccine for human use%应用细胞工厂建立人用狂犬病疫苗连续培养多次收获工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红芳; 徐枫; 赵祖波; 任红卫; 杨淼; 马超; 辛军; 龚健; 李守丽; 于滢

    2013-01-01

    目的:为提高生产效率、增加原代地鼠肾细胞单产量及狂犬病病毒产量,建立人用狂犬病疫苗(地鼠肾细胞)连续培养多次收获工艺。方法选用12~14日龄SPF地鼠,无菌取肾经消化,制备成细胞悬液,分装到40层细胞工厂并培养细胞成单层;接种狂犬病病毒固定毒aG株,连续培养病毒并多次收获。分别对同一细胞批制备的多个单次病毒收获液的免疫原性、病毒滴度和地鼠肾细胞蛋白质含量进行检测。结果用40层细胞工厂培养原代地鼠肾细胞和狂犬病病毒,细胞接种浓度为1.0×106~1.5×106cells /mL,(36±1)℃培养72 h成致密单层;按0.1 MOI病毒接种,可进行6次收获病毒;多个单次病毒收获液病毒滴度均不低于6.0 lgLD50/mL;免疫原性检查保护指数不低于100;地鼠肾细胞蛋白质残留量随着收获次数的增加而不断降低。结论用细胞工厂建立了人用狂犬病疫苗连续培养多次收获工艺,能显著提高地鼠肾单产量,增加产能。%Objective To improve the production efficiency and increase primary hamster kidney cells ( PHKC) and rabies virus yield.To establish a new continuous culture and multiple harvests process using cell factory for rabies vaccine ( Ham-ster kidney cells ) for human use .Methods PHKC suspensions were prepared by asepsis digesting 12 to 14 day old pri-mary hamster kidney .The cells suspension was packed into cell factory and cultured to cell monolayer .Rabies fixed strains aG was inoculated and cultured ,and then multiple harvests were taken .Immunogenicity test , virus titer test and PHKC matrix proteins tset were taken for every single virus harvest from one cell batch .Result Cells cultures were carried out in CellSTACK®-40(40-layers cell factory) with cell density of 1.0×106-1.5×106cells /mL at (36±1) ℃ for 72 h.Cells were infected with rabies aG strains at 0.1 MOI and six virus harvests were

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  2. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  3. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation. PMID:18601027

  4. Perspectives on Higher Luminosity B-Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present B-factories PEP-II and KEKB have reached luminosities of 4-6 x 1033/cm2/s and delivered integrated luminosity at rates in excess of 6 fb-1 per month [1,2]. The recent turn on of these two B-Factories has shown that modern accelerator physics, design, and engineering can produce colliders that rapidly reach their design luminosities and deliver integrated luminosities capable of frontier particle physics discoveries. PEP-II and KEK-B with ongoing upgrade programs should reach luminosities of over 1034/cm2/s in a few years and with more aggressive improvements may reach luminosities of order 4 x 1034/cm2/s by the end of the decade. However, due to particle physics requirements, the next generation B-Factory may require significantly more luminosity. Initial parameters of a very high luminosity e+e- B-Factory or Super B-Factory (SBF) are being developed incorporating several new ideas from the successful operation of the present generation e+e- accelerators [3,4]. A luminosity approaching 1036 cm-2s-1 may be possible. Furthermore, the ratio of average to peak luminosity may be increased by 30% due to continuous injection. The operation of this new accelerator will be qualitatively different from present e+e- colliders due to this continuous injection

  5. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  6. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Varga, J; Meijer, M; Frisvad, J C

    2011-06-30

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetusCBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on β-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously

  7. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  8. Rapid Application Development Using Software Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanovski, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Software development is still based on manufactory production, and most of the programming code is still hand-crafted. Software development is very far away from the ultimate goal of industrialization in software production, something which has been achieved long time ago in the other industries. The lack of software industrialization creates an inability to cope with fast and frequent changes in user requirements, and causes cost and time inefficiencies during their implementation. Analogous to what other industries had done long time ago, industrialization of software development has been proposed using the concept of software factories. We have accepted this vision about software factories, and developed our own software factory which produces three-layered ASP.NET web applications. In this paper we report about our experience with using this approach in the process of software development, and present comparative results on performances and deliverables in both traditional development and development usin...

  9. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Bogacz, S.A.; /Jefferson Lab; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  10. The Physics of the B Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, A. J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, Th.; Prell, S.; Yabsley, B. D.; Aihara, H.; Anulli, F.; Arnaud, N.; Aushev, T.; Beneke, M.; Beringer, J.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, I. I.; Bona, M.; Brambilla, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Chang, P.; Charles, M. J.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, H.-Y.; Chistov, R.; Colangelo, P.; Coleman, J. P.; Drutskoy, A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S.; Eigen, G.; Eisner, A. M.; Faccini, R.; Flood, K. T.; Gambino, P.; Gaz, A.; Gradl, W.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, P. D.; Kass, R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kou, E.; Križan, P.; Kronfeld, A.; Kumano, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Latham, T. E.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lüth, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Meadows, B. T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ocariz, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palano, A.; Pich, A.; Playfer, S.; Poluektov, A.; Porter, F. C.; Robertson, S. H.; Roney, J. M.; Roodman, A.; Sakai, Y.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Sekula, S. J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. F.; Arinstein, K.; Arisaka, K.; Asai, K.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Asner, D. M.; Aso, T.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Aston, D.; Atmacan, H.; Aubert, B.; Aulchenko, V.; Ayad, R.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Azzolini, V.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Baak, M. A.; Back, J. J.; Bagnasco, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Bailey, D. S.; Bailey, S.; Bailly, P.; van Bakel, N.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Banas, E.; Band, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Baracchini, E.; Barate, R.; Barberio, E.; Barbero, M.; Bard, D. J.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Barrett, M.; Bartel, W.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batignani, G.; Battaglia, M.; Bauer, J. M.; Bay, A.; Beaulieu, M.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, T. W.; Becker, J.; Becla, J.; Bedny, I.; Behari, S.; Behera, P. K.; Behn, E.; Behr, L.; Beigbeder, C.; Beiline, D.; Bell, R.; Bellini, F.; Bellodi, G.; Belous, K.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, G.; Benitez, J. F.; Benkebil, M.; Berger, N.; Bernabeu, J.; Bernard, D.; Bernet, R.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berryhill, J. W.; Bertsche, K.; Besson, P.; Best, D. S.; Bettarini, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhimji, W.; Bhuyan, B.; Biagini, M. E.; Biasini, M.; van Bibber, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bingham, I.; Bionta, R. M.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blanc, F.; Blaylock, G.; Blinov, V. E.; Bloom, E.; Bloom, P. C.; Blount, N. L.; Blouw, J.; Bly, M.; Blyth, S.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bomben, M.; Bondar, A.; Bondioli, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Bonvicini, G.; Booke, M.; Booth, J.; Borean, C.; Borgland, A. W.; Borsato, E.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Botov, A. A.; Bougher, J.; Bouldin, K.; Bourgeois, P.; Boutigny, D.; Bowerman, D. A.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Boyd, J. T.; Bozek, A.; Bozzi, C.; Bračko, M.; Brandenburg, G.; Brandt, T.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.; Breon, A. B.; Breton, D.; Brew, C.; Briand, H.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brigljević, V.; Britton, D. I.; Brochard, F.; Broomer, B.; Brose, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  11. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  12. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species......, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...

  13. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  14. In vitro interactions of antifungal agents and tacrolimus against Aspergillus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus via a 96-well plate-based method, and the combined antifungal activity of tacrolimus with azoles or amphotericin B against Aspergillus biofilms was investigated via a broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. Our results suggest that combinations of tacrolimus with voriconazole or amphotericin B have synergistic inhibitory activity against Aspergillus biofilms. However, combinations of tacrolimus with itraconazole or posaconazole exhibit no synergistic or antagonistic effects.

  15. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H.

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melani...

  16. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani; Nandigam Srujana; Guntur Preethi; Tandale Swati

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of co...

  17. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  19. Butenolide derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Zhanlin; Xu, Xiangwei; Wang, Kaibo; Shao, Meili; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Haifeng; Hua, Huiming; Pei, Yuehu; Bai, Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Three new butenolides containing 5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one core, asperteretal A (1), asperteretal B (2), and asperteretal C (3), together with seven known butenolides (4-10), were obtained from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus PR-P-2 isolated from the plant Camellia sinensis var. assamica. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD spectra. Compounds 1, 3, 5 and 6-8 showed potent inhibitory effects on NO production in RAW 264.7 lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages, and compounds 5 and 8 also exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cell line. PMID:27370101

  20. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities.

  1. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  2. Aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Kausar; El-Ganiny, Amira M; Afroz, Sharmin; Sanders, David A R; Liu, Juxin; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-12-01

    The cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. Many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. Galactofuranose (Galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. It comprises about 5% of the Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. We are studying Aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, A. nidulans. Previously we showed single-gene deletions of three sequential A. nidulans Galf biosynthesis proteins each caused similar hyphal morphogenesis defects and 500-fold reduced colony growth and sporulation. Here, we generated ugeA, ugmA and ugtA strains controlled by the alcA(p) or niiA(p) regulatable promoters. For repression and expression, alcA(p)-regulated strains were grown on complete medium with glucose or threonine, whereas niiA(p)-regulated strains were grown on minimal medium with ammonium or nitrate. Expression was assessed by qPCR and colony phenotype. The alcA(p) and niiA(p) strains produced similar effects: colonies resembling wild type for gene expression, and resembling deletion strains for gene repression. Galf immunolocalization using the L10 monoclonal antibody showed that ugmA deletion and repression phenotypes correlated with loss of hyphal wall Galf. None of the gene manipulations affected itraconazole sensitivity, as expected. Deletion of any of ugmA, ugeA, ugtA, their repression by alcA(p) or niiA(p), OR, ugmA overexpression by alcA(p), increased sensitivity to Caspofungin. Strains with alcA(p)-mediated overexpression of ugeA and ugtA had lower caspofungin sensitivity. Galf appears to play an important role in A. nidulans growth and vigor.

  3. Signaling pathways for stress responses and adaptation in Aspergillus species: stress biology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi in terms of industrial use and because of their pathogenic or toxin-producing features. The genomes of several Aspergillus species have become publicly available in this decade, and genomic analyses have contributed to an integrated understanding of fungal biology. Stress responses and adaptation mechanisms have been intensively investigated using the accessible genome infrastructure. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been highlighted as being fundamentally important in fungal adaptation to a wide range of stress conditions. Reverse genetics analyses have uncovered the roles of MAPK pathways in osmotic stress, cell wall stress, development, secondary metabolite production, and conidia stress resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the stress biology of Aspergillus species, illuminating what we have learned from the genomic data in this "post-genomic era." PMID:27007956

  4. Disruption of the Phospholipase D Gene Attenuates the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianping; Gao, Meihua; Han, Xuelin; Tao, Sha; Zheng, Dongyu; Cheng, Ying; Yu, Rentao; Han, Gaige; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen that induces serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, knowledge of the impact of phospholipases on A. fumigatus virulence is rather limited. In this study, disruption of the pld gene encoding phospholipase D (PLD), an important member of the phospholipase protei...

  5. Genetic and structural validation of Aspergillus fumigatus N-acetylphosphoglucosamine mutase as an antifungal target

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Wenxia; Du, Ting; Raimi, Olawale G.; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Mariño, Karina; Ibrahim, Adel F. M.; Albarbarawi, Osama; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Jin, Cheng; Van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the causative agent of IA (invasive aspergillosis) in immunocompromised patients. It possesses a cell wall composed of chitin, glucan and galactomannan, polymeric carbohydrates synthesized by processive glycosyltransferases from intracellular sugar nucleotide donors. Here we demonstrate that A. fumigatus possesses an active AfAGM1 (A. fumigatus N-acetylphosphoglucosamine mutase), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of UDP (uridine diphosphate)–GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine...

  6. Comparative studies on biofilm development by Aspergillus niger on polyester sheet and muslin cloth

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Verma; Mukesh C.Bansal; Vivek kumar

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are naturally adapted to adhere on the surfaces in submerged cultures. Cell adhesion plays a vital role in biofilm development in submerged cultures. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the growth rate of Aspergillus on the polyester sheet and muslin cloth with and without solid support in submerged cultures. The growth of A. niger was observed to be high in polyester sheet when compared with muslin cloth.

  7. Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaibel, Andreas; Auwaerter, Andreas; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this paper as: Kaibel, A., Auwaerter, A., & Kravcik, M. (2006). Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. October 1st-4th, Crete, Greece: Springer. Retrieved October 18th, 2006, from http://dspace.lear

  8. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other part

  9. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  10. A tau -- charm -- factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the beam energy setting, the τ -- charm -- factory will be optimized to study physics with τ leptons, with charmed mesons, or with charmonium states. This report gives a short overview of the physics of these topics. Also discussed are the detectors and the costs associated with this project

  11. Conceptual design of a ring beauty factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design of the B-meson factory with an expected luminosity of 1033-1034 cm-2s-1 in the energy range of 4.5-6.5 GeV per beam under consideration at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The facility will consist of two main parts: the injector and the B-meson factory itself. A 100 m linear electron accelerator to 10 GeV was chosen as an injector. Such a linac is the prototype of the linear collider VLEPP. The injector is expected to feed the B-factory with 1010 electrons and positrons per second directly on the experimental energy. The B-meson factory itself will be about 500 m double ring with combined insertions in the interaction region. In both rings up to 20 bunches will be operated simultaneously. The beams interact one with the other at one interaction point (IP) only. Besides the opportunity to operate with a great number of bunches, an enhancement in luminosity is supposed to be achieved due to mini-beta function that results from a strong bunch length decrease, as well as due to the monochromatization collision scheme

  12. Jean Desmet’s Dream Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Grignard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition review of "Jean Desmet’s Dream Factory. The Adventurous Years of Film (1907-1916" held in Eye Film Instituut in Amsterdam. Paying hommage to film operator and collector Jean Desmet, the exhibition presents a wide range of the film collection as well as a number of rare archival materials.

  13. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of endo-1,4-beta-xylanase I from Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krengel, U; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Dijkstra, BW

    1996-01-01

    A family G xylanase from Aspergillus niger has been crystallized using the vapor-diffusion method. Several crystal forms could be obtained using various sodium salts as precipitants. Three of the crystal forms belong to space groups P2(1), P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P4(3) and have cell parameters of approxim

  15. Animal Bone Char Solubilization with Itaconic Acid Produced by Free and Immobilized Aspergillus terreus Grown on Glycerol-Based Medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, N.; Medina, A.; Eichler-Lobermann, B.; Flor-Peregrin, E.; Vassileva, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cells of Aspergillus terreus, free and immobilized in polyurethane foam, were employed in itaconic acid fermentation processes on glycerol-based media. The purpose was to assess their suitability for animal bone char solubilization and the development of a biotechnological alternative to P fertilize

  16. B-Factory Interaction Region Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M.

    1997-05-01

    High luminosity B factories are generally high current (1-3 A) e^+e^- storage ring accelerators that operate at a center-of-mass energy equal to the mass of the Υ4S resonance (10.58 GeV). The high beam currents are achieved by storing a large number of bunches (several hundred to several thousand) into each beam. Two designs, the ones located at SLAC and KEK, also have asymmetric beam energies. This imparts a boost to the nearly stationary B mesons formed from the decay of the Υ4S and allows precision vertex tracking detectors to look for a difference between the decay profiles of the matter and anti-matter B mesons thereby observing a violation of CP. Bringing these stored beams into collision is one of the major challenges of any B factory design. In order to achieve high luminosity the beams must be tightly focused. This pushes the final focusing elements close enough to the interaction point to be inside the solenoidal field of the physics detector. In addition, beam related detector backgrounds from synchrotron radiation and scattered beam particles must be kept below an acceptable level. The major B factory designs at Cornell University, KEK, and SLAC have all addressed these problems in various ways that depend on specific accelerator design decisions. This presentation will describe the accelerator choices that affect the interaction region design of a B factory and discuss how the above designs address the challenges posed by a high luminosity B factory.

  17. Simultaneous amyloglucosidase and exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus niger using solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG were simultaneously produced by two different strains of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF using defatted rice-bran as substrate. The effect of Aspergillus niger strain (t0005/007-2 and/or CCT 3312, inoculum type (spore suspension or fermented bran and addition of inducers (pectin and/or starch to the culture media was studied using a 3² x 2¹ factorial experimental design. The production of AMG and exo-PG was significantly affected by fungal strain and inoculum type but inducers had no effect. The maximum yields obtained were 1310 U/g dm for AMG using a spore suspension of A. niger CCT 3312 and 50.2 U/g dm for exo-PG production, using A. niger t0005/007-2 and fermented bran as inoculum. The yields obtained represented acceptable values in comparison with data available in the literature and indicated that defatted rice-bran was a good nutrient source.As enzimas amiloglicosidase (AMG e exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG foram produzidas simultaneamente por duas cepas de Aspergillus niger, através de fermentação em estado sólido usando farelo de arroz desengordurado como substrato. Foram avaliados os efeitos da cepa de Aspergillus niger, tipo de inóculo e adição de indutores no meio de cultura, utilizando-se um planejamento experimental fracionário 3² x 2¹. O máximo rendimento obtido foi 1310 U/g ms para a produção de AMG e 50,2 U/g ms para a exo-PG. Comparando-se estes resultados com dados da literatura pode-se dizer que os rendimentos obtidos foram aceitáveis e indicam que o farelo de arroz desengordurado é uma boa fonte de nutrientes. A produção de AMG e exo-PG foi significativamente afetada pelas variáveis cepa de A. niger e tipo de inóculo, enquanto a variável indutor não apresentou influência significativa na produção destas enzimas.

  18. Production of Tetraquark State Tcc at B-Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyima, Rashidin

    2013-12-01

    We study production of the tetraquark state Tcc via virtual photon at the B-factories in the QCD factorization framework. We predict the cross section of tetraquark state production in the leading order at the B-factories.

  19. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  20. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...

  1. Nationwide Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Edith; Maertens, Johan; De Bel, Annelies; Nulens, Eric; Boelens, Jerina; Surmont, Ignace; Mertens, Anna; Boel, An; Lagrou, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus disease affects a broad patient population, from patients with asthma to immunocompromised patients. Azole resistance has been increasingly reported in both clinical and environmental Aspergillus strains. The prevalence and clinical impact of azole resistance in different patient populations are currently unclear. This 1-year prospective multicenter cohort study aimed to provide detailed epidemiological data on Aspergillus resistance among patients with Aspergillus disease in Belgium. Isolates were prospectively collected in 18 hospitals (April 2011 to April 2012) for susceptibility testing. Clinical and treatment data were collected with a questionnaire. The outcome was evaluated to 1 year after a patient's inclusion. A total of 220 Aspergillus isolates from 182 patients were included. The underlying conditions included invasive aspergillosis (n = 122 patients), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) (n = 39 patients), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 10 patients), Aspergillus bronchitis (n = 7 patients), and aspergilloma (n = 5 patients). The overall azole resistance prevalence was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 10.2%) and was 7.0% (4/57; 95% CI, 2.3 to 17.2%) in patients with APBA, bronchitis, aspergilloma, or chronic aspergillosis and 4.6% in patients with invasive aspergillosis (5/108; 95% CI, 1.7 to 10.7%). The 6-week survival in invasive aspergillosis was 52.5%, while susceptibility testing revealed azole resistance in only 2/58 of the deceased patients. The clinical impact of Aspergillus fumigatus resistance was limited in our patient population with Aspergillus diseases.

  2. Physiological characterisation of acuB deletion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; De Jongh, Willem Adriaan; Olsson, Lisbeth;

    2009-01-01

    The acuB gene of Aspergillus niger is an ortholog of facB in Aspergillus nidulans. Under carbon-repression conditions, facB is repressed, thereby preventing acetate metabolism when the repressing carbon source is present. Even though facB is reported to be repressed directly by CreA, it is believed...

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  4. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  5. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    S Siripanich; Siriwong, W.; P Keawrueang; M Borjan; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories.Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand.Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted thro...

  6. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav;

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspe...

  7. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia;

    2008-01-01

    uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two...

  8. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta;

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  9. Arabinase induction and carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der P.

    1995-01-01

    The first aim of this thesis was to get a better understanding of the properties and the induction features of arabinan degrading enzymes and enzymes involved in the intracellular L-arabinose catabolic pathway in Aspergillus niger. The second aim was to understand the which role carbon catabolite re

  10. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  11. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  12. Internet factories: Creating application-specific networks on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Makkes, M.X.; Laat, C. de; Meijer, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Internet factories. Internet factories structure the task of creating and managing application-specific overlay networks using infrastructure-as-a-service clouds. We describe the Internet factory architecture and report on a proof of concept with three examples that progr

  13. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KARACA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13 dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with different physiological conditions (pH, temprature, agitate condition. For A. niveus results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 3, 35°C and 120-150 rpm. For F. moniliforme results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 7, 20°C ve 120 rpm. For A. niveus decolorisation results were close to dead cells and live cells.Dead cells decolorisation were about %90 for F. moniliforme and live cells decolorisation were about %75.

  14. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc.), glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in "Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis" C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016) [1]. PMID:27419196

  15. Kojic acid production from cocoa juice by Aspergillus flavus entrapped in calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sharkawy, S H

    1995-06-01

    Sixteen microorganisms of Aspergillus strains were screened for production of kojic acid using cocoa juice as carbon source. Only Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9179 was found to produce the acid in low yield (22 mg/ml). Calcium alginate immobilization of the cells was used under optimum conditions to maximize the yield of kojic acid (60 mg/ml). Cultures were incubated in the medium with 50% of cocoa juice added in pulses of 8 ml each every 96 hours, and 4% methanol, pH 3.5, 150 rpm, 26 degrees C for three weeks. The incubations were monitored by thin layer and high pressure liquid chromatography. Kojic acid was extracted from the culture broth by organic solvent, concentrated and crystallized. The chemical identity of kojic acid was determined by HPLC, MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:7546538

  16. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1].

  17. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression.

  18. Modern Beer Factory Interwoven in Urban Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjorgjevska Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this research is to present a concept of integration of a beer factory in a new urban reality. Nowadays, modern development of industrial architecture enables beer factories to leave their typical locations in industrial zones and draw nearer to their customers. To design a modern industrial complex incorporating the ideas of the contemporary way of designing an industrial facility with a clear and indicative architectural expression of its hybrid character requires great skilfulness. Using a linear grid, the concept of this project will be developed in a composition consisting of several strips. This kind of structure creates a compositional equivalence from strip to strip, integrating the natural and the urban, the public and the private.

  19. Assessment of noise in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Petusk Filipe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Work safety is of great importance in all industrial activities. The Norm NR15 of the Brazilian law determines that the work environment be tailored to employees to minimize biological, ergonomic, physical, chemical risks and accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of intermittent noise in a daily dose to workers in furniture factories. Measurements were made with a sound level meter and dosimeter in a workday of eight hours in 14 furniture factories located in the South of Minas Gerais. Noise values ranged from 66.0 to 117.4 dB(A. At a dose of 8 working hours it was observed that the values exceed the tolerance limit of a unit, being from 2.76 to 30.52 for minimum and maximum units, respectively. Both noises and daily doses were superior than the values set by the NR-15-Annex 01 (BRASIL, 2008.

  20. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  1. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group. (PMA)

  2. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintai...

  3. Software Development Factories, the Project Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a software factory, the applications are developed in the same way Henri Ford started manufacturing cars. In such a way, a customized solution could be obtained within a reasonable budget and within the foreseen timeframe. This development method offers a flexible solution that can be readapted rapidly and automatically to the changing business needs, so the Project Management becomes a real challenge.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  5. Empyema necessitatis due to Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Yeon Wook; Cho, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    We present an extremely rare case of empyema necessitatis secondary to Aspergillus fumigatus infection. A 58-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a painful skin rash on the right thorax. Three fistulas communicating with the pleural space were found. Since she did not show a clinical improvement despite antituberculous and antibacterial treatment, we looked for other causes. Pleural fungus culture showed A. fumigatus and chest wall biopsy revealed numerous fungal hyphae. Treatment with necrotic tissue debridement and antifungal agents was successful. PMID:25452298

  6. Aspergillus endophthalmitis in orthotopic liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Hamid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a patient with drug-induced liver failure who developed endogenous endophthalmitis after liver transplantation. Our patient′s clinical course was so fulminant that the eye was lost in less than 1 month, without any response to therapy. Recognition of this infection is important because many patients die of disseminated Aspergillus infection, which may be detected early with bedside funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist. Probably if the patient had referred to us earlier, it may have been possible to save the eye.

  7. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  8. Physics opportunities at mu+ mu- Higgs factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blochinger et al.

    2004-01-12

    We update theoretical studies of the physics opportunities presented by {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factories. Interesting measurements of the Standard Model Higgs decays into {bar b}b, {tau}{sup +} {tau}{sup -} and WW* may be possible if the Higgs mass is less than about 160 GeV, as preferred by the precision electroweak data, the mass range being extended by varying appropriately the beam energy resolution. A suitable value of the beam energy resolution would also enable the uncertainty in the b-quark mass to be minimized, facilitating measurements of parameters in the MSSM at such a first {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory. These measurements would be sensitive to radiative corrections to the Higgs-fermion-antifermion decay vertices, which may violate CP. Radiative corrections in the MSSM may also induce CP violation in Higgs-mass mixing, which can be probed via various asymmetries measurable using polarized {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} beams. In addition, Higgs-chargino couplings may be probed at a second {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory.

  9. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  10. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e+e- collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 1033 cm-2 s-1. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  11. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  12. Scleral buckle infection with aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaimed Manal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a case of scleral buckle infection with Aspergillus flavus in a tertiary eye center in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective case report of a 28-year-old Saudi male who presented with a six-month history of conjunctival injection and discharge from the left eye which had undergone uncomplicated conventional retinal detachment surgery, at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the form of cryopexy, subretinal fluid drainage and scleral buckle (grooved segmental sponge and circumferential band with sleeve for a macula on retinal detachment four years earlier. A diagnosis of infected extruded scleral buckle was made and the buckle was removed. Results: The infected scleral buckle was removed under local anesthesia with administration of sub-conjunctival irrigation of 50 mg solution of Vancomycin, and sub-conjunctival injection of 25mg of Vancomycin. Post operative microbiological studies revealed infection with silver staining of moderate Aspergillus flavus hyphae. Visual acuity of the left eye improved from 20/200 before surgery to 20/60 in the two years follow-up visit. Conclusion: This case report indicates the importance of considering infection with multiple organisms - including fungal ones - in cases of scleral buckle infections in our population.

  13. Aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; HU Xiao-peng; YIN Hang; WANG Wei; ZHANG Xin; MA Lin-lin; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungal infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants.The present study aimed to investigate the aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients, and its diagnosis as well as treatment.Methods Approximately 2000 cases of renal transplants were retrospectively studied and we focused on cases hospitalized during August 1, 2005 and February 1, 2007, as the study period. The clinical database and electronic records were analyzed. Recently published literature was reviewed.Results There was more diabetes and hypertension in the infected group than in the non-infected group (86% vs 62% and 57% vs 39%, respectively). Eighty-six percent of recipients from the infected group had delayed graft function. Seven cases with aspergillus pneumonia were identified based on either fungal culture or radiology. Of the 7 cases, 4 died in a few days after diagnosis. Liposomal amphotericin B was used as a first-line therapy.Conclusions Incidences of fungal infection are increasing among renal transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical steps in curing aspergillosis.

  14. Chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic Aspergillus: Comparison between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Araujo, Ricardo; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. However, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of Aspergillus conidia are unknown.With this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic Aspergillus species. Chronological aging was therefore evaluated in A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger conidia exposed to environmental and human body temperatures. The results showed that the aging process in Aspergillus conidia involves apoptosis,with metacaspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species production, associated with secondary necrosis. Distinct results were observed for the selected pathogenic species. At environmental conditions, A. niger was the species with the highest resistance to aging, indicating a higher adaption to environmental conditions, whereas A. flavus followed by A. terreus were the most sensitive species. At higher temperatures (37 °C), A. fumigatus presented the longest lifespan, in accordance with its good adaptation to the human body temperature. Altogether,with this work new insights regarding conidia aging are provided, which may be useful when designing treatments for aspergillosis.

  15. An inventory of the Aspergillus niger secretome by combining in silico predictions with shotgun proteomics data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, M.; Martens-Uzunova, E.S.; Punt, P.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The ecological niche occupied by a fungal species, its pathogenicity and its usefulness as a microbial cell factory to a large degree depends on its secretome. Protein secretion usually requires the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and by scanning for this feature using avail

  16. An inventory of the Aspergillus niger secretome by combining in silico predictions with shotgun proteomics data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, M.; Martens-Uzunova, E.S.; Punt, P.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ecological niche occupied by a fungal species, its pathogenicity and its usefulness as a microbial cell factory to a large degree depends on its secretome. Protein secretion usually requires the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and by scanning for this feature using avail

  17. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  18. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  19. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Li, Qing; Yang, Bao; Duan, Xuewu; Zhang, Mingwei; Shi, John; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW) after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage), but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage). These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp. PMID:27420043

  20. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

  1. [New natural products from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi-A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengying; Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi were the main source of marine microbial natural products (NPs) due to their complex genetic background, chemodiversity and high yield of NPs. According to our previous survey for marine microbial NPs from 2010 to 2013, Aspergillus fungi have received the most of attention among all the marine-derived fungi, which accounted for 31% NPs of the marine fungal origins. This paper reviewed the sources, chemical structures and bioactivites of all the 512 new marine NPs of Aspergillus fungal origins from 1992 to 2014. These marine NPs have diverse chemical structures including polyketides, fatty acids, sterols and terpenoids, alkaloids, peptides, and so on, 36% of which displayed bioactivities such as cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and insecticidal activity. Nitrogen compounds are the major secondary metabolites accounting for 52% NPs from the marine-derived Aspergillus fungi. Nitrogen compounds are also the class with the highest ratio of bioactive compounds, 40% of which are bioactive. Plinabulin, a dehydrodiketopiperazine derivative of halimide had been ended its phase II trial and has received its phase III study from the third quarter of 2015 for the treatment of advanced, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27382779

  2. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  3. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Li, Qing; Yang, Bao; Duan, Xuewu; Zhang, Mingwei; Shi, John; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47-318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW) after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS² analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4-C8 linkage), but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4-C8 coupled C2-O-C7 linkage). These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp. PMID:27420043

  4. The Tau-Charm Factory in the ERA of B-Factories and CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a collection of presentations made at a conference on tau-charm factories, held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Stanford University on August 15-16, 1994. The papers presented summarize the physics which can be learned from such a facility, the advantages it would present over planned B-factories and large centers such as CESR, and the types of decay modes which could be observed. More detailed studies of tau physics are opened up, as well as charmonium and charmed systems. Seperate presentations to the proceedings are indexed individually into the database

  5. Oscillations of factorial cumulants to factorial moments ratio from an eikonal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Beggio, Paulo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    We study the factorial moments (Fq), the factorial cumulants (Kq) and the ratio of Kq to Fq (Hq = Kq=Fq) in pp/pp collisions using an updated approach, in which the multiplicity distribution is related to the eikonal function. The QCD inspired eikonal model adopted contains contributions of quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions. Our work shows that the approach can reproduce the collision energy dependence of the Fq moments, correctly predicts that the first minimum of the Hq ...

  6. Antifungal susceptibility profile of cryptic species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The use of molecular tools has led to the description of new cryptic species among different Aspergillus species complexes. Their frequency in the clinical setting has been reported to be between 10 and 15%. The susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of many of these species is low, and some of them, such as Aspergillus calidoustus or Aspergillus lentulus, are considered multi-resistant. The changing epidemiology, the frequency of cryptic species, and the different susceptibility profiles make antifungal susceptibility testing an important tool to identify the optimal antifungal agent to treat the infections caused by these species.

  7. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  8. Methylthio-Aspochalasins from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two novel aspochalasins, 20-β-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V, (1 and aspochalasin W (2, were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 μM, respectively.

  9. Heterologous expression of the Aspergillus nidulans alcR-alcA system in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, I; Mathieu, M; van de Vondervoort, P; Visser, J; Felenbok, B

    2002-10-01

    The inducible and strongly expressed alcA gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase I from Aspergillus nidulans was transferred together with the activator gene alcR, in the industrial fungus Aspergillus niger. This latter organism does not possess an inducible alc system but has an endogenously constitutive lowly expressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The overall induced expression of the alcA gene was of the same order in both fungi, as monitored by alcA transcription, alcohol dehydrogenase activity and heterologous expression of the reporter enzyme, beta-glucuronidase. However, important differences in the pattern of alcA regulation were observed between the two fungi. A high basal level of alcA transcription was observed in A. niger resulting in a lower ratio of alcA inducibility. This may be due to higher levels of the physiological inducer of the alc regulon, acetaldehyde, from general metabolism in A. niger which differs from that of A. nidulans.

  10. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives....... sojae strains. Separation of A. oryzae and A. sojae from A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, is inconsistent, and both morphologic and molecular evidence support conspecificity. The high degree of identity is reflected by the divergent identification of reference cultures maintained in culture...... collections. As close relatives of aflatoxin-producing wild molds, koji molds possess an aflatoxin gene homolog cluster. Some strains identified as A. oryzae and A. sojae have been implicated in aflatoxin production. Identification of a strain as A. oryzae or A. sojae is no guarantee of its inability...

  11. Pulmonary Immune Responses to Aspergillus Fumigatus in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIRKOV Ivana; EL-MUZGHI Amal Atia Mhfuod; DJOKIC Jelena; NINKOV Marina; POPOV ALEKSANDROV Aleksandra; GLAMOCLIJA Jasmina; KATARANOVSKI Milena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immunologic mechanisms underlying Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infections in immunocompetent Dark Agouti (DA) and Albino Oxford (AO) rats recognized as being susceptible to some inflammatory diseases in different manners. Methods Lung fungal burden (quantitative colony forming units, CFU, assay), leukocyte infiltration (histology, cell composition) and their function (phagocytosis, oxidative activity, CD11b adhesion molecule expression) and cytokine interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 and-4 (IL-17 and IL-4) lung content were evaluated following infection (intratracheally, 1x107 conidia). Results Slower reduction of fungal burden was observed in AO rats in comparison with that in DA rats, which was coincided with less intense histologically evident lung cell infiltration and leukocyte recovery as well as lower level of most of the their activities including intracellular myeloperoxidase activity, the capacity of nitroblue tetrazolium salt reduction and CD11b adhesion molecule expression (except for phagocytosis of conidia) in these rats. Differential patterns of changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels (unchanged levels of IFN-γand transient increase of IL-17 in AO rats vs continuous increase of both cytokines in DA rats) and unchanged levels of IL-4 were observed. Conclusion Genetically-based differences in the pattern of antifungal lung leukocyte activities and cytokine milieu, associated with differential efficiency of fungal elimination might be useful in the future use of rat models in studies of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  12. The nucleation of microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Monteiro Cristina de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are filaments composed of dimers of alpha- and beta-tubulins, which have a variety of functions in living cells. In fungi, the spindle pole bodies usually have been considered to be microtubule-organizing centers. We used the antimicrotubule drug Benomyl in block/release experiments to depolymerize and repolymerize microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings to learn more about the microtubule nucleation process in this filamentous fungus. Twenty seconds after release from Benomyl short microtubules were formed from several bright (immunofluorescent dots distributed along the germlings, suggesting that microtubule nucleation is randomly distributed in A. nidulans germlings. Since nuclear movement is dependent on microtubules in A. nidulans we analyzed whether mutants defective in nuclear distribution along the growing hyphae (nud mutants have some obvious microtubule defect. Cytoplasmic, astral and spindle microtubules were present and appeared to be normal in all nud mutants. However, significant changes in the percentage of short versus long mitotic spindles were observed in nud mutants. This suggests that some of the nuclei of nud mutants do not reach the late stage of cell division at normal temperatures.

  13. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  14. Hide, keep quiet, and keep low: properties that make Aspergillus fumigatus a successful lung pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eEscobar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the genus Aspergillus are opportunistic fungal pathogens. Their conidia can reach the alveoli by inhalation and can give rise to infections in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus fumigatus is the causal agent of invasive aspergillosis in nearly 90 % of the cases. It is not yet well established what makes this fungus more pathogenic than other aspergilli such as Aspergillus niger. Here, we show that A. fumigatus and A. niger conidia adhere with similar efficiency to lung epithelial A549 cells but A. fumigatus conidia internalized 17% more efficiently. Conidia of both aspergilli were taken up in phagolysosomes 8 h after the challenge. These organelles only acidified in the case of A. niger, which is probably due to the type of melanin coating of the conidia. Viability of both types of conidia was not affected after uptake in the phagolysosomes. Germination of A. fumigatus and A. niger conidia in the presence of epithelial cells was delayed when compared to conidia in the medium. However, germination of A. niger conidia was still higher than that of A. fumigatus 10 h after exposure to A549 cells. Remarkably, A. fumigatus hyphae grew mainly parallel to the epithelium, while growth direction of A. niger hyphae was predominantly perpendicular to the plane of the cells. Neutrophils reduced germination and hyphal growth of A. niger, but not of A fumigatus, in presence of epithelial cells. Taken together, efficient internalization, delayed germination, and hyphal growth parallel to the epithelium gives a new insight into what could be the causes for the success of A. fumigatus compared to A. niger as an opportunistic pathogen in the lung.

  15. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak β-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Object classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Aragon, C.; Romano, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2008-03-01

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  17. The B-factory project at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B-Factory project at KEK aims to construct an accelerator complex to detect the CP-violation effect of B-mesons. It is a two-ring electron-positron collider of 3.5 x 8 GeV in the existing TRISTAN tunnel. The design peak luminosity is 1034 cm-2s-1, which will be realized in two steps: from a small-angle collision with a luminosity of 2 x 1033 cm-2s-1 to a large-angle crab-crossing scheme with the final luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1. (orig.)

  18. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-08-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of β-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on β-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals.

  19. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  20. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Martha B; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Wortman, Jennifer R; Sherlock, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring the data. All of these data are freely available at http://www.aspgd.org. We welcome feedback from users and the research community at aspergillus-curator@genome.stanford.edu.

  1. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Sukarti; Marleen Herudiyanto; Carmencita Tjahjadi; Debby M Sumanti

    2005-01-01

    Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO); production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl...

  2. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-09-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound ( 1) and a previously isolated compound ( 2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one ( 1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  3. Deposition of Fungal Particles in the Lung of Workers in a Spin Factory (Minia City/ Egypt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of particle air pollution have been associated with decreased lung function, increased respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and asthma attacks, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer (World Health Organisation, 2002). Recently, characterization of biological particles has become an important issue because of the related health effects of exposure to bio aerosols in the indoor environment influencing the intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms, such as nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritations, skin dryness, itchy eyes, breathlessness, wheezing, headache, concentration problems or fatigue. Dust particles often act as a carrier for biological particles either naturally occurring or artificially generated. In cotton-spinning mills cotton dust is the major carrier for biological particles that contribute to such respiratory problems and its effect on pulmonary function among workers employed in the factory. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the deposition of bio aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract applying a stochastic lung model using the standard breathing parameters (ICRP, 1994) for light exercise activity. We use the size distribution parameters of bio aerosols from our previous experimental study in a cotton spin factory in Minya city (Egypt). It was found that the number of deposited particles in the lung is higher in the carding and blowing department (high cotton dust exposure) than the predicted value for the spinning department (low cotton dust exposure). The results also reveal significant dependence of fungal deposition in the lung on their composition (genera and species), concentration and size where the number of deposited Aspergillus niger particles is higher than that of the Penicillium particles in both departments

  4. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10 and temperature (from 25 to 42oC. Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamylase, were separated by ion exchange chromatography. Both partially purified enzymes had optimal activities at pH values between 4.5 and 6.0 and were stable under acid conditions (pH 4.0-7.0. The enzymes exhibited optimal activities at temperatures between 50o and 60o C and were stable for more than ten hours at 55oC.

  5. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security.

  6. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  7. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    A novel 2,2 '-epoxy-terphenyllin, candidusin C, in addition to the well known secondary metabolites terphenyllin, 3-hydroxyterpenyllin and chlorflavonin, has been isolated from the chemically unexplored fungus Aspergillus campestris. The latter three are known secondary metabolites from Aspergillus...... candidus and therefore a large number of Aspergilli were screened for production of these compounds to see whether they could be regarded as chemotaxonomical indicators of section membership in the monotypic Aspergillus section Candidi. The results indicated that A. campestris and A. taichungensis should...... be placed in Candidi and this was further confirmed by morphological and physiological similarities. Three species outside the section Candidi produced candidusin related secondary metabolites: Aspergillus arenarius, A. ellipticus and Penicillium raistrickii. Chlorflavonin, however, was only found...

  8. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  9. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  10. Reconstruction of the central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The topology of central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger was identified and the metabolic network reconstructed, by integrating genomic, biochemical and physiological information available for this microorganism and other related fungi. The reconstructed network may serve as a valuable...

  11. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.;

    2005-01-01

    The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination ...

  12. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H− and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  13. Photon factory accelerator status and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report addresses the Photon Factory, a user-based facility for synchrotron-radiation research at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) in Japan. It consists of a 2.5 GeV storage ring and an electron-positron linac. Its construction started in 1978 and the accelerators were commissioned in 1982. The Photon Factory storage ring is a dedicated synchrotron-radiation source with a critical photon energy of 4 keV. There are 23 spaces in which front-ends (beamlines) can be installed for introducing synchrotron radiation into the experimental hall. Twenty front-ends are available for user experiments. The report particularly describes the status of the linac and the storage ring, focusing on major features of the linac operation and storage ring operation. The recent improvements are then outlined, focusing on positron beam injection and operation, improvement of the high-power pulsed klystron, monitor and control system, daily drift of the light axis, and operation of the new superconducting vertical wiggler. The accelerator activities are then described, centering on the test linac and a plan to use the TRISTAN MR as a synchrotron radiation source. (N.K.)

  14. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  16. Parameters for a Super-Flavor-Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, J.T.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seryi, A.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati

    2006-06-27

    A Super Flavor Factory, an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric colliders in producing unprecedented luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in a new parameter regime. Furthermore, the success of the SLAC Linear Collider and the subsequent work on the International Linear Collider allow a new Super-Flavor collider to also incorporate linear collider techniques. This note describes the parameters of an asymmetric Flavor-Factory collider at a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Y(4S) resonance and about 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the {tau} production threshold. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the Y(4S) resonance. In the following note only the parameters relative to the Y(4S) resonance will be shown, the ones relative to the lower energy operations are still under study.

  17. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of op...

  18. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati Dali; A. B. D. Rauf Patong; M.Noor Jalaluddin; Pirman; Baharuddin Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  19. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of th...

  20. Dust exposure and respiratory health among Tanzanian coffee factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sakwari, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to organic dust may cause detrimental effects to the respiratory system of exposed workers. Organic dust is commonly contaminated with microbes and their derivatives such as bacteria and endotoxin, fungi, moulds and beta glucan. Few studies on exposure and health effects have been performed in primary coffee factories. The studies showed that processes in primary coffee factories cause emission of high dust levels. Work in coffee factories has been associated with res...

  1. An observation of the toxicity of topical application of amphotericin B liposomal on corneal endothelial cell of aspergillus keratomycosis in a rabbit model%两性霉素B脂质体滴眼液对兔曲霉菌性角膜溃疡角膜内皮细胞毒性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红艳; 任春玲; 王亮; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察不同浓度两性霉素B脂质体(AmBL)滴眼液对兔曲霉菌性角膜溃疡模型内皮细胞的影响,初步探讨临床上两性霉素B脂质体滴眼液治疗曲霉菌性角膜溃疡的安全药效浓度.方法:30只健康成年新西兰白兔,采用角膜“#”形划痕法制作实验性曲霉菌性角膜溃疡模型,随机分为3组,每组10眼.A组应用0.50% AmBL滴眼液点眼;B组应用0.25%滴眼液点眼;C组为生理盐水对照组.每天6次.3、7、10、15d观察疗效,并用共聚焦显微镜观察角膜内皮细胞形态,检测内皮细胞平均密度、内皮细胞面积变异系数、六边形细胞百分率.结果:造模3d内皮细胞平均密度,变异系数,六边形细胞百分率各组间差异无显著性;治疗3 d后A,B两组与对照组相比溃疡较前局限,结膜充血和角膜水肿减轻,用药后7d溃疡内皮斑减轻,坏死组织脱落,新生血管出现,平均l0d角膜水肿消失,瘢痕形成,各项指标均优于对照组.点药后3d内皮细胞平均密度、变异系数、六边形细胞百分率A组与B组比较差异无显著性,与C组比较差异有显著性,7、10、15d后A、B两组间差异出现显著性,A组内皮细胞肿大,多形性,边界中断,形态模糊,较B组显著.结论:两性霉素B脂质体对曲霉菌性角膜溃疡治疗有效,0.25%与0.50%滴眼液相比治疗效果相同,但对角膜内皮影响较小%Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of amphotericin B liposomal (AmBL) topical application on corneal endothelial cells in the aspergillus keratomycosis in a rabbit model. Methods Thirty New Zealand White rabbits model of aspergillus keratitis were randomized into three groups (groups A, B and C). Treatments included a control plus 0.50% AmBL(groups A), 0.25% AmBL( groups B)and NS (groups C). Rabbits were instilled topical eye drops six times a day. After 3,7, 10 and 15 days treatment, confocal microscopy was performed to examine the morphology of

  2. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  3. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A9, Aspergillus awamorii A23 and Aspergillus oryzae O2, were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A9, the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  4. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sukarti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO; production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

  5. Initial intracellular proteome profile of Aspergillus niger biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretty K. Villena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An initial profiling of the intracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 biofilm cultures developed on polyester cloth was carried out by using 2D-PAGE and MS-TOF analysis and it was compared to the proteome of conventionally grown free-living submerged cultures. A number of 2D-PAGE protein spots from both types of cultures were subjected to MS-TOF analysis and data interrogation of the NCBI nr database available for this species. Proteomic maps showed different expression patterns in both culture systems with differentially expressed proteins in each case. In biofilm cultures, 19% and 32% of the selected protein spots were over- expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. On the contrary, in free-living cultures, 44% and 7% of the selected protein spots were over-expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. Although preliminary, results presented in this paper show that there are significant differences between the proteomes of A. niger biofilm and free-living mycelia. It seems that cell adhesion is the most important stimulus responsible for biofilm development which is the basis of Surface Adhesion Fermentation.

  6. Protease-resistant form of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 is an inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor-I actions on porcine smooth muscle cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Y; Busby, W H; Smith, C. E.; Clarke, J. B.; Garmong, A J; Horwitz, G D; Rees, C. van; Clemmons, D R

    1997-01-01

    IGFs are pleiotrophic mitogens for porcine smooth muscle cells (pSMC) in culture. The effects of IGFs on cells are modulated by various insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBP). IGFBP-5 is synthesized by pSMC and binds to the extracellular matrix. However, IGFBP-5 is also secreted into conditioned medium of cultured cells and is cleaved into fragments by a concomitantly produced protease. These fragments have reduced affinity for the IGFs and cleavage makes it difficult to assess t...

  7. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

    2015-03-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative.

  8. Production of Polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri Strains in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strain immobilised in orange peels. Four experiments were conducted under the following conditions: the immobilised cells without aeration; immobilised cells with aeration; immobilised cells with aeration and added pectin; and free cells with aeration. The fermentation was performed for 168 h with removal of sample every 24 h. Aspergillus niger strain URM 5162 showed the highest PG production. The results obtained indicated that the maximum endo- and exo-PG activities (1.18 U·mL−1 and 4.11 U·mL−1, respectively were obtained when the reactor was operating without aeration. The microtitre plate method is a simple way to screen fungal isolates for PG activity detection. The fixed bed reactor with orange peel support and using A. niger URM 5162 is a promising process for PG production at the industrial level.

  9. Production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri strains in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Marília; Ottoni, Cristiane; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Moreira, Keila; Souza-Motta, Cristina

    2013-01-28

    Polygalacturonases (PG) are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strain immobilised in orange peels. Four experiments were conducted under the following conditions: the immobilised cells without aeration; immobilised cells with aeration; immobilised cells with aeration and added pectin; and free cells with aeration. The fermentation was performed for 168 h with removal of sample every 24 h. Aspergillus niger strain URM 5162 showed the highest PG production. The results obtained indicated that the maximum endo- and exo-PG activities (1.18 U · mL-1 and 4.11 U · mL-1, respectively) were obtained when the reactor was operating without aeration. The microtitre plate method is a simple way to screen fungal isolates for PG activity detection. The fixed bed reactor with orange peel support and using A. niger URM 5162 is a promising process for PG production at the industrial level.

  10. RI beam factory project at RIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RI Beam Factory is being proposed at RIKEN, which is a project to construct two superconducting ring cyclotrons (SRC-4 and SRC-6), experimental storage rings (MUSES) and experimental facilities. Heavy ions are to be accelerated to energies of up to 400 AMeV for light nuclei and 150 AMeV for the heaviest nuclei by the SRC-6 and up to 1400 AMeV in the MUSES. Wide varieties of radioactive nuclear beams are to be supplied as secondary beams. Electrons, stable nuclei, and highly charged ions in addition to radioactive nuclei can be stored in the storage rings. The MUSES provides various collision methods, such as colliding, merging, and internal target modes. A few of the selected new nuclear-physics opportunities are discussed briefly. (author)

  11. AutoPyFactory and the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P

    2013-01-01

    AutoPyFactory (APF) is a next-generation pilot submission framework that has been used as part of the ATLAS workload management system (PANDA) for two years. APF is reliable, scalable, and offers easy and flexible configuration. Using a plugin-based architecture, APF polls for information from configured information and batch systems (including grid sites), decides how many additional pilot jobs are needed, and submits them. With the advent of cloud computing, providing resources goes beyond submitting pilots to grid sites. Now, the resources on which the pilot will run also need to be managed. Handling both pilot submission and controlling the virtual machine life cycle (creation, retirement, and termination) from the same framework allows robust and efficient management of the process. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of these virtual machine management capabilities of APF. Expanding on our plugin-based approach, we allow cascades of virtual resources associated with a job queue. A si...

  12. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility. PMID:22697025

  13. Future e+ e- Flavor Factories: accelerator challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M E

    2008-01-01

    Operation of the B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has been very successful, both having exceeded their design peak and integrated luminosity and provided a huge amount of good data to the experiments. Proposal for upgrades, in order to achieve about two order of magnitude larger luminosity, are in progress in Japan, with Super-KEKB, and in Europe, with SuperB. Very high beam intensity, very short bunch length and low Interaction Point beta-functions are the key points of the Japanese design, very challenging for the hardware components (RF, vacuum). On the other hand SuperB exploits a new collision scheme, namely large Piwinski angle and "crab waist", which will allow to reach a luminosity two order of magnitude larger without increasing beam currents and decreasing bunch lengths. In this talk the present status of the two projects will be reviewed.

  14. ATHEROSCLEROSIS DISEASE: A MULTI-FACTORIAL PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcieli da Luz Giroldo1; Arienne Serrano Alves1; Francielle Baptista1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis or arterial stiffening is a gradual disease that restricts the normal blood flow in different areas of body and maylead to secondary illnesses as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Innumerable factors are related to the development ofatherosclerosis, among them are the dyslipidemia; genetic factors; arterial hypertension; diabetes mellitus; obesity; smoking;lack of exercise; pulmonary infection by Chlamydia and stress. Due to multi-factorial atherosclerosis characteristics,innumerable drugs, with differentiated mechanisms of action, are being elaborated to be used in prevention and control of thisdisease. However, beyond the pharmacological therapy, a balanced diet, physical activity and elimination of risk habits, assmoking, also are need for controlling atherosclerosis progression, as well as for the increase of expectative and quality of life

  15. Systems Factorial Technology Explained to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of mental processes is at the forefront of research in cognitive psychology. However, the ability to identify the architectures responsible for specific behaviors is often quite difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, recent progress in mathematical psychology has brought forth Systems Factorial Technology (SFT; Townsend & Nozawa, 1995. Encompassing a series of analyses, SFT can diagnose and discriminate between five types of information processing architectures that possibly underlie a mental process. Despite the fact that SFT has led to new discoveries in cognitive psychology, the methodology itself remains far from intuitive to newcomers. This article therefore seeks to provide readers with a simple tutorial and a rudimentary introduction to SFT. This tutorial aims to encourage newcomers to read more about SFT and also to add it to their repertoire of analyses.

  16. Status of the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last year considerable progress has been achieved on both technical and political fronts. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. A racetrack-shaped lattice is being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn $87M) and is making the KAON Factory its tope priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Government approval contingent upon such contributions is anticipated later in 1988, together with preconstruction R and D funds

  17. Effects of Citral on Aspergillus flavus Spores by Quasi-elastic Light Scattering and Multiplex Microanalysis Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LUO; Li-Ke JIANG; Yao-Xiong HUANG; Ming XIAO; Bo LI; Guo-Lin ZOU

    2004-01-01

    Citral refined from Litsea cubeba oil has been found to have a strong influence on fungi,especially Aspergillus flavus. Multiplex microanalysis and quasi-elastic light scattering techniques were applied to study the effects of citral on Aspergillus flavus spores from the levels of membrane, organelle and intracellular macromolecule. It was found that citral injured the wall and the membrane of A. flavus spore,resulting in decrease of its elasticity. After entering the cell, citral not only influenced the genetic expression of mitochondrion reduplication and its morphology, but also changed the aggregation of protein-like macromolecules. As a result, cells, organelles and macromolecules lost their normal structures and functions,eventually leading to the loss of germination ability of A. flavus spores. Since Litsea cubeba oil as food additive and antifungal agent is safe and less poisonous, it is important to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of Litsea cubeba oil on the germination ability ofA. flavus spore.

  18. Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there.

  19. Evolution of the Factory 1975-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it was founded in 1973. Equipos Nucleares (ENSA) has been actively present in the nuclear market. This was the reason for its creation and for which it was organized from the very beginning, by designing a company with a nuclear structure and mentality. The author reviews the history and evolution of the Factory- more than a workshop- and describes its different stages, which were strongly affected by the unexpected evolution of a diminishing market- an inexistent market the likes to say- and also stresses the extraordinary difficulty of its work and the determination to remain in the nuclear market. He acknowledges the people and the culture of ENSA emphasizing their dedication, generosity, flexibility, training and enthusiasm, and stresses their stake in being the best and to attain excellence in the quality of supplies, meeting deadlines and customer satisfaction, identifying these as fundamental factors of the company's legacy. Having a better Factory is possible by improving its technological capability through researching and developing its processes, automating and robotizing manufacturing and inspection activities, and simplifying its operating systems. A result of these efforts is the continuous international presence as a supplier and collaborator with the world's leading designers, which has consolidated it as a reference supplier on the American market. Of not is the supply to the market of its different product lines a result of combining its design and manufacturing capabilities with its flexibility and size, all of which contribute to ENSA's wealth, diversity and appeal. ENSA is aware of the forthcoming resurgence of the new nuclear market. It is preparing for the future by renewing and upgrading its manufacturing facilities and implementing new systems techniques- Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma-into its Annual Improvement Plans to favor and drive its technological capability and competitiveness and to respond to the increasingly demanding

  20. How peroxisomes affect aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Reverberi

    Full Text Available In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived, an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis.

  1. A Review on production of echinocandins by Aspergillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswata Goswami*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 For the last two decades Echinocandins have successfully emerged out & gained considerable importance when introduced in the World  Pharma Market. Echinocandins are  new novel class of drugs  for fungal infections. Echinocandins inhibit an enzyme necessary for the formation of fungal cell wall components, thus  disrupts the integrity of the cell wall and eventually leads to cell death. They are fungicidal and less toxic to the host by virtue of their novel mechanism of action. Aspergillus sp is the most investigated species among many fungal species producing secondary metabolites of this kind. Bioprocess parameters help us to understand the relationship between the fungal growth and its secondary metabolite (Echinocandins in large scale The objective  of the present review is to provide an updated & thoughtful overview for the appropriate fermentative production methodology. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, G J G; J. Visser; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol, which is always present in the cells, A. oryzae accumulated high concentrations of glycerol, erythritol and arabitol at relatively low a(w) (0(.)96-0(.)97) in SSF. Accumulation of such a mixture of...

  3. SECONDARY METABOLITE OF Aspergillus fumigatus, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT Garcinia griffithii

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Indah; Muharni; Elfita

    2011-01-01

    The endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the tissues of the fruits of Garcinia griffithii. The fungalstrain was identified from the colony, and it was characteristic of cell morphology. The ethyl acetate extracts derivedfrom fungus cultures showed major spots on TLC under UV light, which was continued to the isolation of thesecondary metabolites. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of NMR analyses (1H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and H-H COSY). Th...

  4. Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Horn, Bruce W; Moore, Geromy G; Singh, Rakhi; Monacell, James T; Dorner, Joe W; Stone, Eric A; Xie, De-Yu; Carbone, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone, or neither mycotoxin; Aspergillus parasiticus produces B and G aflatoxins or the aflatoxin precursor O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not CPA. Only four of forty-five attempted interspecific crosses between opposite mating types of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were fertile and produced viable ascospores. Single ascospore strains from each cross were shown to be recombinant hybrids using multilocus genotyping and array comparative genome hybridization. Conidia of parents and their hybrid progeny were haploid and predominantly monokaryons and dikaryons based on flow cytometry. Multilocus phylogenetic inference showed that experimental hybrid progeny were grouped with naturally occurring A. flavus L strain and A. parasiticus. Higher total aflatoxin concentrations in some F1 progeny strains compared to midpoint parent aflatoxin levels indicate synergism in aflatoxin production; moreover, three progeny strains synthesized G aflatoxins that were not produced by the parents, and there was evidence of allopolyploidization in one strain. These results suggest that hybridization is an important diversifying force resulting in the genesis of novel toxin profiles in these agriculturally important fungi.

  5. Oscillations of factorial cumulants to factorial moments ratio from an eikonal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Beggio, Paulo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    We study the factorial moments (Fq), the factorial cumulants (Kq) and the ratio of Kq to Fq (Hq = Kq=Fq) in pp/pp collisions using an updated approach, in which the multiplicity distribution is related to the eikonal function. The QCD inspired eikonal model adopted contains contributions of quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions. Our work shows that the approach can reproduce the collision energy dependence of the Fq moments, correctly predicts that the first minimum of the Hq lies around q = 5 and qualitatively reproduces the oscillations of the Hq moments, as shown in the experimental data and predicted by QCD at preasymptotic energy. The result of this study seems to indicate that the Hq oscillations are manifestation of semihard component in the multiparticle production process. Predictions for multiplicity distribution and Hq moments at the LHC energy of 14 TeV are presented.

  6. Two cases of endobronchial carcinoid masked by superimposed aspergillosis: a review of the literature of primary lung cancers associated with Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, John Robert; Restrepo, Carlos S; Jagirdar, Jaishree

    2013-02-01

    We describe 2 cases of endobronchial pulmonary carcinoid tumor with superimposed Aspergillus colonization. The Aspergillus hyphae were associated with fibrin, ulcer debris, and granulomatous inflammation in part masking the carcinoid tumor. Presence of necrotic debris made diagnosis on biopsy difficult, and atypical carcinoid could not be ruled out. The association of carcinoid tumor with aspergillosis is rare and has been reported in 4 other cases thus far. A review of the literature reveals at least 35 cases of lung carcinoma with coexisting Aspergillus upon presentation. Most of these carcinomas are either cavitary squamous cell or adenocarcinomas harboring an aspergilloma. The other carcinomas are associated with bronchial obstruction as in carcinoids or are a minor component of a preexisting cavity raising the possibility of "scar carcinoma." As in aspergillomas not associated with carcinoma, upper lobe involvement predominates. Diagnosis can be challenging with delayed discovery of underlying neoplasm leading to suboptimal treatment. PMID:22079170

  7. Green Tea Epigallocatechin Gallate Exhibits Anticancer Effect in Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells via the Inhibition of Both Focal Adhesion Kinase and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Anh Vu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact molecular mechanism by which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG suppresses human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation is unclear. We show here that EGCG-treated pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 decrease cell adhesion ability on micro-pattern dots, accompanied by dephosphorylations of both focal adhesion kinase (FAK and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R whereas retained the activations of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin. The growth of AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells can be significantly suppressed by EGCG treatment alone in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 100 μM which completely abolishes activations of FAK and IGF-1R, EGCG suppresses more than 50% of cell proliferation without evidence of apoptosis analyzed by PARP cleavage. Finally, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 enhances growth-suppressive effect of EGCG. Our data suggests that blocking FAK and IGF-1R by EGCG could prove valuable for targeted therapy, which can be used in combination with other therapies, for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Sol–gel immobilization as a suitable technique for enhancement of α-amylase activity of Aspergillus oryzae PP

    OpenAIRE

    Evstatieva, Yana; Yordanova, Mariya; Chernev, Georgi; Ruseva, Yanislava; Nikolova, Dilyana

    2014-01-01

    Bioencapsulation of microbial cells in silica-based matrices has proved to be a good strategy to enhance the biosynthetic capabilities and viability of bioproducers. In the present study, mycelium and pellet cultures of strain Aspergillus oryzae PP were successfully immobilized in sol–gel hybrid matrices composed of tetraethylorthosilicate as an inorganic precursor, 5% (w/v) starch and 10 or 15% (w/v) polyethylene oxide, or 10% (w/v) calcium alginate as organic compounds. Biosynthetic activit...

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus invasion increases with progressive airway ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe L Hsu

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould's angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80% for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections.

  10. Connection Among Some Optimal Criteria for Symmetrical Fractional Factorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qin; Ming-yao Ai; Jian-hui Ning

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental and practical question for fractional factorial designs is the issue of optimal factor assignment. Recently, some new criteria, such as generalized minimum aberration, WV-criterion, NB-criterion and uniformity criterion are proposed for comparing and selecting fractions. In this paper, we indicate that these criteria agree quite well for symmetrical fraction factorial designs.

  11. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval...

  13. Review of U.S. Neutrino Factory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the status of the two U.S. feasibility studies carried out by the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) along with recent improvements to Neutrino Factory design developed during the American Physical Society (APS) Neutrino Physics Study. Suggested accelerator topics for the International Scoping Study (ISS) are also indicated.

  14. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  15. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  16. Optimization of pectinase enzyme production in Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from rotten fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase is one of the most important industrial enzymes which was isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the juice and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi have been done by plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strain was identified by method of Pitt and Hocking as Aspergillus fumigates. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the factorial design which involves five factors, each at three levels. Five factors were carbon sources (whey, sugar, stevia and ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results showed that the optimum condition for enzyme production was at 32 °C, PH = 6 , 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate, 10g / L of each carbon source (whey, stevia, and glucose. Optimum of enzyme production was observed in the presence of 1.328 mg / ml of glucose. Molecular weight of enzyme was obtained about 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results demonstrated that this strain could grow in a wide range of carbon sources, PH and temperature. This study indicates that this strain is a good candidate for use in industrial application.

  17. Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

  18. The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal s

  19. What is the importance of classifying Aspergillus disease in cystic fibrosis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Horsley, Alex; Denning, David W

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus species are commonly isolated from lower respiratory tract samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and markers of immunological sensation to Aspergillus are frequently encountered in this group of patients; however, the contribution of Aspergillus to CF lung disease outside of the typical complications of ABPA and aspergilloma formation remains largely unclear. Patients with CF show discretely different responses to Aspergillus, though the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Recent work has begun to allow us to categorize patient responses to Aspergillus based upon molecular markers of infection and immune sensitization. Aspergillus sensitization and/or airway infection is associated with worse FEV1, in CF and other patients (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis). Classification of different clinical phenotypes of Aspergillus will enable future studies to determine the natural history of different manifestations of Aspergillus disease and evaluate the effects of intervention with antifungal therapy.

  20. Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

    2015-02-01

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods.