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Sample records for cell factory aspergillus

  1. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data.

  2. Spatially resolving the secretome within the mycelium of the cell factory Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsheld, Pauline; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Post, Harm; Ringrose, Jeffrey H; Müller, Wally H; Heck, Albert J R; Wösten, Han A B

    2012-05-04

    Aspergillus niger is an important cell factory for the industrial production of enzymes. These enzymes are released into the culture medium, from which they can be easily isolated. Here, we determined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling the secretome of five concentric zones of 7-day-old xylose-grown colonies of A. niger that had either or not been treated with cycloheximide. As expected, cycloheximide blocked secretion of proteins at the periphery of the colony. Unexpectedly, protein release was increased by cycloheximide in the intermediate and central zones of the mycelium when compared to nontreated colonies. Electron microscopy indicated that this is due to partial degradation of the cell wall. In total, 124 proteins were identified in cycloheximide-treated colonies, of which 19 secreted proteins had not been identified before. Within the pool of 124 proteins, 53 secreted proteins were absent in nontreated colonies, and additionally, 35 proteins were released ≥4-fold in the central and subperipheral zones of cycloheximide-treated colonies when compared to nontreated colonies. The composition of the secretome in each of the five concentric zones differed. This study thus describes spatial release of proteins in A. niger, which is instrumental in understanding how fungi degrade complex substrates in nature.

  3. Aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-18

    Kojic acid (5-Hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is one of the major secondary metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae. It is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The production cost, however, is too high for its use in many applications. Thus, an efficient and cost-effective kojic acid production process would be valuable. However, little is known about the complete set of genes for kojic acid production. Currently, kojic acid is produced from glucose. The efficient production of kojic acid using cellulose as an inexpensive substrate would help establish cost-effective kojic acid production. A kojic acid transcription factor gene over-expressing the A. oryzae strain was constructed. Three genes related to kojic acid production in this strain were transcribed in higher amounts than those found in the wild-type strain. This strain produced 26.4 g/L kojic acid from 80 g/L glucose. Furthermore, this strain was transformed with plasmid harboring 3 cellulase genes. The resultant A. oryzae strain successfully produced 0.18 g/L of kojic acid in 6 days of fermentation from the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. Kojic acid was produced directly from cellulose material using genetically engineered A. oryzae. Because A. oryzae has efficient protein secretion ability and secondary metabolite productivity, an A. oryzae-based cell factory could be a platform for the production of various kinds of bio-based chemicals.

  4. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...... clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis....

  6. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J.; Turner, Geoffrey; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R.; Bendtsen, Jannick D.; Benen, Jacques A. E.; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X.; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W. M.; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Groot, Gert S. P.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P. T. W.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; van der Heijden, Rene T. J. M.; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; Klis, Frans M.; Kools, Harrie J.; Kubicek, Christian P.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Lauber, Juergen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A.; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G.; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A.; Sagt, Cees M. J.; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; de Vondervoort, Peter J. J. van; Wedler, Holger; Wosten, Han A. B.; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J. J.; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein; Enfert, Christophe d’; Lauber, Jürgen; Goosen, Coenie; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of

  7. Transcription factors as targets for improving Aspergillus niger as cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Bruno, K.S.; Thykær, Jette

    for gene knockout. The resulting mutants were first exposed to screening experiments including morphological studies and investigation of acid profile and protease activity. Among others an interesting finding was that one mutant had an oxalic acid overproducing phenotype (OOP). In the screening...... experiments the OOP mutant showed a 30 % (± 5%) increase in oxalic acid titer. The OOP mutant was further characterized in 2L scale bioreactors, and a 90 % (±30%) increase of the overall yield coefficient of oxalic acid on glucose was seen. Further data on the OOP mutant will be presented and results from......). In the present study the effect of modulation of transcription factors in Aspergillus niger, which is an industrially important micro-organism used in various processes including organic acid and enzyme production, was investigated. The strategy described in this work focuses on regulation connected to p...

  8. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces...... phosphopantetheinylase (PPTase). This versatile vector system can easily be used for expression of other polyketides of interest as well as extended to express whole gene clusters. After achieving proof of principle in terms of expression, the polyketide cell factory must be optimized. The optimization can be achieved...... characterization in bioreactors revealed that the yields of 6-MSA on biomass increased albeit not significantly. As a result of this it may be argued that there is still more work to be done in terms of model building in A. nidulans. Utilizing another well-established cell factory S. cerevisiae the capabilities...

  9. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  10. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  11. Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth

    for sustainable production of chemicals, which can be achieved by microbial cell factories. The work presented in this PhD thesis elucidates the application of Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory for production of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid production was achieved by heterologous...... phase. The genomic alterations were identified by genome sequencing and revealed parallel evolution. Glycerol was also shown to be able to support biofilm growth and as a result of this it can be used as an alternative substrate for producing biochemicals in conventional and biofilm reactors. The use...... of biofilm as a production platform and the usage of glycerol as a feedstock show the potential of using microbial cell factories in the transition toward sustainable production of chemicals. Particularly, the applicability of biofilm as a production platform can emerge as a promising alternative...

  12. Engineering Robustness of Microbial Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens; Zhou, Yongjin J

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offer great prospects in developing microbial cell factories capable of converting renewable feedstocks into fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. However, prohibitively low production rate and mass concentration remain the major hurdles in industrial processes even though the biosynthetic pathways are comprehensively optimized. These limitations are caused by a variety of factors unamenable for host cell survival, such as harsh industrial conditions, fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates, and toxic compounds including metabolic intermediates and valuable target products. Therefore, engineered microbes with robust phenotypes is essential for achieving higher yield and productivity. In this review, the recent advances in engineering robustness and tolerance of cell factories is described to cope with these issues and briefly introduce novel strategies with great potential to enhance the robustness of cell factories, including metabolic pathway balancing, transporter engineering, and adaptive laboratory evolution. This review also highlights the integration of advanced systems and synthetic biology principles toward engineering the harmony of overall cell function, more than the specific pathways or enzymes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a university research center under the Technical University of Denmark within the field of design, engineering and construction of superior cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals, anti-infective compounds, industrial......-spectrum inhibitors against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial pathogens using co-Adaptive Laboratory Evolution, 3. Design and engineering of E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biobased production of various classes of chemicals. CFB has 230 employees....

  14. Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbølling, Inge; Vesth, Tammi C.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2018-01-01

    The fungal genus of Aspergillus is highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverse Aspergillus species (A...

  15. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.

    the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed which enabled us to perform single cell level...... analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount......To achieve an efficient production process, it is essential to optimize both the strain and the cultivation conditions. Traditionally, a microbial population has been considered homogeneous in optimization studies of fermentation processes. However, research has shown that a typical microbial...

  16. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    The sustainable manufacturing of medicines, materials and chemicals is enabled with biotechnology, and the key to the development of new processes, as well as improvement of existing ones, lies in our fundamental understanding of the biological systems we manipulate. Recombinant protein production...... is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed over the past four decades for this purpose. Understanding of the genetic code and our ability to manipulate genetic material, paves the way for the microbial cell factory development that enables production......, and building a platform for enhanced expression of certain plant genes in bacteria. The relevance of the conducted research to the field of biotechnology is covered, as well as necessary scientific background and history. Specifically, the surprisingly minor effects of tRNA overexpression on the production...

  17. Optimization of Amylase and Protease Production from Aspergillus awamori in Single Bioreactor Through EVOP Factorial Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Negi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary operation (EVOP factorial design technique was explored in order to economically produce amylase and protease at their optimum level in a single bioreactor by modified solid-state fermentation. Maximum yields of amylase and protease were achieved, using wheat bran as a substrate by a highly potent, locally isolated strain of Aspergillus awamori: Nakazawa MTCC 6652. The strain had been induced previously, inferring the ability to produce both enzymes concomitantly in a single bioreactor with their maximum capacity. The highest secretion of amylase and protease were measured to be 9420.6 and 1930 U/g, respectively, at 37 °C. pH and relative humidity were found to be optimum at 4 and 85 %, evaluated through EVOP method.

  18. Human T-cell responses to Aspergillus fumigatus : In healthy individuals and patients with Aspergillus-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolink, H.

    2017-01-01

    The T-cell mediated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in healthy individuals and in several patient groups. In peripheral blood of healthy individuals low frequencies of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells with a Thelper 1 profile were present. In patients with invasive

  19. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ARTHROSPIRA CELL FACTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpan Klanchui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of Arthrospira, the development of Arthrospira factories can now be accelerated by means of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach. Here, we review recent research involving the use of Arthrospira cell factories for industrial applications, as well as the exploitation of systems biology and the metabolic engineering approach for studying Arthrospira. The current status of genomics and proteomics through the development of the genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies are discussed. At the end, the perspective and future direction on Arthrospira cell factories for industrial biotechnology are presented.

  20. Synthetic yeast based cell factories for vanillin-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas

    and controlled expression/overexpression of genes of interest. De novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin-β-glucoside production was employed as a model system for several case studies in this project. In order to construct yeast cell factories fulfilling current demands of industrial biotechnology, methods......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well a characterized microorganism and widely used as eukaryotic model organism as well as a key cell factory for bioproduction of various products. The latter comprise a large variety of scientifically and industrially relevant products such as low-value bulk...... chemicals and biofuels, food additives, high-value chemicals and recombinant proteins. Despite the recent achievements in the fields of systems biology and metabolic engineering together with availability of broad genetic engineering toolbox, the full potential of S. cerevisiae as a cell factory is not yet...

  1. Cell Factory Stability and Genetic Circuits for Improved Strain Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter

    . However, all synthetic gene systems -­ including the target metabolic pathways themselves -­ represent a possible fitness burden to the cell and thus constitute a threat to strain stability. In this thesis, several studies served to develop genetic systems for optimizing cell factory development...... systems can challenge the stability of strain designs. A metabolite-­producing Escherichia coli strain was long-­term cultured to study production stability and the dynamic effects of mutations within the cell population. A genetic error landscape of pathway disruptions was identified including particular......Development of new chemical-­‐producing microbial cell factories is an iterative trial-­and-­error process, and to screen candidate cells at high throughput, genetic biosensor systems are appealing. Each biosensor has distinct biological parameters, making modular tuning networks attractive...

  2. Synthetic biology of cyanobacterial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of microbial biotechnology rational design approaches are employed for the generation of microbial cells with desired functions, such as the ability to produce precursor molecules for biofuels or bioplastics. In essence, that is the introduction of a (new) biosynthetic pathway into a

  3. Novel Methods for Development of Cell Factories and Laboratory Simultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads

    engineering. A key part of the transforming towards a biobased society and development of cell factories, is a skilled workforce to address the challenges. Furthermore, new methods need to be accessible to scientists and students in order to impact future research. Part of this challenge can be addressed...... by improving education and making these technologies accessible to students. The second part of the thesis relates to innovative methods for enhancing science education through technology. Traditional teaching methods are dominating science education, but new IT-based approaches provide an opportunity....... However, the lack of foundational technologies, methods, and prediction capabilities form a large barrier towards the transformation to a bio-based society, where products of cell factories are replacing fossil fuels, plastics and traditional chemicals derived from oil. In this thesis we present new...

  4. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  5. Accelerated and Rational Design of Improved CHO Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie

    Recombinant production of therapeutic proteins provides huge benefits to human health and promises solutions to some of the most devastating and currently untreatable diseases in healthcare. Key to the development of new therapeutic proteins is to optimize and engineer living cells, namely cell...... of a number of novel tools is reported that aim to accelerate the construction of production cell lines for therapeutic proteins with optimal phenotypic attributes for industrial processes. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant production host for therapeutic proteins, and are the cell factory...... of interest in this thesis. The core of the thesis is revolved around the development and application of genome editing techniques that enable us to precisely engineer the genome of CHO cells by either rendering specific-targeted genes unfunctional or inserting new genes in precise genomic locations...

  6. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Chaudhary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H1-T(H17 and destructive allergic (T(H2 immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown.To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17 to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein, Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase, Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Asp f22 (enolase. Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals.Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  7. Tailoring cyanobacterial cell factory for improved industrial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Guodong; Lu, Xuefeng

    Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses. For biomass harvesting and bioproduct recovery, energy and cost consuming processing and equipment is required, which further decreases the economic and environmental competitiveness of the entire process. To facilitate scaled photosynthetic biomanufacturing, lots of efforts have been made to engineer cyanobacterial cell properties required by robust & continual cultivation and convenient & efficient recovery. In this review, we specifically summarized recently reported engineering strategies on optimizing industrial properties of cyanobacterial cells. Through systematically re-editing the metabolism, morphology, mutualism interaction of cyanobacterial chassis cells, the adaptabilities and compatibilities of the cyanobacterial cell factories to the industrial process could be significantly improved. Cell growth and product synthesis of the tailored cyanobacterial cells could be expanded and maintained at night and in stressful environments, while convenient biomass harvesting could also be expected. For developing more feasible cyanobacterial photosynthetic biomanufacturing in large scale, we here propose the importance of tailoring industrial properties of cyanobacteria and outline the directions that should be exploited in the future. Copyright © 2018

  8. Establishing new microbial cell factories for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Liu, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    . The application of biological catalysts which can convert a variety of substrates to an array of desirable products has been demonstrated in both ancient bioprocesses and modern industrial biotechnology. In recent times, focus has been on a limited number of “model” organisms which have been extensively exploited...... of products, it may be interesting to look to less domesticated strains and towards more non-conventional hosts in the development of new bioprocesses. This approach demands thorough physiological characterization as well as establishment of tools for genetic engineering if new cell factories......The demands of modern society are increasing pressure on natural resources while creating the need for a wider range of products. There is an interest in developing bioprocesses to meet these demands, with conversion of a variety of waste materials providing the basis for a sustainable society...

  9. Novel and improved yeast cell factories for biosustainable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of an increasingly diverse range of cheap waste substrates will be an ongoing challenge for the bio-based economy, where the mobilization of nutrients from a variety of waste products will be necessary for realization of biosustainability on an industrial scale. Bioprocesses....... In addition to plant biomass hydrolysates, glycerol is of interest here, being available in amounts relevant for industrial scale bioprocesses due to increased production of biodiesel. The well characterised cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a clear preference for glucose as a carbon source......, and is highly adapted to its utilisation. Although there have been several studies on glycerol metabolism in S. cerevisiae, many industrially used strains grow poorly on glycerol (μmax = 0.01h-1). On the other hand, several non-conventional yeast species are efficient in utilization of glycerol, some...

  10. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level p...

  11. Choosing the right platform for the right product: Sustainable production of chemicals in microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a new non-profit research center focused on sustainable production of biochemicals and therapeutic proteins using microbial and mammalian cell factories. The work at CFB is organized around an iterative loop where cell factories...

  12. Differences among the cell wall galactomannans from Aspergillus wentii and Chaetosartorya chrysella and that of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Miranda, Begoña; Prieto, Alicia; Leal, Juan Antonio; Ahrazem, Oussama; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Bernabé, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The alkali extractable and water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides F1SS from Aspergillus wentii and Chaetosartorya chrysella have been studied by methylation analysis, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MALDI-TOF analysis. Their structures are almost identical, corresponding to the following repeating unit: [--> 3)-beta-D-Gal f -(1 --> 5)-beta-D-Gal f-(1 -->]n --> mannan core. The structure of this galactofuranose side chain differs from that found in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, in other Aspergillii and members of Trichocomaceae: [--> 5)-beta-D-Gal f-(1 -->]n --> mannan core. The mannan cores have also been investigated, and are constituted by a (1 --> 6)-alpha-mannan backbone, substituted at positions 2 by chains from 1 to 7 residues of (1 --> 2) linked alpha-mannopyranoses. Copyright 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  13. Cell biology of the Koji mold Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has been used for the production of sake, miso, and soy sauce for more than one thousand years in Japan. Due to the importance, A. oryzae has been designated as the national micro-organism of Japan (Koku-kin). A. oryzae has been intensively studied in the past century, with most investigations focusing on breeding techniques and developing methods for Koji making for sake brewing. However, the understanding of fundamental biology of A. oryzae remains relatively limited compared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we have focused on studying the cell biology including live cell imaging of organelles, protein vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and Woronin body functions using the available genomic information. In this review, I describe essential findings of cell biology of A. oryzae obtained in our study for a quarter of century. Understanding of the basic biology will be critical for not its biotechnological application, but also for an understanding of the fundamental biology of other filamentous fungi.

  14. Lactobacilli and pediococci as versatile cell factories - Evaluation of strain properties and genetic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosma, Elleke Fenna; Förster, Jochen; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery...... factories for biorefinery applications....

  15. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3).

  16. METABOLIC MODELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL FACTORIES BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  17. Lighting up yeast cell factories by transcription factor-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'ambrosio, Vasil; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to rewire cellular metabolism for the sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and therapeutics based on microbial cell factories has advanced rapidly during the last two decades. Especially the speed and precision by which microbial genomes can be engineered now allow for more...... process. For this purpose, there is a need to develop new techniques for screening and selection of best-performing cell factory designs in multiplex. Here we review the current status of the sourcing, design and engineering of biosensors derived from allosterically regulated transcription factors applied...... advanced designs to be implemented and tested. However, compared to the methods developed for engineering cell factories, the methods developed for testing the performance of newly engineered cell factories in high throughput are lagging far behind, which consequently impacts the overall biomanufacturing...

  18. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought......-direction of carbon fluxes in S. cerevisiae, and hence show proof of concept that this is a potentially attractive cell factory for over-producing different platform chemicals....

  19. Investigating Aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel; Garcia, Helga; Varela, Adélia; Núñez, Oscar; Planchon, Sébastien; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Renaut, Jenny; Rebelo, Luís P N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2014-02-26

    Cork, the outer bark of Quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. Cork colonisation by Ascomycota remains largely overlooked. Herein, Aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2DE). Proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (SEM) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (UPLC-HRMS). Data showed that the fungus formed an intricate network of hyphae around the cork cell walls, which enabled polysaccharides and lignin superficial degradation, but probably not of suberin. The degradation of polysaccharides was suggested by the identification of few polysaccharide degrading enzymes (β-glucosidases and endo-1,5-α-l-arabinosidase). Lignin degradation, which likely evolved throughout a Fenton-like mechanism relying on the activity of alcohol oxidases, was supported by the identification of small aromatic compounds (e.g. cinnamic acid and veratrylaldehyde) and of several putative high molecular weight lignin degradation products. In addition, cork recalcitrance was corroborated by the identification of several protein species which are associated with autolysis. Finally, stringent comparative proteomics revealed that A. nidulans colonisation of cork and wood share a common set of enzymatic mechanisms. However the higher polysaccharide accessibility in cork might explain the increase of β-glucosidase in cork secretome. Cork degradation by fungi remains largely overlook. Herein we aimed at understanding how A. nidulans colonise cork cell walls and how this relates to wood colonisation. To address this, the protein species consistently present in the secretome were analysed, as well as major alterations occurring in the substrate, including lignin degradation compounds being released. The obtained data demonstrate that this fungus has superficially attacked the cork cell walls apparently by

  20. Inflammatory cells and airway defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF; Tomee, JFC

    The authors offer a summary of the attack strategies of A. fumigatus and interactions with the airway defense system. The possible role of proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus in the inflammatory response of the airways is also discussed. Evidence is given for the in vivo production of these

  1. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. PMID:28586408

  3. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-06-01

    The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. © FEMS 2017.

  4. Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Dennis; Drepper, Thomas; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Delvigne, Frank; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Grünberger, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    In natural habitats, microbes form multispecies communities that commonly face rapidly changing and highly competitive environments. Thus, phenotypic heterogeneity has evolved as an innate and important survival strategy to gain an overall fitness advantage over cohabiting competitors. However, in defined artificial environments such as monocultures in small- to large-scale bioreactors, cell-to-cell variations are presumed to cause reduced production yields as well as process instability. Hence, engineering microbial production toward phenotypic homogeneity is a highly promising approach for synthetic biology and bioprocess optimization. In this review, we discuss recent studies that have unraveled the cell-to-cell heterogeneity observed during bacterial gene expression and metabolite production as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. In addition, current single-cell technologies are briefly reviewed with respect to their applicability in exploring cell-to-cell variations. We highlight emerging strategies and tools to reduce phenotypic heterogeneity in biotechnological expression setups. Here, strain or inducer modifications are combined with cell physiology manipulations to achieve the ultimate goal of equalizing bacterial populations. In this way, the majority of cells can be forced into high productivity, thus reducing less productive subpopulations that tend to consume valuable resources during production. Modifications in uptake systems, inducer molecules or nutrients represent valuable tools for diminishing heterogeneity. Finally, we address the challenge of transferring homogeneously responding cells into large-scale bioprocesses. Environmental heterogeneity originating from extrinsic factors such as stirring speed and pH, oxygen, temperature or nutrient distribution can significantly influence cellular physiology. We conclude that engineering microbial populations toward phenotypic homogeneity is an increasingly important task to take biotechnological

  5. On the use of metabolic control analysis in the optimization of cyanobacterial biosolar cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2013-09-26

    Oxygenic photosynthesis will have a key role in a sustainable future. It is therefore significant that this process can be engineered in organisms such as cyanobacteria to construct cell factories that catalyze the (sun)light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into products like ethanol, butanol, or other biofuels or lactic acid, a bioplastic precursor, and oxygen as a byproduct. It is of key importance to optimize such cell factories to maximal efficiency. This holds for their light-harvesting capabilities under, for example, circadian illumination in large-scale photobioreactors. However, this also holds for the "dark" reactions of photosynthesis, that is, the conversion of CO2, NADPH, and ATP into a product. Here, we present an analysis, based on metabolic control theory, to estimate the optimal capacity for product formation with which such cyanobacterial cell factories have to be equipped. Engineered l-lactic acid producing Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 strains are used to identify the relation between production rate and enzymatic capacity. The analysis shows that the engineered cell factories for l-lactic acid are fully limited by the metabolic capacity of the product-forming pathway. We attribute this to the fact that currently available promoter systems in cyanobacteria lack the genetic capacity to a provide sufficient expression in single-gene doses.

  6. On the Use of Metabolic Control Analysis in the Optimization of Cyanobacterial Biosolar Cell Factories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis will have a key role in a sustainable future. It is therefore significant that this process can be engineered in organisms such as cyanobacteria to construct cell factories that catalyze the (sun)light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into products like ethanol, butanol, or

  7. The Uses and Future Prospects of Metabolomics and Targeted Metabolite Profiling in Cell Factory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Scott James; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    , these broader measurements of the cellular metabolic state are now becoming part of the toolbox used to characterize cell factories. In this review we briefly summarize the benefits and challenges of global metabolomics and targeted metabolite profiling methods and discuss the application of these methods...

  8. Proteomics of eukaryotic microorganisms: The medically and biotechnologically important fungal genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2011-08-01

    Fungal species of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as model organisms in basic research, as "cell factories" for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals or industrially important enzymes and as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections in animals and humans. The release of the genome sequences of several Aspergillus sp. has paved the way for global analyses of protein expression in Aspergilli including the characterisation of proteins, which have not designated any function. With the application of proteomic methods, particularly 2-D gel and LC-MS/MS-based methods, first insights into the composition of the proteome of Aspergilli under different growth and stress conditions could be gained. Putative targets of global regulators led to the improvement of industrially relevant Aspergillus strains and so far not described Aspergillus antigens have already been discovered. Here, I review the recent proteome data generated for the species Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design, Modeling, and Development of Microbial Cell Factories

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we will express desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals.

  10. Design, Modeling, and Development of Microbial Cell Factories

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Behzad, H.; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we will express desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals.

  11. Acceleration of cell factories engineering using CRISPR-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta

    potentially be standardized in an automatable platform and, in the future be integrated with metabolic modeling tools. In particularly it describes the technologies developed in the three widely used organisms: E. coli, S. cerevisiae and CHO mammalian cells using the recent breakthrough CRISPR/ Cas9 system....... These include CRMAGE, a MAGE improved recombineering platform using CRISPR negative selection, CrEdit, a system for multi-loci marker-free simultaneous gene and pathway integrations and CRISPy a platform to accelerate genome editing in CHO cells....

  12. The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne; Chamilos, Georgios

    2017-09-08

    More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. The cell wall is now recognized as a living organelle, since the composition and cellular localization of the different constitutive cell wall components (especially of the outer layers) vary when the fungus senses changes in the external environment. The cell wall plays a major role during infection. The recognition of the fungal cell wall by the host is essential in the initiation of the immune response. The interactions between the different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) orientate the host response toward either fungal death or growth, which would then lead to disease development. Understanding the molecular determinants of the interplay between the cell wall and host immunity is fundamental to combatting Aspergillus diseases.

  13. Mass Action Stoichiometric. Simulation for Cell Factory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, Marta R. A.

    -state, giving information only about the reactions’ fluxes, while the latter take into account enzyme dynamics which makes it possible to model substrate-level enzyme regulation and get information about metabolite concentrations and reaction fluxes over time, although at the cost of introducing more parameters....... Kinetic models have been plagued by the lack of kinetic data. The focus of this thesis are kinetic models of cell metabolism. In this work we start by developing a software package to create a model ensemble for individual enzymes in metabolism, where we decompose each reaction into elementary steps......, using mass action kinetics to model each step. The resulting rate constants are then fitted to kinetic data (kcat, Km, Ki, etc.). We then use the package as the basis to build a system-level kinetic model. To do so, we take two different approaches, and in both we drop the assumption that χfree ≈ χtot...

  14. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast.

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: application and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E.

    2015-01-01

    repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system enables rapid,easy and efficient engineering of mammalian genomes. It has a wide range of applications frommodification of individual genes to genome-wide screening or regulation of genes. Facile genomeediting using CRISPR/Cas9 empowers...... researchers in the CHO community to elucidate the mechanisticbasis behind high level production of proteins and product quality attributes of interest. Inthis review, we describe the basis of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and its applicationfor development of next generation CHO cell factories while...... highlighting both future perspectivesand challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineeringwith CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories....

  17. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal...

  18. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir eOsherov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just innocent bystanders or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome.

  19. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Katherina García; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-02-08

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly used as a cell factory. However, cell factory construction time is a major obstacle towards using yeast for bio-production. Hence, tools to speed up cell factory construction are desirable. In this study, we have developed a new Cas9/dCas9 based system, SWITCH, which allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to iteratively alternate between a genetic engineering state and a pathway control state. Since Cas9 induced recombination events are crucial for SWITCH efficiency, we first developed a technique TAPE, which we have successfully used to address protospacer efficiency. As proof of concept of the use of SWITCH in cell factory construction, we have exploited the genetic engineering state of a SWITCH strain to insert the five genes necessary for naringenin production. Next, the naringenin cell factory was switched to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell factory construction.

  20. Modification of Aspergillus niger by conducting polymer, Polypyrrole, and the evaluation of electrochemical properties of modified cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Roxana-Mihaela; Carac, Geta; Bahrim, Gabriela; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2018-06-01

    The enhancement of bioelectrochemical properties of microorganism by in situ formation of conducting polymer within the cell structures (e.g. cell wall) was performed. The synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) within fungi (Aspergillus niger) cells was achieved. Two different Aspergillus niger strains were selected due to their ability to produce glucose oxidase, which initiated the Ppy formation through products of enzymatic reaction. The evolution of Ppy structural features was investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid prototyping of microbial cell factories via genome-scale engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-11-15

    Advances in reading, writing and editing genetic materials have greatly expanded our ability to reprogram biological systems at the resolution of a single nucleotide and on the scale of a whole genome. Such capacity has greatly accelerated the cycles of design, build and test to engineer microbes for efficient synthesis of fuels, chemicals and drugs. In this review, we summarize the emerging technologies that have been applied, or are potentially useful for genome-scale engineering in microbial systems. We will focus on the development of high-throughput methodologies, which may accelerate the prototyping of microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Prototyping of Microbial Cell Factories via Genome-scale Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Advances in reading, writing and editing genetic materials have greatly expanded our ability to reprogram biological systems at the resolution of a single nucleotide and on the scale of a whole genome. Such capacity has greatly accelerated the cycles of design, build and test to engineer microbes for efficient synthesis of fuels, chemicals and drugs. In this review, we summarize the emerging technologies that have been applied, or are potentially useful for genome-scale engineering in microbial systems. We will focus on the development of high-throughput methodologies, which may accelerate the prototyping of microbial cell factories. PMID:25450192

  3. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of food waste into products like single cell protein is an alternative solution to global protein shortage and to alleviate pollution problems. This investigation was carried out with food wastes such as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth media for A. niger using standard ...

  4. Cameo: A Python Library for Computer Aided Metabolic Engineering and Optimization of Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João G R; Jensen, Kristian; Lieven, Christian; Lærke Hansen, Anne Sofie; Galkina, Svetlana; Beber, Moritz; Özdemir, Emre; Herrgård, Markus J; Redestig, Henning; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2018-04-20

    Computational systems biology methods enable rational design of cell factories on a genome-scale and thus accelerate the engineering of cells for the production of valuable chemicals and proteins. Unfortunately, the majority of these methods' implementations are either not published, rely on proprietary software, or do not provide documented interfaces, which has precluded their mainstream adoption in the field. In this work we present cameo, a platform-independent software that enables in silico design of cell factories and targets both experienced modelers as well as users new to the field. It is written in Python and implements state-of-the-art methods for enumerating and prioritizing knockout, knock-in, overexpression, and down-regulation strategies and combinations thereof. Cameo is an open source software project and is freely available under the Apache License 2.0. A dedicated Web site including documentation, examples, and installation instructions can be found at http://cameo.bio . Users can also give cameo a try at http://try.cameo.bio .

  5. Deletion of flbA results in increased secretome complexity and reduced secretion heterogeneity in colonies of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsheld, P.; Nitsche, B.M.; Post, H.; Levin, A.M.; Muller, W.H.; Heck, A.J.R.; Ram, A.F.; Altelaar, A.F.M.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a cell factory for the production of enzymes. This fungus secretes proteins in the central part and at the periphery of the colony. The sporulating zone of the colony overlapped with the nonsecreting subperipheral zone, indicating that sporulation inhibits protein secretion.

  6. I-RobCELL: the factory of the future for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozais, D.; Larousse, B.

    2016-01-01

    The I-RobCELL project (Innovative Robotic Center with online Examination) is a concept of a totally automated cell for the production and control of small parts for the high-precision mechanical market. The I-RobCELL will play on 4 fields: 1) a totally digital driving of the fabrication process involving various fabrication processes for the same part, 2) the integration of non-destructive testing technologies based on ultrasound, 3) automated diagnostic of defects through the comparison between real-time measured values given by probes and references values stored in a database, and 4) on-line monitoring of the welding. The technology of ultrasonic testing without couplant substance between the transducer and the part to be tested, is being developed to be integrated to the I-RobCELL, other non-destructive testing like guided waves or X-ray tomography will be implemented in the future versions of the I-RobCELL. The I-RobCELL will occupy a 2-3 m"3 volume allowing a very accurate monitoring of the temperature and a high level of cleanliness. The I-RobCELL concept will prefigure the factory of the future. (A.C.)

  7. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  8. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  9. Isolate-dependent growth, virulence, and cell wall composition in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is a mediator of allergic sensitization and invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The significant genetic and phenotypic variability between and among clinical and environmental isolates are important considerations in host-pathogen studies of A. fumigatus-mediated disease. We observed decreased radial growth, rate of germination, and ability to establish colony growth in a single environmental isolate of A. fumigatus, Af5517, when compared to other clinical and environmental isolates. Af5517 also exhibited increased hyphal diameter and cell wall β-glucan and chitin content, with chitin most significantly increased. Morbidity, mortality, lung fungal burden, and tissue pathology were decreased in neutropenic Af5517-infected mice when compared to the clinical isolate Af293. Our results support previous findings that suggest a correlation between in vitro growth rates and in vivo virulence, and we propose that changes in cell wall composition may contribute to this phenotype.

  10. A new-generation of Bacillus subtilis cell factory for further elevated scyllo-inositol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosei; Natsume, Ayane; Ishikawa, Shu; Takenaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-21

    A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol (SI), has been regarded as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, this compound is relatively rare, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol (MI) is abundant in nature. Bacillus subtilis 168 has the ability to metabolize inositol stereoisomers, including MI and SI. Previously, we reported a B. subtilis cell factory with modified inositol metabolism that converts MI into SI in the culture medium. The strain was constructed by deleting all genes related to inositol metabolism and overexpressing key enzymes, IolG and IolW. By using this strain, 10 g/l of MI initially included in the medium was completely converted into SI within 48 h of cultivation in a rich medium containing 2% (w/v) Bacto soytone. When the initial concentration of MI was increased to 50 g/l, conversion was limited to 15.1 g/l of SI. Therefore, overexpression systems of IolT and PntAB, the main transporter of MI in B. subtilis and the membrane-integral nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Escherichia coli respectively, were additionally introduced into the B. subtilis cell factory, but the conversion efficiency hardly improved. We systematically determined the amount of Bacto soytone necessary for ultimate conversion, which was 4% (w/v). As a result, the conversion of SI reached to 27.6 g/l within 48 h of cultivation. The B. subtilis cell factory was improved to yield a SI production rate of 27.6 g/l/48 h by simultaneous overexpression of IolT and PntAB, and by addition of 4% (w/v) Bacto soytone in the conversion medium. The concentration of SI was increased even in the stationary phase perhaps due to nutrients in the Bacto soytone that contribute to the conversion process. Thus, MI conversion to SI may be further optimized via identification and control of these unknown nutrients.

  11. Microbial Cell Factories for the Production of Terpenoid Flavor and Fragrance Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Florence M; Drummond, Laura; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C 5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C 5 intermediates to the product of interest. In this review typical terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds marketed or under development by biotech and aroma companies are given, and the specificities of the aroma market are discussed. The main part of this work focuses on key strategies and recent advances to engineer microbes to become efficient terpenoid producers.

  12. Development of a yeast cell factory for production of aromatic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Li, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in aromatic chemicals in the chemical industry as these can be used for production of dyes, anti-oxidants, nutraceuticals and food ingredients. Yeast is a widely used cell factory and it is particularly well suited for production of aromatic chemicals via complex biosynthetic...... routes involving P450 enzymes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the fluxes towards aromatic acids (L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine) are strictly controlled on transcriptional and kinetic levels and therefore are difficult to manipulate. We engineered S. cerevisiae for increased production...... of aromatic compounds by eliminating degradation, up-regulating the key enzyme encoding genes, and removing feed-back inhibition in the pathway. In order to test the strain performance we overexpressed heterologous pathway for coumaric acid production. We obtained 4-fold higher concentrations of coumaric acid...

  13. Development and application of computer-aided design methods for cell factory optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Joao

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be used to produce chemicals for everyday applications. Engineering microorganisms is a multidisciplinary task comprising four steps: design, build, test and learn. The design and learn phases rely on computational, statistical models, data analysis...... and machine learning. The process of creating strains with commercially relevant titers is time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided design (CAD) software can help scientists build better strains by providing models and algorithms that can be used to generate and test hypotheses before implementing them...... microbial cell factories. In this PhD thesis we present cameo, a CAD software for metabolic engineering that uses GEMs. State-of-the-art and novel algorithms are implemented in cameo. These algorithms have been made accessible using a high-level API to enable any user to start running them without having...

  14. Impact of Mycotoxins Secreted by Aspergillus Molds on the Inflammatory Response of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yélian Marc Bossou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to molds and mycotoxins not only contributes to the onset of respiratory disease, it also affects the ocular surface. Very few published studies concern the evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin exposure on ocular cells. The present study investigates the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and gliotoxin, two mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus molds, on the biological activity of the human corneal epithelial (HCE cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure, cellular viability and inflammatory response were assessed. Both endpoint cell viability colorimetric assays and continuous cell impedance measurements, providing noninvasive real-time assessment of the effect on cells, were performed. Cytokine gene expression and interleukin-8 release were quantified. Gliotoxin appeared more cytotoxic than AFB1 but, at the same time, led to a lower increase of the inflammatory response reflecting its immunosuppressive properties. Real-time cell impedance measurement showed a distinct profile of cytotoxicity for both mycotoxins. HCE cells appeared to be a well-suited in vitro model to study ocular surface reactivity following biological contaminant exposure. Low, but persistent inflammation, caused by environmental factors, such as fungal toxins, leads to irritation and sensitization, and could be responsible for allergic manifestations which, in turn, could lead to mucosal hyper-reactivity.

  15. Evidence for the involvement of cofilin in Aspergillus fumigatus internalization into type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiyao; Han, Xuelin; Chen, Fangyan; Jia, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jingya; Zhang, Changjian; Yong, Chen; Tian, Shuguang; Zhou, Xin; Han, Li

    2015-08-13

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is tightly controlled by host cellular actin dynamics, which require close modulation of the ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family. However, the role of cofilin in A. fumigatus internalization into AECs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that germinated A. fumigatus conidia were able to induce phosphorylation of cofilin in A549 cells during the early stage of internalization. The modulation of cofilin activity by overexpression, knockdown, or mutation of the cofilin gene in A549 cells decreased the efficacy of A. fumigatus internalization. Reducing the phosphorylation status of cofilin with BMS-5 (LIM kinase inhibitor) or overexpression of the slingshot phosphatases also impeded A. fumigatus internalization. Both the C. botulimun C3 transferase (a specific RhoA inhibitor) and Y27632 (a specific ROCK inhibitor) reduced the internalization of A. fumigatus and the level of phosphorylated cofilin. β-1,3-glucan (the major component of the conidial cell wall) and its host cell receptor dectin-1 did not seem to be associated with cofilin phosphorylation during A. fumigatus infection. These results indicated that cofilin might be involved in the modulation of A. fumigatus internalization into type II alveolar epithelial cells through the RhoA-ROCK-LIM kinase pathway.

  16. A novel screening method for cell wall mutants in Aspergillus niger identifies UDP-galactopyranose mutase as an important protein in fungal cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Franken, A.; Arentshorst, M.; Punt, P.J.; Klis, F.M.; van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.; Ram, A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    To identify cell wall biosynthetic genes in filamentous fungi and thus potential targets for the discovery of new antifungals, we developed a novel screening method for cell wall mutants. It is based on our earlier observation that the Aspergillus niger agsA gene, which encodes a putative

  17. A novel screening method for cell wall mutants in Aspergillus niger identifies UDP-galactopyranose mutase as an important protein in fungal cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Franken, A.; Arentshorst, M.; Punt, P.J.; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    To identify cell wall biosynthetic genes in filamentous fungi and thus potential targets for the discovery of new antifungals, we developed a novel screening method for cell wall mutants. It is based on our earlier observation that the Aspergillus niger agsA gene, which encodes a putative a-glucan

  18. Aspergillus nidulans cell wall composition and function change in response to hosting several Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-galactopyranose mutase activity mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Kausar Alam

    Full Text Available Deletion or repression of Aspergillus nidulans ugmA (AnugmA, involved in galactofuranose biosynthesis, impairs growth and increases sensitivity to Caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthesis antagonist. The A. fumigatus UgmA (AfUgmA crystal structure has been determined. From that study, AfUgmA mutants with altered enzyme activity were transformed into AnugmA▵ to assess their effect on growth and wall composition in A. nidulans. The complemented (AnugmA::wild type AfugmA strain had wild type phenotype, indicating these genes had functional homology. Consistent with in vitro studies, AfUgmA residues R182 and R327 were important for its function in vivo, with even conservative amino (RK substitutions producing AnugmA? phenotype strains. Similarly, the conserved AfUgmA loop III histidine (H63 was important for Galf generation: the H63N strain had a partially rescued phenotype compared to AnugmA▵. Collectively, A. nidulans strains that hosted mutated AfUgmA constructs with low enzyme activity showed increased hyphal surface adhesion as assessed by binding fluorescent latex beads. Consistent with previous qPCR results, immunofluorescence and ELISA indicated that AnugmA▵ and AfugmA-mutated A. nidulans strains had increased α-glucan and decreased β-glucan in their cell walls compared to wild type and AfugmA-complemented strains. Like the AnugmA▵ strain, A. nidulans strains containing mutated AfugmA showed increased sensitivity to antifungal drugs, particularly Caspofungin. Reduced β-glucan content was correlated with increased Caspofungin sensitivity. Aspergillus nidulans wall Galf, α-glucan, and β-glucan content was correlated in A. nidulans hyphal walls, suggesting dynamic coordination between cell wall synthesis and cell wall integrity.

  19. Development of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a Phototrophic Cell Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae play profound roles in ecology and biogeochemistry. One model cyanobacterial species is the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This species is highly amenable to genetic modification. Its genome has been sequenced and many systems biology and molecular biology tools are available to study this bacterium. Recently, researchers have put significant efforts into understanding and engineering this bacterium to produce chemicals and biofuels from sunlight and CO2. To demonstrate our perspective on the application of this cyanobacterium as a photosynthesis-based chassis, we summarize the recent research on Synechocystis 6803 by focusing on five topics: rate-limiting factors for cell cultivation; molecular tools for genetic modifications; high-throughput system biology for genome wide analysis; metabolic modeling for physiological prediction and rational metabolic engineering; and applications in producing diverse chemicals. We also discuss the particular challenges for systems analysis and engineering applications of this microorganism, including precise characterization of versatile cell metabolism, improvement of product rates and titers, bioprocess scale-up, and product recovery. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of Synechocystis 6803 as a phototrophic cell factory, the biotechnology for “Compounds from Synechocystis” is still significantly lagging behind those for heterotrophic microbes (e.g., Escherichia coli.

  20. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  1. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  2. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  3. Screening of lactic acid bacteria for their potential as microbial cell factories for bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boguta, Anna Monika; Bringel, Francoise; Martinussen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic ...

  4. Particle factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-01-01

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory

  5. Particle factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-07-15

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory.

  6. Aspergillus: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  7. Cell wall damage and oxidative stress in Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Aspergillus niger caused by palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athie-García, Martha Samira; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda Amelia; Muñoz-Castellanos, Laila Nayzzel; Ulloa-Ogaz, Ana Laura; Martínez-Varela, Perla Ivonne; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Duran, Robert; Murillo-Ramirez, José Guadalupe; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2018-04-01

    In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0.5). Reactive Oxygen Species levels were increased in both microorganisms. Confocal, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed cell wall damage and cellular morphology changes, induced by the interaction of PdNPs, in both microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EVALUATION OF CELL CYCLE OF Aspergillus nidulans EXPOSED TO THE EXTRACT OF Copaifera officinalis L PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta, Uériton Dias de Oliveira e Josy Fraccaro de Marins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil extracted from the Copaifera officinalis L plant has been used in popular medicine to the treatment of several diseases, like cancer. In eukaryotic cells, the process of cellular proliferation follows a standard cycle, named cellular cycle. The transformation of a normal cell in a malignant one requires several steps, in which genes that control normal cellular division or cellular death are modified. Aspergillus nidulans fungus is an excellent system for the study of the cellular differentiation. Its asexual cycle results in the formation of conidia, which are disposed like chains, constituting a structure named conidiophore. This structure consists in an aerial hifae, multinucleate vesicle and uninucleate cells. Current research evaluated the capacity of the C. officinalis L plant extract in promoting alterations in the cellular cycle of A. nidulans diploid strains, by observing macroscopic and microscopic alterations in cellular growth of this fungus. Results shown that no macroscopic alterations were observed in cellular growth of strains exposed to the extract, however, microscopic alterations of conidiophore have been observed in the different extract concentrations analyzed. In this way, the study of the action of C. officinalis L plant extract becomes important considering the fact that this substance is capable to promote alterations in cellular cycle of eukaryotic cells.

  9. Calcineurin Orchestrates Lateral Transfer of Aspergillus fumigatus during Macrophage Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anand; Kannambath, Shichina; Herbst, Susanne; Rogers, Andrew; Soresi, Simona; Carby, Martin; Reed, Anna; Mostowy, Serge; Fisher, Matthew C; Shaunak, Sunil; Armstrong-James, Darius P

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a lethal mold infection in the immunocompromised host. Understanding initial control of infection and how this is altered in the immunocompromised host are key goals for comprehension of the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. To characterize the outcome of human macrophage infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and how this is altered in transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants. We defined the outcome of human macrophage infection with A. fumigatus, as well as the impact of calcineurin inhibitors, through a combination of single-cell fluorescence imaging, transcriptomics, proteomics, and in vivo studies. Macrophage phagocytosis of A. fumigatus enabled control of 90% of fungal germination. However, fungal germination in the late phagosome led to macrophage necrosis. During programmed necroptosis, we observed frequent cell-cell transfer of A. fumigatus between macrophages, which assists subsequent control of germination in recipient macrophages. Lateral transfer occurred through actin-dependent exocytosis of the late endosome in a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein envelope. Its relevance to the control of fungal germination was also shown by direct visualization in our zebrafish aspergillosis model in vivo. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (tacrolimus) reduced cell death and lateral transfer in vitro by 50%. This resulted in uncontrolled fungal germination in macrophages and also resulted in hyphal escape. These observations identify programmed, necrosis-dependent lateral transfer of A. fumigatus between macrophages as an important host strategy for controlling fungal germination. This process is critically dependent on calcineurin. Our studies provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis in the immunocompromised host.

  10. Heterologous Synthesis and Recovery of Advanced Biofuels from Bacterial Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sana; Afzal, Ifrah; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Al Doghaither, Huda; Rahimuddin, Sawsan Abdulaziz; Gull, Munazza; Nahid, Nazia

    2018-01-01

    Microbial engineering to produce advanced biofuels is currently the most encouraging approach in renewable energy. Heterologous synthesis of biofuels and other useful industrial chemicals using bacterial cell factories has radically diverted the attentions from the native synthesis of these compounds. However, recovery of biofuels from the media and cellular toxicity are the main hindrances to successful commercialization of advanced biofuels. Therefore, membrane transporter engineering is gaining increasing attentions from all over the world. The main objective of this review is to explore the ways to increase the microbial production of biofuels by counteracting the cellular toxicity and facilitating their easier recovery from media. Microbial synthesis of industrially viable compounds such as biofuels has been increased due to genomic revolution. Moreover, advancements in protein engineering, gene regulation, pathway portability, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology led the focus towards the development of robust and cost-effective systems for biofuel production. The most convenient way to combat cellular toxicity and to secrete biofuels is the use of membrane transport system. The use of membrane transporters is currently a serious oversight as do not involve chemical changes and contribute greatly to efflux biofuels in extracellular milieu. However, overexpression of transport systems can also be detrimental to cell, so, in future, structure-based engineering of transporters can be employed to evaluate optimum expression range, to increase biofuel specificity and transport rate through structural studies of biofuel molecules. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Industrial systems biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables novel succinic acid cell factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Otero

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol, and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought after added-value chemical for which there is no native pre-disposition for production and accmulation in S. cerevisiae. The genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of S. cerevisiae enabled in silico gene deletion predictions using an evolutionary programming method to couple biomass and succinate production. Glycine and serine, both essential amino acids required for biomass formation, are formed from both glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates. Succinate formation results from the isocitrate lyase catalyzed conversion of isocitrate, and from the α-keto-glutarate dehydrogenase catalyzed conversion of α-keto-glutarate. Succinate is subsequently depleted by the succinate dehydrogenase complex. The metabolic engineering strategy identified included deletion of the primary succinate consuming reaction, Sdh3p, and interruption of glycolysis derived serine by deletion of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, Ser3p/Ser33p. Pursuing these targets, a multi-gene deletion strain was constructed, and directed evolution with selection used to identify a succinate producing mutant. Physiological characterization coupled with integrated data analysis of transcriptome data in the metabolically engineered strain were used to identify 2(nd-round metabolic engineering targets. The resulting strain represents a 30-fold improvement in succinate titer, and a 43-fold improvement in succinate yield on biomass, with only a 2.8-fold decrease in the specific growth rate compared to the reference strain. Intuitive genetic targets for either over-expression or interruption of succinate producing or consuming pathways, respectively, do not lead to increased succinate. Rather, we

  12. Human platelet lysate in mesenchymal stromal cell expansion according to a GMP grade protocol: a cell factory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Valentina; Piccini, Luisa; Casamassima, Serena; Bisin, Silvia; Gori, Valentina; Gentile, Francesca; Ceccantini, Riccardo; De Rienzo, Elena; Bindi, Barbara; Pavan, Paola; Cunial, Vanessa; Allegro, Elisa; Ermini, Stefano; Brugnolo, Francesca; Astori, Giuseppe; Bambi, Franco

    2018-05-02

    The use of platelet lysate (PL) for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) was initially proposed by Doucet et al. in 2005, as an alternative to animal serum. Moreover, regulatory authorities discourage the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or other animal derivatives, to avoid risk of zoonoses and xenogeneic immune reactions. Even if many studies investigated PL composition, there still are some open issues related to its use in ex-vivo MSC expansion, especially according to good manufacturing practice (GMP) grade protocols. As an authorized cell factory, we report our experience using standardized PL produced by Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Meyer Transfusion Service for MSC expansion according to a GMP grade clinical protocol. As suggested by other authors, we performed an in-vitro test on MSCs versus MSCs cultured with FBS that still represents the best way to test PL batches. We compared 12 MSC batches cultured with DMEM 5% PL with similar batches cultured with DMEM 10% FBS, focusing on the MSC proliferation rate, MSC surface marker expression, MSC immunomodulatory and differentiation potential, and finally MSC relative telomere length. Results confirmed the literature data as PL increases cell proliferation without affecting the MSC immunophenotype, immunomodulatory potential, differentiation potential and relative telomere length. PL can be considered a safe alternative to FBS for ex-vivo expansion of MSC according to a GMP grade protocol. Our experience confirms the literature data: a large number of MSCs for clinical applications can be obtained by expansion with PL, without affecting the MSC main features. Our experience underlines the benefits of a close collaboration between the PL producers (transfusion service) and the end users (cell factory) in a synergy of skills and experiences that can lead to standardized PL production.

  13. The state of proteome profiling in the fungal genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Nandakumar, M P; Marten, Mark R

    2008-03-01

    Aspergilli are an important genus of filamentous fungi that contribute to a multibillion dollar industry. Since many fungal genome sequencing were recently completed, it would be advantageous to profile their proteome to better understand the fungal cell factory. Here, we review proteomic data generated for the Aspergilli in recent years. Thus far, a combined total of 28 cell surface, 102 secreted and 139 intracellular proteins have been identified based on 10 different studies on Aspergillus proteomics. A summary proteome map highlighting identified proteins in major metabolic pathway is presented.

  14. Model-based design of bistable cell factories for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2018-04-15

    Metabolism can exhibit dynamic phenomena like bistability due to the presence of regulatory motifs like the positive feedback loop. As cell factories, microorganisms with bistable metabolism can have a high and a low product flux at the two stable steady states, respectively. The exclusion of metabolic regulation and network dynamics limits the ability of pseudo-steady state stoichiometric models to detect the presence of bistability, and reliably assess the outcomes of design perturbations to metabolic networks. Using kinetic models of metabolism, we assess the change in the bistable characteristics of the network, and suggest designs based on perturbations to the positive feedback loop to enable the network to produce at its theoretical maximum rate. We show that the most optimal production design in parameter space, for a small bistable metabolic network, may exist at the boundary of the bistable region separating it from the monostable region of low product fluxes. The results of our analysis can be broadly applied to other bistable metabolic networks with similar positive feedback network topologies. This can complement existing model-based design strategies by providing a smaller number of feasible designs that need to be tested in vivo. http://lmse.biozone.utoronto.ca/downloads/. krishna.mahadevan@utoronto.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Virion assembly factories in the nucleus of polyomavirus-infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Erickson

    Full Text Available Most DNA viruses replicate in the cell nucleus, although the specific sites of virion assembly are as yet poorly defined. Electron microscopy on freeze-substituted, plastic-embedded sections of murine polyomavirus (PyV-infected 3T3 mouse fibroblasts or mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs revealed tubular structures in the nucleus adjacent to clusters of assembled virions, with virions apparently "shed" or "budding" from their ends. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs have been suggested as possible sites for viral replication of polyomaviruses (BKV and SV40, herpes simplex virus (HSV, and adenovirus (Ad. Immunohistochemistry and FISH demonstrated co-localization of the viral T-antigen (Tag, PyV DNA, and the host DNA repair protein MRE11, adjacent to the PML-NBs. In PML⁻/⁻ MEFs the co-localization of MRE11, Tag, and PyV DNA remained unchanged, suggesting that the PML protein itself was not responsible for their association. Furthermore, PyV-infected PML⁻/⁻ MEFs and PML⁻/⁻ mice replicated wild-type levels of infectious virus. Therefore, although the PML protein may identify sites of PyV replication, neither the observed "virus factories" nor virus assembly were dependent on PML. The ultrastructure of the tubes suggests a new model for the encapsidation of small DNA viruses.

  16. The Aspergillus niger MADS-box transcription factor RlmA is required for cell wall reinforcement in response to cell wall stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Arentshorst, M.; Franken, A.; Vankuyk, P.A.; Klis, F.M.; van den Hondel, C.A.; Ram, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In Aspergillus niger, the genes coding for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (gfaA) and ¿-1,3-glucan synthase (agsA) are induced in response to cell wall stress. In silico analysis of the promoter region of the two genes revealed the presence of putative DNA binding sites for

  17. Aspergillus niger whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Govindaraju; Morya, Vivek Kumar; Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of caffeic acid ester essentially requires an efficient esterification process to produce various kinds of medicinally important ester derivatives. In the present study, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of whole-cell catalyzed caffeic acid esters production in ionic liquids (ILs) media was performed. Olive oil induced mycelial mass of halotolerant Aspergillus niger (A.niger) EXF 4321 was freeze dried and used as a catalyst. To ensure maximum solubilization of caffeic acid for highest substrate loading several ILs were screened and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf 2 N]) was found to have the maximum solubility and favoured for enzymatic activity of freeze dried mycelia. The whole-cell catalyzed synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) conditions were optimized and bioconversion up to 84% was achieved at a substrate molar ratio of 1:20 (caffeic acid:2-phenyl ethanol), 30°C for 12h. Results obtained during this study were encouraging and helpful to design a bioreactor system to produce caffeic acid derived esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus identifies glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins associated to the cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, J M; Magnin, T; Tagat, E; Legrand, R; Bernard, M; Diaquin, M; Fudali, C; Latgé, J P

    2001-08-01

    Previous studies in Aspergillus fumigatus (Mouyna I., Fontaine T., Vai M., Monod M., Fonzi W. A., Diaquin M., Popolo L., Hartland R. P., Latgé J.-P, J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 14882-14889) have shown that a glucanosyltransferase playing an important role in fungal cell wall biosynthesis is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored to the membrane. To identify other GPI-anchored proteins putatively involved in cell wall biogenesis, a proteomic analysis has been undertaken in A. fumigatus and the protein data were matched with the yeast genomic data. GPI-anchored proteins of A. fumigatus were released from membrane preparation by an endogenous GPI-phospholipase C, purified by liquid chromatography and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. They were characterized by their peptide mass fingerprint through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-(MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry and by internal amino acid sequencing. Nine GPI-anchored proteins were identified in A. fumigatus. Five of them were homologs of putatively GPI-anchored yeast proteins (Csa1p, Crh1p, Crh2p, Ecm33p, Gas1p) of unknown function but shown by gene disruption analysis to play a role in cell wall morphogenesis. In addition, a comparative study performed with chitin synthase and glucanosyl transferase mutants of A. fumigatus showed that a modification of the growth phenotype seen in these mutants was associated to an alteration of the pattern of GPI-anchored proteins. These results suggest that GPI-anchored proteins identified in this study are involved in A. fumigatus cell wall organization.

  19. New transposon tools tailored for metabolic engineering of Gram-negative microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban eMartínez-García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena, but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5 vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin. After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the

  20. New Transposon Tools Tailored for Metabolic Engineering of Gram-Negative Microbial Cell Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Aparicio, Tomás; Lorenzo, Víctor de; Nikel, Pablo I.

    2014-01-01

    Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5-vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic-resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin). After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5-vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the structural genes.

  1. New Transposon Tools Tailored for Metabolic Engineering of Gram-Negative Microbial Cell Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Aparicio, Tomás; Lorenzo, Víctor de; Nikel, Pablo I., E-mail: pablo.nikel@cnb.csic.es [Systems and Synthetic Biology Program, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-28

    Re-programming microorganisms to modify their existing functions and/or to bestow bacteria with entirely new-to-Nature tasks have largely relied so far on specialized molecular biology tools. Such endeavors are not only relevant in the burgeoning metabolic engineering arena but also instrumental to explore the functioning of complex regulatory networks from a fundamental point of view. À la carte modification of bacterial genomes thus calls for novel tools to make genetic manipulations easier. We propose the use of a series of new broad-host-range mini-Tn5-vectors, termed pBAMDs, for the delivery of gene(s) into the chromosome of Gram-negative bacteria and for generating saturated mutagenesis libraries in gene function studies. These delivery vectors endow the user with the possibility of easy cloning and subsequent insertion of functional cargoes with three different antibiotic-resistance markers (kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin). After validating the pBAMD vectors in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, their use was also illustrated by inserting the entire poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway from Cupriavidus necator in the chromosome of a phosphotransacetylase mutant of Escherichia coli. PHB is a completely biodegradable polyester with a number of industrial applications that make it attractive as a potential replacement of oil-based plastics. The non-selective nature of chromosomal insertions of the biosynthetic genes was evidenced by a large landscape of PHB synthesis levels in independent clones. One clone was selected and further characterized as a microbial cell factory for PHB accumulation, and it achieved polymer accumulation levels comparable to those of a plasmid-bearing recombinant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new mini-Tn5-vectors can be used to confer interesting phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria that would be very difficult to engineer through direct manipulation of the structural genes.

  2. Mycobacterium smegmatis is a suitable cell factory for the production of steroidic synthons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Beatriz; Uhía, Iria; García-Fernández, Esther; Martínez, Igor; Bahíllo, Esther; de la Fuente, Juan L; Barredo, José L; Fernández-Cabezón, Lorena; García, José L

    2017-01-01

    A number of pharmaceutical steroid synthons are currently produced through the microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols as an alternative to multi-step chemical synthesis. Industrially, these synthons have been usually produced through fermentative processes using environmental isolated microorganisms or their conventional mutants. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 155 is a model organism for tuberculosis studies which uses cholesterol as the sole carbon and energy source for growth, as other mycobacterial strains. Nevertheless, this property has not been exploited for the industrial production of steroidic synthons. Taking advantage of our knowledge on the cholesterol degradation pathway of M. smegmatis mc 2 155 we have demonstrated that the MSMEG_6039 (kshB1) and MSMEG_5941 (kstD1) genes encoding a reductase component of the 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase (KshAB) and a ketosteroid Δ 1 -dehydrogenase (KstD), respectively, are indispensable enzymes for the central metabolism of cholesterol. Therefore, we have constructed a MSMEG_6039 (kshB1) gene deletion mutant of M. smegmatis MS6039 that transforms efficiently natural sterols (e.g. cholesterol and phytosterols) into 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. In addition, we have demonstrated that a double deletion mutant M. smegmatis MS6039-5941 [ΔMSMEG_6039 (ΔkshB1) and ΔMSMEG_5941 (ΔkstD1)] transforms natural sterols into 4-androstene-3,17-dione with high yields. These findings suggest that the catabolism of cholesterol in M. smegmatis mc 2 155 is easy to handle and equally efficient for sterol transformation than other industrial strains, paving the way for valuating this strain as a suitable industrial cell factory to develop à la carte metabolic engineering strategies for the industrial production of pharmaceutical steroids. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    increase in ethanol production and cell growth increased with time of fermentation. ... fuel for automobiles. ... growth was determined by measuring the cell density .... Direct fermentation of potato starch to ethanol by co-cultures of Aspergillus.

  4. MMS-induced primary aneuploidy and other genotoxic effects in mitotic cells of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, E

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of more than 1 target for genotoxic effects of methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was investigated, using mitotic test systems of the fungus Aspergillus. Haploid and diploid strains were exposed, either as dormant conidia or during mitosis, and analysed for induced aneuploidy and effects on genetic segregation. MMS treatment of haploid strains resulted in dose-dependent increases of stable mutants with altered phenotypes and semi-stable unbalanced aberrations (presumably duplications). In addition, but only in dividing cells, MMS induced unstable aneuploids. These mostly were hyperhaploid with few extra chromosomes and could be identified by comparison with standard disomic phenotypes. When well-marked diploids were treated 3 types of effect could be distinguished, using genetic and phenotypic criteria: (1) Clastogenic and mutagenic effects which caused dose-dependent increases of partial aneuploids with various abnormal phenotypes. These showed secondary genetic segregation of all types and produced euploid normal sectors by eliminating damaged chromosome segments. In addition, but only in dividing nuclei, MMS induced 2 types of segregation: (2) Reciprocal crossing-over at high frequency, recognisable as half or quarter colonies of mutant colour and in some cases as 'twin spots' (i.e., complementary pairs); (3) Trisomics and other aneuploids which showed characteristic phenotypes and expected segregation of markers: the types recovered indicate random malsegregation of chromosomes (occasional deviations resulted from coincidence with induced crossing-over). These results suggest that MMS may have 2 (or more) targets for genotoxic effects: DNA, as evident from induced mutations and aberrations, and from induced recombination in dividing cells; some non-DNA target (nucleotide or protein) essential for nuclear division and susceptible to alkylation, resulting in malsegregation and primary aneuploidy.

  5. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  6. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  7. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  8. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.

  9. beta-1,3-Glucan-Induced Host Phospholipase D Activation Is Involved in Aspergillus fumigatus Internalization into Type II Human Pneumocyte A549 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Xuelin; Yu, Rentao; Zhen, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2011-01-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is a process that depends on host cell actin dynamics. The host membrane phosphatidylcholine cleavage driven by phospholipase D (PLD) is closely related to cellular actin dynamics. However, little is known about the impact of

  10. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  11. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats—Multiple factorial regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200–240 g for 28 days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15 mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000 mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight

  12. Morphogenesis of mimivirus and its viral factories: an atomic force microscopy study of infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yuri G; Klose, Thomas; Rossmann, Michael; McPherson, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Amoebas infected with mimivirus were disrupted at sequential stages of virus production and were visualized by atomic force microscopy. The development of virus factories proceeded over 3 to 4 h postinfection and resulted from the coalescence of 0.5- to 2-μm vesicles, possibly bearing nucleic acid, derived from either the nuclear membrane or the closely associated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Virus factories actively producing virus capsids on their surfaces were imaged, and this allowed the morphogenesis of the capsids to be delineated. The first feature to appear on a virus factory surface when a new capsid is born is the center of a stargate, which is a pentameric protein oligomer. As the arms of the stargate grow from the pentamer, a rough disk the diameter of a capsid thickens around it. This marks the initial emergence of a protein-coated membrane vesicle. The capsid self-assembles on the vesicle. Hillocks capped by different pentameric proteins spontaneously appear on the emerging vesicle at positions that are ultimately occupied by 5-fold icosahedral vertices. A lattice of coat protein nucleates at each of the 5-fold vertices, but not at the stargate, and then spreads outward from the vertices over the surface, merging seamlessly to complete the icosahedral capsid. Filling with DNA and associated proteins occurs by the transfer of nucleic acid from the interior of the virus factory into the nearly completed capsids. The portal, through which the DNA enters, is sealed by a plug of protein having a diameter of about 40 nm. A layer of integument protein that anchors the surface fibers is acquired by the passage of capsids through a membrane enriched in the protein. The coating of surface fibers is similarly acquired when the integument protein-coated capsids pass through a second membrane that has a forest of surface fibers embedded on one side.

  13. [Progress in omics research of Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yufei; Ouyang, Liming; Lu, Hongzhong; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-08-25

    Aspergillus niger, as an important industrial fermentation strain, is widely applied in the production of organic acids and industrial enzymes. With the development of diverse omics technologies, the data of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of A. niger are increasing continuously, which declared the coming era of big data for the research in fermentation process of A. niger. The data analysis from single omics and the comparison of multi-omics, to the integrations of multi-omics based on the genome-scale metabolic network model largely extends the intensive and systematic understanding of the efficient production mechanism of A. niger. It also provides possibilities for the reasonable global optimization of strain performance by genetic modification and process regulation. We reviewed and summarized progress in omics research of A. niger, and proposed the development direction of omics research on this cell factory.

  14. Proteomic analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus - clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Nicola M; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus capable of producing small airborne spores, which are frequently inhaled by humans. In healthy individuals, the fungus is rapidly cleared by innate mechanisms, including immune cells. However, in individuals with impaired lung function or immunosuppression the spores can germinate and prompt severe allergic responses, and disease with limited or extensive invasiveness. The traits that make A. fumigatus a successful colonizer and pathogen of humans are multi-factorial. Thus, a global investigative approach is required to elucidate the mechanisms utilized by the fungus to cause disease. Expert commentary: In doing so, a better understanding of disease pathology can be achieved with improved therapeutic/diagnostic solutions, thereby improving patient outcome. Proteomic analysis permits such investigations and recent work has yielded insight into these mechanisms.

  15. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  16. Yarrowia lipolytica as an Oleaginous Cell Factory Platform for Production of Fatty Acid-Based Biofuel and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abghari, Ali; Chen, Shulin, E-mail: chens@wsu.edu [Bioprocessing and Bioproducts Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Today’s biotechnologists seek new biocatalysts to meet the growing demand for the bioproducts. This review critically evaluates the potential use of Y. lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform. This yeast has undergone extensive modifications for converting a wide range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic biomass, including alkane, oil, glycerol, and sugars to fatty acid-based products. This article highlights challenges in the development of this platform and provides an overview of strategies to enhance its potential in the sustainable production of biodiesel, functional dietary lipid compounds, and other value-added oleochemical compounds. Future applications of the recombinant Y. lipolytica platform are also discussed.

  17. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  18. Comparative analysis of different whole cell immobilized Aspergillus niger catalysts for gluconic acid fermentation using pretreated cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subba Rao, D. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)); Panda, T. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India))

    1994-10-01

    To compare the efficiency of various whole cell immobilization techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger were investigated using potassium ferrocyanide-treated cane molasses as the substrate. The techniques followed were: (1) Calcium alginate entrapment, (2) cross-linking with glutaraldehyde after cell permeabilization with (a) acetone, (b) toluene and (c) isopropanol and (3) development of granular catalyst. A comparative analysis of yield has revealed that calcium alginate entrapment was the most suitable technique as it had given the maximum product yield (0.40 g gluconic acid/g total reducing sugar supplied). The properties of immobilized A. niger in sodium alginate gel have been thoroughly investigated and compared with those of free cells under most suitable conditions of fermentation. (orig.)

  19. Phi factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Plans for 'phi factories' gathered momentum with a recent workshop at UCLA. These machines, high luminosity electron-positron colliders working near the phi resonance at 1020 MeV, have been proposed at Laboratories in Europe, the US, Japan and the USSR

  20. Human tumor cells induce angiogenesis through positive feedback between CD147 and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanke Chen

    Full Text Available Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process based upon a sequence of interactions between tumor cells and endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that CD147 was correlated with tumor angiogenesis through increasing tumor cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. In this study, we made a three-dimensional (3D tumor angiogenesis model using a co-culture system of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC-7721 and humanumbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vitro. We found that CD147-expressing cancer cells could promote HUVECs to form net-like structures resembling the neo-vasculature, whereas the ability of proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs was significantly decreased in tumor conditioned medium (TCM of SMMC-7721 cells transfected with specific CD147-siRNA. Furthermore, by assaying the change of pro-angiogenic factors in TCM, we found that the inhibition of CD147 expression led to significant decrease of VEGF and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I secretion. Interestingly, we also found that IGF-I up-regulated the expression of CD147 in both tumor cells and HUVECs. These findings suggest that there is a positive feedback between CD147 and IGF-I at the tumor-endothelial interface and CD147 initiates the formation of an angiogenesis niche.

  1. Calcineurin Orchestrates Lateral Transfer of Aspergillus fumigatus during Macrophage Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong-James, DPH

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pulmonary aspergillosis is a lethal mould infection in the immunocompromised host. Understanding initial control of infection, and how this is altered in the immunocompromised host, is a key goal for understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the outcome of human macrophage infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, and how this is altered in transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants. METHODS: We defined the outcome of ...

  2. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of potential cell wall component that allows Taka-amylase A adsorption in submerged cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Toyoshima, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2011-12-01

    We observed that α-amylase (Taka-amylase A; TAA) activity in the culture broth disappeared in the later stage of submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. This disappearance was caused by adsorption of TAA onto the cell wall of A. oryzae and not due to protein degradation by extracellular proteolytic enzymes. To determine the cell wall component(s) that allows TAA adsorption efficiently, the cell wall was fractionated by stepwise alkali treatment and enzymatic digestion. Consequently, alkali-insoluble cell wall fractions exhibited high levels of TAA adsorption. In addition, this adsorption capacity was significantly enhanced by treatment of the alkali-insoluble fraction with β-glucanase, which resulted in the concomitant increase in the amount of chitin in the resulting fraction. In contrast, the adsorption capacity was diminished by treating the cell wall fraction with chitinase. These results suggest that the major component that allows TAA adsorption is chitin. However, both the mycelium and the cell wall demonstrated the inability to allow TAA adsorption in the early stage of cultivation, despite chitin content in the cell wall being identical in both early and late stages of cultivation. These results suggest the existence of unidentified factor(s) that could prevent the adsorption of TAA onto the cell wall. Such factor(s) is most likely removed or diminished from the cell wall following longer cultivation periods.

  4. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  5. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  6. Real-time visualization of immune cell clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus spores and hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Huttenlocher, Anna; Keller, Nancy P

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of the immunocompromised host and generally caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. While both host and fungal factors contribute to disease severity and outcome, there are fundamental features of IA development including fungal morphological transition from infectious conidia to tissue-penetrating hyphae as well as host defenses rooted in mechanisms of innate phagocyte function. Here we address recent advances in the field and use real-time in vivo imaging in the larval zebrafish to visually highlight conserved vertebrate innate immune behaviors including macrophage phagocytosis of conidia and neutrophil responses post-germination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Supportive Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in the Differentiation of Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Corneal-Like Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trošan, Peter; Javorková, Eliška; Zajícová, Alena; Hájková, Michaela; Heřmánková, Barbora; Kössl, Jan; Holáň, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 17 (2016), s. 23156-23169 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : mesenchymal stem cells * corneal-like cells * insulin -like growth factor-I * differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2016

  8. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background: Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients-particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus...... has not yet been examined in detail. In addition, 4 out of the 10 chemotaxonomically selected promising Penicillium strains were shown to produce extracellular pigments in the liquid media using a solid support indicating future cell factory possibilities for polyketide natural food colorants....... provide readily available additional and/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an appropriately selected fungus; using in particular chemotaxonomy as a guide, the fungal natural colorants could be produced in high yields by using the optimized...

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus Trehalose-Regulatory Subunit Homolog Moonlights To Mediate Cell Wall Homeostasis through Modulation of Chitin Synthase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsa Thammahong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslA and tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity. Loss of tslA reduces trehalose content in both conidia and mycelia, impairs cell wall integrity, and significantly alters cell wall structure. To gain mechanistic insights into the role that TslA plays in cell wall homeostasis, immunoprecipitation assays coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were used to reveal a direct interaction between TslA and CsmA, a type V chitin synthase enzyme. TslA regulates not only chitin synthase activity but also CsmA sub-cellular localization. Loss of TslA impacts the immunopathogenesis of murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis through altering cytokine production and immune cell recruitment. In conclusion, our data provide a novel model whereby proteins in the trehalose pathway play a direct role in fungal cell wall homeostasis and consequently impact fungus-host interactions.

  10. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... with saturation type kinetics with respect to the length of the hyphae. The maximum tip extension rate is constant for all hyphae measured at the same glucose concentration, whereas the saturation constant for the hyphae varies significantly between the hyphae even within the same hyphal element. When apical...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  11. Meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.; Zaider, M.; Bradbury, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Technological improvements in accelerator design in the 1960's resulted in the capability to develop medium-energy proton accelerators with beam intensities of almost 1 mA. These beams are able to produce fluxes of secondary particles, including pions, muons, neutrinos, and neutrons, which are as much as 10,000 times as intense as those previously available. Those machines built for optimum meson production are commonly called meson factories. The characteristics of these facilities are reviewed, and the present programs in applied research, and some potential areas of future work are discussed

  12. Aspergillus contaminans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus contaminans is described as a new species from the fingernail of a patient with an infected nail. Phylogenetic analysis of four loci (ITS, calmodulin, beta tubulin and RNA polymerase beta, second largest subunit) showed that this species is most closely related to A. carlsbadensis from A...

  13. A novel biocatalytic approach to acetylation of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine by Aspergillus oryzae whole cell in organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Zhen; Zhao, Guang-Lei; Yu, Yi-Gang; Lai, Fu-Rao; Wu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Biocatalytic acylation of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) was developed using whole cell of Aspergillus oryzae as a novel catalyst. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that the whole-cell biocatalyst had more specific activity toward the 3'-hydroxyl group than 5'-hydroxyl group among the available hydroxyl groups in sugar moiety of ara-C. Except for glucose and maltose, 11 carbon sources supplemented to basal media, including Spans, Tweens, olive oil and oleic acid, exhibited notable enhancement effects on both the cell growth and the acylation reactions. It was suggested that the carbon sources containing controlled-release oleic acid were the important substrates for the production of fungal cell-bound lipase with specific activity, partially due to a gradual induction effect of their released oleic acid on the cell-bound lipase production. Despite the low initial reaction rate and substrate conversion, the addition of 2.0 g/l Span 80 resulted in a higher 3'-regioselectivity of the cells than 81%. By using Tween 85 at its optimum concentration of 5.0 g/l, however, the highest initial rates (3.2 mmol/l h) and substrate conversion (76%) of the whole-cell catalyzed acylation of ara-C can be achieved. It was also found that the 3'-regioselectivity of the cells showed observable increase by extending the culture time. And the activity of cell-bound lipase drastically increased in the early stage of cell growth and then declined in the late culture stage, whatever the culture media used. Our results thus indicated that A. oryzae whole cell was a promising green tool for biosynthesis of nucleoside esters with potential bioactivities.

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus Cell Wall α-(1,3)-Glucan Stimulates Regulatory T-Cell Polarization by Inducing PD-L1 Expression on Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Karnam, Anupama; Fontaine, Thierry; Beauvais, Anne; Das, Mrinmoy; Hegde, Pushpa; Prakhar, Praveen; Holla, Sahana; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Kaveri, Srini V; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-12-05

    Human dendritic cell (DC) response to α-(1,3)-glucan polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus and ensuing CD4+ T-cell polarization are poorly characterized. α-(1,3)-Glucan was isolated from A. fumigatus conidia and mycelia cell wall. For the analysis of polarization, DCs and autologous naive CD4+ T cells were cocultured. Phenotype of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blocking antibodies were used to dissect the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in regulating α-(1,3)-glucan-mediated DC activation and T-cell responses. DCs from TLR2-deficient mice were additionally used to consolidate the findings. α-(1,3)-Glucan induced the maturation of DCs and was dependent in part on TLR2. "α-(1,3)-Glucan-educated" DCs stimulated the activation of naive T cells and polarized a subset of these cells into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mechanistically, Treg stimulation by α-(1,3)-glucan was dependent on the PD-L1 pathway that negatively regulated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion. Short α-(1,3)-oligosaccharides lacked the capacity to induce maturation of DCs but significantly blocked α-(1,3)-glucan-induced Treg polarization. PD-L1 dictates the balance between Treg and IFN-γ responses induced by α-(1,3)-glucan. Our data provide a rationale for the exploitation of immunotherapeutic approaches that target PD-1-PD-L1 to enhance protective immune responses to A. fumigatus infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Deletion of admB gene encoding a fungal ADAM affects cell wall construction in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuji; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Michio; Yamagata, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Mammals possess a unique signaling system based on the proteolytic mechanism of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) on the cell surface. We found two genes encoding ADAMs in Aspergillus oryzae and named them admA and admB. We produced admA and admB deletion strains to elucidate their biological function and clarify whether fungal ADAMs play a similar role as in mammals. The ∆admA∆admB and ∆admB strains were sensitive to cell wall-perturbing agents, congo red, and calcofluor white. Moreover, the two strains showed significantly increased weights of total alkali-soluble fractions from the mycelial cell wall compared to the control strain. Furthermore, ∆admB showed MpkA phosphorylation at lower concentration of congo red stimulation than the control strain. However, the MpkA phosphorylation level was not different between ∆admB and the control strain without the stimulation. The results indicated that A. oryzae AdmB involved in the cell wall integrity without going through the MpkA pathway.

  16. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: qyy@dlut.edu.cn; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min{sup −1} to 1.51 min{sup −1} with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10{sup −6} to 17.47 × 10{sup −6} mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10{sup 5} min{sup −1} mol{sup −1}), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  17. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min −1 to 1.51 min −1 with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10 −6 to 17.47 × 10 −6 mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10 5 min −1 mol −1 ), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  18. Deciphering the signaling mechanisms of the plant cell wall degradation machinery in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Topakas, Evangelos; Salazar, Margarita Pena

    2015-01-01

    is required to rationally engineer filamentous fungi for more efficient bioconversion of different types of biomass. Results: In this study we focused on ten chemically defined inducers to drive expression of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae....... oryzae genome were only partially explained by the chemical similarity of the enzyme inducers. Genes encoding enzymes that have attracted considerable interest such as cellobiose dehydrogenases and copper-dependent polysaccharide mono-oxygenases presented a substrate-specific induction. Several homology...... in 2360 reactions in the genome scale metabolic network of A. oryzae, was performed through a two-step molecular docking against the binding pockets of the transcription factors AoXlnR and AoAmyR. A total of six metabolites viz., sulfite (H2SO3), sulfate (SLF), uroporphyrinogen III (UPGIII), ethanolamine...

  19. Kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1983-03-01

    Kaon factories would provide beams 100-1000 times more intense than those available from present accelerators in the 10-30 GeV range. More intense or cleaner secondary beams of kaons, antiprotons and neutrinos would be of particular interest for high precision experiments and studies of rare processes in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in K-decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density and resonance propagation in nuclei. The various accelerators proposed include both fast-cycling synchrotrons providing 100 μA proton beams at 15 to 32 GeV and superconducting isochronous ring cyclotrons giving 100-400 μA at up to 15 GeV. This paper describes these designs and the various technical problems associated with them

  20. Colour bio-factories: Towards scale-up production of anthocyanins in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhagen, Ingo; Wulff-Vester, Anders Keim; Wendell, Micael; Hvoslef-Eide, Anne-Kathrine; Russell, Julia; Oertel, Anne; Martens, Stefan; Mock, Hans-Peter; Martin, Cathie; Matros, Andrea

    2018-06-08

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed, glycosylated, water-soluble plant pigments, which give many fruits and flowers their red, purple or blue colouration. Their beneficial effects in a dietary context have encouraged increasing use of anthocyanins as natural colourants in the food and cosmetic industries. However, the limited availability and diversity of anthocyanins commercially have initiated searches for alternative sources of these natural colourants. In plants, high-level production of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, can be achieved by engineering of regulatory genes as well as genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. We have used tobacco lines which constitutively produce high levels of cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside or a novel anthocyanin, acylated cyanidin 3-O-(coumaroyl) rutinoside to generate cell suspension cultures. The cell lines are stable in their production rates and superior to conventional plant cell cultures. Scale-up of anthocyanin production in small scale fermenters has been demonstrated. The cell cultures have also proven to be a suitable system for production of 13 C-labelled anthocyanins. Our method for anthocyanin production is transferable to other plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating the potential of this approach for making a wide range of highly-decorated anthocyanins. The tobacco cell cultures represent a customisable and sustainable alternative to conventional anthocyanin production platforms and have considerable potential for use in industrial and medical applications of anthocyanins. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anethole induces apoptotic cell death accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and DNA fragmentation in Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tatsumi, Miki; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and antimicrobial activity that is weaker than that of other antibiotics on the market. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to possess significant synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole has not been completely determined. We found that anethole stimulated cell death of a human opportunistic pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, in addition to S. cerevisiae. The anethole-induced cell death was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production, metacaspase activation, and DNA fragmentation. Several mutants of S. cerevisiae, in which genes related to the apoptosis-initiating execution signals from mitochondria were deleted, were resistant to anethole. These results suggest that anethole-induced cell death could be explained by oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis via typical mitochondrial death cascades in fungi, including A. fumigatus and S. cerevisiae. © 2014 FEBS.

  2. Targeting population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch fermentation for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lundin, L.

    )). Significant gradients of e.g. dissolved oxygen, substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells...... and affect their metabolism and consequently affect the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were...... environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount of living cells. A highly dynamic behavior with regard to subpopulation distribution during the different growth stages was seen for the batch cultivations. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the glucose concentration had a clear influence...

  3. Type 1 Diabetes and Its Multi-Factorial Pathogenesis: The Putative Role of NK Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Valeria La; Gianchecchi, Elena; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2018-03-10

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people worldwide and is the prevalent form of all pediatric diabetes diagnoses. T1D is recognized to have an autoimmune etiology, since failure in specific self-tolerance mechanisms triggers immune reactions towards self-antigens and causes disease onset. Among all the different immunocytes involved in T1D etiopathogenesis, a relevant role of natural killer cells (NKs) is currently emerging. NKs represent the interface between innate and adaptive immunity; they intervene in the defense against infections and present, at the same time, typical features of the adaptive immune cells, such as expansion and generation of memory cells. Several recent studies, performed both in animal models and in human diabetic patients, revealed aberrations in NK cell frequency and functionality in the peripheral blood and in damaged tissues, suggesting their possible redirection towards affected tissues. NKs oscillate from a quiescent to an activated state through a delicate balance of activating and inhibitory signals transduced via surface receptors. Further accurate investigations are needed to elucidate the exact role of NKs in T1D, in order to develop novel immune-based therapies able to reduce the disease risk or delay its onset.

  4. A bacterial cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for homo-ethanol production from lactose using a genetically modified lactic acid bacterium of the invention, where the cells are provided with a substrate comprising dairy waste supplemented with an amino nitrogen source (such as acid hydrolysed corn steep liquo...

  5. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisvad Jens C

    2009-04-01

    of chemotaxonomic tools and a priori knowledge of fungal extrolites is a rational approach towards selection of fungal polyketide pigment producers considering the enormous chemical diversity and biodiversity of ascomycetous fungi. This rationale could be very handy for the selection of potentially safe fungal cell factories not only for polyketide pigments but also for the other industrially important polyketides; the molecular and genetic basis for the biosynthesis of which has not yet been examined in detail. In addition, 4 out of the 10 chemotaxonomically selected promising Penicillium strains were shown to produce extracellular pigments in the liquid media using a solid support indicating future cell factory possibilities for polyketide natural food colorants.

  6. Effect of cell wall integrity stress and RlmA transcription factor on asexual development and autolysis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Szarka, Máté; Kovács, Szilvia; Boczonádi, Imre; Emri, Tamás; Abe, Keietsu; Pócsi, István; Pusztahelyi, Tünde

    2013-05-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway is responsible for cell wall remodeling and reinforcement upon cell wall stress, which is proposed to be universal in fungal cultures. In Aspergillus nidulans, both the deletion of rlmA encoding the RlmA transcription factor in CWI signaling and low concentrations of the cell wall polymer intercalating agent Congo Red caused significant physiological changes. The gene deletion mutant ΔrlmA strain showed decreased CWI and oxidative stress resistances, which indicated the connection between the CWI pathway and the oxidative stress response system. The Congo Red stress resulted in alterations in the cell wall polymer composition in submerged cultures due to the induction of the biosynthesis of the alkali soluble fraction as well as the hydrolysis of cell wall biopolymers. Both RlmA and RlmA-independent factors induced by Congo Red stress regulated the expression of glucanase (ANID_00245, engA) and chitinase (chiB, chiA) genes, which promoted the autolysis of the cultures and also modulated the pellet sizes. CWI stress and rlmA deletion affected the expression of brlA encoding the early conidiophore development regulator transcription factor BrlA and, as a consequence, the formation of conidiophores was significantly changed in submerged cultures. Interestingly, the number of conidiospores increased in surface cultures of the ΔrlmA strain. The in silico analysis of genes putatively regulated by RlmA and the CWI transcription factors AnSwi4/AnSwi6 in the SBF complex revealed only a few jointly regulated genes, including ugmA and srrA coding for UgmA UDP-galactopyranose mutase and SrrA stress response regulator, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New strategies for the use of Linum usitatissimum cell factories for the production of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Lorena; García-Pérez, Pascual; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Sánchez-Pujante, Pedro Joaquín; Pedreño, M A

    2016-02-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Linum usitatissimum L. were used to evaluate the effect of two types of cyclodextrins, β-glucan and (Z)-3-hexenol separately or in combination on phytosterol and tocopherol production. Suspension-cultured cells of L. usitatissimum were able to produce high levels of phytosterols in the presence of 50 mM methylated-β-cyclodextrins (1325.96 ± 107.06 μg g dry weight(-1)) separately or in combination with β-glucan (1278.57 ± 190.10 μg g dry weight(-1)) or (Z)-3-hexenol (1507.88 ± 173.02 μg g dry weight(-1)), being cyclodextrins able to increase both the secretion and accumulation of phytosterols in the spent medium, whereas β-glucan and (Z)-3-hexenol themselves only increased its intracellular accumulation. Moreover, the phytosterol values found in the presence of hydroxypropylated-β-cyclodextrins were lower than those found in the presence of methylated-β-cyclodextrins in all cases studied. However, the results showed that the presence of methylated-β-cyclodextrins did not increase the tocopherols production and only an increase in tocopherol levels was observed when cells were elicited with 50 mM hydroxypropylated-β-cyclodextrins in combination with β-glucan (174 μg g dry weight(-1)) or (Z)-3-hexenol (257 μg g dry weight(-1)). Since the levels of tocopherol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. To sum up, flax cell cultures elicited with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with β-glucan or (Z)-3-hexenol were able produce phytosterols and tocopherols, and therefore, these elicited suspension-cultured cells of L. usitatissimum can provide an alternative system, which is at the same time more sustainable, economical and ecological for their production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. KAON factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Proposals for high intensity proton synchrotrons (typically providing 100 μA (6 x 10 14 p/s)) at 30 GeV have been made in Canada, Europe, Japan, the USA and the USSR. These beams would be roughly 100 times more intense than those available now and would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos) - or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux. The ability to investigate rare processes on the precision frontier opens new avenues to fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics, complementary to traditional approaches via the energy frontier. The demand for higher currents has led to novel features in many of the accelerator designs: asymmetric magnet cycles, avoidance of transition crossing, separate collector and stretcher rings, three-dimensional beam painting at injection, bucket-to-bucket beam transfer, perpendicular biassing of microwave ferrite in the rf tuners, the use of Siberian Snakes to preserve polarization, and the addition of a pre-septum to make slow extraction >99.8% efficient. Other characteristic features include rapid cycling rates, booster stages, H - injection, low impedance enclosures, powerful feedback systems for control of beam instabilities and beam loading, and local collimation systems for handling beam loss. This paper reviews the general features of kaon factory accelerator design and the status of the various proposals

  9. Solar cells with one-day energy payback for the factories of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan

    2012-01-01

    Scalability is a requirement before any new energy source can be expected to house a possible solution to the challenge that mankind’s increasing energy demand presents. No renewable energy source is as abundant as the Sun and yet efficient and low-cost conversion of solar energy still has not been...... research and developed such technology in the form of a polymer solar cell that presents a significant improvement in energy payback time (EPBT) and found that very short energy payback times on the order of one day are possible, thus potentially presenting a solution to the current energy gap of >14 TW...

  10. Microbioreactor arrays for full factorial screening of exogenous and paracrine factors in human embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Timed exposure of pluripotent stem cell cultures to exogenous molecules is widely used to drive differentiation towards desired cell lineages. However, screening differentiation conditions in conventional static cultures can become impractical in large parameter spaces, and is intrinsically limited by poor spatiotemporal control of the microenvironment that also makes it impossible to determine whether exogenous factors act directly or through paracrine-dependent mechanisms. We detail here the development of a continuous flow microbioreactor array platform that combines full-factorial multiplexing of input factors with progressive accumulation of paracrine factors through serially-connected culture chambers, and further, the use of this system to explore the combinatorial parameter space of both exogenous and paracrine factors involved in human embryonic stem cell (hESC differentiation to a MIXL1-GFP(+ primitive streak-like population. We show that well known inducers of primitive streak (BMP, Activin and Wnt signals do not simply act directly on hESC to induce MIXL1 expression, but that this requires accumulation of surplus, endogenous factors; and, that conditioned medium or FGF-2 supplementation is able to offset this. Our approach further reveals the presence of a paracrine, negative feedback loop to the MIXL1-GFP(+ population, which can be overcome with GSK-3β inhibitors (BIO or CHIR99021, implicating secreted Wnt inhibitory signals such as DKKs and sFRPs as candidate effectors. Importantly, modulating paracrine effects identified in microbioreactor arrays by supplementing FGF-2 and CHIR in conventional static culture vessels resulted in improved differentiation outcomes. We therefore demonstrate that this microbioreactor array platform uniquely enables the identification and decoding of complex soluble factor signalling hierarchies, and that this not only challenges prevailing strategies for extrinsic control of hESC differentiation, but

  11. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaaij, R M; Yuan, X-L; Franken, A; Ram, A F J; Punt, P J; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L

    2007-07-01

    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal alpha-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal alpha-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, and some highly conserved amino acids of enzymes in the alpha-amylase family were absent. We expressed two of these enzymes in a suitable A. niger strain and characterized the purified proteins. Both enzymes showed transglycosylation activity on donor substrates with alpha-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and at least five anhydroglucose units. The enzymes, designated AgtA and AgtB, produced new alpha-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and therefore belong to the group of the 4-alpha-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.25). Their reaction products reached a degree of polymerization of at least 30. Maltose and larger maltooligosaccharides were the most efficient acceptor substrates, although AgtA also used small nigerooligosaccharides containing alpha-(1,3)-glycosidic bonds as acceptor substrate. An agtA knockout of A. niger showed an increased susceptibility towards the cell wall-disrupting compound calcofluor white, indicating a cell wall integrity defect in this strain. Homologues of AgtA and AgtB are present in other fungal species with alpha-glucans in their cell walls, but not in yeast species lacking cell wall alpha-glucan. Possible roles for these enzymes in the synthesis and/or maintenance of the fungal cell wall are discussed.

  12. A review of metabolic and enzymatic engineering strategies for designing and optimizing performance of microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Fisher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cell factories (MCFs are of considerable interest to convert low value renewable substrates to biofuels and high value chemicals. This review highlights the progress of computational models for the rational design of an MCF to produce a target bio-commodity. In particular, the rational design of an MCF involves: (i product selection, (ii de novo biosynthetic pathway identification (i.e., rational, heterologous, or artificial, (iii MCF chassis selection, (iv enzyme engineering of promiscuity to enable the formation of new products, and (v metabolic engineering to ensure optimal use of the pathway by the MCF host. Computational tools such as (i de novo biosynthetic pathway builders, (ii docking, (iii molecular dynamics (MD and steered MD (SMD, and (iv genome-scale metabolic flux modeling all play critical roles in the rational design of an MCF. Genome-scale metabolic flux models are of considerable use to the design process since they can reveal metabolic capabilities of MCF hosts. These can be used for host selection as well as optimizing precursors and cofactors of artificial de novo biosynthetic pathways. In addition, recent advances in genome-scale modeling have enabled the derivation of metabolic engineering strategies, which can be implemented using the genomic tools reviewed here as well.

  13. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  14. Development of a yeast cell factory for production of aromatic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica

    Aromatic secondary metabolites are compounds mainly synthesized by plants and fungi as a response to predators and environmental stresses. These compounds have a broad range of natural properties such as reduction of oxidative damage in cells, antibacterial effects and UV protection. Many...... of these properties can be useful for the treatment of different diseases and development of pharmaceutical products. The low abundance of these compounds in natural sources together with technical challenges for the extraction of these compounds from plants, open up the possibility for synthesizing aromatic....... The systems biology analysis of the platform strain suggests that the strain has transcriptional downregulations in genes involved in the transport of amino acids and sugars, which could be a response to the stress triggered by the production of p-coumaric acid. The platform strain was capable of synthesizing...

  15. Use of cell surface protein typing for genotyping of azole-resistant and -susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falahatinejad, M.; Vaezi, A.; Fakhim, H.; Abastabar, M.; Shokohi, T.; Zahedi, N.; Ansari, S.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Badali, H.

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the leading cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised individuals. Understanding pathogen dispersion and relatedness is essential for determining the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and putative

  16. The temporal dynamics of differential gene expression in Aspergillus fumigatus interacting with human immature dendritic cells in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Charles O

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most important antigen presenting cells and play a pivotal role in host immunity to infectious agents by acting as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDC) were infected with viable resting conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af293) for 12 hours at an MOI of 5; cells were sampled every three hours. RNA was extracted from both organisms at each time point and hybridised to microarrays. iDC cell death increased at 6 h in the presence of A. fumigatus which coincided with fungal germ tube emergence; >80% of conidia were associated with iDC. Over the time course A. fumigatus differentially regulated 210 genes, FunCat analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes involved in fermentation, drug transport, pathogenesis and response to oxidative stress. Genes related to cytotoxicity were differentially regulated but the gliotoxin biosynthesis genes were down regulated over the time course, while Aspf1 was up-regulated at 9 h and 12 h. There was an up-regulation of genes in the subtelomeric regions of the genome as the interaction progressed. The genes up-regulated by iDC in the presence of A. fumigatus indicated that they were producing a pro-inflammatory response which was consistent with previous transcriptome studies of iDC interacting with A. fumigatus germ tubes. This study shows that A. fumigatus adapts to phagocytosis by iDCs by utilising genes that allow it to survive the interaction rather than just up-regulation of specific virulence genes.

  17. The temporal dynamics of differential gene expression in Aspergillus fumigatus interacting with human immature dendritic cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O Morton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are the most important antigen presenting cells and play a pivotal role in host immunity to infectious agents by acting as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDC were infected with viable resting conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af293 for 12 hours at an MOI of 5; cells were sampled every three hours. RNA was extracted from both organisms at each time point and hybridised to microarrays. iDC cell death increased at 6 h in the presence of A. fumigatus which coincided with fungal germ tube emergence; >80% of conidia were associated with iDC. Over the time course A. fumigatus differentially regulated 210 genes, FunCat analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes involved in fermentation, drug transport, pathogenesis and response to oxidative stress. Genes related to cytotoxicity were differentially regulated but the gliotoxin biosynthesis genes were down regulated over the time course, while Aspf1 was up-regulated at 9 h and 12 h. There was an up-regulation of genes in the subtelomeric regions of the genome as the interaction progressed. The genes up-regulated by iDC in the presence of A. fumigatus indicated that they were producing a pro-inflammatory response which was consistent with previous transcriptome studies of iDC interacting with A. fumigatus germ tubes. This study shows that A. fumigatus adapts to phagocytosis by iDCs by utilising genes that allow it to survive the interaction rather than just up-regulation of specific virulence genes.

  18. Cell factory-derived bioactive molecules with polymeric cryogel scaffold enhance the repair of subchondral cartilage defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhat, Sumrita; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Tägil, Magnus; Zheng, Ming Hao; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars

    2017-06-01

    We have explored the potential of cell factory-derived bioactive molecules, isolated from conditioned media of primary goat chondrocytes, for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirms the presence of transforming growth factor-β1 in an isolated protein fraction (12.56 ± 1.15 ng/mg protein fraction). These bioactive molecules were used alone or with chitosan-agarose-gelatin cryogel scaffolds, with and without chondrocytes, to check whether combined approaches further enhance cartilage repair. To evaluate this, an in vivo study was conducted on New Zealand rabbits in which a subchondral defect (4.5 mm wide × 4.5 mm deep) was surgically created. Starting after the operation, bioactive molecules were injected at the defect site at regular intervals of 14 days. Histopathological analysis showed that rabbits treated with bioactive molecules alone had cartilage regeneration after 4 weeks. However, rabbits treated with bioactive molecules along with scaffolds, with or without cells, showed cartilage formation after 3 weeks; 6 weeks after surgery, the cartilage regenerated in rabbits treated with either bioactive molecules alone or in combinations showed morphological similarities to native cartilage. No systemic cytotoxicity or inflammatory response was induced by any of the treatments. Further, ELISA was done to determine systemic toxicity, which showed no difference in concentration of tumour necrosis factor-α in blood serum, before or after surgery. In conclusion, intra-articular injection with bioactive molecules alone may be used for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects, and bioactive molecules along with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds further enhance the repair. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Models and simulations for the Danish cell project. Running PowerFactory with OPC and cell controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martensen, Nis; Troester, Eckehard [energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany); Lund, Per [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Holland, Rod [Spirae Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In emergency situations, the Cell Controller disconnects a distribution grid from the high-voltage network and controls the cell's island operation. The controller thus activates the existing local generation plants to improve the security of supply. The Cell Controller can operate the Cell as a Virtual Power Plant during normal grid-connected operation, thereby implementing an exemplary Smart Grid. Modeling and simulation work is presented. (orig.)

  20. Aspergillus oryzae–Saccharomyces cerevisiae Consortium Allows Bio-Hybrid Fuel Cell to Run on Complex Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Hoyt, Thomas; LeFors, Hannah M.; Sumner, James J.; Mackie, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Consortia of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are examined for their abilities to turn complex carbohydrates into ethanol. To understand the interactions between microorganisms in consortia, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to follow the concentrations of various metabolites such as sugars (e.g., glucose, maltose), longer chain carbohydrates, and ethanol to optimize consortia conditions for the production of ethanol. It is shown that with proper design A. oryzae can digest food waste simulants into soluble sugars that S. cerevisiae can ferment into ethanol. Depending on the substrate and conditions used, concentrations of 13% ethanol were achieved in 10 days. It is further shown that a direct alcohol fuel cell (FC) can be coupled with these A. oryzae-enabled S. cerevisiae fermentations using a reverse osmosis membrane. This “bio-hybrid FC” continually extracted ethanol from an ongoing consortium, enhancing ethanol production and allowing the bio-hybrid FC to run for at least one week. Obtained bio-hybrid FC currents were comparable to those from pure ethanol—water mixtures, using the same FC. The A. oryzae–S. cerevisiae consortium, coupled to a bio-hybrid FC, converted food waste simulants into electricity without any pre- or post-processing. PMID:27681904

  1. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Nakashima, Kazunori [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki [Ozeki Co., Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5{sup '} untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL1 and 2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time. (orig.)

  2. The Aspergillus fumigatus Sialidase (Kdnase Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity and Virulence in Amphotericin B-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Nesbitt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus that can cause a life-threatening invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA in immunocompromised individuals. We previously characterized an exo-sialidase from A. fumigatus that prefers the sialic acid substrate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (Kdn; hence it is a Kdnase. Sialidases are known virulence factors in other pathogens; therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the importance of Kdnase in A. fumigatus. A kdnase knockout strain (Δkdnase was unable to grow on medium containing Kdn and displayed reduced growth and abnormal morphology. Δkdnase was more sensitive than wild type to hyperosmotic conditions and the antifungal agent, amphotericin B. In contrast, Δkdnase had increased resistance to nikkomycin, Congo Red and Calcofluor White indicating activation of compensatory cell wall chitin deposition. Increased cell wall thickness and chitin content in Δkdnase were confirmed by electron and immunofluorescence microscopy. In a neutropenic mouse model of invasive aspergillosis, the Δkdnase strain had attenuated virulence and a significantly lower lung fungal burden but only in animals that received liposomal amphotericin B after spore exposure. Macrophage numbers were almost twofold higher in lung sections from mice that received the Δkdnase strain, possibly related to higher survival of macrophages that internalized the Δkdnase conidia. Thus, A. fumigatus Kdnase is important for fungal cell wall integrity and virulence, and because Kdnase is not present in the host, it may represent a potential target for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  3. The Transcriptional Repressor TupA in Aspergillus niger Is Involved in Controlling Gene Expression Related to Cell Wall Biosynthesis, Development, and Nitrogen Source Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Arentshorst, Mark; Nitsche, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    The Tup1-Cyc8 (Ssn6) complex is a well characterized and conserved general transcriptional repressor complex in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the Tup1 (TupA) homolog in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger in a genetic screen for mutants with a constitutive expression...... of the agsA gene. The agsA gene encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, which is induced in response to cell wall stress in A. niger. Apart from the constitutive expression of agsA, the selected mutant was also found to produce an unknown pigment at high temperatures. Complementation analysis...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Proteome Modulations in Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells in Response to Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Pegah; Bracht, Thilo; Molinier-Frenkel, Válerie; Castellano, Flavia; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Schuster, Marc; Weski, Juliane; Hasenberg, Anja; Kraus, Andreas; Poschet, Gernot; Hager, Thomas; Theegarten, Dirk; Opitz, Christiane A; Brakhage, Axel A; Sitek, Barbara; Hasenberg, Mike; Gunzer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus threatens immunosuppressed patients as inducer of lethal invasive aspergillosis. A. fumigatus conidia are airborne and reach the alveoli, where they encounter alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Previous studies reported the importance of the surfactant-producing AEC II during A. fumigatus infection via in vitro experiments using cell lines. We established a negative isolation protocol yielding untouched primary murine AEC II with a purity >90%, allowing ex vivo analyses of the cells, which encountered the mold in vivo By label-free proteome analysis of AEC II isolated from mice 24h after A. fumigatus or mock infection we quantified 2256 proteins and found 154 proteins to be significantly differentially abundant between both groups (ANOVA p value ≤ 0.01, ratio of means ≥1.5 or ≤0.67, quantified with ≥2 peptides). Most of these proteins were higher abundant in the infected condition and reflected a comprehensive activation of AEC II on interaction with A. fumigatus This was especially represented by proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, hence energy production. However, the most strongly induced protein was the l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) Interleukin 4 induced 1 (IL4I1) with a 42.9 fold higher abundance (ANOVA p value 2.91 -10 ). IL4I1 has previously been found in B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and rare neurons. Increased IL4I1 abundance in AEC II was confirmed by qPCR, Western blot and immunohistology. Furthermore, A. fumigatus infected lungs showed high levels of IL4I1 metabolic products. Importantly, higher IL4I1 abundance was also confirmed in lung tissue from human aspergilloma. Because LAAO are key enzymes for bactericidal product generation, AEC II might actively participate in pathogen defense. We provide insights into proteome changes of primary AEC II thereby opening new avenues to analyze the molecular changes of this central lung cell on infectious threats. Data are available via Proteome

  5. Insight into Enzymatic Degradation of Corn, Wheat, and Soybean Cell Wall Cellulose Using Quantitative Secretome Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Ghimire, Prakriti; Ouyang, Haomiao; Wang, Qian; Luo, Yuanming; Shi, Bo; Yang, Jinghua; Lü, Yang; Jin, Cheng

    2016-12-02

    Lignocelluloses contained in animal forage cannot be digested by pigs or poultry with 100% efficiency. On contrary, Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic filamentous fungus, is known to harbor 263 glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, suggesting that A. fumigatus is an efficient lignocellulose degrader. Hence the present study uses corn, wheat, or soybean as a sole carbon source to culture A. fumigatus under animal physiological condition to understand how cellulolytic enzymes work together to achieve an efficient degradation of lignocellulose. Our results showed that A. fumigatus produced different sets of enzymes to degrade lignocelluloses derived from corn, wheat, or soybean cell wall. In addition, the cellulolytic enzymes produced by A. fumigatus were stable under acidic condition or at higher temperatures. Using isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) approach, a total of ∼600 extracellular proteins were identified and quantified, in which ∼50 proteins were involved in lignocellulolysis, including cellulases, hemicellulases, lignin-degrading enzymes, and some hypothetical proteins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004670. On the basis of quantitative iTRAQ results, 14 genes were selected for further confirmation by RT-PCR. Taken together, our results indicated that the expression and regulation of lignocellulolytic proteins in the secretome of A. fumigatus were dependent on both nature and complexity of cellulose, thus suggesting that a different enzyme system is required for degradation of different lignocelluloses derived from plant cells. Although A. fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus and cannot be directly used as an enzyme source, as an efficient lignocellulose degrader its strategy to synergistically degrade various lignocelluloses with different enzymes can be used to design enzyme combination for optimal digestion and absorption of corn, wheat, or soybean that are used as forage of pig and poultry.

  6. A robust whole-cell biocatalyst that introduces a thermo- and solvent-tolerant lipase into Aspergillus oryzae cells: characterization and application to enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koh, FookHee; Hama, Shinji; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-10

    To develop a robust whole-cell biocatalyst that works well at moderately high temperature (40-50°C) with organic solvents, a thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (BTL2) was introduced into an Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst. The lipase-hydrolytic activity of the immobilized A. oryzae (r-BTL) was highest at 50°C and was maintained even after an incubation of 24-h at 60°C. In addition, r-BTL was highly tolerant to 30% (v/v) organic solvents (dimethyl carbonate, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol or acetone). The attractive characteristics of r-BTL also worked efficiently on palm oil methanolysis, resulting in a nearly 100% conversion at elevated temperature from 40 to 50°C. Moreover, r-BTL catalyzed methanolysis at a high methanol concentration without a significant loss of lipase activity. In particular, when 2 molar equivalents of methanol were added 2 times, a methyl ester content of more than 90% was achieved; the yield was higher than those of conventional whole-cell biocatalyst and commercial Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435). On the basis of the results regarding the excellent lipase characteristics and efficient biodiesel production, the developed whole-cell biocatalyst would be a promising biocatalyst in a broad range of applications including biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell wall α-1,3-glucan prevents α-amylase adsorption onto fungal cell in submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silai; Sato, Hiroki; Ichinose, Sakurako; Tanaka, Mizuki; Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Abe, Keietsu; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-07-01

    We have previously reported that α-amylase (Taka-amylase A, TAA) activity disappears in the later stage of submerged Aspergillus oryzae culture as a result of TAA adsorption onto the cell wall. Chitin, one of the major components of the cell wall, was identified as a potential factor that facilitates TAA adsorption. However, TAA adsorption only occurred in the later stage of cultivation, although chitin was assumed to be sufficiently abundant in the cell wall regardless of the submerged culture period. This suggested the presence a factor that inhibits TAA adsorption to the cell wall in the early stage of cultivation. In the current study, we identified α-1,3-glucan as a potential inhibiting factor for TAA adsorption. We constructed single, double, and triple disruption mutants of three α-1,3-glucan synthase genes (agsA, agsB, and agsC) in A. oryzae. Growth characteristics and cell wall component analysis of these disruption strains showed that AgsB plays a major role in α-1,3-glucan synthesis. In the ΔagsB mutant, TAA was adsorbed onto the mycelium in all stages of cultivation (early and later), and the ΔagsB mutant cell walls had a significantly high capacity for TAA adsorption. Moreover, the α-1,3-glucan content of the cell wall prepared from the wild-type strain in the later stage of cultivation was markedly reduced compared with that in the early stage. These results suggest that α-1,3-glucan is a potential inhibiting factor for TAA adsorption onto the cell wall component, chitin, in the early stage of submerged culture in A. oryzae. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid. PMID:23961184

  9. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

    2012-04-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid.

  10. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binupriya, A.R.; Sathishkumar, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, S.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  11. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binupriya, A.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sathishkumar, M., E-mail: cvemuthu@nus.edu.sg [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Yun, S.-I., E-mail: siyun@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  12. Treatment of both native and deamidated gluten peptides with an endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger prevents stimulation of gut-derived gluten-reactive T cells from either children or adults with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Karina Søndergård; Nielsen, Anne Staal

    2014-01-01

    the proliferative response by a gluten-specific CD4+ T cell clone and seven gluten-reactive T cell lines to protease-digested gluten peptides. A proline-specific endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger (AnP2), was particularly efficient at diminishing proliferation after stimulation with cleaved antigen, and could...

  13. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored α-glucanotransferase enzymes of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, R.M. van der; Yuan, X.L.; Franken, A.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal α-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal α-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol

  14. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes of aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, van der Rachel; Yuan, X.-L.; Franken, A.; Ram, A. F. J.; Punt, P. J.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal alpha-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal alpha-amylases: they were predicted to be

  15. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo-Ramos Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid (ABTS, and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

  16. Cytokine and transcription factor expression by Aspergillus fumigatus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherberghen, M; Bureau, F; Peters, I R; Day, M J; Lynch, A; Fievez, L; Billen, F; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2013-08-15

    The causal agent of sino-nasal aspergillosis is usually Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a saprophytic and ubiquitous fungus that causes a severe rhinosinusitis in apparent healthy dogs. Affected dogs do not have systemic immuno-suppression. It has been shown previously that dogs affected by this disease have local over-expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and Th1 cytokines in nasal mucosal tissue. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from affected and unaffected dogs to antigen-specific stimulation with heat-inactivated Aspergillus spp. conidia, by quantifying gene expression for specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cytokines and their related transcription factors. Quantification of IL-4 and IFN-γ protein in culture supernatant was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PBMC from dogs with SNA produced adequate mRNA encoding IFN-γ and IFN-γ protein. The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significantly greater in PBMC of affected compared with unaffected dogs. The amount of IL-10 mRNA in PBMC from affected dogs decreased after antigen-specific challenge. These results suggest that the incapacity of affected dogs to clear these fungal infections is not related to a defect in Th1 immunity or to an overwhelming regulatory reaction, but rather to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory reaction driven by Th17 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  18. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  19. Aspergillus thyroiditis: first antemortem case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration culture in a pediatric stem cell transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, S M; Becktell, K D; Muller, W J; Schneiderman, J

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillus thyroiditis (AT) has historically been considered a postmortem diagnosis in immunocompromised patients; most have disseminated disease. This report summarizes the clinical challenge of diagnosing AT. It also highlights the value of the early use of thyroid fine-needle aspiration culture and the need for a high index of suspicion to reach the final diagnosis before disease dissemination. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Aspergillus Cell Wall Chitin Induces Anti- and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human PBMCs via the Fc-γ Receptor/Syk/PI3K Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K. L.; Aimanianda, V.; Wang, X.; Gresnigt, M. S.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Jacobs, C. W.; Gazendam, R. P.; Joosten, L. A. B.; Netea, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chitin is an important cell wall component of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, of which hundreds are inhaled on a daily basis. Previous studies have shown that chitin has both anti- and proinflammatory properties; however the exact mechanisms determining the inflammatory signature of chitin are poorly understood, especially in human immune cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with chitin from Aspergillus fumigatus. Transcription and production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were measured from the cell culture supernatant by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Chitin induced an anti-inflammatory signature characterized by the production of IL-1Ra in the presence of human serum, which was abrogated in immunoglobulin-depleted serum. Fc-γ-receptor-dependent recognition and phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized chitin was identified as a novel IL-1Ra-inducing mechanism by chitin. IL-1Ra production induced by chitin was dependent on Syk kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. In contrast, costimulation of chitin with the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands lipopolysaccharide, Pam3Cys, or muramyl dipeptide, but not β-glucan, had synergistic effects on the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, chitin can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on the presence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and immunoglobulins, thus explaining the various inflammatory signatures reported for chitin. PMID:27247234

  1. SRF for neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory calls for nearly 500 meters of 200 MHz SRF cavities to provide 7.5 GV. Such a facility is more demanding than the largest SRF installation to date, i.e., LEP-II, where 500 m of niobium-coated copper cavities provided more than 3 GV of acceleration. Based on the high real estate gradient desired to minimize muon loss, superconducting cavities are selected to provide active gradients of 15 - 17 MV/m, and a real estate gradient of 7.5 MV/m. At such high gradients, the peak RF power demand for copper cavities would become prohibitively expensive. By virtue of low losses, SC cavities can be filled slowly (rise time 3 ms) reducing the peak power demand to roughly half MW per cell. (author)

  2. A monoclonal IgM directed against immunodominant catalase B of cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus exerts anti-A. fumigatus activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Kumar, Rohitashw; Kumar, Awanit; Shukla, Praveen K

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous fungus, has been reported to cause human diseases like allergic pulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and invasive infection. Limited spectrum and emergence of resistance has become a serious problem with available antifungals. Therefore, an alternative approach is required for successful treatment of mycoses. In the present study, immunogenic protein profile of A. fumigatus cell wall was generated using two-dimensional-gel electrophoresis and three hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; IgM) were selected after fusion experiments. Of these three MAbs, MAb-7 exhibited potent in vitro inhibitory activity, which was confirmed by MTT assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immuno-fluorescence studies, and the protein was identified as catalase B using MALDI-TOF-MS.

  3. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  4. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led......Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities...... of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact...

  6. X-ray induced degradation of DNA in Aspergillus nidulans cells comparative analysis of UV- and X-ray induced DNA degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinchenko, V.V.; Babykin, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiating cells of Aspergillus nidulans of the wild type in the logarythmical growth phase with X-rays leads to a certain retention in DNA synthesis. This period is characterized by an insignificant fermentative DNA degradation connected with a process of its repair. There is no direct dependence between the radiation dose and the level of DNA degradation. The investigation of X-ray induced DNA degradation in a number of UVS-mutants permits to show the existence of two branches of DNA degradation - dependent and independent of the exogenic energy source. The dependence of DNA degradation on albumen synthesis prior to irradiation and after it, is demonstrated. It is supposed that the level of X-ray induced DNA degradation is determined by two albumen systems, one of which initiates degradation and the other terminates it. The comparative analysis of UV and X-ray induced DNA degradation is carried out

  7. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  8. Accurate Dna Assembly And Direct Genome Integration With Optimized Uracil Excision Cloning To Facilitate Engineering Of Escherichia Coli As A Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a vast diversity of valuable compounds with medical properties, but these are often difficult to purify from the natural source or produce by organic synthesis. An alternative is to transfer the biosynthetic pathways to an efficient production host like the bacterium Escherichia co......-excision-based cloning and combining it with a genome-engineering approach to allow direct integration of whole metabolic pathways into the genome of E. coli, to facilitate the advanced engineering of cell factories........ Cloning and heterologous gene expression are major bottlenecks in the metabolic engineering field. We are working on standardizing DNA vector design processes to promote automation and collaborations in early phase metabolic engineering projects. Here, we focus on optimizing the already established uracil...

  9. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Mediates Neuroprotection in Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Benxu; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Martinez, Alex Anthony; Acosta, Yolanda P Villarreal; Morales, Liza D; Roberts, James L

    2011-01-01

    The proteasome is an enzyme complex responsible for targeted intracellular proteolysis. Alterations in proteasome-mediated protein clearance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In such diseases, proteasome inhibition may contribute to formation of abnormal protein aggregates, which in turn activate intracellular unfolded protein responses that cause oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-1) for neural SH-SY5Y cells treated with the proteasomal inhibitor, Epoxomicin, In SH-SY5Y cells, Epoxomicin treatment results in accumulation of intracellular ubiquitinated proteins and cytochrome c release from damaged mitochondria, leading to cell death, in Epoxomicin time- and dose-dependent manner. In cells treated with small amounts of IGF-1, the same dosages of Epoxomicin reduced both mitochondrial damage (cytochrome c release) and reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, both of which are markers of apoptosis. Notably, however, IGF-1-treated SH-SY5Y cells still contained ubiquitinated protein aggregates. This result indicates that IGF-1 blocks the downstream apoptotic consequences of Epoxomicin treatment leading to decreased proteasome function. Clues as to the mechanism for this protective effect come from (a) increased AKT phosphorylation observed in IGF-1-protected cells, vs. cells exposed to Epoxomicin without IGF-1, and (b) reduction of IGF-1 protection by pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase). Together these findings suggest that activation of PI3/AKT pathways by IGF-1 is involved in IGF-1 neuroprotection against apoptosis following proteasome inhibition. PMID:21545837

  10. Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)

  11. Biogenic Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger JX556221 Against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengzheng, Wang; Jiazhi, Wen; Shuangjiang, Chen; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Umar, Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    Nanobiotechnology has emerged as a promising technology to develop new therapeutically active nanomaterials. The present study was aimed to biosynthesize AgNPs extracellularly using Aspergillus niger JX556221 fungal extract and to evaluate their anticancer potential against colon cancer cell line, HT-29. UV-visible spectral characterization of the synthesized AgNPs showed higher absorption peak at 440 nm wavelength. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the monodispersed nature of synthesized AgNPs occurring in spherical shape with a size in the range of 20-25 nm. Further, characterization using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the face-centred cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. FTIR data revealed the occurrence of various phytochemicals in the cell free fungal extract which substantiated the fungal extract mediated AgNPs synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of AgNPs was studied by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results evidenced the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on HT-29 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The highest activity was found at 100 μg/ml concentration after 24 h of incubation. Use of propidium iodide staining examination method confirmed the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs through inducing cell apoptosis. AgNPs cytotoxicity was found to be through elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 activation resulting in induced apoptosis. Therefore, this research finding provides an insight towards the development of novel anticancer agents using biological sources.

  12. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  13. Cytotoxicity of selected Cameroonian medicinal plants and Nauclea pobeguinii towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Sandjo, Louis P; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Seukep, Jackson A; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Malignacies are still a major public concern worldwide and despite the intensive search for new chemotherapeutic agents, treatment still remains a challenging issue. This work was designed to assess the cytotoxicity of six selected Cameroonian medicinal plants, including Nauclea pobeguinii and its constituents 3-acetoxy-11-oxo-urs-12-ene (1), p-coumaric acid (2), citric acid trimethyl ester (3), resveratrol (4), resveratrol β- D -glucopyranoside (5) and strictosamide (6), against 8 drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the crude extracts and compounds, whilst column chromatography was used to isolate the constituents of Nauclea pobeguinii. Structural characterization of isolated compounds was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data. Preliminary experiments on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells at 40 μg/mL showed that the leaves and bark extracts from Tragia benthamii, Canarium schweinfurthii, Myrianthus arboreus, Dischistocalyx grandifolius and Fagara macrophylla induced more than 50 % growth of this cell line contrary to the leaves and bark extracts of N. pobeguinii. IC50 values below or around 30 μg/mL were obtained with leaves and bark extracts of N. pobeguinii towards two and five, respectively, of the 8 tested cancer cell lines. The lowest IC50 value was obtained with the bark extract of N. pobeguinii against HCT116 (p53 (-/-) ) colon cancer cells (8.70 μg/mL). Compounds 4 and 6 displayed selective activity on leukemia and carcinoma cells, whilst 1-3 were not active. IC50 values below 100 μM were recorded with compound 5 on all 9 tested cancer cell lines as well as with 4 against 7 out of 8 and 6 against 2 out of 8 cell lines. Collateral sensitivity was observed in CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, MDA-MB-231-BCRP breast adenocarcinoma cells (0.53-fold), HCT116 (p53 (+/+) ) cells, human U87MG.ΔEGFR glioblastome multiforme cells to the methanolic

  14. Planned Positron Factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Sohei

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has started, drafting a construction plan for the 'Positron Factory', in which intense energy-controllable monoenergetic positron beams are produced from pair-production reactions caused by high-energy electrons from a linac. The JAERI organized a planning committee to provide a basic picture for the Positron Factory. This article presents an overview of the interactions of positrons, intense positron sources and the research program and facilities planned for the project. The interactions of positrons and intense positron sources are discussed focusing on major characteristics of positrons in different energy ranges. The research program for the Positron Factory is then outlined, focusing on advanced positron annihilation techniques, positron spectroscopy (diffraction, scattering, channeling, microscopy), basic positron physics (exotic particle science), and positron beam technology. Discussion is also made of facilities required for the Positron Factory. (N.K.)

  15. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  16. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  17. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1982-11-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  18. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  19. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B factory; CP violation; B meson; supersymmetry. PACS Nos 11.30.Hv; 11.30.Pb; 12.15.Hh; 12.15.Mm; 13.20.He; 13.20.Fc;. 13.35.Dx; 14.65.Fy. 1. Introduction. The two asymmetric B factories, PEP-II and KEK-B, and their companion detec- tors, BABAR and Belle, have produced a wealth of flavor physics results, subjecting.

  20. Increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Zhang, Silai; Sano, Motoaki; Nakayama, Mayumi; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. Previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. Therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus A. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleΔ). Although the hyphae of the tripleΔ mutant were not fully dispersed, the mutant strain did form smaller pellets than the wild-type strain. We next examined enzyme productivity under liquid culture conditions by transforming the cutinase-encoding gene cutL1 into A. oryzae wild-type and the tripleΔ mutant (i.e. wild-type-cutL1, tripleΔ-cutL1). A. oryzae tripleΔ-cutL1 formed smaller hyphal pellets and showed both greater biomass and increased CutL1 productivity compared with wild-type-cutL1, which might be attributable to a decrease in the number of tripleΔ-cutL1 cells under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Cytotoxicity of anthraquinones from the roots of Pentas schimperi towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Donfack, Arno R Nanfack; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Zeino, Maen; Tane, Pierre; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer represents a major problem in chemotherapy. The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity of anthraquinones from Pentas schimperi, namely damnacanthal (1), damnacanthol (2), 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl anthraquinone (3) and schimperiquinone B (4) against nine drug-sensitive and multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the above compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect the activation of caspases enzymes by compounds 1 and 2. Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and levels of reactive oxygen species were all analyzed via flow cytometry. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 displayed cytotoxic effects with IC50 values below 81 μM on all the nine tested cancer cell lines whilst 3 and 4 displayed selective activities. The recorded IC50 values for compounds 1 and 2 ranged from 3.12 μM and 12.18 μM (towards leukemia CCRF-CEM cells) and from 30.32 μM and 80.11 μM (towards gliobastoma U87MG.ΔEGFR cells) respectively, and from 0.20 μM (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 195.12 μM (against CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 1 and 2 induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, mediated by the disruption of the MMP and increase in ROS production. Anthraquinones from Pentas schimperi and mostly 1 and 2 are potential cytotoxic natural products that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs against multifactorial drug resistant cancers.

  2. Cytotoxicity of 18 Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug sensitive and multi-factorial drug resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Manekeng, Hermione T; Nguenang, Gaelle S; Dzotam, Joachim K; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-08-10

    Recommendations have been made stating that ethnopharmacological usages such as immune and skin disorders, inflammatory, infectious, parasitic and viral diseases should be taken into account if selecting plants for anticancer screening, since these reflect disease states bearing relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Cameroonian medicinal plants investigated in this work are traditionally used to treat cancer or ailments with relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms. In this study, 21 methanol extracts from 18 Cameroonian medicinal plants were tested in leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, and the best extracts were further tested on a panel of human cancer cell lines, including various multi-drug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Mechanistic studies were performed with the three best extracts. Resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and ferroptotic effects of methanol extracts from different plants. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of extracts from Curcuma longa rhizomes (CLR), Lycopersicon esculentum leaves (LEL), and Psidium guajava bark (PGB). In a pre-screening of all extracts, 13 out of 21 (61.9%) had IC 50 values below 80 µg/mL. Six of these active extracts displayed IC 50 values below 30 µg/mL: Cola pachycarpa leaves (CPL), Curcuma longa rhizomes (CLR), Lycopersicon esculentum leaves, Persea americana bark (PAB), Physalis peruviana twigs (PPT) and Psidium guajava bark (PGB). The best extracts displayed IC 50 values from 6.25 µg/mL (against HCT116 p53 -/- ) to 10.29 µg/mL (towards breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231-BCRP cells) for CLR, from 9.64 µg/mL (against breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells) to 57.74 µg/mL (against HepG2 cells) for LEL and from 1.29 µg/mL (towards CEM/ADR5000 cells) to 62.64 µg/mL (towards MDA-MB-231 cells) for PGB. CLR and PGB induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells via caspases activation, MMP depletion

  3. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Vanegas, Katherina; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-01-01

    to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. Conclusions We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell...

  4. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of. Aspergillus niger. SAMAR ... gens and UV irradiation to study transportation of cad- mium ion through cell ..... Rowley W S 1993 Yeast bZib proteins mediate pleiotropic drug and metal ...

  5. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  6. Krüppel-like Factor 4 modulates interleukin-6 release in human dendritic cells after in vitro stimulation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Dix, Andreas; Bonin, Michael; Linde, Joerg; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Loeffler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are associated with high mortality rates and are mostly caused by the opportunistic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Immune responses against these fungi are still not fully understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial players in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against fungal infections. The immunomodulatory effects of fungi were compared to the bacterial stimulus LPS to determine key players in the immune response to fungal infections. A genome wide study of the gene regulation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) confronted with A. fumigatus, C. albicans or LPS was performed and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was identified as the only transcription factor that was down-regulated in DCs by both fungi but induced by stimulation with LPS. Downstream analysis demonstrated the influence of KLF4 on the interleukine-6 expression in human DCs. Furthermore, KLF4 regulation was shown to be dependent on pattern recognition receptor ligation. Therefore KLF4 was identified as a controlling element in the IL-6 immune response with a unique expression pattern comparing fungal and LPS stimulation. PMID:27346433

  7. Carbon and nitrogen depletion-induced nucleophagy and selective autophagic sequestration of a whole nucleus in multinucleate cells of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuma, Takashi; Mitani, Takahiro; Kohara, Takahiro; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2017-05-12

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes, in which cytoplasmic components and organelles are digested in vacuoles/lysosomes. Recently, autophagic degradation of nuclear materials, termed "nucleophagy", has been reported. In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a whole nucleus is degraded by nucleophagy after prolonged culture. While developing an H2B-EGFP processing assay for the evaluation of nucleophagy in A. oryzae, we found that nucleophagy is efficiently induced by carbon or nitrogen depletion. Microscopic observations in a carbon depletion condition clearly demonstrated that autophagosomes selectively sequester a particular nucleus, despite the presence of multiple nuclei in the same cell. Furthermore, AoNsp1, the A. oryzae homolog of the yeast nucleoporin Nsp1p, mainly localized at the nuclear periphery, but its localization was restricted to the opposite side of the autophagosome being formed around a nucleus. In contrast, the perinuclear ER visualized with the calnexin AoClxA was not morphologically affected by nucleophagy. The findings of nucleophagy-inducing conditions enabled us to characterize the morphological process of autophagic degradation of a whole nucleus in multinucleate cells.

  8. Characterisation of Aspergillus niger prolyl aminopeptidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, E.J.W.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have cloned a gene (papA) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus niger. Homologous genes are present in the genomes of the Eurotiales A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and Talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts

  9. Gene expression profiles of human dendritic cells interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus in a bilayer model of the alveolar epithelium/endothelium interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oliver Morton

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the interaction between the host and Aspergillus fumigatus at the alveolar surface of the human lung are critical in the establishment of aspergillosis. Using an in vitro bilayer model of the alveolus, including both the epithelium (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, A549 and endothelium (human pulmonary artery epithelial cells, HPAEC on transwell membranes, it was possible to closely replicate the in vivo conditions. Two distinct sub-groups of dendritic cells (DC, monocyte-derived DC (moDC and myeloid DC (mDC, were included in the model to examine immune responses to fungal infection at the alveolar surface. RNA in high quantity and quality was extracted from the cell layers on the transwell membrane to allow gene expression analysis using tailored custom-made microarrays, containing probes for 117 immune-relevant genes. This microarray data indicated minimal induction of immune gene expression in A549 alveolar epithelial cells in response to germ tubes of A. fumigatus. In contrast, the addition of DC to the system greatly increased the number of differentially expressed immune genes. moDC exhibited increased expression of genes including CLEC7A, CD209 and CCL18 in the absence of A. fumigatus compared to mDC. In the presence of A. fumigatus, both DC subgroups exhibited up-regulation of genes identified in previous studies as being associated with the exposure of DC to A. fumigatus and exhibiting chemotactic properties for neutrophils, including CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL20, and IL1B. This model closely approximated the human alveolus allowing for an analysis of the host pathogen interface that complements existing animal models of IA.

  10. Tau-charm factory..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-15

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting and T

  11. Tau-charm factory..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting

  12. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  13. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Rune B; Østrup, Esben; Zhang, Xiaolan; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Brinchmann, Jan E

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Five Factors Relevant to In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Factorial Design and High Throughput mRNA-Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Rune B.; Østrup, Esben; Zhang, Xiaolan; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Brinchmann, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols. PMID:24816923

  15. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune B Jakobsen

    Full Text Available The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  16. Intra and extracellular nuclease production by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Adlane V. B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra and extracellular nuclease production by strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans was estimated using a modified DNAse test agar and cell-free extract assays. Differences in the production of nucleases by A. niger and A. nidulans were observed. These observations suggest that the DNAse test agar can be helpful for a quick screening for some types of nucleases in filamentous fungi. The assays using cell-free extracts can also be useful for initial characterization of other types of nucleases.

  17. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  18. Protein and DNA technologies for functional expression of membrane-associated cytochromes P450 in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Albacete, Dario

    450 engineering guidelines and serves as platform to improve performance of microbial cells, thereby boosting recombinant production of complex plant P450-derived biochemicals. The knowledge generated, could guide future reconstruction of functional plant metabolic pathways leading to high valuable...... potential as medicines, fuels or food for humans. Plants conquered different environments thereby developing adaptation strategies based on the biosynthesis of a myriad of compounds. Unfortunately they are present in small amounts in plants and are too complex and to produce by organic chemical synthesis....... In most of biosynthetic pathways leading to these chemicals the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (P450s) is responsible for their final functionalization. However, the membrane-bound nature of P450s, makes their expression in microbial hosts a challenge. In order to meet the global demand for these natural...

  19. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loures, Flávio V; Röhm, Marc; Lee, Chrono K; Santos, Evelyn; Wang, Jennifer P; Specht, Charles A; Calich, Vera L G; Urban, Constantin F; Levitz, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were initially considered as critical for innate immunity to viruses. However, our group has shown that pDCs bind to and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and that depletion of pDCs renders mice hypersusceptible to experimental aspergillosis. In this study, we examined pDC receptors contributing to hyphal recognition and downstream events in pDCs stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. Our data show that Dectin-2, but not Dectin-1, participates in A. fumigatus hyphal recognition, TNF-α and IFN-α release, and antifungal activity. Moreover, Dectin-2 acts in cooperation with the FcRγ chain to trigger signaling responses. In addition, using confocal and electron microscopy we demonstrated that the interaction between pDCs and A. fumigatus induced the formation of pDC extracellular traps (pETs) containing DNA and citrullinated histone H3. These structures closely resembled those of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The microarray analysis of the pDC transcriptome upon A. fumigatus infection also demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes associated with apoptosis as well as type I interferon-induced genes. Thus, human pDCs directly recognize A. fumigatus hyphae via Dectin-2; this interaction results in cytokine release and antifungal activity. Moreover, hyphal stimulation of pDCs triggers a distinct pattern of pDC gene expression and leads to pET formation.

  1. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio V Loures

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs were initially considered as critical for innate immunity to viruses. However, our group has shown that pDCs bind to and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and that depletion of pDCs renders mice hypersusceptible to experimental aspergillosis. In this study, we examined pDC receptors contributing to hyphal recognition and downstream events in pDCs stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. Our data show that Dectin-2, but not Dectin-1, participates in A. fumigatus hyphal recognition, TNF-α and IFN-α release, and antifungal activity. Moreover, Dectin-2 acts in cooperation with the FcRγ chain to trigger signaling responses. In addition, using confocal and electron microscopy we demonstrated that the interaction between pDCs and A. fumigatus induced the formation of pDC extracellular traps (pETs containing DNA and citrullinated histone H3. These structures closely resembled those of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. The microarray analysis of the pDC transcriptome upon A. fumigatus infection also demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes associated with apoptosis as well as type I interferon-induced genes. Thus, human pDCs directly recognize A. fumigatus hyphae via Dectin-2; this interaction results in cytokine release and antifungal activity. Moreover, hyphal stimulation of pDCs triggers a distinct pattern of pDC gene expression and leads to pET formation.

  2. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0101; FRL-8868-7] Aspergillus... for residues of the microbial pesticide, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed... to the existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for Aspergillus flavus AF36. This...

  3. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  4. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  5. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  6. Four-legged factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, R.I.; Van der Walt, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Insight into how ruminants utilise plant material, converting what is essentially waste into food, wool and draught power for Man is being sought by Animal Scientists using isotopic tracer techniques. Answers to cost-effectice biological conversion lie in the complex interactions of the rumen's microbial fermentation factory and the host animal's diet and metabolism

  7. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  8. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George

    2015-01-01

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P Aspergillus hyphae. PMID:26643329

  9. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co

  10. Quantitative proteomic study of Aspergillus Fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-04-24

    Aspergillus sp. plays an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and is also exploited as cell factories for the production of industrial enzymes. This study profiled the secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a critical role in protein functions. However, our understanding of the PTMs in secretory proteins is limited. Here, we present the identification of PTMs such as deamidation of secreted proteins of A. fumigatus. This study quantified diverse groups of extracellular secreted enzymes and their functional classification revealed cellulases and glycoside hydrolases (32.9%), amylases (0.9%), hemicellulases (16.2%), lignin degrading enzymes (8.1%), peptidases and proteases (11.7%), chitinases, lipases and phosphatases (7.6%), and proteins with unknown function (22.5%). The comparison of quantitative iTRAQ results revealed that cellulose and xylan stimulates expression of specific cellulases and hemicellulases, and their abundance level as a function of substrate. In-depth data analysis revealed deamidation as a major PTM of key cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes like endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and glucosidases. Hemicellulose degrading endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, monosidases, xylosidases, lignin degrading laccase, isoamyl alcohol oxidase and oxidoreductases were also found to be deamidated. The filamentous fungi play an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus were also exploited as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. In this study, extracellular proteins secreted by thermophilic A. fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch were profiled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) by

  11. Virtual Learning Factory on VR-Supported Factory Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Weidig , Christian; Menck , Nicole; Winkes , Pascal ,; Aurich , Jan ,

    2014-01-01

    Part 13: Virtual Reality and Simulation; International audience; Learning Factories are becoming popular as tangible measures to teach engineering methods while making use of them in an industrial-like environment. Their core component is usually a factory demonstrator, users are physically working with. For factory planning such approaches can hardly be adapted, due to long lasting realization phases.To overcome this obstacle a virtual learning factory has been developed whose core component...

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

  13. Review of kaon factory proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear physics issues and particle physics issues for a kaon factory are discussed. Kaon factory accelerator proposals are then considered. Secondary beam considerations are covered and hardware development for a kaon factory is discussed. The prospects for construction are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  15. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  16. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  17. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.

    1989-05-01

    TRIUMF has been awarded $11M for a one-year pre-construction Engineering Design and Impact Study of the KAON Factory. This will enable prototypes of many accelerator components to be built and the design of the accelerators and the layout of the experimental areas to be reviewed. The building and tunnel designs will be finalized, environmental, legal and economic impact studies carried out, and international involvement pursued further

  18. Automation in the factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatvany, J

    1984-05-01

    There are now about 100000 computers in the manufacturing plants of the world, but the thirty-year old dream of the computer-controlled factory is only now beginning to materialize. With the advent of advanced microprocessor technology of distributed systems based on local area networking and of supervisory and diagnostic systems utilizing artificial intelligence techniques, computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) has today become a realistic aim. 6 references.

  19. SLAC B Factory computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics

  20. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules...

  1. Effect of different physicochemical conditions on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and their antibacterial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanjom, Probin; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different physicochemical conditions like concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH and temperature, using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and its antibacterial properties were demonstrated. When fungal cell filtrate having neutral pH was exposed to different concentrations of aqueous solution AgNO3 (1-10 mM), formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes was observed. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 1 mM to 8 mM, however, the particles size increased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 9 mM to 10 mM. When fungal cell filtrate exposed to aqueous solution of 1 mM AgNO3 at different pH (4-10), the silver ions (Ag+) were reduced leading to the formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of alkaline conditions. When aqueous solution of 1mM AgNO3 with fungal cell filtrate, having neutral pH, was exposed to different temperatures (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 °С), formation of stable AgNPs having different sizes were obtained. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of temperature. Synergetic effect with antibiotics and size dependent antibacterial activities were also demonstrated against Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441) and Klebseilla pneumoniae (MTCC 4030). The formation AgNPs was characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the sizes of the obtained nanoparticles. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum confirmed the formation of metallic silver. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of protein as stabilizing agent around AgNPs. Scanning electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the morphological changes in the treated bacterial organisms.

  2. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  3. Continuous Production of Isomalto-oligosaccharides by Thermo-inactivated Cells of Aspergillus niger J2 with Coarse Perlite as an Immobilizing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihua; Li, Zhihong; Su, Yongjian; Zhu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Liang, Zhiqun

    2018-02-13

    The coarse perlite 40-80 mesh was selected as an immobilizing material and put into a packed bed reactor (PBR) to continuously convert maltose to isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs). The PBR was prepared by mixing the thermo-inactivated cells (TIC) from Aspergillus niger J2 strain with the coarse perlite, then the mixture was put into an overpressure-resistant column. Compared with diatomite 40-80 mesh and thin perlite 80-120 mesh in PBR, coarse perlite was chosen as the best filtration aid, when the ratio of coarse perlite versus TIC was 1:1. The thermal and pH stability of the free and immobilized TIC and the optimum conditions for the transglycosylation reactions were determined. The results show that approximately 75 and 82% and 87 and 91% of α-glucosidase activity were reserved for free and immobilized TIC at temperatures from 30 to 60 °C and pH from 3.00 to 7.00 for 12 h, respectively. With 30% malt syrup under the conditions of 50 °C and pH 4.00, a mini-scale packed bed reactor (Mi-PBR) and medium-scale packed bed reactor (Me-PBR) could continuously produce IMO over 25 and 34 days with the yield of effective IMO (eIMO) ≥ 35% and total IMO (tIMO) ≥ 50%, respectively. The strategy of mixing the coarse perlite with TIC in PBR is a novel approach to continuously produce IMO and has great application potential in industry.

  4. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  5. Deletion of flbA results in increased secretome complexity and reduced secretion heterogeneity in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsheld, Pauline; Nitsche, Benjamin M; Post, Harm; Levin, Ana M; Müller, Wally H; Heck, Albert J R; Ram, Arthur F J; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Wösten, Han A B

    2013-04-05

    Aspergillus niger is a cell factory for the production of enzymes. This fungus secretes proteins in the central part and at the periphery of the colony. The sporulating zone of the colony overlapped with the nonsecreting subperipheral zone, indicating that sporulation inhibits protein secretion. Indeed, strain ΔflbA that is affected early in the sporulation program secreted proteins throughout the colony. In contrast, the ΔbrlA strain that initiates but not completes sporulation did not show altered spatial secretion. The secretome of 5 concentric zones of xylose-grown ΔflbA colonies was assessed by quantitative proteomics. In total 138 proteins with a signal sequence for secretion were identified in the medium of ΔflbA colonies. Of these, 18 proteins had never been reported to be part of the secretome of A. niger, while 101 proteins had previously not been identified in the culture medium of xylose-grown wild type colonies. Taken together, inactivation of flbA results in spatial changes in secretion and in a more complex secretome. The latter may be explained by the fact that strain ΔflbA has a thinner cell wall compared to the wild type, enabling efficient release of proteins. These results are of interest to improve A. niger as a cell factory.

  6. Glucoamylase biosynthesis by cells of Aspergillus niger C sub 58-III immobilized in sintered glass and pumice stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedurek, J.; Lobarzewski, J. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland). Inst. Mikrobiologii i Biochemii)

    1990-09-01

    A simple method of A. niger C{sub 58-III} cell immobilization is described. This strain produces extracellular glucoamylase. According to the proposed method A. niger spores were first immobilized by adsorption in sintered glass Rasching rings (RR) or pumice stones (PS). Growing out from spores, A. niger cells produced extracellular glucoamylase. This technique facilitates the culture growth in a filamentous spongy structure of the supports with a continuous accumulation of biomass. After every 24 h it was possible to obtain culture liquid rich in glucoamylase. This procedure can be repeated 30 times using the same sample of immobilized A. niger culture without any loss of glucoamylase activity in the liquid medium. In a 96 h period immobilized A. niger cells produced 300 units . ml{sup -1} whereas a shake culture of this fungus produced only 186 units . ml{sup -1}. (orig.).

  7. TRIUMF: Kaon factory physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The second TRIUMF Kaon Factory Physics Workshop was held on 10-14 August, 1981. About a hundred physicists participated in the meeting, which consisted of fifteen invited talks and four afternoon workshop sessions, and proved to be a stimulating and productive event. The discussions centred on identifying the most important physics that could be studied with a machine providing an increase in intensity of two orders of magnitude in primary proton beam over present accelerators in the energy range 8 to 20 GeV, and on establishing some preliminary guidelines on the desirable properties of secondary beams at such a machine

  8. KEK: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    To boost the study of B mesons (carrying the heavy b quark), the Japanese KEK Laboratory is looking to construct a B-meson 'factory'. B-mesons have revealed unexpected and important quark physics. Well-known examples are the long lifetime of the B-mesons, indicating a large gap between the third and second quark generation (compared to that between the second and the first), and relatively large mixing of the neutral B-meson and its antiparticle, now interpreted as being due to a heavy sixth ('top') quark

  9. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  10. Studies on Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies were conducted on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link (aflatoxin producing) and Aspergillus flavus oryzae (non-toxigenic) strains isolated and identified in this laboratory. These strains differed in resistance to heat and gamma radiation, the toxigenic strain being more resistant to both treatments. Results of tests on dose-modifying factors indicated that composition, temperature and pH of suspending media affected radiation resistance. On the other hand, the size of the initial population and the age of the conidia did not influence the radiation resistance of either strain. Studies on thermal inactivation of the conidia suggested that the temperature employed was more important than the time of heat treatment. Conidia of both strains showed a synergistic effect of combined heat and radiation treatments, although a heat-radiation sequence was more effective than a radiation-heat sequence. (author)

  11. Proteomic analysis of temperature dependent extracellular proteins from Aspergillus fumigatus grown under solid-state culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2013-06-07

    Fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are filamentous ubiquitous saprophytes that play a major role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and also are considered as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. Analysis of extracellular secreted biomass degrading enzymes using complex lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate by solid-state fermentation could be a more practical approach to evaluate application of the enzymes for lignocellulosic biorefinery. This study isolated a fungal strain from compost, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, and further analyzed it for lignocellulolytic enzymes at different temperatures using label free quantitative proteomics. The profile of secretome composition discovered cellulases, hemicellulases, lignin degrading proteins, peptidases and proteases, and transport and hypothetical proteins; while protein abundances and further their hierarchical clustering analysis revealed temperature dependent expression of these enzymes during solid-state fermentation of sawdust. The enzyme activities and protein abundances as determined by exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) indicated the maximum activities at the range of 40-50 °C, demonstrating the thermophilic nature of the isolate A. fumigatus LF9. Characterization of the thermostability of secretome suggested the potential of the isolated fungal strain in the production of thermophilic biomass degrading enzymes for industrial application.

  12. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis; Lozin, Vadim V.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P hyphae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for addit...

  17. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...... data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XInR-binding site to be 5'-GGNTAAA-3'. The composition of the conserved gene......-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross...

  18. KEK: B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    After more than three years of intensive evaluation, the Japanese government has approved the conversion of the TRISTAN electronpositron collider at the national KEK Laboratory to a two-ring asymmetric B-meson factory. The project will take about five years to complete. Initial construction will proceed while TRISTAN experiments continue datataking, expected to continue until summer 1995. When it becomes operational in 1998, the new facility (TRISTAN II) will be capable of producing more than ten million B meson pairs each year. Detailed studies of their decay properties are expected to reveal answers to the long-standing puzzle of the violation of CP symmetry - combined left-right reversal and particle-antiparticle substitution

  19. Positron Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Sohei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Kawasuso, Atsuo; Masuno, Shin-ichi; Takizawa, Haruki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    We have started drafting a construction program for the Positron Factory, in which linac-based intense monoenergetic positron beams are planned to be applied for materials science, biotechnology and basic physics and chemistry. A technical survey study confirmed the feasibility of manufacturing a dedicated electron linac of 100 kW class with a beam energy of 100 MeV, which will produce a world-highest monoenergetic positron beam of more than 10{sup 10}/sec in intensity. A self-driven rotating converter (electrons to positrons and photons) suitable for the high power electron beam was devised and successfully tested. The practicability of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams with multiple moderator assemblies, which had been originated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation, was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. An efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is also proposed. (author)

  20. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Caru, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  2. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  3. The eldercare factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal RF shields, an RF cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and RF beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia (already approved) and international contributors. The federal decision is expected shortly. (Author) 29 refs., 5 figs

  5. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of experiments in particle and nuclear physics. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various accelerator components to be built and evaluated. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed. Payment of one-third of the total cost of $708 million (Canadian) has been approved by the government of British Columbia; a further third is expected from international sources, on the basis of inter-governmental consultations. A decision on the final third is expected from the government of Canada before the end of 1990. (Author) (15 refs., 7 figs.)

  6. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  7. An inventory of the Aspergillus niger secretome by combining in silico predictions with shotgun proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens-Uzunova Elena S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecological niche occupied by a fungal species, its pathogenicity and its usefulness as a microbial cell factory to a large degree depends on its secretome. Protein secretion usually requires the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide (SP and by scanning for this feature using available highly accurate SP-prediction tools, the fraction of potentially secreted proteins can be directly predicted. However, prediction of a SP does not guarantee that the protein is actually secreted and current in silico prediction methods suffer from gene-model errors introduced during genome annotation. Results A majority rule based classifier that also evaluates signal peptide predictions from the best homologs of three neighbouring Aspergillus species was developed to create an improved list of potential signal peptide containing proteins encoded by the Aspergillus niger genome. As a complement to these in silico predictions, the secretome associated with growth and upon carbon source depletion was determined using a shotgun proteomics approach. Overall, some 200 proteins with a predicted signal peptide were identified to be secreted proteins. Concordant changes in the secretome state were observed as a response to changes in growth/culture conditions. Additionally, two proteins secreted via a non-classical route operating in A. niger were identified. Conclusions We were able to improve the in silico inventory of A. niger secretory proteins by combining different gene-model predictions from neighbouring Aspergilli and thereby avoiding prediction conflicts associated with inaccurate gene-models. The expected accuracy of signal peptide prediction for proteins that lack homologous sequences in the proteomes of related species is 85%. An experimental validation of the predicted proteome confirmed in silico predictions.

  8. An inventory of the Aspergillus niger secretome by combining in silico predictions with shotgun proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaksma, Machtelt; Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Punt, Peter J; Schaap, Peter J

    2010-10-19

    The ecological niche occupied by a fungal species, its pathogenicity and its usefulness as a microbial cell factory to a large degree depends on its secretome. Protein secretion usually requires the presence of a N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and by scanning for this feature using available highly accurate SP-prediction tools, the fraction of potentially secreted proteins can be directly predicted. However, prediction of a SP does not guarantee that the protein is actually secreted and current in silico prediction methods suffer from gene-model errors introduced during genome annotation. A majority rule based classifier that also evaluates signal peptide predictions from the best homologs of three neighbouring Aspergillus species was developed to create an improved list of potential signal peptide containing proteins encoded by the Aspergillus niger genome. As a complement to these in silico predictions, the secretome associated with growth and upon carbon source depletion was determined using a shotgun proteomics approach. Overall, some 200 proteins with a predicted signal peptide were identified to be secreted proteins. Concordant changes in the secretome state were observed as a response to changes in growth/culture conditions. Additionally, two proteins secreted via a non-classical route operating in A. niger were identified. We were able to improve the in silico inventory of A. niger secretory proteins by combining different gene-model predictions from neighbouring Aspergilli and thereby avoiding prediction conflicts associated with inaccurate gene-models. The expected accuracy of signal peptide prediction for proteins that lack homologous sequences in the proteomes of related species is 85%. An experimental validation of the predicted proteome confirmed in silico predictions.

  9. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  10. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Hover, J; Love, P; Stewart, G A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  11. JINR tau-charm factory design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, E.; Aleksandrov, V.; Antropov, V.

    1993-01-01

    The review on tau-charm factory in JINR (Dubna) is presented. The structure scheme of tau-charm factory is described. The problems on injection complex are discussed: the composition, the working regime and parameters. The magnetic lattice of a booster is described. A versatile magnet lattice is used in tau-charm collider. It can realize both conventional flat beam scheme and monochromatization scheme. The results of chromaticity correction in high emittance lattice are presented. The list of parameters of tau-charm collider is given. The technical proposal of magnetic elements of booster and collider and their power supplies is made, as well as RF power supply in collider and vacuum system in its periodic cell. 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  13. Photon factory activity report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)

  14. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  15. Photon factory activity report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)

  16. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  17. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  18. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  20. Localization of Glucose Oxidase and Catalase Activities in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Cor F.B.; Veenhuis, Marten; Visser, Jaap

    The subcellular localization of glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) in Aspergillus niger N400 (CBS 120.49) was investigated by (immuno)cytochemical methods. By these methods, the bulk of the enzyme was found to be localized in the cell wall. In addition, four different catalases (EC 1.11.1.6) were

  1. Protective role of Aspergillus fumigatus melanin against ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanin protects pigmented cells from physical and biological stresses which are associated with virulence in several important human pathogens, but little is known about the immune response to this ubiquitous biologic compound. Melanin content increased in Aspergillus fumigatus mycelium exposed to ultraviolet for 10 ...

  2. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic activity of 24 selected bacterial strains detected by previous microbiological studies to Aspergillus flavus was tested in vitro and in vivo conditions. Within 24 strains, only ten strains showed remarkable inhibition zone (6-34 mm) against the pathogen in assays carried out in Petri plates. Both cell suspension and ...

  3. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  4. Aspergillus asper sp. nov. and Aspergillus collinsii sp. nov., from Aspergillus section Usti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjevic, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2016-07-01

    In sampling fungi from the built environment, two isolates that could not confidently be placed in described species were encountered. Phenotypic analysis suggested that they belonged in Aspergillus sect. Usti. In order to verify the sectional placement and to assure that they were undescribed rather than phenotypically aberrant isolates, DNA was isolated and sequenced at the beta-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and RNA polymerase II loci and sequences compared with those from other species in the genus Aspergillus. At each locus, each new isolate was distant from existing species. Phylogenetic trees calculated from these data and GenBank data for species of the section Usti excluded the placement of these isolates in existing species, with statistical support. Because they were excluded from existing taxa, the distinct species Aspergillus asper (type strain NRRL 35910 T ) and Aspergillus collinsii (type strain NRRL 66196 T ) in sect. Usti are proposed to accommodate these strains.

  5. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  6. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  7. The tau-charm factory: Experimental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.; Schindler, R.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report discusses the Tau-Charm Factory Concept; D and D S Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; τ and ν τ Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; and Charmonium, Gluonium and Light Quark Spectroscopy at the Tau-Charm Factory

  8. The construction and use of versatile binary vectors carrying pyrG auxotrophic marker and fluorescent reporter genes for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Pham, Thu Ha; Phan, Tuan-Nghia; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a safe mold widely used in food industry. It is also considered as a microbial cell factory for production of recombinant proteins and enzymes. Currently, genetic manipulation of filamentous fungi is achieved via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods usually employing antibiotic resistance markers. These methods are hardly usable for A. oryzae due to its strong resistance to the common antifungal compounds used for fungal transformation. In this study, we have constructed two binary vectors carrying the pyrG gene from A. oryzae as a biochemical marker than an antibiotic resistance marker, and an expression cassette for GFP or DsRed reporter gene under control of the constitutive gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. All components of these vectors are changeable to generate new versions for specific research purposes. The developed vectors are fully functional for heterologous expression of the GFP and DsRed fluorescent proteins in the uridine/uracil auxotrophic A. oryzae strain. Our study provides a new approach for A. oryzae transformation using pyrG as the selectable auxotrophic marker, A. tumefaciens as the DNA transfer tool and fungal spores as the transformation material. The binary vectors constructed can be used for gene expression studies in this industrially important filamentous fungus.

  9. A new and efficient approach for construction of uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Do, Loc Thi Binh Xuan; Mai, Linh Thi Dam; Pham, Duc-Ngoc; Tran, Huyen Thi Thanh; Le, Diep Hong; Nguyen, Huy Quang; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus widely used in food industry and as a microbial cell factory for recombinant protein production. Due to the inherent resistance of A. oryzae to common antifungal compounds, genetic transformation of this mold usually requires auxotrophic mutants. In this study, we show that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method is very efficient for deletion of the pyrG gene in different Aspergillus oryzae wild-type strains to generate uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants. Our data indicated that all the obtained uridine/uracil auxotrophic transformants, which are 5- fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) resistant, exist as the pyrG deletion mutants. Using these auxotrophic mutants and the pyrG selectable marker for genetic transformation via A. tumefaciens, we could get about 1060 transformants per 10 6 fungal spores. In addition, these A. oryzae mutants were also used successfully for expression of the DsRed fluorescent reporter gene under control of the A. oryzae amyB promoter by the ATMT method, which resulted in obvious red transformants on agar plates. Our work provides a new and effective approach for constructing the uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the importantly industrial fungus A. oryzae. This strategy appears to be applicable to other filamentous fungi to develop similar genetic transformation systems based on auxotrophic/nutritional markers for food-grade recombinant applications.

  10. Substantial decrease in cell wall α-1,3-glucan caused by disruption of the kexB gene encoding a subtilisin-like processing protease in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Osamu; Shiina, Matsuko; Yoshimi, Akira; Sano, Motoaki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yamagata, Youhei; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Disruption of the kexB encoding a subtilisin-like processing protease in Aspergillus oryzae (ΔkexB) leads to substantial morphological defects when the cells are grown on Czapek-Dox agar plates. We previously found that the disruption of kexB causes a constitutive activation of the cell wall integrity pathway. To understand how the disruption of the kexB affects cell wall organization and components, we analyzed the cell wall of ΔkexB grown on the plates. The results revealed that both total N-acetylglucosamine content, which constitutes chitin, and chitin synthase activities were increased. Whereas total glucose content, which constitutes β-1,3-glucan and α-1,3-glucan, was decreased; this decrease was attributed to a remarkable decrease in α-1,3-glucan. Additionally, the β-1,3-glucan in the alkali-insoluble fraction of the ΔkexB showed a high degree of polymerization. These results suggested that the loss of α-1,3-glucan in the ΔkexB was compensated by increases in the chitin content and the average degree of β-1,3-glucan polymerization.

  11. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  12. Neutrino Factory: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  13. Steps towards the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 . A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  14. Photon Factory activity report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs

  15. Math for the digital factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hömberg, Dietmar; Landry, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a unique collection of mathematical tools and industrial case studies in digital manufacturing. It addresses various topics, ranging from models of single production technologies, production lines, logistics and workflows to models and optimization strategies for energy consumption in production. The digital factory represents a network of digital models and simulation and 3D visualization methods for the holistic planning, realization, control and ongoing improvement of all factory processes related to a specific product. In the past ten years, all industrialized countries have launched initiatives to realize this vision, sometimes also referred to as Industry 4.0 (in Europe) or Smart Manufacturing (in the United States). Its main goals are • reconfigurable, adaptive and evolving factories capable of small-scale production • high-performance production, combining flexibility, productivity, precision and zero defects • energy and resource efficiency in manufacturing None of these...

  16. Effect of simulated microgravity on Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Jeffrey J.

    2005-08-01

    A rotating bioreactor was developed to simulate microgravity and its influence was studied on fungal growth. The reactor was designed to simulate microgravity using 'free fall' principle, which creates an apparent weightlessness for a brief period of time. In this experiment, a sealed vertically rotating tube is the reactor in which the cells are grown. For the first time vertically rotating tubes were used to obtain 'free fall' thereby simulating microgravity. Simulated microgravity served significant in the alteration of growth and productivity of Aspergillus niger, a common soil fungi. Two other sets of similar cultures were maintained as still and shake control cultures to compare with the growth and productivity of cells in rotating culture. It was found increased growth and productivity occurred in simulated microgravity. Since this experiment involves growth of cells in a liquid medium, the fluidic effects must also be studied which is a limitation.

  17. Allergens/Antigens, Toxins and Polyketides of Important Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P.

    2011-01-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important specie...

  18. Effects of sugar and amino acid supplementation on Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 58536 antifungal activity against four Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Ployngam, Saowaluck; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2013-09-01

    Cultured cell extracts from ten tropical strains of Aureobasidium pullulans were screened for antifungal activity against four pathogenic Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus terreus) using the well diffusion and conidial germination inhibition assays. The crude cell extract from A. pullulans NRRL 58536 resulted in the greatest fungicidal activity against all four Aspergillus species and so was selected for further investigation into enhancing the production of antifungal activity through optimization of the culture medium, carbon source (sucrose and glucose) and amino acid (phenylalanine, proline, and leucine) supplementation. Sucrose did not support the production of any detectable antifungal activity, while glucose did with the greatest antifungal activity against all four Aspergillus species being produced in cells grown in medium containing 2.5 % (w/v) glucose. With respect to the amino acid supplements, variable trends between the different Aspergillus species and amino acid combinations were observed, with the greatest antifungal activities being obtained when grown with phenylalanine plus leucine supplementation for activity against A. flavus, proline plus leucine for A. terreus, and phenylalanine plus proline and leucine for A. niger and A. fumigatus. Thin layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were all consistent with the main component of the A. pullulans NRRL 58536 extracts being aureobasidins.

  19. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  20. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  1. Neutrino factory plans at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Riche, J A

    2001-01-01

    The considerable interest raised by the discovery of neutrino oscillations and recent progress in studies of muon colliders has triggered interest in considering a neutrino factory at CERN. This paper explains the reference scenario, indicates the other possible choices and mentions the R&D that are foreseen.

  2. Planned e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1993-09-01

    Various Beauty and Tau-Charm factories and projects are reviewed. Different machines (TRISTAN II, PEP II, CESR-B, the Dubna project and the European project) are compared and their design and parameters are described. (K.A.) 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Factorial representations of path groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Testard, D.; Vershik, A.

    1983-11-01

    We give the reduction of the energy representation of the group of mappings from I = [ 0,1 ], S 1 , IRsub(+) or IR into a compact semi simple Lie group G. For G = SU(2) we prove the factoriality of the representation, which is of type III in the case I = IR

  4. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  5. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  6. Variability of Germinative Potential among Pathogenic Species of Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Acacio Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate parameters influencing the germination of Aspergillus conidia. Inoculum concentration and age significantly influenced germination. Different incubation temperatures revealed significant differences among Aspergillus species. The internal human milieu provides the ideal conditions for the development of invasive disease by Aspergillus fumigatus but restricts invasion by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

  7. Immunoproteomics of Aspergillus for the development of biomarkers and immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Olaf; Ebel, Frank; Krüger, Thomas; Bacher, Petra; Scheffold, Alexander; Luo, Ting; Strassburger, Maria; Brakhage, Axel A

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections as well as allergic reactions in humans. Particularly invasive mycoses caused by Aspergillus species are characterized by high mortality rates due to difficult diagnosis and insufficient antifungal therapy. The application of immunoproteomic approaches has a great potential to identify new targets for the diagnosis, therapy, and vaccine development of diseases caused by Aspergillus species. Serological proteome analyses (SERPA) that combine 2D electrophoresis with Western blotting are still one of the most popular techniques for the identification of antigenic proteins. However, recently a growing number of approaches have been developed to identify proteins, which either provoke an antibody response or which represent targets of T-cell immunity in patients with allergy or fungal infections. Here, we review advances in the studies of immune responses against pathogenic Aspergilli as well as the current status of diagnosis and immunotherapy of Aspergillus infections. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  9. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  10. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  11. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  12. Aspergillus mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Caballero

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The clinical features of postoperative Aspergillus mediastinitis may be paucisymptomatic, emphasizing the need for a low index of suspicion in cases of culture-negative mediastinitis or in indolent wound infections. In addition to surgical debridement, the central component of antifungal therapy should include amphotericin B or voriconazole.

  13. Nitrile biotransformation by Aspergillus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdrová, Radka; Kristová, Veronika; Crestia, D.; Nikolaou, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Lemaire, M.; Gallienne, E.; Bolte, J.; Bezouška, K.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2004), s. 227-232 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D25.002; GA AV ČR IAA4020213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : aspergillus niger * nitrile-converting enzymes * nitrile hydratase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2004

  14. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  15. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  16. On KEK B-Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  17. On KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records. (author)

  18. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab

  19. A kaon factory for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.

    1988-11-01

    The design study for the TRIUMF Kaon Factory has recently been funded. A short discussion of the scientific motivation is given first, followed by a brief description of the 30 GeV synchrotron which is being proposed. There will be five rings altogether using the present TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project is funded in 1990 the accelerators would be completed in 1995 or so, and the experimental programme would start a year later

  20. An experimental modeling of trinomial bioengineering- crp, rDNA, and transporter engineering within single cell factory for maximizing two-phase bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Souvik; Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Aphale, Ashish N; Patra, Prabir K; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal

    2017-02-01

    A carbonyl reductase (cr) gene from Candida glabrata CBS138 has been heterologously expressed in cofactor regenerating E. coli host to convert Ethyl-4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into Ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (CHBE). The CR enzyme exhibited marked velocity at substrate concentration as high as 363mM with highest turnover number (112.77±3.95s -1 ). Solitary recombineering of such catalytic cell reproduced CHBE 161.04g/L per g of dry cell weight (DCW). Introduction of combinatorially engineered crp (crp*, F136I) into this heterologous E. coli host yielded CHBE 477.54g/L/gDCW. Furthermore, using nerolidol as exogenous cell transporter, the CHBE productivity has been towered to 710.88g/L/gDCW. The CHBE production has thus been upscaled to 8-12 times than those reported so far. qRT-PCR studies revealed that both membrane efflux channels such as acrAB as well as ROS scavenger genes such as ahpCF have been activated by engineering crp. Moreover, membrane protecting genes such as manXYZ together with solvent extrusion associated genes such as glpC have been upregulated inside mutant host. Although numerous proteins have been investigated to convert COBE to CHBE; this is the first approach to use engineering triad involving crp engineering, recombinant DNA engineering and transporter engineering together for improving cell performance during two-phase biocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  2. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user's short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  3. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  4. Photon Factory activity report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Photon Factory has grown at a considerable rate, and 600 experiments are carried out in 1991, while the number of users is now 2300 including about 500 from industrial sectors. The use of synchrotron radiation increased from fundamental research to industrial development. The development at the Photon Factory is supported by the capability of the accelerators. At present, the 2.5 GeV PF ring is operated with positrons at the initial beam current of 350 mA. The total operation time was 3500 hours in the fiscal year 1990. The development of an avalanche mode photodiode, the observation of quantum beat in the experiment of nuclear Bragg scattering, the measurement of photo-electron and photo-ion spectroscopy were carried out. The conversion of TRISTAN main ring to an ultrahigh brilliance and high coherence source is planned for the future. The annual PF Symposium was held, and Professor H. Winick gave the lecture 'Ultrahigh brightness and coherent radiation from large storage rings'. In this report, the outline of the Photon Factory and the activities in Divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation are described. (K.I.)

  5. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...

  6. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  7. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account.

  8. Differential roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto-Young, D; Avtanski, D; Varadinova, M; Park, A; Suwandhi, P; Leiser, A; Parikh, G; Poretsky, L

    2011-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) participate in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. In insulin resistant states ovaries remain sensitive to insulin because insulin can activate alternative signaling pathways, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as insulin receptors and type 1 IGF receptors. We investigated the roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells. Human ovarian cells were cultured in tissue culture medium in the presence of varying concentrations of insulin or IGF-I, with or without PD98059, a specific MAPK-Erk1/2 inhibitor, with or without SB203580, a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor or with or without a specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. PD98059 alone stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner by up to 65% (pprogesterone production by 13-18% (pprogesterone production by 17-20% (pprogesterone production by 20-30% (pprogesterone production by 40-60% (pprogesterone synthesis while SB203580 abolished insulin-induced progesterone production. Either PD98059 or SB203580 abolished IGF-I-induced progesterone production. Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2. These studies provide further evidence for divergence of insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for human ovarian cell steroidogenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Evaluation of indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a cell factory for biodiesel production and scale up in outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Kumar, Vikram; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Das, Debasish

    2014-03-01

    The present study reports evaluation of an indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Characterization of the strain was performed under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Further, an open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions was demonstrated to evaluate growth performance and lipid productivity under fluctuating environmental parameters and in the presence of potential contaminants. The key findings were: (1) the difference in cultivation conditions resulted in significant variation in the biomass productivity (73-114 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) and total lipid productivity (35.02-50.42 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) of the strain; (2) nitrate and phosphate starvation were found to be the triggers for lipid accumulation in the cell mass; (3) open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions resulted in biomass productivity of 44 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and total lipid productivity of 10.7 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹; (4) a maximum detectable bacterial contamination of 7 % of the total number of cells was recorded in an open-pond system; and (5) fatty acid profiling revealed abundance of palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which are considered to be the key elements for suitable quality biodiesel.

  10. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  11. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  12. Mathematical model of gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T.; Shioya, S.; Furuya, T.

    1981-11-01

    A mathematical model for the study of gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been developed. The model has been deduced from the basic biological concept of multicellular filamentous microorganisms, i.e. cell population balance. It can be used to explain the behaviour of both batch and continuous cultures, even when in a lag phase. A new characteristic, involving the existence of dual equilibrium stages during fermentation, has been predicted using this mathematical model. (Refs. 6).

  13. Catalytical Properties of Free and Immobilized Aspergillus niger Tannase

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Flores-Maltos; Luis V. Rodríguez-Durán; Jacqueline Renovato; Juan C. Contreras; Raúl Rodríguez; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    A fungal tannase was produced, recovered, and immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. Catalytical properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with those of the free one. Tannase was produced intracellularly by the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 in a submerged fermentation system. Enzyme was recovered by cell disruption and the crude extract was partially purified. The catalytical properties of free and immobilized tannase were evaluated using tannic acid and methy...

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  15. [Demodicosis of dogs--a factorial disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, R

    1989-09-01

    Demodex canis is a normal resident of the intact canine skin, being present in small numbers in virtually every dog. Most animals are only carriers of the mites and do not develop clinical symptoms, therefore, demodectic mange has already to be considered as a factorial disease. The modus operandi of transition of clinically inapparent colonization of the mites into a disease may be explained according to investigations so far published multifactorially and thereby essentially as consequences of primary or secondary immunodepression. A primary immunodepression is initially based most probably on a hereditary defect of T-cells and is subsequently reinforced by substances, which are presumably synthesized and liberated not only by mites but also by secondary bacterial agents. A secondary immunodepression operates as trigger mechanism of a clinical manifestation after corticosteroid or cytostatic therapy or in course of underlying diseases of potentially immunodepressive nature, i.e., malignant neoplasia, hepatopathies, hyperadrenocorticism and lymphosarcoma.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, D.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipases. In contrast to polysaccharide-degrading enzyme networks, not much is known about the signaling and regulatory processes that control lipase expression and activity in fungi. This project was ai...

  17. Hyphal heterogeneity in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    de Bekker, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mycelial fungi use hyphae to colonize substrates. These hyphae secrete enzymes that convert complex polymers into breakdown products that can be taken up to serve as nutrients. Using GFP as a reporter it has been shown that exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger are heterogenic with respect to expression of the glucoamylase gene glaA; some hyphae strongly express the glucoamylase gene glaA, while others express it lowly. This was a surprising finding considering the fact that all hyphae were e...

  18. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  19. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Lars; Thykær, Jette; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous of advantages, including tolerance for low pH, which is important for acid production. Furthermore, it has the capability of metabolizing a wide variety of carbon sources, possesses an exceptional efficient pr...

  20. Information security of Smart Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, R. A.; Andreev, Y. S.; Iuvshin, A. M.; Timko, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    In several years, technologies and systems based on the Internet of things (IoT) will be widely used in all smart factories. When processing a huge array of unstructured data, their filtration and adequate interpretation are a priority for enterprises. In this context, the correct representation of information in a user-friendly form acquires special importance, for which the market today presents advanced analytical platforms designed to collect, store and analyze data on technological processes and events in real time. The main idea of the paper is the statement of the information security problem in IoT and integrity of processed information.

  1. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  2. Magnets for TRIUMF's KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Reeve, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    The KAON Factory will require over 2000 magnets to transport protons from the existing 500 Mev cyclotron through three storage rings and two synchrotrons and deliver them to the experimental area at 30 Gev. The magnet requirements are summarized and the results of measurements on prototypes for the 50 hz Booster magnets are compared with design values. This paper will address three topics: the results of prototype work, some of the more difficult design aspects of other magnets and the tolerances required to achieve production magnets uniform to ± 2 parts in 10 4 . (Author) 10 refs., 3 figs., tab

  3. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  5. Radiation induced genetic damage in Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces genetic damage in haploid and diploid conidia of Aspergillus nidulans was investigated. Although the linear dose-response curves obtained following low LET irradiation implied a 'single-hit' action of radiation, high LET radiations were much more efficient than low LET radiations, which suggests the involvement of a multiple target system. It was found that the RBE values for non-disjunction and mitotic crossing-over were very different. Unlike mitotic crossing-over, the RBE values for non-disjunction were much greater than for cell killing. This suggests that non-disjunction is a particularly sensitive genetical endpoint that is brought about by damage to a small, probably non-DNA target. Radiosensitisers were used to study whether radiation acts at the level of the DNA or some other cellular component. The sensitisation to electrons and/or X-rays by oxygen, and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and misonidazole) was examined for radiation induced non-disjunction, mitotic crossing-over, gene conversion, point mutation and cell killing. It was found that these compounds sensitised the cells considerably more to genetic damage than to cell killing. (author)

  6. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Information Management for Factory Planning and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Danfang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the manufacturing industry for the improvement of information management within the factory planningand design domain, and for more efficient factory planning and design. Currently the manufacturing industry lacks sufficient methods for capturing, structuring, and representing information and knowledge for easy access, exchange, integration and reuse within the domain. Therefore the focus of this thesis is on information and knowledge management within factory plan...

  8. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  9. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  10. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 82 triphala powder samples were analyzed for the association of different fungi. Results reveal the predominance of Aspergillus as the major genera with six predominant species namely, A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and A. amstelodami. Therefore, these six isolated Aspergillus species were ...

  11. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  12. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis.

  13. Effects of organic solvent, water activity, and salt hydrate pair on the sn-1,3 selectivity and activity of whole-cell lipase from Aspergillus niger GZUF36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiqin; Zhang, Fuhao; Gao, Zexin; He, Laping; Zeng, Xuefeng; Zhu, Qiujin; Yu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    We previously screened a whole-cell lipase EC 3.1.1.3 from the novel strain Aspergillus niger GZUF36, which exhibited 1,3-selectivity in the synthesis of 1,3-diacylglycerol via glycerolysis. However, the mechanism of lipase selectively in catalyzing the sn-1,3 position remains ambiguous. This work was performed to investigate the 1,3-selective mechanism of lipase using glycerolysis to synthesize 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DG) as a model reaction by changing solvent(s) and water activity (a w ), and addition of salt hydrate pair. The measured diacylglycerol yield was also used to examine lipase activity. Results indicated that not only organic solvent and a w have strong effect on the sn-1,3 selectivity, but also ions of salt hydrate pair also affected selectivity. Lipase conformation was altered by hydrophobic interactions of the solvent, a w , or ions of salt hydrate, resulting in distinct sn-1,3 selectivity of the lipase. The salt hydrate pair changed the lipase conformation and selectivity not only by a w but also by static interactions, which was rarely reported. These parameters also affected lipase activity. The lipase displayed the highest selectivity (about 88%) and activity in solvents of t-butanol and n-hexane (1:29, v/v) at a w 0.43. The results demonstrated that the sn-1,3 selectivity and activity of the lipase from A. niger GZUF36 may be improved by control of some crucial factors. This work laid a foundation for the application of lipase in the synthesis of 1,3-DG and other structural and functional lipids.

  14. Detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Hematological Malignancies Patients by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR and Mycological Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR. Results: Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld. PMID:25763133

  15. Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Schayck, van J.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain

  16. Improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial Aspergillus terreus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-11

    Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.

  17. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  18. Yeast cell factories on the horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, yeast has been used for making beer, bread, and wine. In modern times, it has become a commercial workhorse for producing fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human serum albumin, and vaccines against hepatitis virus and human papillomavirus. Yeast has also...... been engineered to make chemicals at industrial scale (e.g., succinic acid, lactic acid, resveratrol) and advanced biofuels (e.g., isobutanol) (1). On page 1095 of this issue, Galanie et al. (2) demonstrate that yeast can now be engineered to produce opioids (2), a major class of compounds used...

  19. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  20. The Aspergillus niger RmsA protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkwitz, Susann; Schütze, Tabea; van den Hondel, Cees A.M.J.J; Ram, Arthur F.J

    2010-01-01

    Many cells and organisms go through polarized growth phases during their life. Cell polarization is achieved by local accumulation of signaling molecules which guide the cytoskeleton and vesicular trafficking to specific parts of the cell and thus ensure polarity establishment and maintenance. Polarization of signaling molecules is also fundamental for the lifestyle of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger and essential for their morphogenesis, development and survival under environmental stress conditions. Considerable advances in our understanding on the protagonists and processes mediating polarized growth in filamentous fungi have been made over the past years. However, how the interplay of different signaling pathways is coordinated has yet to be determined. We found that the A. niger RmsA protein is central for the polarization of actin at the hyphal tip but also of vital importance for the metabolism, viability and stress resistance of A. niger. This suggests that RmsA could occupy an important position in the global network of pathways that balance growth, morphogenesis and survival of A. niger. PMID:20585521

  1. Lysine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Basten, D.E.J.W.; Visser, J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9␘verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed in A. niger and the overexpressed product was purified and characteriz...

  2. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines.

  3. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  4. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Flitter, S.J.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different...... shows that it is possible to obtain high productivities of heterologous fungal enzymes in A. niger. However, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that most of the produced lipase was bound to the cell wall....

  5. RF system design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents an overview of the design of the RF system for the PEP-II B Factory. An RF station consists of either two or four single-cell cavities driven by a 1.2 MW klystron through a waveguide distribution network. A variety of feedback loops stabilize the RF and its interaction with the beam. System parameters and all the relevant parameters of klystron and cavities are given

  6. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Specific Immune Responses to Different Aspergillus Antigens during the Course of Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematologic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; Candoni, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Zanetti, Eleonora; Quadrelli, Chiara; Codeluppi, Mauro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pagano, Livio; Caira, Morena; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Maccaferri, Monica; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Tazzioli, Giovanni; Girardis, Massimo; Delia, Mario; Specchia, Giorgina; Longo, Giuseppe; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Merli, Francesco; Imovilli, Annalisa; Apolone, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Latgè, Jean Paul; Luppi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in mouse model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and in healthy donors have shown that different Aspergillus antigens may stimulate different adaptive immune responses. However, the occurrence of Aspergillus-specific T cells have not yet been reported in patients with the disease. In patients with IA, we have investigated during the infection: a) whether and how specific T-cell responses to different Aspergillus antigens occur and develop; b) which antigens elicit the highest frequencies of protective immune responses and, c) whether such protective T cells could be expanded ex-vivo. Forty hematologic patients have been studied, including 22 patients with IA and 18 controls. Specific T cells producing IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17A have been characterized through enzyme linked immunospot and cytokine secretion assays on 88 peripheral blood (PB) samples, by using the following recombinant antigens: GEL1p, CRF1p, PEP1p, SOD1p, α1–3glucan, β1–3glucan, galactomannan. Specific T cells were expanded through short term culture. Aspergillus-specific T cells producing non-protective interleukin-10 (IL-10) and protective interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) have been detected to all the antigens only in IA patients. Lower numbers of specific T cells producing IL-4 and IL-17A have also been shown. Protective T cells targeted predominantly Aspergillus cell wall antigens, tended to increase during the IA course and to be associated with a better clinical outcome. Aspergillus-specific T cells could be successfully generated from the PB of 8 out of 8 patients with IA and included cytotoxic subsets able to lyse Aspergillus hyphae. Aspergillus specific T-cell responses contribute to the clearance of the pathogen in immunosuppressed patients with IA and Aspergillus cell wall antigens are those mainly targeted by protective immune responses. Cytotoxic specific T cells can be expanded from immunosuppressed patients even during the infection by using the above mentioned

  8. Photon Factory activity report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At the Photon Factory about 500 experiments are now running annually with about 50 experimental stations, the total operation time of the 2.5 GeV storage ring was 3400 hour in 1989, and the number of users was more than 2000, including 300 scientists from industry. This wide usage of synchrotron radiation has been supported by good performance of the accelerators. The positron beam current of the linac was increased for rapid injection (injection time: 20 min). The entire roof of the Light Source building was covered with thermal insulator (urethane-foam). This has greatly improved the beam stability of the ring. It has been operated at an initial ring current of 350 mA with a life time of 20 hours. Distinctive instrumentation at the Photon Factory has expanded to various fields such as angle-resolved ion-spectroscopy, dispersive EXAFS, trace impurity X-ray fluorescence analysis, plane-wave topography, structure analysis under high pressure, and imaging plates. Recently, experiments of protein structure analysis have been carried out extensively; Sakabe developed a new type of Weissenberg camera for protein crystallography, and about 50 experiments have been done for the past six months by a combination of Sakabe camera and imaging plates. The 2.5 GeV light source is now at an entrance of its harvest season. The TRISTAN Accumulation Ring has been used throughout this year in a time sharing basis with the TRISTAN experiment; twenty minutes for injection to TRISTAN Main Ring and 2 hours for SR experiment. The main subject has been magnetic Compton scattering with circularly polarized wiggler radiation. Such experiences enable us to expand our perspective for research in the following decade; we are investigating the possibility of operating the TRISTAN Main Ring at 6-8 GeV with 6000-pole undulaters, resulting in an extremely brilliant radiation source (Emittance: 0.1 nm·rad at 5 GeV with damping rings). (J.P.N.)

  9. Evaluasi nutrisi campuran onggok dan ampas tahu terfermentasi Aspergillus niger, Rizhopus oligosporus dan kombinasi sebagai bahan pakan pengganti tepung jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Yohanista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of cassava and tofu mixture fermented by Aspergillus niger, Rizhopus oligosporus and the combination among them (50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Oligosporus Rizhopus as a substitute feed ingredients corn meal. The research method was laboratory experiment using the analysis of completely randomized design (CRD factorial (3 x 4. The first factor was the 3 types of microbes (M that consisted of M0 = fermentation by Aspergillus niger, M1 = fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and M2 = fermentation with the combination 50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Rhizopus oligosporus. The second factor was 4 incubation time (T that consisted of T0 = non-fermented, T1 = 2 days of incubation time, T2 = 4 days of incubation time and T3 = 6 days of incubation time. Each treatment was repeated 3 times. Variables measured were proximate nutrient content, fiber component content (NDF and ADF, silica, lignin, soluble protein content and mineral content (calcium and phosphorus. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, if there were differences among the treatments then it woukd be followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results showed that microbes provided a significant influence (P <0.01 on ash (%, crude protein (%, crude fiber (%, crude fat (%, gross energy (Kcal / Kg, soluble protein (%, NDF (%, ADF (%, cellulose (%, hemicelluloses (% and silicate (% but they did not provide significant effect on lignin (%. The incubation period had highly significant effect (P <0.01 on ash (%, crude protein (%, crude fiber (%, crude fat (%, gross energy (Kcal / Kg, soluble protein (%, NDF (%, ADF (%, cellulose (%, hemicelluloses (%, lignin (% and silicate (%. It was concluded that fermentation was best treated using a combination between 50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Rhizopus oligosporus with 2 days of incubation time. The study suggested for further research (biological test to use a mixture of cassava and

  10. Proteome map of Aspergillus nidulans during osmoadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Nandakumar, M P; Marten, Mark R

    2007-09-01

    The model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, when grown in a moderate level of osmolyte (+0.6M KCl), was previously found to have a significantly reduced cell wall elasticity (Biotech Prog, 21:292, 2005). In this study, comparative proteomic analysis via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2de) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to assess molecular level events associated with this phenomenon. Thirty of 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Sequence homology and conserved domains were used to assign probable function to twenty-one proteins currently annotated as "hypothetical." In osmoadapted cells, there was an increased expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, as well as a decreased expression of enolase, suggesting an increased glycerol biosynthesis and decreased use of the TCA cycle. There also was an increased expression of heat shock proteins and Shp1-like protein degradation protein, implicating increased protein turnover. Five novel osmoadaptation proteins of unknown functions were also identified.

  11. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  12. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two......A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus...

  14. The KAON Factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, and rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors: the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 25 refs., 7 figs

  15. The KAON factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million pre-construction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated: fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 26 refs., 6 figs

  16. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  17. Integrated use of residues from olive mill and winery for lipase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is presently the major waste produced by the olive mill industry. This waste has potential to be used as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) despite of its high concentration of phenolic compounds and low nitrogen content. In this work, it is demonstrated that mixtures of TPOMW with winery wastes support the production of lipase by Aspergillus spp. By agar plate screening, Aspergillus niger MUM 03.58, Aspergillus ibericus MUM 03.49, and Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01 were chosen for lipase production by SSF. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to evaluate the effect of substrate composition and time on lipase production. The highest amounts of lipase were produced by A. ibericus on a mixture of TPOMW, urea, and exhausted grape mark (EGM). Urea was found to be the most influent factor for the lipase production. Further optimization of lipase production by A. ibericus using a full factorial design (3(2)) conducted to optimal conditions of substrate composition (0.073 g urea/g and 25 % of EGM) achieve 18.67 U/g of lipolytic activity.

  18. SatisFactory Final System Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sunlight SA

    2018-01-01

    The present document is a deliverable of the SatisFactory project, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), under its Horizon 2020 Research and innovation programme (H2020). The main objective of this deliverable is to report on the SatisFactory Final System Evaluation, with regards to the industrial pilots at COMAU and SUNLIGHT. The evaluation of SatisFactory platform is based on the implementation of the business scenarios where each tool...

  19. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-03-15

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles.

  20. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles

  1. Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Kampker; Peter Burggräf; Moritz Krunke; Hanno Voet

    2017-01-01

    As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory pla...

  2. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    . clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A......Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  3. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  4. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , sections and genus of Aspergillus. The work uncovers a large genomic diversity across all studied groups of species. The genomic diversity was especially evident on the section level, where the proteins shared by all species only represents ⇠55% of the proteome. This number decreases even further, to 38......, sections Nigri, Usti and Cavericolus, clade Tubingensis, and species A. niger. It lastly uses these results to predict genetic traits that take part in fungal speciation. Within a few years the Aspergillus whole-genus sequencing project will have published all currently-accepted Aspergillus genomes......Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology...

  5. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, Pedro M; Andersen, Mikael R; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F; Ohm, Robin A; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs

  6. The factory as a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chávez Mac Gregor

    Full Text Available The crisis of labour is also one of representation. Some contemporary artists working with moving images have been questioning how to represent capital, labour and the worker. Isaac Julien or Harun Farocki, for example, have focused on interlacing characters - from fiction or reality - with geopolitical spaces in order to present the entanglement of the economical new order with the new forms of labour. The South African artist Simon Gush has shifted from this trend in order to present labour without directly representing the workers. In his artwork there is no longer a search for the political subject as a historical force or for the individuals who occupied its place; instead he leads viewers to a critical reading of an object, allowing a staging of the past from the viewpoint of the present. That is what I think Red does. In this article I explore Gush's connections with Marx, Benjamin and Steyerl to show how Gush's work is part of a critical tradition that has abandoned the subject as the privileged instance of political agency; turning the emphasis of the modern schema upside down, it focuses on the object as the force of emancipation. I would like to suggest that Gush used an object, Mandela's red Mercedes-Benz, to produce another image so that the story told is not necessarily that of a symbol of pacification, but one in which the factory was a battlefield. In this way I explore the emancipatory potencies of the object. What I propose is a reading of Red from the point of view of a return to the thing, where the latter becomes a political force.

  7. Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lokeswari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for assay of microbial tannase (Tannin acyl hydrolase based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine is reported. Maximum Tannase production occurred in the culture broth containing 1-2% (w/v tannic acid and 0.05 – 0.1% (w/v glucose. The pH, incubation period, temperature and Glucose concentration optima of Tannase production was found at 5.5, 36 h, 35°C and 0.5% respectively. These properties make the enzyme suitable for pollution control and bioprocess industry. This assay is very simple, reproducible, and very convenient, and with it Tannase activity can be measured in relation to the growth of the organism. Aspergillus niger exhibited higher enzyme activity showing about 65 mole percent conversion respectively after a 36 h incubation period. The assay is complete in a short time, very convenient and reproducible.

  8. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  9. Crystallization and Preliminary Crystallographic Characterization of Endo-polygalacturonase II from Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, K.-H.; Arkema, A.; Kester, H.C.M.; Visser, J.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    The endo-polygalacturonase II from Aspergillus niger has been crystallized from an ammonium sulfate solution by the hanging drop method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with cell dimensions a = 60.6 Angstrom, b = 152.6 Angstrom, c = 74.0 Angstrom and beta = 91.2 degrees with

  10. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth...

  11. Systems Analysis Unfolds the Relationship between the Phosphoketolase Pathway and Growth in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus nidulans is an important model organism for studies on fundamental eukaryotic cell biology and on industrial processes due to its close relation to A. niger and A. oryzae. Here we identified the gene coding for a novel metabolic pathway in A. nidulans, namely...

  12. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  13. Physics opportunities for a B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1992-02-01

    In the short time allotted for this talk it is not possible to review all the physics opportunities offered by a B Factory. I focus on the physics of CP Violation and the resulting tests of the Standard Model

  14. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  15. Biosorption of uranium with Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubu, N.A.; Dudeney, A.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers interactions of uranium with the microfilamentous fungus Aspergillus niger grown as pellets 4 mm in diameter for column application. Adsorption and desorption isotherms, a range of physical measurements, and a derived mechanistic model, indicated that a simple ion exchange process predominates in which uranyl cations reversibly replace protons on the amino acid groups of proteins and glycoproteins within the cell wall structure. Under the conditions employed uranium adsorbed onto A. niger (CMI 296409) some fourteen times more efficiently at pH 4 than onto the ion exchange resin IRA-400, and was readily desorbed at pH 1. The fungus had inferior selectivity and wet volume/dry weight ratio. Uranium was adsorbed semi-continuously by heat-killed A. niger pellets fluidised in a compartmentalised column. When operated with an intermittent countercurrent flow of the biomass, uranium concentrations of 100 g/m 3 and 5 g/m 3 at pH 4 could be reduced to less than 10 g/m 3 and 1 g/m 3 , respectively. (author)

  16. A molecular analysis of L-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a molecular study of the genetics ofL-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans. These saprophytic hyphal fungi produce an extracellular hydrolytic enzyme system to

  17. Variability in Galactomannan detection by platelia Aspergillus EIA™ according to the Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the extent to which different Aspergillus species release galactomannan (GM in vitro. Marked variability was observed in GM reactivity between and within Aspergillus species, with A. terreus strains showing the highest GM indexes. The in vivo significance of these findings remains to be determined.

  18. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A J; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T; Beneke, M; Beringer, J; Bianchi, F; Bigi, I I; Bona, M; Brambilla, N; Brodzicka, J; Chang, P; Charles, M J; Cheng, C H; Cheng, H -Y; Chistov, R; Colangelo, P; Coleman, J P; Drutskoy, A; Druzhinin, V P; Eidelman, S; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Faccini, R; Flood, K T; Gambino, P; Gaz, A; Gradl, W; Hayashii, H; Higuchi, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Hurth, T; Iijima, T; Itoh, R; Jackson, P D; Kass, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kou, E; Križan, P; Kronfeld, A; Kumano, S; Kwon, Y J; Latham, T E; Leith, D W G S; Lüth, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Meadows, B T; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Ocariz, J; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palano, A; Pich, A; Playfer, S; Poluektov, A; Porter, F C; Robertson, S H; Roney, J M; Roodman, A; Sakai, Y; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekula, S J; Steinhauser, M; Sumisawa, K; Swanson, E S; Tackmann, F; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Uno, S; van der Water, R; Vasseur, G; Verkerke, W; Waldi, R; Wang, M Z; Wilson, F F; Zupan, J; Zupanc, A; Adachi, I; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Ben-Haim, E; Biassoni, P; Cahn, R N; Cartaro, C; Chauveau, J; Chen, C; Chiang, C C; Cowan, R; Dalseno, J; Davier, M; Davies, C; Dingfelder, J C; Echenard, B; Epifanov, D; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Gary, J W; Godang, R; Graham, M T; Hafner, A; Hamilton, B; Hartmann, T; Hayasaka, K; Hearty, C; Iwasaki, Y; Khodjamirian, A; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Lafferty, G D; Lazzaro, A; Li, J; Lindemann, D; Long, O; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinelli, M; Miyabayashi, K; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Muller, D R; Nakazawa, H; Ongmongkolkul, P; Pacetti, S; Palombo, F; Pedlar, T K; Piilonen, L E; Pilloni, A; Poireau, V; Prothmann, K; Pulliam, T; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roudeau, P; Schrenk, S; Schroeder, T; Schubert, K R; Shen, C P; Shwartz, B; Soffer, A; Solodov, E P; Somov, A; Starič, M; Stracka, S; Telnov, A V; Todyshev, K Yu; Tsuboyama, T; Uglov, T; Vinokurova, A; Walsh, J J; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Ye, S; Zhang, C C; Abachi, S; Abashian, A; Abe, N; Abe, R; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adam, I; Adamczyk, K; Adametz, A; Adye, T; Agarwal, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Ahn, B S; Ahn, H S; Aitchison, I J R; Akai, K; Akar, S; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M; Akhmetshin, R; Akre, R; Alam, M S; Albert, J N; Aleksan, R; Alexander, J P; Alimonti, G; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Alsmiller, J R G; Altenburg, D; Alwyn, K E; An, Q; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Andress, J C; Angelini, C; Anipko, D; Anjomshoaa, A; Anthony, P L; Antillon, E A; Antonioli, E; Aoki, K; Arguin, J F; A, K; Arisaka, K; Asai, K; Asai, M; Asano, Y; Asgeirsson, D J; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aspinwall, M L; Aston, D; Atmacan, H; Aubert, B; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Azzolini, V; Azzopardi, D E; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bagnasco, S; Bahinipati, S; Bailey, D S; Bailey, S; Bailly, P; van Bakel, N; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Balagura, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Banas, E; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Baracchini, E; Barate, R; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bard, D J; Barillari, T; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bartelt, J; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bay, A; Beaulieu, M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Becker, J; Becla, J; Bedny, I; Behari, S; Behera, P K; Behn, E; Behr, L; Beigbeder, C; Beiline, D; Bell, R; Bellini, F; Bellis, M; Bellodi, G; Belous, K; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Benitez, J F; Benkebil, M; Berger, N; Bernabeu, J; Bernard, D; Bernet, R; Bernlochner, F U; Berryhill, J W; Bertsche, K; Besson, P; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Biagini, M E; Biasini, M; van Bibber, K; Biesiada, J; Bingham, I; Bionta, R M; Bischofberger, M; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Blouw, J; Bly, M; Blyth, S; Boeheim, C T; Bomben, M; Bondar, A; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bonvicini, G; Booke, M; Booth, J; Borean, C; Borgland, A W; Borsato, E; Bosi, F; Bosisio, L; Botov, A A; 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Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Scott, I J; Seeman, J; Seiden, A; Seitz, R; Seki, T; Sekiya, A I; Semenov, S; Semmler, D; Sen, S; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Serbo, V V; Serednyakov, S I; Serfass, B; Serra, M; Serrano, J; Settai, Y; Seuster, R; Sevior, M E; Shakhova, K V; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Sharma, V; Shebalin, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Shen, D Z; Shen, Y T; Sherwood, D J; Shibata, T; Shibata, T A; Shibuya, H; Shidara, T; Shimada, K; Shimoyama, M; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shorthouse, H W; Shpilinskaya, L I; Sibidanov, A; Sicard, E; Sidorov, A; Sidorov, V; Siegle, V; Sigamani, M; Simani, M C; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simon, F; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitt, S; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smerkol, P; Smith, A J S; Smith, D; Smith, D S; Smith, J G; Smol, A; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; So, R Y; Sobie, R J; Soderstrom, E; Soha, A; Sohn, Y S; Sokoloff, M D; Sokolov, A; Solagna, P; Solovieva, E; Soni, N; Sonnek, P; Sordini, V; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spencer, E; Speziali, V; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Staengle, H; Stamen, R; Stanek, M; Stanič, S; Stark, J; Steder, M; Steininger, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stevanato, E; Stocchi, A; Stock, R; Stoeck, H; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strother, P; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stypula, J; Su, D; Suda, R; Sugahara, R; Sugi, A; Sugimura, T; Sugiyama, A; Suitoh, S; Sullivan, M K; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Summers, D J; Sun, L; Sun, S; Sundermann, J E; Sung, H F; Susaki, Y; Sutcliffe, P; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, J I; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Swain, J E; Swain, S K; T'Jampens, S; Tabata, M; Tackmann, K; Tajima, H; Tajima, O; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, T; Takasaki, F; Takayama, T; Takita, M; Tamai, K; Tamponi, U; Tamura, N; Tan, N; Tan, P; Tanabe, K; Tanabe, T; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taras, P; Tasneem, N; Tatishvili, G; Tatomi, T; Tawada, M; Taylor, F; Taylor, G N; Taylor, G P; Telnov, V I; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonyan, R; Teramoto, Y; Teytelman, D; Thérin, G; Thiebaux, Ch; Thiessen, D; Thomas, E W; Thompson, J M; Thorne, F; Tian, X C; Tibbetts, M; Tikhomirov, I; Tinslay, J S; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Tocut, V; Toki, W H; Tomassini, E W; Tomoto, M; Tomura, T; Torassa, E; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Toussaint, J C; Tovey, S N; Trapani, P P; Treadwell, E; Triggiani, G; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trischuk, W; Troost, D; Trunov, A; Tsai, K L; Tsai, Y T; Tsujita, Y; Tsukada, K; Tsukamoto, T; Tuggle, J M; Tumanov, A; Tung, Y W; Turnbull, L; Turner, J; Turri, M; Uchida, K; Uchida, M; Uchida, Y; Ueki, M; Ueno, K; Ujiie, N; Ulmer, K A; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Usseglio, M; Usuki, Y; Uwer, U; Va'vra, J; Vahsen, S E; Vaitsas, G; Valassi, A; Vallazza, E; Vallereau, A; Vanhoefer, P; van Hoek, W C; Van Hulse, C; van Winkle, D; Varner, G; Varnes, E W; Varvell, K E; Vasileiadis, G; Velikzhanin, Y S; Verderi, M; Versillé, S; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Vidal, P B; Villa, S; Villanueva-Perez, P; Vinograd, E L; Vitale, L; Vitug, G M; Voß, C; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Vuagnin, G; Vuosalo, C O; Wacker, K; Wagner, A P; Wagner, D L; Wagner, G; Wagner, M N; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Walker, D; Walkowiak, W; Wallom, D; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, J G; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, P; Wang, T J; Wang, W F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wappler, F R; Watanabe, M; Watson, A T; Watson, J E; Watson, N K; Watt, M; Weatherall, J H; Weaver, M; Weber, T; Wedd, R; Wei, J T; Weidemann, A W; W, A J R; Wenzel, W A; West, C A; West, C G; West, T J; White, R M; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Wienands, U; Wilden, L; Wilder, M; Williams, D C; Williams, G; Williams, J C; Williams, K M; Williams, M I; Willocq, S Y; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wittlin, J; Wittmer, W; Wixted, R; Woch, A; Wogsland, B J; Wong, Q K; Wray, B C; Wren, A C; Wright, D M; Wu, C H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xella, S M; Xie, Q L; Xie, Y; Xu, Z Z; Yèche, Ch; Yamada, Y; Yamaga, M; Yamaguchi, A; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, N; Yamamoto, R K; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamaoka, Y; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yan, D S; Yan, Y; Yanai, H; Yanaka, S; Yang, H; Yang, R; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Yashchenko, S; Yashima, J; Yasin, Z; Yasu, Y; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Yi, M; Yin, Z W; Ying, J; Yocky, G; Yokoyama, K; Yokoyama, M; Yokoyama, T; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, M; Yoshimura, Y; Young, C C; Yu, C X; Yu, Z; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Yumiceva, F X; Yusa, Y; Yushkov, A N; Yuta, H; Zacek, V; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zambito, S; Zander, D; Zang, S L; Zanin, D; Zaslavsky, B G; Zeng, Q L; Zghiche, A; Zhang, B; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, L M; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, H W; Zhao, M; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, Y; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhu, R Y; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z M; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, T; Ziegler, V; Zioulas, G; Zisman, M; Zito, M; Zürcher, D; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O; Živko, T; Žontar, D; Bevan, Adrian; Golob, Bostjan; Mannel, Thomas; Prell, Soeren; Yabsley, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  19. Comprehensive reconstruction and in silico analysis of Aspergillus niger genome-scale metabolic network model that accounts for 1210 ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhong; Cao, Weiqiang; Ouyang, Liming; Xia, Jianye; Huang, Mingzhi; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Noorman, Henk

    2017-03-01

    Aspergillus niger is one of the most important cell factories for industrial enzymes and organic acids production. A comprehensive genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) with high quality is crucial for efficient strain improvement and process optimization. The lack of accurate reaction equations and gene-protein-reaction associations (GPRs) in the current best model of A. niger named GSMM iMA871, however, limits its application scope. To overcome these limitations, we updated the A. niger GSMM by combining the latest genome annotation and literature mining technology. Compared with iMA871, the number of reactions in iHL1210 was increased from 1,380 to 1,764, and the number of unique ORFs from 871 to 1,210. With the aid of our transcriptomics analysis, the existence of 63% ORFs and 68% reactions in iHL1210 can be verified when glucose was used as the only carbon source. Physiological data from chemostat cultivations, 13 C-labeled and molecular experiments from the published literature were further used to check the performance of iHL1210. The average correlation coefficients between the predicted fluxes and estimated fluxes from 13 C-labeling data were sufficiently high (above 0.89) and the prediction of cell growth on most of the reported carbon and nitrogen sources was consistent. Using the updated genome-scale model, we evaluated gene essentiality on synthetic and yeast extract medium, as well as the effects of NADPH supply on glucoamylase production in A. niger. In summary, the new A. niger GSMM iHL1210 contains significant improvements with respect to the metabolic coverage and prediction performance, which paves the way for systematic metabolic engineering of A. niger. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 685-695. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomics as a Tool to Identify New Targets Against Aspergillus and Scedosporium in the Context of Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pellon, Aize; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Arbizu-Delgado, Aitana; Guruceaga, Xabier; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. In this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in CF, i.e., Aspergillus and Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Among the Aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (Alp1/oryzin), Asp f 2, Asp f 13/15, chitinase, chitosanase, dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DppV), the metalloprotease Asp f 5, mitogillin/Asp f 1, and thioredoxin reductase receive a special mention. In addition, the antigens β-glucosidase 1, catalase, glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase EglC, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferases Gel1 and Gel2, and glutaminase A were also identified in secretomes of other Aspergillus species associated with CF: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus terreus. Regarding cell wall proteins, cytochrome P450 and eEF-3 were proposed as diagnostic targets, and alkaline protease 2 (Alp2), Asp f 3 (putative peroxiredoxin pmp20), probable glycosidases Asp f 9/Crf1 and Crf2, GPI-anchored protein Ecm33, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gel4, conidial hydrophobin Hyp1/RodA, and secreted aspartyl protease Pep2 as protective vaccines in A. fumigatus. On the other hand, for Scedosporium/Lomentospora species, the heat shock protein Hsp70 stands out as a relevant secreted and cell wall antigen. Additionally, the secreted aspartyl proteinase and an ortholog of Asp f 13, as well as the cell wall endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase and 1,3-β-glucanosyl transferase, were also found to be significant proteins. In conclusion, proteins mentioned in this review may be promising candidates for developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools for fungal infections in CF patients.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus... consist of antigens and antisera used in various serological tests to identify antibodies to Aspergillus...

  3. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... other hand, A. niger biofilm growth followed a logistic model having higher maximal specific growth rate than ...... Growth estimation of Aspergillus oryzae cultured on ... Initial intracellular proteome profile of Aspergillus niger.

  4. The cell wall stress response in Aspergillus niger involves increased expression of the glutamine: Fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-encoding gene (gfaA) and increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ram, A.F.J.; Arentshorst, M.; Damveld, R.A.; Kuyk, P.A. van; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Perturbation of cell wall synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, either by mutations in cell wall synthesis-related genes or by adding compounds that interfere with normal cell wall assembly, triggers a compensatory response to ensure cell wall integrity. This response includes an increase in chitin

  5. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  6. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  7. Analysis of scaled-factorial-moment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, D.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the two standard constructions used in the search for intermittency, the exclusive and inclusive scaled factorial moments. We propose the use of a new scaled factorial moment that reduces to the exclusive moment in the appropriate limit and is free of undesirable multiplicity correlations that are contained in the inclusive moment. We show that there are some similarities among most of the models that have been proposed to explain factorial-moment data, and that these similarities can be used to increase the efficiency of testing these models. We begin by calculating factorial moments from a simple independent-cluster model that assumes only approximate boost invariance of the cluster rapidity distribution and an approximate relation among the moments of the cluster multiplicity distribution. We find two scaling laws that are essentially model independent. The first scaling law relates the moments to each other with a simple formula, indicating that the different factorial moments are not independent. The second scaling law relates samples with different rapidity densities. We find evidence for much larger clusters in heavy-ion data than in light-ion data, indicating possible spatial intermittency in the heavy-ion events

  8. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Aspergillus-Associated Airway Disease, Inflammation, and the Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H.; Al-Alawi, Mazen; Logan, P. Mark; Greene, Catherine M.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus moulds exist ubiquitously as spores that are inhaled in large numbers daily. Whilst most are removed by anatomical barriers, disease may occur in certain circumstances. Depending on the underlying state of the human immune system, clinical consequences can ensue ranging from an excessive immune response during allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to the formation of an aspergilloma in the immunocompetent state. The severest infections occur in those who are immunocompromised where invasive pulmonary aspergillosis results in high mortality rates. The diagnosis of Aspergillus-associated pulmonary disease is based on clinical, radiological, and immunological testing. An understanding of the innate and inflammatory consequences of exposure to Aspergillus species is critical in accounting for disease manifestations and preventing sequelae. The major components of the innate immune system involved in recognition and removal of the fungus include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptide production, and recognition by pattern recognition receptors. The cytokine response is also critical facilitating cell-to-cell communication and promoting the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of the host response. In the following review, we discuss the above areas with a focus on the innate and inflammatory response to airway Aspergillus exposure and how these responses may be modulated for therapeutic benefit. PMID:23971044

  11. Aspergillus-Associated Airway Disease, Inflammation, and the Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay H. Chotirmall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus moulds exist ubiquitously as spores that are inhaled in large numbers daily. Whilst most are removed by anatomical barriers, disease may occur in certain circumstances. Depending on the underlying state of the human immune system, clinical consequences can ensue ranging from an excessive immune response during allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to the formation of an aspergilloma in the immunocompetent state. The severest infections occur in those who are immunocompromised where invasive pulmonary aspergillosis results in high mortality rates. The diagnosis of Aspergillus-associated pulmonary disease is based on clinical, radiological, and immunological testing. An understanding of the innate and inflammatory consequences of exposure to Aspergillus species is critical in accounting for disease manifestations and preventing sequelae. The major components of the innate immune system involved in recognition and removal of the fungus include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptide production, and recognition by pattern recognition receptors. The cytokine response is also critical facilitating cell-to-cell communication and promoting the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of the host response. In the following review, we discuss the above areas with a focus on the innate and inflammatory response to airway Aspergillus exposure and how these responses may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  12. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; van de Vondervoort, Peter J.I.; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet W.M.; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert J.J.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noël N.M.E.; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi. PMID:21543515

  13. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  14. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  15. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  16. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14 and A. luchuensis (n = 6. The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948 does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  17. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  18. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when......Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...

  19. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  20. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  1. Hadronic atoms at a kaon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Beyond doubt, the advent of a kaon factory will be of immense significance for the study of hadronic atoms. Here we will discuss some classes of experiments that certainly can and will be done at a kaon factory, as well as some very interesting possibilities which deserve investigation. Among the certains we include the observation of hadronic x rays from kaonic and μ - atoms, for both Z greater than one and for the isotopes of hydrogen, mainly for strong interaction information. More conjectural is the possibility of measuring Xi - and Ω - x rays

  2. Nuclear physics at the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitching, R.

    1989-05-01

    The author surveys the range of nuclear physics issues which can be addressed with a high intensity hadron facility such as the KAON factory. He discusses hadron spectroscopy, kaon scattering, hypernuclear physics, spin physics, and nuclear physics with neutrinos. Nuclear Physics is defined rather broadly, encompassing the study of strongly interacting systems, and including the structure of individual hadrons, hadron-hadron interactions, hadronic weak and electromagnetic currents (in nuclei too), conventional nuclear structure, and exotic nuclei. The basic theme is how the KAON Factory can shed light on non-perturbative QCD and its relation to conventional nuclear physics

  3. Particle physics prospects for the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1989-05-01

    The Kaon Factory at TRIUMF will produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos and other particles with a hundred-fold increase in intensity over existing machines in the 30 GeV region. This will make possible new high precision experiments designed to test current ideas as well as high sensitivity measurements which could potentially reveal new effects. A sample of particle physics experiments involving rare kaon decays, CP and T violation studies, neutrino properties and reactions and light quark spectroscopy which might take advantage of the new opportunities presented by the Kaon Factory is discussed

  4. Density and molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus in air and relationship to outbreaks of Aspergillus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.A.P. Leenders (Alexander); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.D. Behrendt (Myra); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAfter five patients were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus, a 14-month surveillance program for pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal conidia in the air within and outside the University Hospital in

  5. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives...... of the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds...... are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Thus, reliable identification of individual strains is very important for application purposes. This review considers the pheno- and genotypic markers used in the classification of A. flavus group strains and specifically in the identification of A. oryzae and A...

  6. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Lysková, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2014), s. 565-576 ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus candidus * Aspergillus tritici * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  7. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... profiles) and molecular (β-tubulin, internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequences, and universally primed PCR fingerprinting) analysis. Phenotypic and molecular data enabled this novel species to be clearly distinguished from other black aspergilli. A. saccharolyticus is a uniseriate...

  8. Citric acid production from whey by fermentation using Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Julián Sánchez Toro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey has become the main dairy-industry waste product, despite continuous efforts aimed at finding a way to use it. The aim of this research was to investigate citric acid production by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus genus fungi, using whey as substrate to take economical advantage of it and to reduce the environmental impact caused by discharging this by-product into nearby streams. The following three strains were used: A. carbonarius NRRL 368, A. carbonarius NRRL 67 and A. niger NRRL 3. The best adaptation medium for inoculum propagation was selected. Proposed experimental design for evaluating citric acid biosynthesis from whey modified through different treatments showed that the two A. carbonarius strains did not present significant differences in acid production whereas A. niger NRRL 3 reached higher concentration when evaporated, deproteinised and p-galactosidase lactose-hydrolysed whey was used. However, A. carbonarius gave higher average citric acid titres than those found for A. niger. This suggests the need for carrying out further research on it as a potential producing strain. Cell growth, substrate consumption and acid production kinetics in a 3-L stirred-tank bioreactor with aeration were developed in the case of A. niger; kinetics were simulated through non-structured mathematical models. Key words: Aspergilluscarbonarius, Aspergillus niger, bioreactor, simulation, p-galactosidase.

  9. Characterization of recombinant terrelysin, a hemolysin of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Blachere, Françoise M; Hettick, Justin M; Lukomski, Slawomir; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-01-01

    Fungal hemolysins are potential virulence factors. Some fungal hemolysins belong to the aegerolysin protein family that includes cytolysins capable of lysing erythrocytes and other cells. Here, we describe a hemolysin from Aspergillus terreus called terrelysin. We used the genome sequence database to identify the terrelysin sequence based on homology with other known aegerolysins. Aspergillus terreus mRNA was isolated, transcribed to cDNA and the open reading frame for terrelysin amplified by PCR using specific primers. Using the pASK-IBA6 cloning vector, we produced recombinant terrelysin (rTerrelysin) as a fusion product in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and using MALDI-TOF MS determined to have a mass of 16,428 Da. Circular dichroism analysis suggests the secondary structure of the protein to be predominantly β-sheet. Results from thermal denaturation of rTerrelysin show that the protein maintained the β-sheet confirmation up to 65°C. Polyclonal antibody to rTerrelysin recognized a protein of approximately 16.5 kDa in mycelial extracts from A. terreus.

  10. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines rank among the greatest advances in the history of public health. Yet, despite the need, there are no licensed vaccines to protect humans against fungal diseases, including aspergillosis. In this focused review, some of the major scientific and logistical challenges to developing vaccines to protect at-risk individuals against aspergillosis are discussed. Approaches that have shown promise in animal models include vaccines that protect against multiple fungal genera and those that are specifically directed to Aspergillus Advances in proteomics and glycomics have facilitated identification of candidate antigens for use in subunit vaccines. Novel adjuvants and delivery systems are becoming available that can skew vaccine responses toward those associated with protection. Immunotherapy consisting of adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells to allogeneic hematopoietic transplant recipients has advanced to human testing but is technically difficult and of unproven benefit. While progress has been impressive, much work still needs to be done if vaccines against aspergillosis are to become a reality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. BERKELEY/STANFORD: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, accelerator physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have been involved in the design of an Asymmetric B Factory to be sited in the tunnel of the PEP electron-positron collider at SLAC

  12. KEKB B-Factory, the luminosity frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu

    2009-01-01

    The experiment at the KEKB B-Factory, as well as PEP-II, brought the final blow on the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory. A few key issues will be described on the design and performance of KEKB to make the world's highest luminosity possible. (author)

  13. The Low-Energy Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    To date most studies of Neutrino Factories have focused on facilities where the energy of the muon in the storage ring has been in the range of 25-50 GeV. In this paper we present a concept for a Low-Energy (∼ 4 GeV) neutrino factory. For baselines of O(1000 km), the rich oscillation pattern at low neutrino interaction energy (0.5 - ∼3 GeV) provides the unique performance of this facility with regard to its sensitivity to CP violation and the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. A unique neutrino detector is needed, however, in order to exploit this oscillation pattern. We will describe the basic accelerator facility, demonstrate the methodology of the analysis and give an estimate on how well the Low-Energy neutrino factory can measure θ 13 , CP violation and the mass hierarchy. We will also describe the detector concept that is used, show a preliminary analysis regarding its performance and indicate what R and D is still needed. Finally we will show how the Low-Energy neutrino factory could be a step towards an energy frontier muon collider.

  14. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  15. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Wienands, U.; Craddock, M.K.; Rees, G.H.

    1989-03-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. In addition the new lattices have fewer depolarizing resonances than the old circular lattices

  16. Factory automation for heavy electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokutani, Takashi; Ninomiya, Iwao; Hatayama, Naokatsu; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The heightening of productivity in the factories manufacturing heavy electric equipment has been advanced so far by the rationalization of direct workings such as NC, robots and the adoption of FMS (flexible manufacturing system). However, as CAD advances, the effective utilization of these data and the expansion to future CIM (computer integrated manufacture) have become to be demanded. In the Hitachi Works of Hitachi Ltd., it was decided to advance the synthetic rationalization by adopting FA (factory automation) system. Steam turbine blades, pipings for nuclear power plants and motor coils were taken up as the objects since these are important parts, and for the purpose of the drastic heightening of QA level, the heightening of accuracy and the shortening of processes, the synchronization with field installation schedule and the creation of safe working place environment, the FA projects for these three sections were simultaneously planned. When the automation of non-mass production factories is promoted, there are the unmanned factories combining FMS lines for relatively many products and those characterized by FMC of shortening preparation time for small lot products, and this is the examples of the former. The system constitution for FA and the production management combined with it are described. The high reliability of the optical network was regarded as important. (Kako, I.)

  17. Employment and Training Problems in New Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Does management in newly established factories using highly advanced technology meet special problems in recruitment and training of their workers? Are the traditional training systems supplying the skilled manpower required for running highly sophisticated plants? These were the basic questions asked when the present study was started in seven…

  18. The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.

  19. A tau -- charm -- factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Fields, T.; Grosnick, D.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.; Schoessow, P.

    1994-01-01

    Depending on the beam energy setting, the τ -- charm -- factory will be optimized to study physics with τ leptons, with charmed mesons, or with charmonium states. This report gives a short overview of the physics of these topics. Also discussed are the detectors and the costs associated with this project

  20. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  1. Factorial and reduced K-means reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Vichi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Factorial K-means analysis (FKM) and Reduced K-means analysis (RKM) are clustering methods that aim at simultaneously achieving a clustering of the objects and a dimension reduction of the variables. Because a comprehensive comparison between FKM and RKM is lacking in the literature so far, a

  2. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  3. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  4. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other

  5. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation.

  6. Study of effect ultraviolet radiation on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Kafaei, F.; Raouf, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the results of ultraviolet radiation effects on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus to reach the quality control standards are presented. The purpose was to test the effect of ultraviolet radiation in 254 nanometer wavelength for fungi decontamination with respect to the exposure time of radiation and the distance between samples and radiation source. The ultraviolet radiation effects on plates containing Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi were studied in the exposure time duration of 30, to 360 seconds of a fixed distance, and also for variable distances from 10 to 40 cm at a given exposure time. It is shown that in the exposure time of more than 360 second the ultraviolet radiation exposure highly decreases the number of Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi colonies. By reducing the distance, the number of colonies decreases and it is minimized at a 10 cm distance in the time exposure of 360 second. The above results show that the ultraviolet radiation is an effective method for food decontamination and can be used in industry

  7. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  8. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  9. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-02

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  10. MODEL PENGELOLAAN TEACHING FACTORY SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Burhan R Wijaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and develop management models Factory Teaching Vocational School through a series of tests and validation of the model with the approach of reasearch and Development. Teaching Factory Management Models at Vocational Schools is a concept that combines learning management approach learning Competency Based Training (CBT and Production Based Training (PBT in the real atmosphere so that the process of achieving competence or skill skills life skills (life skills in accordance with the standards of graduate work in the industrial world. In particular, this study aims to formulate design management model development Teaching Factory Vocational School. To achieve the research objectives above using the approach of Research and Development, through preliminary studies, design development models, testing and validation. Preliminary study phase is planned to take the flow / stage as follows: the study of literature, study / collection of field data, and a description and analysis of field findings (factual, namely: (1 the description of the characteristics of vocational school with a standard performance indicators that can be poured as the content of the development of Teaching Factory, (2 description of the characteristics and potential development group management model Tefa as an outcome groups to develop and implement management models Tefa for Vocational Schools (3 description of the characteristics of potential stakeholders to support the development and implementation TEFA management model, and (4 preparation of the management model TEFA for Vocational Schools excellence and innovative. Trial design done on a limited scale model group. Then the model was accompanied by outcome group to develop and implement a model TEFA for Vocational Schools to determine whether the model developed can be applied correctly. Data analysis in this study, the preliminary study stage, the findings or the facts about productive learning

  11. Residues leaching from 'Factory of barren ores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatov, N.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Barotov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work is safe management of residues from Factory of Barren Ores, their reprocessing, expenditures reduction for remediation of Istiklol city former uranium tailings. For this purpose, some experiences were adopted - Factory of Barren Ores tailing use for filling up the open pit where water with uranium content 3-5 mg/l is located. Factory of Barren Ores waste are passed through heap leaching and have some amount of uranium salts dissolved in water. Thus, we propose to dissolve uranium from Factory of Barren Ores wastes with uranium bearing water flowing out from gallery and filling up the open-pit by radioactive wastes. In so doing, uranium content flowing out from gallery will increase twice, and further, passing them through apricot's shell, as a sorbent, we will clean the water against radionuclides. Residue samples with uranium content 0,015% from Factory of Barren Ores and uranium bearing waters from gallery 1 with uranium content 0,0025 g/l were used for laboratory tests. After which, a slurry was prepared by means of residue mixing with water in ratio of solid and liquid phases (S:L) - 1:2 and 9,7 ml of sulfuric acid (Ρ=1,82) was added which corresponds consumption by H 2 SO 4 176,54 kg/t. For the first test, leaching was carried out during 4 hours at ph=1,6 at room temperature. For the second test, leaching was carried out at 60 d eg C a nd ph=1,6 during 4 hours. Slurry heating and mixing was carried out by means of magnetic mixer. The basic residue leaching indicators are provided in this article.

  12. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  13. Chronic necrotising pneumonia caused by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J; Clark, T J; Corrin, B

    1989-01-01

    A woman with asthma developed chronic necrotising semi-invasive pneumonia due to mixed Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans infection; though not severely immunosuppressed, she may have been predisposed by long term oral corticosteroid and recurrent oral antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with chronic airflow limitation who develop cavitating pneumonia. Images PMID:2763249

  14. Thermostable crude endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are used in many industries worldwide and there is an ever increasing need to isolate, produce or develop thermostable cellulases. Manipulation of fermentation techniques in order to obtain desirable product(s) can be one line of action. In this study Aspergillus fumigatus was grown on chopped wheat straw in a ...

  15. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  16. Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Goto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Futagami, Taiki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Koike, Hideaki; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Arita, Masanori; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Kazuro; Higa, Ken-ichi; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takeaki; Jinno, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Mizutani, Osamu; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sano, Motoaki; Shiraishi, Yohei; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. An alternative oxidase and acid-stable α-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation. PMID:27651094

  17. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  18. Overexpression, purification and characterization of the Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are industrially important hydrolytic enzymes applicable in the bioconversion of cellulosic biomass to simple sugars. In this work, an endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574, EglA, was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and the properties of the recombinant protein were ...

  19. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic...

  20. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus was also able to infect germinating seeds of P. mungo in the presence of 5 g/ml concentration of phaseolinone. Phaseolinone seemed to facilitate infection by A. fumigatus, which is not normally phytopathogenic, by reducing the immunity of germinating seedlings in a nonspecific ...

  1. Aspergillus Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds. The notable consequence of their presence is contamination of foods and feeds by mycotoxins, among which the most important are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and, at a less extent, fumonisins. Aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 are the most toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, due to their extreme hepatocarcinogenicity; ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin, it is also carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic in rats and possibly in humans; fumonisins are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic with potential carcinogenic effects on rat and mice. In this chapter we summarize the main aspects of morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and toxigenicity of Aspergillus foodborne pathogens which belong to sections Flavi, Circumdati, and Nigri, occurring in several agricultural products and responsible of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins contamination of food and feed.

  2. Comparative Studies on Pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. Pectinase was produced from Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, and A. niger) in a submerged fermentation system after 4 and 5 days of fermentation, respectively using pectin extracted from different agro-wastes (mango, orange and pineapple peels) as the carbon sources. The pectin was extracted from mango, ...

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  4. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...

  5. The production and activity test of cellulases using bagasse substrate on Aspergillus niger isolated from Clove field, Kare, Madiun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhi, Muh. Waskito; Sulistyarsi, Ani; Pujiati

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus sp is a microorganism which has a high ability to produce cellulase enzymes. In producing Cellulase enzymes requires appropriate concentration and incubation time to obtain optimum enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of inoculum concentration and incubation time towards production and activity of cellulases from Aspergillus sp substrate bagasse. This research used experiments method; completely randomized design with 2 factorial repeated 2 times. The treatment study include differences inoculum (K) 5% (K1), 15% (K2) 25%, (K3) and incubation time (F) that is 3 days (F1), 6 days (F2), 9 days (F3), 12 days (F4). The data taken from the treatment are glucose reduction and protein levels of crude cellulase enzyme activity that use Nelson Somogyi and Biuret methods. Analysis of variance ANOVA data used two paths with significance level of 5% then continued with LSD test. The results showed that: Fhit>Ftab. Thus, there is effect of inoculum concentrations and incubation time toward activity of crude cellulases of Aspergillus sp. The highest glucose reduction of treatment is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with 12 days incubation time) amount 12.834 g / ml and the highest protein content is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with with 12 days incubation time) amount 0.740 g / ml.

  6. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family, Moniliaceae...

  8. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  9. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  10. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  11. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  12. Mitotic catastrophe is the mechanism of lethality for mutations that confer mutagen sensitivity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, S H; May, G S

    1994-01-16

    We have examined the consequences of treatment with DNA-damaging agents of uvs mutants and the bimD6 mutant of Aspergillus nidulans. We first established that wild-type Aspergillus undergoes a cell cycle delay following treatment with the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or ultraviolet light (UV). We have also determined that strains carrying the bimD6, uvsB110, uvsH77, uvsF201 and the uvsC114 mutations, all of which cause an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, undergo a cell-cycle delay following DNA damage. These mutations therefore do not represent nonfunctional checkpoints in Aspergillus. However, all of the mutant strains accumulated nuclear defects after a period of delay following mutagen treatment. The nuclear defects in the uvsB110 and bimD6 strains following MMS treatment were shown to be dependent on passage through mitosis after DNA damage, as the defects were prevented with benomyl. Checkpoint controls responding to DNA damage thus only temporarily halt cell-cycle progression in response to DNA damage. The conditional bimD6 mutation also results in a defective mitosis at restrictive temperatures. This mitotic defect is similar to that seen with MMS treatment at temperatures permissive for the mitotic defect. Thus the bimD gene product may perform dual roles, one in DNA repair and the other during the mitotic cell cycle in the absence of damage.

  13. First Report of an Atypical New Aspergillus parasiticus Isolates with Nucleotides Insertion in aflR Gene Identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus favus and Aspergillus parasitic and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional prep...

  14. The Virtual Factory Teaching System (VFTS): Project Review and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, E. J.; Boyd, E. F., III; Dessouky, M. M.

    This paper presents a review of the Virtual Factory Teaching (VFTS) project, a Web-based, multimedia collaborative learning network. The system allows students, working alone or in teams, to build factories, forecast demand for products, plan production, establish release rules for new work into the factory, and set scheduling rules for…

  15. e sup + e sup - Factories: PEP-II, KEKB, DAPHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Guiducci, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 two B-factories, PEP-II and KEK, and a PHI-factory, DAPHINE, started their physics experiments. A status report of the three factories is presented. A description of the interaction regions, strongly influenced by the detector requirements, and of the machine background in the detectors is presented.

  16. The Physics of the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J. [Queen Mary Univ., London (United Kingdom); Golob, B. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mannel, T. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik 1; Collaboration: BABAR Collaboration; Belle Collaboration; and others

    2014-11-15

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who

  17. The Physics of the B Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, T.

    2014-01-01

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who have helped us achieve

  18. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  19. B factory rf system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  20. Physics at e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.; MacFarlane, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e + e - storage rings which produce B 0 bar B 0 pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb -1 per year on the Υ(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e + e - B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs

  1. B factory RF system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  2. Neutrino Factory Targets and the MICE Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaron, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    The future of particle physics in the next 20 years must include detailed study of neutrinos. The first proof of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics is evident in results from recent neutrino experiements which imply that neutrinos have mass and flavour mixing. The Neutrino Factory is the leading contender to measure precisely the neutrino mixing parameters to probe beyond the Standard Model physics.

  3. Review of proposed kaon factory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of proton accelerator facilities, popularly called ''Kaon Factories,'' have been proposed to extend the intensity frontier from about 1 GeV to higher energies in the range of 15 to 45 GeV. Seven proposed facilities - LAMPF II, TRIUMF II, SIN II, AGS II, KEK, MUNICH, and KYOTO - are reviewed with emphasis on capabilities of the experimental facilities. Costs and the choice of energy and current are also discussed. 7 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Design studies for the Positron Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Masuno, S.; Kawasuso, A.; Sakai, T.; Takizawa, H.; Yotsumoto, K.; Honda, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the design study for the Positron Factory, a feasibility of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams, which had been proposed at the previous conference (Linac 94), was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. On the basis of the experimental result, an efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is proposed. (author)

  5. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  6. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  7. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group. (PMA)

  8. Collective issues related to B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1993-02-01

    This report reviews the limitations on the performance of the planned B- and Φ-factories due to the collective interactions of stored bunches. Together with the traditional revision of the limitations due to the single- and multi-bunch interaction with surrounding electrodes, we briefly discuss in this report the limitations on the performance due to collective beam-beam instabilities of colliding beams and instabilities due to the collective interaction of beams with the ions. (author)

  9. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group

  10. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  11. Detection of polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular genetic selection on individual genes is a promising method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene may play important roles in growth of multiple tissues, including muscle cells, cartilage and bone. In the present study, polymorphism of the ...

  12. A biophysical model for transcription factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canals-Hamann, Ana Z; Neves, Ricardo Pires das; Reittie, Joyce E; Iñiguez, Carlos; Soneji, Shamit; Enver, Tariq; Buckle, Veronica J; Iborra, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factories are nuclear domains where gene transcription takes place although the molecular basis for their formation and maintenance are unknown. In this study, we explored how the properties of chromatin as a polymer may contribute to the structure of transcription factories. We found that transcriptional active chromatin contains modifications like histone H4 acetylated at Lysine 16 (H4K16ac). Single fibre analysis showed that this modification spans the entire body of the gene. Furthermore, H4K16ac genes cluster in regions up to 500 Kb alternating active and inactive chromatin. The introduction of H4K16ac in chromatin induces stiffness in the chromatin fibre. The result of this change in flexibility is that chromatin could behave like a multi-block copolymer with repetitions of stiff-flexible (active-inactive chromatin) components. Copolymers with such structure self-organize through spontaneous phase separation into microdomains. Consistent with such model H4K16ac chromatin form foci that associates with nascent transcripts. We propose that transcription factories are the result of the spontaneous concentration of H4K16ac chromatin that are in proximity, mainly in cis

  13. A tau-charm-factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Repond, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of building a tau-charm-factory at the Argonne National Laboratory. A tau-charm-factory is an e + e - collider with a center-of-mass energy between 3.0 GeV and 5.0 GeV and a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Once operational, the facility will produce large samples of τ pairs, charm mesons, and charmonium with either negligible or well understood backgrounds. This will lead to high precision measurements in the second generation quark and the third generation lepton sectors that cannot be done at other facilities. Basic physical properties and processes, such as the tau neutrino mass, rare tau decays, charm decay constants, rare charm meson decays, neutral D 0 -- meson mixing, and many more will be studied with unique precision. An initial design of the collider including the injector system is described. The design shows that a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 can be achieved over the entire center-of-mass energy range of the factory

  14. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  15. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  16. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  17. Factorial complexity and Morally Debatable Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldo Muchotrigo, Mirian P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, from the scientific and professional practice point of view, comes out the necessity to know more about moral permissiveness, as it seems to be an increase in “moral relativism”.. Because it, it this is important to have tools to collect valid and reliable information about moral in social situations defined as social and personal behavior issue. This paper presents a technical note of The Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale (MDBS from Harding & Phillips (1986, which was developed in USA and mainly focused on young people and adults. This technical note makes direct reference to a recent Latin American study (Merino & Grimaldo, 2010; this article focuses on the internal structure and the problems associated with evidences of factorial complexity among items of the MDBS. This means that the interpretation of scores is not factorially simple and could not be achieved by a conceptual distinction between the latent constructs applied to the study sample.. The results in the previous study of the factorial complexity leads the researcher to decide whether an instrument for measuring this aspect may contain a reasonable amount of complexity that is consistent with what is in reality, or look for the unidimensional and simple structure.

  18. 68Ga-triacetylfusarinine C and 68Ga-ferrioxamine E for Aspergillus infection imaging: uptake specificity in various microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrik, M.; Haas, H. de; Laverman, P.; Schrettl, M.; Franssen, G.M.; Blatzer, M.; Decristoforo, C.

    2014-01-01

    (68)Ga-triacetylfusarinine C ((68)Ga-TAFC) and (68)Ga-ferrioxamine E ((68)Ga-FOXE) showed excellent targeting properties in Aspergillus fumigatus rat infection model. Here, we report on the comparison of specificity towards different microorganisms and human lung cancer cells (H1299).The in vitro

  19. Production of cellulase and xylanase in a bubble gum column using immobilized Aspergillus niger KKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong-Woo; Kim, Seung-Woo [Univ. of Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Suk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    Aspergillus niger KKS, isolated from a farmland near Suwon, was immobilized on Celite and polyurethane foams. Enzyme activities produced by the immobilized cell system in a bubble column were higher than that of shake-flask culture. The enzyme productivities were twice as high. {Beta}-Glucosidase, {Beta}-xylosidase, and xylanase activities obtained in a bubble column were significant when the ground rice straw was used as a substrate. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 ìm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 ...