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Sample records for cell exhaustion due

  1. Genetic inactivation of Cdk7 leads to cell cycle arrest and induces premature aging due to adult stem cell exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Ganuza, Miguel; Sáiz-Ladera, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Gómez, Gonzalo; Schneider, Ralph; Blasco, María A.; Pisano, David; Paramio, Jesús M.; Santamaría, David; Barbacid, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Employing a conditionally inactive gene trap allele, Cdk7's function in regulating cellular proliferation by Cdk1/2-phosphorylation is convincingly dissected from alternative notions on CTD-phosphorylation of RNA Pol II. Premature aging phenotypes caused by stem cell depletion lend the necessary functional support.

  2. Bioenergetic Insufficiencies Due to Metabolic Alterations Regulated by the Inhibitory Receptor PD-1 Are an Early Driver of CD8(+) T Cell Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengsch, Bertram; Johnson, Andy L; Kurachi, Makoto; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Pauken, Kristen E; Attanasio, John; Stelekati, Erietta; McLane, Laura M; Paley, Michael A; Delgoffe, Greg M; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-16

    Dynamic reprogramming of metabolism is essential for T cell effector function and memory formation. However, the regulation of metabolism in exhausted CD8(+) T (Tex) cells is poorly understood. We found that during the first week of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, before severe dysfunction develops, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells were already unable to match the bioenergetics of effector T cells generated during acute infection. Suppression of T cell bioenergetics involved restricted glucose uptake and use, despite persisting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of many anabolic pathways. PD-1 regulated early glycolytic and mitochondrial alterations and repressed transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Improving bioenergetics by overexpression of PGC-1α enhanced function in developing Tex cells. Therapeutic reinvigoration by anti-PD-L1 reprogrammed metabolism in a subset of Tex cells. These data highlight a key metabolic control event early in exhaustion and suggest that manipulating glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism might enhance checkpoint blockade outcomes. PMID:27496729

  3. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  4. Air intake and exhaust systems in fuel cell engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuesser, R.; Weber, O. [Mann and Hummel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the air intake and exhaust system of a fuel cell powered road vehicle. In this instance the automotive supplier designed both the air intake and the exhaust system. The fuel cell engine gives a cold combustion effect making it possible to manufacture the exhaust from plastic materials. (UK)

  5. Worker's suit barred due to failure to exhaust grievance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-15

    [Name removed] lost two AIDS discrimination suits against Exxon Corp. [Name removed]'s first suit alleged he was demoted to a lower-paying job as an office assistant because of AIDS discrimination. Under [name removed]'s union agreement, the employee must exhaust grievance procedures before taking a complaint to court. Federal Judge Edith Brown Clement dismissed [name removed]'s breach-of-contract claim as a violation of the collective bargaining agreement in [name removed]'s union. [Name removed] claimed he believed that pursuing the grievance procedure would be useless. The judge said a "mere subjective belief or conclusory assertion of futility is insufficient." She added the plaintiff bears the burden of producing evidence supporting the claim that the use of grievance procedures would have been futile. [Name removed] lost a second suit, a claim under the American with Disabilities Act (ADA), because of the statute of limitations. Under Louisiana law, [name removed] failed to file the case less than 300 days after the adverse employment action. PMID:11367271

  6. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. PMID:25045158

  7. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  8. Immunology: Exhausted T cells perk up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew A.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    During persistent infections, the immune cells responsible for killing infected cells and maintaining inflammation gradually stop functioning, allowing the pathogen to thrive. But can this process be reversed?

  9. Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H.C.; Kolodney, M.; Levy, A.H.; Trocciola, P.

    1988-06-14

    An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen by the anode means in an electrochemical reaction in the stack; (c) carbon dioxide absorber means including an absorbent for stripping carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures thereof; (d) means for delivering hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas containing carbon dioxide from the anode means to the carbon dioxide absorber means for absorption of carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas; (e) an absorbent regenerator; (f) means for delivering carbon dioxide-enriched absorbent from the absorber means to the regenerator for separation of carbon dioxide from the absorbent; (g) means for exhausting carbon dioxide from the regenerator, the means for exhausting further including means for cooling and compressing carbon dioxide exhausted from the regenerator; and (h) means for removing the compressed carbon dioxide from the power plant.

  10. Atmospheric pollution due to carbon monoxide from vehicular exhaust in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide is a major air pollutant and its main source being vehicular exhaust. Peshawar, like other major cities in Pakistan is facing a serious problem of air pollution due to rapidly increasing traffic. Carbon monoxide level during 600 hours to 1800 hours was studied at sixteen different location were found to have an average carbon monoxide concentration above the threshold limits of nine ppm for eight hours exposure whereas, at one location average carbon monoxide concentration reached the mulimit of 35 ppm for one hour average exposure. Results suggest that at these twelve location, the calculated carboxy haemoglobin level that could be present in the blood of people exposed for eight hours are in the range 2.04-4.85% which can adversely affect the central nervous system and can bring changes in psycho motor functions. (author)

  11. The masculinization of the fetus during pregnancy due to inhalation of diesel exhaust.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, N.; Kurita, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diesel exhaust inhalation on the fetus. Seventy-two pregnant rats and 18 nonpregnant rats were divided into three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m(3) particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. The exposure period was from day 7 until day 20 of pregnancy. In addition, 15 ...

  12. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  13. Thermography for Performance Optimisation of Spark-ignition Engine due to Soot Formation in Exhaust Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Shiv Shankar Singh; A. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    The usage of thermography as an effective condition monitoring tool for performance evaluation on spark-ignition engine has been discussed. The technique allows for the monitoring of temperatures and thermal patterns while the equipment are running under loaded condition. The experiments have been conducted on petrol engine to acquire thermographs of the exhaust pipe under different loads with different diameters of the exhaust pipe to provide condition for soot formation. The heat transfer a...

  14. Medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise induces neural cell apoptosis in the rat hippocampus★

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanni; Jin LIU; Yan, Hengmei

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared ...

  15. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  16. Murine Lung Cancer Induces Generalized T Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lyons, John D; Margoles, Lindsay M; Liang, Zhe; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is known to modulate tumor-specific immune responses by establishing a micro-environment that leads to the upregulation of T cell inhibitory receptors, resulting in the progressive loss of function and eventual death of tumor-specific T cells. However, the ability of cancer to impact the functionality of the immune system on a systemic level is much less well characterized. Because cancer is known to predispose patients to infectious complications including sepsis, we hypothesized that the presence of cancer alters pathogen-directed immune responses on a systemic level. Materials and Methods We assessed systemic T cell coinhibitory receptor expression, cytokine production, and apoptosis in mice with established subcutaneous lung cancer tumors and in unmanipulated mice without cancer. Results Results indicated that the frequencies of PD-1+, BTLA+, and 2B4+ cells in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments were increased in mice with localized cancer relative to non-cancer controls, and the frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing multiple different inhibitory receptors was increased in cancer animals relative to non-cancer controls. Additionally, 2B4+CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited reduced IL-2 and IFN-γ, while BTLA+CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited reduced IL-2 and TNF. Conversely, CD4+ T cells in cancer animals demonstrated an increase in the frequency of Annexin V+ apoptotic cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that the presence of cancer induces systemic T cell exhaustion and generalized immune suppression. PMID:25748104

  17. How much of the decline in unemployment is due to the exhaustion of unemployment benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Luojia Hu; Shani Schechter

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have examined the impact of extended unemployment insurance (UI) benefits on the rise in the unemployment rate in this recession and early recovery. We use real-time microdata from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey (CPS) to examine whether there has been a reverse effect recently as benefits have been exhausted. We find that if UI benefits had lasted indefinitely, the unemployment rate would have been cumulatively about 0.1 to 0.3 percentage points higher...

  18. Thermography for Performance Optimisation of Spark-ignition Engine due to Soot Formation in Exhaust Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of thermography as an effective condition monitoring tool for performance evaluation on spark-ignition engine has been discussed. The technique allows for the monitoring of temperatures and thermal patterns while the equipment are running under loaded condition. The experiments have been conducted on petrol engine to acquire thermographs of the exhaust pipe under different loads with different diameters of the exhaust pipe to provide condition for soot formation. The heat transfer analysis was carried out using properties of CO2 for three different flow areas by inserting metallic tubes of known thickness in the exhaust pipe. The paper emphasises that soot formation will reduce the flow area which will result in increase in the surface temperature and the thickness of soot layer can be further correlated with the running performance of the engine.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(1, pp.12-18, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.163

  19. Medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise induces neural cell apoptosis in the rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanni Li; Jin Liu; Hengmei Yan

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise.

  20. Medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise induces neural cell apoptosis in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanni; Liu, Jin; Yan, Hengmei

    2013-01-15

    The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise. PMID:25206482

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1(tg) mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  2. Hippocampal ultrastructural changes and apoptotic cell death in rats following endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exhaustive exercise can lead to apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells and myocardial cells as a result of pathological changes in the corresponding cellular ultrastructure. It is hypothesized that such changes could also occur in neurons. OBJECTIVE: To observe brain cell apoptosis and ultrastmctural changes in hippocampal neurons in rats following endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, morphological analysis was performed at the Medical Laboratory Center of Zhengzhou University between July and November 2007. MATERIALS: Forty male, 8-week-old, Sprague Dawley rats were included in this study. METHODS: Endurance training consisted of treadmill running once a day, 6 days a week, for 4 weeks. For acute exhaustive exercise, graded treadmill running was conducted. Rats were exposed to exercise at an increasing speed (10 m/min, increasing to 20 and 36 m/min for moderate- and high-intensity exhaustive exercise, respectively, and then was continued until exhaustion). A total of 40 rats were evenly distributed into the following 4 groups: Group A-rats were not exercised; Group B- rats were not trained but sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group C rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed immediately after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group D-rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apoptotic cell death was detected by the TUNEL method and hippocampal neuronal ultrastructural change was observed through using transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: All 40 rats were included in the final analysis. Subsequent to exhaustive exercise, rat cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons appeared contracted and degenerated. In addition, high amount of lipofuscin was visible in the hippocampal region. Necrotic neurons encased by glial cells appeared in

  3. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia display an exhausted phenotype and impaired functionality that can be restored by chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), beside a massive accumulation of neoplastic B cells, tumour-induced deficiencies in autologous T cells have been reported that impede efficient tumour control and might even support survival of the malignant clone. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that T cells in CLL, due to the persistent availability of tumour antigen, are exhausted, and that reduction of tumour load by chemotherapy might restore T cell functions. We could show that T cells in CLL patients and in a CLL mouse model display an exhausted phenotype, with high expression of the inhibitory surface receptor PD-1, that is clearly induced by the presence of tumour cells. Although the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 is not expressed on peripheral CLL cells, abundant expression could be shown in lymph node sections. Intriguingly, blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway increased short term tumour lysis in a murine in vivo cytotoxicity assay. Furthermore, we present data that after cytoreduction by fludarabine, a standard chemotherapy agent for CLL, the surviving T cell pool consists mainly of fully functional memory T cells with high proliferative potential and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. Taken together, we conclude that the impaired tumour surveillance observed in CLL might be rooted in the exhaustion of tumour-specific effector T cells. A combination of cytodepletion by chemotherapy and blockade of PD-1 might hence represent a novel therapeutic approach for CLL. (author)

  4. PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Roberto; Carrette, Florent; Barraza, Monique L; Otero, Dennis C; Magaña, Jonathan; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Swain, Susan L; Bradley, Linda M

    2016-05-17

    Chronic viruses and cancers thwart immune responses in humans by inducing T cell dysfunction. Using a murine chronic virus that models human infections, we investigated the function of the adhesion molecule, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), that is upregulated on responding T cells. PSGL-1-deficient mice cleared the virus due to increased intrinsic survival of multifunctional effector T cells that had downregulated PD-1 as well as other inhibitory receptors. Notably, this response resulted in CD4(+)-T-cell-dependent immunopathology. Mechanistically, PSGL-1 ligation on exhausted CD8(+) T cells inhibited T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling and upregulated PD-1, leading to diminished survival with TCR stimulation. In models of melanoma cancer in which T cell dysfunction occurs, PSGL-1 deficiency led to PD-1 downregulation, improved T cell responses, and tumor control. Thus, PSGL-1 plays a fundamental role in balancing viral control and immunopathology and also functions to regulate T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27192578

  5. Inhibitory receptor expression depends more dominantly on differentiation and activation than exhaustion of human CD8 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eLegat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of chronic antigen stimulation, such as persistent viral infection and cancer, CD8 T cells may diminish effector function, which has been termed exhaustion. Expression of inhibitory Receptors (iRs is often regarded as a hallmark of exhaustion. Here we studied the expression of eight different iRs by CD8 T cells of healthy humans, including CTLA-4, PD1, TIM3, LAG3, 2B4, BTLA, CD160 and KLRG-1. We show that many iRs are expressed upon activation, and with progressive differentiation to effector cells, even in absence of long-term (chronic antigenic stimulation. In particular, we evaluated the direct relationship between iR expression and functionality in CD8 T cells by using anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 stimulation to stimulate all cells and differentiation subsets. We observed a striking upregulation of certain iRs following the cytokine production wave, in agreement with the notion that iRs function as a negative feedback mechanism. Intriguingly, we found no major impairment of cytokine production in cells positive for a broad array of iRs, as previously shown for PD1 in healthy donors. Rather, the expression of the various iRs strongly correlated with T cell differentiation or activation states, or both. Furthermore, we analyzed CD8 T cells from lymph nodes (LNs of melanoma patients. Interestingly, we found altered iR expression and lower cytokine production by T cells from metastatic LNs, but also from non-metastatic LNs, likely due to mechanisms which are not related to exhaustion. Together, our data shows that expression of iRs per se does not mark dysfunctional cells, but is rather tightly linked to activation and differentiation. This study highlights the importance of considering the status of activation and differentiation for the study and the clinical monitoring of CD8 T cells.

  6. Blimp-1-mediated CD4 T cell exhaustion causes CD8 T cell dysfunction during chronic toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SuJin; Cobb, Dustin A; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Youngblood, Ben; Khan, Imtiaz A

    2016-08-22

    CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE)-susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a tamoxifen-dependent conditional Blimp-1 knockout mixed bone marrow chimera as well as an adoptive transfer approach, we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic deletion of Blimp-1 reversed CD8 T cell dysfunction and resulted in improved pathogen control. To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel finding, which demonstrates the role of Blimp-1 as a critical regulator of CD4 dysfunction and links it to the CD8 T cell dysfunctionality observed in infected mice. The critical role of CD4-intrinsic Blimp-1 expression in mediating CD4 and CD8 T cell exhaustion may provide a rational basis for designing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27481131

  7. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two ''off the shelf'' units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow

  8. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin

    This thesis presents two case studies on improving the efficiency and the loadfollowing capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system by the application of thermoelectric (TE) devices. TE generators (TEGs) are harnessed to recover the system exhaust gas...

  9. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  10. Tim-3 identifies exhausted follicular helper T cells in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiguang; Lin, Jun; Qiao, Guangdong; Wang, Xingmiao; Xu, Yanping

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. Although a series of treatment options have improved the overall 5-year survival rate to 90%, individual responses still vary from patient to patient. New evidence suggested that the infiltration of CXCL13-expressing CD4(+) follicular helper cells (Tfh) in breast tumor predicted better survival. Here, we examined the regulation of Tfh function in breast cancer patients in depth. We found that the frequencies of circulating Tfh cells were not altered in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. However, the expression of PD-1 and Tim-3 in Tfh cells was significantly elevated in breast cancer patients. Interestingly, we observed a preferential upregulation of PD-1 in Tim-3(+) Tfh cells compared to Tim-3(-) Tfh cells. Coexpression of PD-1 and Tim-3 is typically a hallmark of functional exhaustion in chronic virus infections and tumor. To examine whether Tim-3(+) identifies exhausted Tfh cells, we stimulated Tfh cells with anti-CD3/CD28, and found that Tim-3(+) T cells expressed reduced frequencies of chemokine CXCL13 and cytokine interleukin 21 (IL-21), and contained fewer proliferating cells, than Tim-3(-) Tfh cells. Compared to those cocultured with Tim-3(-) Tfh cells, naive B cells cocultured with Tim-3(+) Tfh cells resulted in significantly less IgM, IgG and IgA production after 12 day incubation, demonstrating a reduction in Tim-3(+) Tfh-mediated B cell help. Moreover, the frequencies of Tim-3(+) Tfh cells in resected breast tumor were further upregulated than autologous blood, suggesting a participation of Tim-3(+) Tfh cells in tumor physiology. Overall, the data presented here provided new insight in the regulation of Tfh cells in breast cancer patients. PMID:27156907

  11. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two case studies on improving the efficiency and the loadfollowing capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system by the application of thermoelectric (TE) devices.TE generators (TEGs) are harnessed to recover the system exhaust gas for electricity. For this aim, a heat exchanger based TEG heat recovery subsystem is designed. Instead of optimizing an ordinary rectangular heat exchanger, high efficient and commercialized compact plat...

  12. Diesel exhaust particulate extracts inhibit transcription of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cell viability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Klinge, Carolyn M. [University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulate extracts (DEPEs), prepared from a truck run at different speeds and engine loads, would inhibit genomic estrogen receptor activation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we examined how DEPEs affect NRF-1-regulated TFAM expression and, in turn, Tfam-regulated mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, MTCO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) expression as well as cell proliferation and viability. We report that 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), and raloxifene increased NRF-1 transcription in HUVECs in an ER-dependent manner. DEPEs inhibited NRF-1 transcription, and this suppression was not ablated by concomitant treatment with E{sub 2}, 4-OHT, or raloxifene, indicating that the effect was not due to inhibition of ER activity. While E{sub 2} increased HUVEC proliferation and viability, DEPEs inhibited viability but not proliferation. Resveratrol increased NRF-1 transcription in an ER-dependent manner in HUVECs, and ablated DEPE inhibition of basal NRF-1 expression. Given that NRF-1 is a key nuclear transcription factor regulating genes involved in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, these data suggest that DEPEs may adversely affect mitochondrial function leading to endothelial dysfunction and resveratrol may block these effects. (orig.)

  13. Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Kamphorst, Alice O; Wieland, Andreas; Araki, Koichi; Iyer, Smita S; West, Erin E.; O’Mara, Leigh; Yang, Shu; Konieczny, Bogumila T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Freeman, Gordon J; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10–100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific C...

  14. Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Maria C; Duistermaat, Evert; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2016-07-01

    Diesel emissions are the main source of air pollution in urban areas, and diesel exposure is linked with substantial adverse health effects. In vitro diesel exposure models are considered a suitable tool for understanding these effects. Here we aimed to use a controlled in vitro exposure system to whole diesel exhaust to study the effect of whole diesel exhaust concentration and exposure duration on mucociliary differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC). PBEC cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed for 60 to 375 min to three different dilutions of diesel exhaust (DE). The DE mixture was generated by an engine at 47% load, and characterized for particulate matter size and distribution and chemical and gas composition. Cytotoxicity and epithelial barrier function was assessed, as well as mRNA expression and protein release analysis. DE caused a significant dose-dependent increase in expression of oxidative stress markers (HMOX1 and NQO1; n = 4) at 6 h after 150 min exposure. Furthermore, DE significantly increased the expression of the markers of the integrated stress response CHOP and GADD34 and of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL8, as well as release of CXCL8 protein. Cytotoxic effects or effects on epithelial barrier function were observed only after prolonged exposures to the highest DE dose. These results demonstrate the suitability of our model and that exposure dose and duration and time of analysis postexposure are main determinants for the effects of DE on differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells. PMID:27190060

  15. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias; Pantazis, Nikos; Martin, Genevieve E; Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-07-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count approaches. PMID:27415828

  16. Impaired regeneration of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers is caused by exhaustion of myogenic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most devastating myopathies. Muscle fibers undergo necrosis and lose their ability to regenerate, and this may be related to increased interstitial fibrosis or the exhaustion of satellite cells. In this study, we used mdx mice, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, to assess whether muscle fibers lose their ability to regenerate after repeated cycles of degeneration-regeneration and to establish the role of interstitial fibrosis or exhaustion of satellite cells in this process. Repeated degenerative-regenerative cycles were induced by the injection of bupivacaine (33 mg/kg, a myotoxic agent. Bupivacaine was injected weekly into the right tibialis anterior muscle of male, 8-week-old mdx (N = 20 and C57Bl/10 (control, N = 10 mice for 20 and 50 weeks. Three weeks after the last injection, the mice were killed and the proportion of regenerated fibers was counted and reported as a fibrosis index. Twenty weekly bupivacaine injections did not change the ability of mdx muscle to regenerate. However, after 50 weekly bupivacaine injections, there was a significant decrease in the regenerative response. There was no correlation between the inability to regenerate and the increase in interstitial fibrosis. These results show that after prolonged repeated cycles of degeneration-regeneration, mdx muscle loses its ability to regenerate because of the exhaustion of satellite cells, rather than because of an increase in interstitial fibrosis. This finding may be relevant to cell and gene therapy in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  17. Characterization of a multiculture in-vitro cell exposure chamber for assessing the biological impact of diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the various health influencing parameters related to particulate as well as to gas-phase pollutants emitted by Diesel engine exhaust, there is an urgent need for appropriate sampling devices and methods for cell exposure studies and associated biological and toxicological tests. In a previous paper [1], a specific concept for a cell culture exposure chamber was introduced to allow the uniform exposure of cell cultures to diesel aerosols. In the present work, this cell culture exposure chamber is evaluated and characterized with state-of-the-art nanoparticles measurement instrumentation to assess the local deposition of soot aggregates on the cell cultures and any losses due to particle deposition on the cell culture exposure chamber walls, and in addition an upgraded Multiculture Exposure Chamber (MEC) for in vitro continuous flow cell exposure tests is introduced with improved, compared to the previous version, features. Analysis and design of the MEC employs CFD and true to geometry representations of soot particle aggregates.

  18. Comparison of the toxicity of diesel exhaust produced by bio- and fossil diesel combustion in human lung cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Müller, Loretta; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Alternative fuels are increasingly combusted in diesel- and gasoline engines and the contribution of such exhausts to the overall air pollution is on the rise. Recent findings on the possible adverse effects of biodiesel exhaust are contradictive, at least partly resulting from the various fuel qualities, engine types and different operation conditions that were tested. However, most of the studies are biased by undesired interactions between the exhaust samples and biological culture media. We here report how complete, freshly produced exhausts from fossil diesel (B0), from a blend of 20% rapeseed-methyl ester (RME) and 80% fossil diesel (B20) and from pure rapeseed methyl ester (B100) affect a complex 3D cellular model of the human airway epithelium in vitro by exposing the cells at the air-liquid interface. The induction of pro-apoptotic and necrotic cell death, cellular morphology, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory responses were assessed. Compared to B0 exhaust, B20 exhaust decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses, whereas B100 exhaust, depending on exposure duration, decreased oxidative stress but increased pro-inflammatory responses. The effects are only very weak and given the compared to fossil diesel higher ecological sustainability of biodiesel, it appears that - at least RME - can be considered a valuable alternative to pure fossil diesel.

  19. Anergy and exhaustion are independent mechanisms of peripheral T cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, B; Grandien, A; Freitas, A A

    1995-03-01

    We studied the interactions of male-specific T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha/beta-transgenic (TG) cells with different concentrations of male antigen in vivo. We constructed mouse chimeras expressing different amounts of male antigen by injecting thymectomized, lethally irradiated mice with various ratios of male (immunoglobulin [Ig] Ha) and female (IgHb) bone marrow. These chimeras were injected with male-specific TCR-alpha/beta-trangenic cells. These experiments allowed us to monitor antigen persistence and characterize antigen-specific T cells in terms of their frequency, reactivity, and effector functions (as tested by elimination of male B cells in vivo). In the absence of antigen, virgin TG cells persisted but did not expand. Transient exposure to antigen resulted in cell expansion, followed by the persistence of increased numbers of antigen-reactive T cells. In contrast, antigen persistence was followed by two independent mechanisms of tolerance induction: anergy (at high antigen concentrations), where T cells did not differentiate into effector functions but persisted in vivo as unresponsive T cells, and exhaustion (at lower antigen concentrations), where differentiation into effector functions (B cell elimination) occurred but was followed by the disappearance of antigen-specific T cells. PMID:7869056

  20. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles promote the growth of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause many adverse health problems, and reports indicate increased risk of breast cancer in men and women through exposure to gasoline and vehicle exhaust. However, DEPs include vast numbers of compounds, and the specific compound(s) responsible for these actions are not clear. We recently isolated two nitrophenols from DEPs-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol; PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP)-and showed that they had estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Here, we tried to clarify the involvement of these two nitrophenols in promoting the growth of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, comet assay was used to detect the genotoxicity of PNMC and PNMPP in a CHO cell line. At all doses tested, PNMC and PNMPP showed negative genotoxicity, indicating that they had no tumor initiating activity. Next, the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was stimulated by PNMC, PNMPP, and estradiol-17β and the anti-estrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited the proliferation. To further investigate transcriptional activity through the estrogen receptor, MCF-7 cells were transfected with a receptor gene that allowed expression of luciferase enzyme under the control of the estrogen regulatory element. PNMC and PNMPP induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner at submicromolar concentrations. ICI 182,780 inhibited the luciferase activity induced by PNMC and PNMPP. These results clearly indicate that PNMC and PNMPP do not show genotoxicity but act as tumor promoters in an estrogen receptor α-predominant breast cancer cell line

  1. Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat...... exchangers with superior performance for further analysis. In this work, the on-design performances of the 4 heat exchangers are more thoroughly assessed on their corresponding optimized subsystem configurations. Afterward, their off-design performances are compared on the whole working range of the fuel...... cell stack. All through this study, different electrical connection styles of all the thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules in the subsystem and their influences are also discussed. In the end, the subsystem configuration is further optimized and a higher subsystem power output is achieved. All TEG...

  2. T-bet and Eomes Are Differentially Linked to the Exhausted Phenotype of CD8+T Cells in HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Tauriainen, Johanna; Yamamoto, Takuya;

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cell exhaustion represents a major hallmark of chronic HIV infection. Two key transcription factors governing CD8+ T cell differentiation, T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes), have previously been shown in mice to differentially regulate T cell exhaustion in part through direct modulation of PD...... to an inverse expression balance between T-bet and Eomes, which is not reversed despite long-term viral control through ART. These results aid to explain the inability of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to control the viral replication post-ART cessation.......CD8+ T cell exhaustion represents a major hallmark of chronic HIV infection. Two key transcription factors governing CD8+ T cell differentiation, T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes), have previously been shown in mice to differentially regulate T cell exhaustion in part through direct modulation of PD-1....... Here, we examined the relationship between these transcription factors and the expression of several inhibitory receptors (PD-1, CD160, and 2B4), functional characteristics and memory differentiation of CD8+ T cells in chronic and treated HIV infection. The expression of PD-1, CD160, and 2B4 on total...

  3. Sepsis Induces Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion and Myelosuppression through Distinct Contributions of TRIF and MYD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajia Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.

  4. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  5. Diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Cohn, Corey Alexander; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    The particulate phase of diesel engine exhaust is likely carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induced mutagenicity/carcinogenicity are still largely unknown. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72 h incubations with 37.5 or 75 microg...

  6. Task failure during exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia is due to reduced muscle activation caused by central mechanisms while muscle metaboreflex does not limit performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eTorres-Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22±2 years performed a 10s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg during 10 or 60s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P<0.05 than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P<0.05. Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF and median (IS-MdPF power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P<0.05. Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23% and burst duration (+10% increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P<0.05, with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within one minute even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of

  7. Biological effects in lung cells In vitro of exhaust aerosols from a gasoline passenger car with and without particle filter

    OpenAIRE

    Bisig, Christoph; Steiner, Sandro; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust aerosol from gasoline passenger cars is a complex mixture of a particulate fraction as well as volatile compounds. In contrary to the observed adverse effects of diesel exhaust particles the gasoline exhaust has, however, received little attention so far. The aim of this study was to perform a comparison of exhaust composition and biological responses from freshly produced non-filtered exhaust as well as from exhaust filtered with a noncoated gasoline particle filter (GPF). A 3D model...

  8. Oxidative Stress and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Petro- or Biodiesel Exhaust Treated with a Diesel Particulate Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Brie; L'Orange, Christian; Olsen, Dan B.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Volckens, John

    2014-01-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust has changed over the past decade due to the increased use of alternative fuels, like biodiesel, and to new regulations on diesel engine emissions. Given the changing nature of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions, a need exists to understand the human health implications of switching to “cleaner” diesel engines run with particulate filters and engines run on alternative fuels like biodiesel. We exposed well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelia...

  9. Enhancement of antigen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the airways of mast-cell deficient mice by diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of mast cells in the exacerbating effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) toward allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Airway inflammation by the infiltration of cosinophils with goblet cell proliferation and AHR, as well as by the production of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE, in plasma were examined using mast cell-deficient mice (W/Wv) and normal mice (W/W+). Both groups of mice received ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA+DEP intratracheally. The eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell proliferation promoted by OVA were significantly greater in W/W+ than in W/Wv. A similar result was observed in AHR, but was not significant among both groups of mice. DEP enhanced OVA induced-allergic airway inflammation, goblet cell proliferation, and development of AHR in W/Wv, but not in W/W+. DEP decreased production of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE in both groups of mice. Mast cells were observed in the submucosal layer of the main bronchus in W/Wv. The number of mast cells was significantly decreased by OVA treatment. The results indicate that mast cells are not necessary to enhance airway damage and development of AHR in W/Wv by DEP. However, mast cells may be required for the OVA-induced cosinophilic inflammation, airway damage with goblet cell proliferation, and AHR in W/W+

  10. Upregulation of the Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway of T cell exhaustion in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Nebbia

    Full Text Available The S-type lectin galectin-9 binds to the negative regulatory molecule Tim-3 on T cells and induces their apoptotic deletion or functional inactivation. We investigated whether galectin-9/Tim-3 interactions contribute to the deletion and exhaustion of the antiviral T cell response in chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB. We found Tim-3 to be expressed on a higher percentage of CD4 and CD8 T cells from patients with CHB than healthy controls (p<0.0001 and to be enriched on activated T cells and those infiltrating the HBV-infected liver. Direct ex vivo examination of virus-specific CD8 T cells binding HLA-A2/peptide multimers revealed that Tim-3 was more highly upregulated on HBV-specific CD8 T cells than CMV-specific CD8 T cells or the global CD8 T cell population in patients with CHB (p<0.001 or than on HBV-specific CD8 after resolution of infection. T cells expressing Tim-3 had an impaired ability to produce IFN-γ and TNF-α upon recognition of HBV-peptides and were susceptible to galectin-9-triggered cell death in vitro. Galectin-9 was detectable at increased concentrations in the sera of patients with active CHB-related liver inflammation (p = 0.02 and was strongly expressed by Kupffer cells within the liver sinusoidal network. Tim-3 blockade resulted in enhanced expansion of HBV-specific CD8 T cells able to produce cytokines and mediate cytotoxicity in vitro. Blocking PD-1 in combination with Tim-3 enhanced the number of patients from whom functional antiviral responses could be recovered and/or the strength of responses, indicating that these co-inhibitory molecules play a non-redundant role in driving T cell exhaustion in CHB. Patients taking antivirals able to potently suppress HBV viraemia continued to express Tim-3 on their T cells and respond to Tim-3 blockade. In summary, both Tim-3 and galectin-9 are increased in CHB and may contribute to the inhibition and deletion of T cells as they infiltrate the HBV-infected liver.

  11. Fucoidan Extracted from Hijiki Protects Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Against Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure-Induced Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Sook; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Soo; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of fucoidan against the decreased function of primary cultured bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMECs) after exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). BBMECs were extracted from bovine brains and cultured until confluent. To evaluate the function of BBMECs, we performed a permeability test using cell-by-cell equipment and by Western blot analysis for zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1), which is a tight junction protein of BMECs, and evaluated oxidative stress in BBMECs using the DCFH-DA assay and the CUPRAC-BCS assay. The increased oxidative stress in BBMECs following DEP exposure was suppressed by fucoidan. In addition, permeability of BBMECs induced by DEP exposure was decreased by fucoidan treatment. Our results showed that fucoidan protects against BBMEC disruption induced by DEP exposure. This study provides evidence that fucoidan might protect the central nervous system (CNS) against DEP exposure. PMID:27152978

  12. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Moos; Kerstin Wiesner; Diana Biskupski; Andrea Geupel; Maximilian Fleischer

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electroche...

  13. Phenotypic T cell exhaustion in a murine model of bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Wagener, Maylene; Breed, Elise R; Liang, Zhe; Yoseph, Benyam P; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2014-01-01

    While much of cancer immunology research has focused on anti-tumor immunity both systemically and within the tumor microenvironment, little is known about the impact of pre-existing malignancy on pathogen-specific immune responses. Here, we sought to characterize the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response following a bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice with established subcutaneous pancreatic adenocarcinomas were infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared to those in control mice without cancer. While the kinetics and magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion and accumulation was comparable between the cancer and non-cancer groups, bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited increased expression of the coinhibitory receptors BTLA, PD-1, and 2B4. Furthermore, increased inhibitory receptor expression was associated with reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-2 production by bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the cancer group. Taken together, these data suggest that cancer's immune suppressive effects are not limited to the tumor microenvironment, but that pre-existing malignancy induces phenotypic exhaustion in T cells by increasing expression of coinhibitory receptors and may impair pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation. PMID:24796533

  14. Phenotypic T cell exhaustion in a murine model of bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Mittal

    Full Text Available While much of cancer immunology research has focused on anti-tumor immunity both systemically and within the tumor microenvironment, little is known about the impact of pre-existing malignancy on pathogen-specific immune responses. Here, we sought to characterize the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response following a bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice with established subcutaneous pancreatic adenocarcinomas were infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared to those in control mice without cancer. While the kinetics and magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion and accumulation was comparable between the cancer and non-cancer groups, bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited increased expression of the coinhibitory receptors BTLA, PD-1, and 2B4. Furthermore, increased inhibitory receptor expression was associated with reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-2 production by bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the cancer group. Taken together, these data suggest that cancer's immune suppressive effects are not limited to the tumor microenvironment, but that pre-existing malignancy induces phenotypic exhaustion in T cells by increasing expression of coinhibitory receptors and may impair pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation.

  15. Changes in Markers of T-Cell Senescence and Exhaustion With Atazanavir-, Raltegravir-, and Darunavir-Based Initial Antiviral Therapy: ACTG 5260s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Moser, Carlee; Stein, James H; Brown, Todd T; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Ribaudo, Heather J; Dube, Michael P; Yang, Otto O; Currier, Judith S; McComsey, Grace A

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether differential roles of CD4(+) versus CD8(+) T-cell senescence/exhaustion and effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on these processes may contribute to morbidity in treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. In a prospective 96-week trial, 328 HIV-infected ART-naive participants were randomly assigned to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir. Markers of CD4(+) T-cell senescence (ie, the percentage of CD28(-)CD57(+) cells among CD4(+) T cells ) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion (ie, the percentage of PD-1(+) cells among CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells) decreased after ART. There were no changes in markers of CD8(+) T-cell senescence after ART and no differential changes in all markers in ART groups. Senescent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells may have differential roles in HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27354367

  16. Investigation of Solar Cells Power Degradation Due to Electrostatic Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fayazi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellites are surrounded with protons, electrons and heavy charged particles. Space radiation impact on satellite sub-systems cause several anomalies which are important problem for satellite designers. Until recently, the majority of spacecraft primary power systems used solar arrays and rechargeable batteries to supply 28 V. For low-inclination spacecraft, 28 V systems have not been observed to arc. As the power requirements for spacecraft increased, however, high-voltage solar arrays were baselined to minimize total mass and increase power production efficiency. With the advent of 100 V systems in the late 1980s, arcing began to be observed on a number of spacecraft. The mechanism proposed in this paper, described electrical and physical degradation of solar cells due to electrostatic discharge anomalies on satellites. The cell was characterized again after arcing to determine the change in efficiency. This paper details the process for designing the circuit to create the arcing, and the different setups used to degrade the cells electrically and physically. It also describes the final setups to be used in space laboratory. This model is designed using Matlab and SPENVIS. Identification and simulation this mechanism is an important step in solar array design for space application

  17. Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-liang BU; Yu-dong JIA; Yu-ling MI; Jin-xing LIN; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    As a component of diesel exhaust particles,3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol,PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health.In the present study,the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant fiavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated.Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week.PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells).PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation,as well as a decrease in glutathione level,superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.Furthermore,treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells.In addition,testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice.In contrast,combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity.These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production.

  18. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...... exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels...

  19. Influence of steam injection through exhaust heat recovery on the design performance of solid oxide fuel cell . gas turbine hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed the influence of steam injection on the performance of hybrid systems combining a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. Two different configurations (pressurized system and ambient pressure system) were examined and the effects of injecting steam, generated by recovering heat from the exhaust gas, on system performances were compared. Performance variations according to the design of different turbine inlet temperatures were examined. Two representative gas turbine pressure ratios were used. Without steam injection, the pressurized system generally exhibits higher system efficiency than the ambient pressure system. The steam injection augments gas turbine power, thus increasing the power capacity of the hybrid system. The power boost effect due to the steam injection is generally greater in the relatively higher pressure ratio design in both the pressurized and ambient pressure systems. The effect of the steam injection on system efficiency varies depending on system configurations and design conditions. The pressurized system hardly takes advantage of the steam injection in terms of system efficiency. On the other hand, the steam injection contributes to the efficiency improvement of the ambient pressure system in some design conditions. In particular, a higher pressure ratio provides a better chance of efficiency increase due to the steam injection

  20. Wnt-inhibitory factor 1 dysregulation of the bone marrow niche exhausts hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schaniel, Christoph; Sirabella, Dario; Qiu, Jiajing; Niu, Xiaohong; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Moore, Kateri A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of Wnt signaling in hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions remains controversial. We elected to dysregulate Wnt signaling from the perspective of the stem cell niche by expressing the pan Wnt inhibitor, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), specifically in osteoblasts. Here we report that osteoblastic Wif1 overexpression disrupts stem cell quiescence, leading to a loss of self-renewal potential. Primitive stem and progenitor populations were more proliferative and elevated in bone marrow a...

  1. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  2. The polycomb group gene Ezh2 prevents hematopoietic stem cell exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Bystrykh, LV; Boer, AC; Houwer, S; Douma, J; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; de Haan, G

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for a decline of stem cell functioning after replicative stress remains unknown. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to identify genes involved in the process of cellular aging. In proliferating and senescent MEFs one of

  3. Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

  4. The Polycomb group gene Ezh2 prevents hematopoietic stem cell exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Kamminga, Leonie M.; Bystrykh, Leonid V; de Boer, Aletta; Houwer, Sita; Douma, José; Weersing, Ellen; Dontje, Bert; de Haan, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for a decline of stem cell functioning after replicative stress remains unknown. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to identify genes involved in the process of cellular aging. In proliferating and senescent MEFs one of the most differentially expressed transcripts was Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a Polycomb group protein (PcG) involved in histone methylation and deacetylation. Retroviral overexpression of ...

  5. cDNA microarray analysis of rat alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce pulmonary diseases including asthma and chronic bronchitis. Comprehensive evaluation is required to know the mechanisms underlying the effects of air pollutants including DEP on lung diseases. Using a cDNA microarray, we examined changes in gene expression in SV40T2 cells, a rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line, following exposure to an organic extract of DEP. We identified candidate sensitive genes that were up- or down-regulated in response to DEP. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that a 6-h exposure to the DEP extract (30 μg/ml) increased (>2-fold) the expression of 51 genes associated with drug metabolism, antioxidation, cell cycle/proliferation/apoptosis, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and decreased (<0.5-fold) that of 20 genes. In the present study, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an antioxidative enzyme, showed the maximum increase in gene expression; and type II transglutaminase (TGM-2), a regulator of coagulation, showed the most prominent decrease among the genes. We confirmed the change in the HO-1 protein level by Western blot analysis and that in the enzyme activity of TGM-2. The organic extract of DEP increased the expression of HO-1 protein and decreased the enzyme activity of TGM-2. Furthermore, these effects of DEP on either HO-1 or TGM-2 were reduced by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), thus suggesting that oxidative stress caused by this organic fraction of DEP may have induced these cellular responses. Therefore, an increase in HO-1 and a decrease in TGM-2 might be good markers of the biological response to organic compounds of airborne particulate substances

  6. Photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand based on an exhaustive degradation model in a thin-layer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the experimental optimisation of a newly developed photoelectrochemical system for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (PECOD). This method is developed based on a photoelectrochemical degradation principle. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is directly quantified by measuring the amount of electron transferred at a TiO2 nanoporous thin-film electrode during an exhaustive photoelectrocatalytic degradation process in a thin-layer photoelectrochemical cell. In this fashion, the COD value of a sample can be determined in a simple, rapid and accurate manner. The PECOD is a direct and absolute method that requires no calibration. The effects of important experimental conditions, such as light intensity, applied potential bias, supporting electrolyte concentration and oxygen concentration, on analytical performance have been investigated and optimum experimental conditions were obtained. Analytical linear range of 0-360 ppm COD with a practical detection limit of 0.2 ppm COD were achieved. Real sample analyses were also carried out. The results demonstrated that the measured COD values using the PECOD and the standard methods were in an excellent agreement

  7. TIGIT Marks Exhausted T Cells, Correlates with Disease Progression, and Serves as a Target for Immune Restoration in HIV and SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen M Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection induces phenotypic and functional changes to CD8+ T cells defined by the coordinated upregulation of a series of negative checkpoint receptors that eventually result in T cell exhaustion and failure to control viral replication. We report that effector CD8+ T cells during HIV infection in blood and SIV infection in lymphoid tissue exhibit higher levels of the negative checkpoint receptor TIGIT. Increased frequencies of TIGIT+ and TIGIT+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells correlated with parameters of HIV and SIV disease progression. TIGIT remained elevated despite viral suppression in those with either pharmacological antiretroviral control or immunologically in elite controllers. HIV and SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were dysfunctional and expressed high levels of TIGIT and PD-1. Ex-vivo single or combinational antibody blockade of TIGIT and/or PD-L1 restored viral-specific CD8+ T cell effector responses. The frequency of TIGIT+ CD4+ T cells correlated with the CD4+ T cell total HIV DNA. These findings identify TIGIT as a novel marker of dysfunctional HIV-specific T cells and suggest TIGIT along with other checkpoint receptors may be novel curative HIV targets to reverse T cell exhaustion.

  8. Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijata Sarkar

    Full Text Available Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2 nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™. We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays. Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV. Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical properties.

  9. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  10. Obstructive jaundice due to ampullary metastasis of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Karakatsanis, Andreas; Vezakis, Antonios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Staikou, Chryssa; Carvounis, Eleni E; Polydorou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is often characterized by the presence of metachronous metastases in unusual sites. The presence of isolated metastases is treated with surgical excision with good anticipated results. On the other hand, systemic chemotherapy is administered in the context of metastatic spread, usually sunitib or sorafenib. In such cases, however, the presence of symptomatic foci calls for minimal intervention. We present a case of a 77-year-old patient who presented with obstructive jaun...

  11. Diesel exhaust particulates affect cell signaling, mucin profiles, and apoptosis in trachea explants of Balb/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; de Toledo, Alessandra Choqueta; Martins, Milton Arruda; Seckler, Marcelo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Mauad, Thaís; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Macchione, Mariangela

    2015-11-01

    Particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP) has toxic properties and can activate intracellular signaling pathways and induce metabolic changes. This study was conducted to evaluate the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and to analyze the mucin profile (acid (AB(+) ), neutral (PAS(+) ), or mixed (AB/PAS(+) ) mucus) and vacuolization (V) of tracheal explants after treatment with 50 or 100 μg/mL DEP for 30 or 60 min. Western blot analyses showed small increases in ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation after 30 min of 100 μg/mL DEP treatment compared with the control. An increase in JNK phosphorylation was observed after 60 min of treatment with 50 μg/mL DEP compared with the control. We did not observe any change in the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after treatment with 50 μg/mL DEP. Other groups of tracheas were subjected to histological sectioning and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent and Alcian Blue (AB). The stained tissue sections were then subjected to morphometric analysis. The results obtained were compared using ANOVA. Treatment with 50 μg/mL DEP for 30 min or 60 min showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the amount of acid mucus, a reduction in neutral mucus, a significant reduction in mixed mucus, and greater vacuolization. Our results suggest that compounds found in DEPs are able to activate acid mucus production and enhance vacuolization and cell signaling pathways, which can lead to airway diseases. PMID:24777914

  12. Implication of scavenger receptors in the interactions between diesel exhaust particles and immature or mature dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassalle Philippe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP is associated with an increased incidence of respiratory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which DEP have an effect on human health are not completely understood. In addition to their action on macrophages and airway epithelial cells, DEP also modulate the functions of dendritic cells (DC. These professional antigen-presenting cells are able to discriminate unmodified self from non-self thanks to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll like Receptors (TLR and Scavenger Receptors (SR. SR were originally identified by their ability to bind and internalize modified lipoproteins and microorganisms but also particles and TLR agonists. In this study, we assessed the implication of SR in the effects of DEP associated or not with TLR agonists on monocyte-derived DC (MDDC. For this, we studied the regulation of CD36, CXCL16, LOX-1, SR-A1 and SR-B1 expression on MDDC treated with DEP associated or not with TLR2, 3 and 4 ligands. Then, the capacity of SR ligands (dextran sulfate and maleylated-ovalbumin to block the effects of DEP on the function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated DC has been evaluated. Results Our data demonstrate that TLR2 agonists mainly augmented CXCL16, LOX-1 and SR-B1 expression whereas DEP alone had only a weak effect. Interestingly, DEP modulated the action of TLR2 and TLR4 ligands on the expression of LOX-1 and SR-B1. Pretreatment with the SR ligand maleylated-ovalbumin but not dextran sulfate inhibited the endocytosis of DEP by MDDC. Moreover, this SR ligand blocked the effect by DEP at low dose (1 μg/ml on MDDC phenotype (a decrease of CD86 and HLA-DR expression and on the secretion of CXCL10, IL-12 and TNF-α. In contrast, the decrease of IL-12 and CXCL10 secretion and the generation of oxygen metabolite induced by DEP at 10 μg/ml was not affected by SR ligands Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the modulation of

  13. Naxos disease: Cardiocutaneous syndrome due to cell adhesion defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protonotarios Nikos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Naxos disease is a recessively inherited condition with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C and a cutaneous phenotype, characterised by peculiar woolly hair and palmoplantar keratoderma. The disease was first described in families originating from the Greek island of Naxos. Moreover, affected families have been identified in other Aegean islands, Turkey, Israel and Saudi Arabia. A syndrome with the same cutaneous phenotype and predominantly left ventricular involvement has been described in families from India and Ecuador (Carvajal syndrome. Woolly hair appears from birth, palmoplantar keratoderma develop during the first year of life and cardiomyopathy is clinically manifested by adolescence with 100% penetrance. Patients present with syncope, sustained ventricular tachycardia or sudden death. Symptoms of right heart failure appear during the end stages of the disease. In the Carvajal variant the cardiomyopathy is clinically manifested during childhood leading more frequently to heart failure. Mutations in the genes encoding the desmosomal proteins plakoglobin and desmoplakin have been identified as the cause of Naxos disease. Defects in the linking sites of these proteins can interrupt the contiguous chain of cell adhesion, particularly under conditions of increased mechanical stress or stretch, leading to cell death, progressive loss of myocardium and fibro-fatty replacement. Implantation of an automatic cardioverter defibrillator is indicated for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Antiarrhythmic drugs are used for preventing recurrences of episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia and classical pharmacological treatment for congestive heart failure, while heart transplantation is considered at the end stages.

  14. Increase in frequencies of circulating Th-17 cells correlates with microbial translocation, immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1 infected patients with poor CD4 T-cell reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Ranjini; Asthana, Deshratn

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the association of circulating Th-17 cells (cTh-17) with immune activation (IA), immune exhaustion (IE) and regulatory T-cells (T-regs) in 20 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients with impaired restoration of CD4 T-cell counts despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia (discordant) and compared it with 20 HIV-1 infected patients showing good immunologic and virologic responses (concordant) following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Discordant HIV-1 infected patients showed significantly higher frequencies of cTh-17 cells compared to concordant patients and healthy controls after PMA+Ionomicin stimulation. Discordant patients also showed higher CD4 T-cell immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+) than concordant patients which directly correlated with microbial translocation. Additionally, CD4 T-cells of discordant patients showed higher frequencies of CD4 T-cells expressing multiple immune exhaustion markers (Tim3+PD-1+) which correlated with immune activation indicating that combined analysis of inhibitory molecules along with PD-1 might be a better predictor for immune exhaustion of CD4 T-cells. Increased cTh-17 cell frequency correlated inversely with CD4 T-cell percentages and absolute counts and directly with CD4 T-cell immune activation and T-reg frequencies. Persistent CD4 T-cell immune activation might favor differentiation of activated CD4 T-cells toward cTh-17 phenotype in discordant patients. Discordant patients had significantly lower baseline CD4 T-cell counts and higher viral load at the initiation of HAART and higher immune activation and immune exhaustion after being on HAART for long time indicating that these factors might be associated with an increase in cTh-17 cell frequency, thus, increasing the risk of disease progression despite virologic control. PMID:26817581

  15. Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Chen, Min;

    2012-01-01

    plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance of the......This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based on a...... model accuracy and the optimization on system configuration. Future studies will concentrate on heat exchanger structures....

  16. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles regulate steroidogenic gene expression and steroid synthesis in the human H295R adrenocortical cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) have revealed that these chemicals possess estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro and in vivo and that PNMC accumulate in adrenal glands in vivo. However, the impacts of exposure to these compounds on adrenal endocrine disruption and steroidogenesis have not been investigated. To elucidate the non-receptor mediated effects of PNMC and PNMPP, we investigated the production of the steroid hormones progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol-17β and modulation of nine major enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP17, CYP19, 17βHSD1, 17βHSD4, CYP21, 3βHSD2, StAR) in human adrenal H295R cells supplied with cAMP. Exposure to 10-7 to 10-5 M PNMC and 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17β levels and increased progesterone secretion. At 10-5 M, PNMC with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulated expression of the 17βHSD4 and significantly suppressed expression of 3βHSD2. In comparison, 10-7 to 2 x 10-5 M PNMPP with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased concentrations of estradiol-17β, increased progesterone levels, but did not affect testosterone and cortisol secretion due to the significant suppression of CYP17 and the non-significant but obvious suppression of CYP19. Our results clarified steroidogenic enzymes as candidates responsible for the inhibition or stimulation for the production of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic pathway, thus providing the first experimental evidence for multiple mechanisms of disruption of endocrine pathways by these nitrophenols

  17. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  18. Gas generation mechanism due to electrolyte decomposition in commercial lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumai, Kazuma; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yo; Takei, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Rikio

    To elucidate the gas generation mechanism due to electrolyte decomposition in commercial lithium-ion cells after long cycling, we developed a device which can accurately determine the volume of generated gas in the cell. Experiments on Li xC 6/Li 1- xCoO 2 cells using electrolytes such as 1 M LiPF 6 in propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) are presented and discussed. In the nominal voltage range (4.2-2.5 V), compositional change due mainly to ester exchange reaction occurs, and gaseous products in the cell are little. Generated gas volume and compositional change in the electrolyte are detected largely in overcharged cells, and we discussed that gas generation due to electrolyte decomposition involves different decomposition reactions in overcharged and overdischarged cells.

  19. Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust...

  20. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production in endothelial cells following exposure to organic extracts of diesel exhaust particles and urban fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Akiko; Koike, Eiko [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Inhalation toxicology Team, Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, Seishiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, Takahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Inhalation toxicology Team, Tsukuba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Endothelial cells play important roles in anticoagulant and fibrinolytic systems. Recent studies suggest that increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels have been associated with an increase in mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases. We examined the production of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and factors related to the fibrinolytic function by rat heart microvessel endothelial cells exposed to organic extracts of diesel exhaust particles (OE-DEP) and urban fine particles (OE-UFP) to investigate the direct effects of these soluble organic fractions in these PM on the fibrinolytic function of endothelial cells. The cell monolayer exposed to 10 {mu}g/ml OE-DEP produced a larger amount of HO-1 than cells exposed to 10 {mu}g/ml OE-UFP. OE-DEP and OE-UFP exposure reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by the cells but did not affect the production of thrombomodulin, tissue-type plasminogen activator, or urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Increased PAI-1 synthesis in response to treatment with 1.0 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} or 0.5 ng/ml transforming growth factor-{beta}1 was reduced by OE-DEP exposure. Suppression of PAI-1 production by OE-DEP exposure was mediated through oxidative stress and was independent of HO-1 activity. These results suggest that exposure to the soluble organic fraction of PM and DEP induced oxidative stress and reduced the PAI-1 production of endothelial cells. (orig.)

  1. Convective cell formation and anomalous diffusion due to electromagnetic drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convective cell formation and spectral cascade processes due to gravitational drift Alfven waves are studied using a new type of model equation. Conservation relations are derived and explosive instability is found for systems near marginal finite β stability. This instability also remains when the effects of poor as well as favorable curvature regions are included, i.e., for ballooning modes. The anomalous diffusion due to convective cells and quasi-linear effects are compared

  2. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    OpenAIRE

    K Parandham Gowd; Gupta, R P; Sangeeta Jauhari

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. T...

  3. Enriched inorganic compounds in diesel exhaust particles induce mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, cytoskeleton instability, and cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; Junqueira, Mara S; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia E; Arruda, Alessandra C T; Martinez, Diana; Alencar, Adriano M; Garippo, Ana L; Brito, Jôse Mara; Martins, Milton A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Negri, Elnara M; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of the diesel exhaust particles on ERK and JNK MAPKs activation, cell rheology (viscoelasticity), and cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial airway cells (BEAS-2B). Crude DEP and DEP after extraction with hexane (DEP/HEX) were utilized. The partial reduction of some DEP/HEX organics increased the biodisponibility of many metallic elements. JNK and ERK were activated simultaneously by crude DEP with no alterations in viscoelasticity of the cells. Mitochondrial activity, however, revealed a decrease through the MTT assay. DEP/HEX treatment increased viscoelasticity and cytotoxicity (membrane damage), and also activated JNK. Our data suggest that the greater bioavailability of metals could be involved in JNK activation and, consequently, in the reduction of fiber coherence and increase in the viscoelasticity and cytotoxicity of BEAS cells. The adverse findings detected after exposure to crude DEP and to DEP/HEX reflect the toxic potential of diesel compounds. Considering the fact that the cells of the respiratory epithelium are the first line of defense between the body and the environment, our data contribute to a better understanding of the pathways leading to respiratory cell injury and provide evidence for the onset of or worsening of respiratory diseases caused by inorganic compounds present in DEP. PMID:25769681

  4. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  5. A Case of Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Organification Defect Associated wth Huerthle Cell Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital hypothyroidism due to organification defect was first reported by Haddad and Sidbury in 1959. The organification defect is easily proved by perchlorate discharge test. We experienced a patient who had large goiter, growth and mental retardation, and revealed positive response to perchlorate discharges test, and the surgical biopsied specimen showed Huerthle cell adenoma, which was probably due to chronic stimulation of thyroid stimulating hormone, or coexisted incidentally. Described here a case of congenital hypothyroidism due to organification defect associated with Huerthle cell adenoma, with review of some literatures.

  6. Degradation of solar cell electric performance due to arcing in LEO plasma environment

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Teppei; Hosoda, Satoshi; Kagawa, Hideshi; 奥村 哲平; 細田 聡史; Kim, Jeongho; Cho, Mengu; 香河 英史

    2005-01-01

    When we operate solar array at high voltage (greater than 100 V) in LEO environment, arcing occurs on the solar array surface. The solar cell can suffer degradation of electric performance due to only one arc with some probability. We performed degradation test of solar array coupons against arcing under simulated LEO environment in order to identify the threshold of arc energy to cause the solar cell degradation. The solar array coupons are made of silicon solar cells. The LCR circuit was at...

  7. Getting older can be exhausting

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary ...

  8. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  9. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the...

  10. Comparison of the toxicity of diesel exhaust produced by bio- and fossil diesel combustion in human lung cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Compte, Pierre; Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Müller, Loretta; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Alternative fuels are increasingly combusted in diesel- and gasoline engines and the contribution of such exhausts to the overall air pollution is on the rise. Recent findings on the possible adverse effects of biodiesel exhaust are contradictive, at least partly resulting from the various fuel qualities, engine types and different operation conditions that were tested. However, most of the studies are biased by undesired interactions between the exhaust samples and biological culture media. ...

  11. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham Gowd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. The aim of this research work is to experimentally measure the EMF radiated electronic pollution levels of cell phones in three different states such as on(sleep/idle mode, receive and transmit modes as an invisible environmental pollution. These measurements are carried out at the centre frequency of 1800 MHz and in the 300 MHz- 50 GHz frequency band. Another main aim is to carry out the projections of cell phones growth due to exponentially expanding mobile technology products, industrialization along with urbanization. Further to estimate the current (2013 EMF radiation pollution levels into environment and projections for 2030 due to cell phones.

  12. Oxidative damage to DNA by diesel exhaust particle exposure in co-cultures of human lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Roursgaard, Martin; Madsen, Claus Desler; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Møller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    epithelium and immune cells. Macrophages have important immune defence functions by engulfing insoluble foreign materials, including particles, although they might also promote or enhance inflammation. We investigated the effect of co-culturing type II lung epithelial A549 cells with macrophages upon...... relationship between levels of respiration and ROS production. In conclusion, exposure of mono-cultured cells to DEPs generated oxidative stress to DNA, whereas co-cultures with macrophages had lower levels of oxidatively damaged DNA than A549 epithelial cells....

  13. Acute Effect of One Incremental Exhausting Cycling Session with Hand on the Response of T and NK Cells of Immune System in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Habibi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various sorts of physical activites cause various changes in body immune system. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of one incremental exhausting cycling session with hand on the response of T and NK cells of immune system of male physical education students. Methods: In this study, twenty male subjects with mean age of 22.4±1.8(SD years, mean Vo2 max 41.7±7.1(SD ml/kg/min and mean BMI 23±1.87(SD kg/m2 were divided randomly into control(n=10 and experimental group(n=10. The subjects of experimental group performed Sawaka. Protocol, whereas the subjects of control group did not participate in any exercise activity. Blood samples were taken from brachial vein of control and experimental subjects during pre-test, post-test and two hours after the end of exercise. For analysis of statistical data, t-independent and t-correlated tests ( =0.05 significant were used. Results: Immediately after training, the percentage of CD8 (T and CD16.56 (NK cells increased significantly (P≤0.005, P≤0.001. On the other hand, the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells and the percentage of CD4 (T cells showed significant decrease (P≤0.002, P≤0.001. In addition, the percentage of CD56 and CD16 (NK cells did not change significantly. It is worth mentioning that these changes after two hours returned to the normal state at the end of the sport test (P≤0.251, P≤0.229. Conclusion: One acute training session with hand causes both increase and decrease in T and NK cells of immune system function. But, these changes are temporary and return back to normal levels within a few hours.

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  15. Ethanolamine requirement of mammary epithelial cells is due to reduced activity of base exchange enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial cells and some of their transformed derivatives require ethanolamine (Etn) to proliferate normally in defined culture medium. The amount of cellular phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is considerably reduced when these cells are cultured without Etn. Using Etn-responsive and -nonresponsive rat mammary carcinoma cell lines, the biochemical mechanism of Etn-responsiveness of investigated. The incorporation of [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and PtdEtn in Etn-responsive cells was 60 and 37%, respectively, of those in Etn-nonresponsive cells. There was no significant difference between the two cell types in the activities of enzymes involved in PtdEtn synthesis via CDP-Etn. The activity of PtdSer decarboxylase was also very similar in these two cell types. When these cells were cultured in the presence of [32P]PtdEtn, the rate of accumulation of [32P]-labeled PtdSer from the radioactive PtdEtn was considerably reduced in Etn-responsive cells as compared to Etn-nonresponsive cells. Whereas there was no significant difference in the accumulation of the labeled PtdSer from [32P]phosphatidylcholine. These results demonstrate that the Etn-responsiveness is due to a limited ability to synthesize PtdSer resulting from a limited base exchange activity utilizing PtdEtn

  16. Spontaneous pneumothorax due to bronchopleural fistula following reirradiation for locoregionally recurrent squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayo; Suzumura, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Takamune; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Yonesaka, Kimio; Makihara, Masaru; Tsukuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Takuhito; Fukuoka, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax following radiotherapy for pulmonary malignancy is an unusual clinical condition. Here, we report a case of a 78-year-old male suffering from dyspnea during radiotherapy for squamous cell lung cancer of the right main bronchus. Imaging studies and fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed that pneumothorax was due to a bronchopleural fistula. PMID:27190612

  17. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  18. Effects of an iron-based fuel-borne catalyst and a diesel particle filter on exhaust toxicity in lung cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Heeb, Norbert V; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Metal-containing fuel additives catalyzing soot combustion in diesel particle filters are used in a widespread manner, and with the growing popularity of diesel vehicles, their application is expected to increase in the near future. Detailed investigation into how such additives affect exhaust toxicity is therefore necessary and has to be performed before epidemiological evidence points towards adverse effects of their application. The present study investigates how the addition of an iron-based fuel additive (Satacen®3, 40 ppm Fe) to low-sulfur diesel affects the in vitro cytotoxic, oxidative, (pro-)inflammatory, and mutagenic activity of the exhaust of a passenger car operated under constant, low-load conditions by exposing a three-dimensional model of the human airway epithelium to complete exhaust at the air-liquid interface. We could show that the use of the iron catalyst without and with filter technology has positive as well as negative effects on exhaust toxicity compared to exhaust with no additives: it decreases the oxidative and, compared to a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter, the mutagenic potential of diesel exhaust, but increases (pro-)inflammatory effects. The presence of a diesel particle filter also influences the impact of Satacen®3 on exhaust toxicity, and the proper choice of the filter type to be used is of importance with regards to exhaust toxicity. Figure ᅟ. PMID:24880869

  19. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  20. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I–V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  1. Analyses of extracted biodiesel and petroleum diesel exhaust particle and the effects on endothelial cell toxicity and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable energy source and is readily substituted in diesel engines. Combustion of biodiesel is cleaner due to the efficiency of the fuel to completely combust. Biodiesel combustion emissions contain less CO, PAHs, aldehydes, and particulate matter (PM) mas...

  2. Schlieren imaging of microthruster exhausts for qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlieren imaging is a method used to visualize differences in refractive index within a medium. It is a powerful and straightforward tool for sensitive and high-resolution visualization of, e.g., gas flows. Here, heated cold gas microthrusters were studied with this technique. The thrusters are manufactured using microelectromechanical systems technology and measure 22 × 22 × 0.85 mm3. The nozzles are approximately 20 µm wide at the throat and 350 µm wide at the exit. Through these studies, verification of the functionality of the thrusters and direct visualization of the thruster exhausts were possible. At atmospheric pressure, slipping of the exhaust was observed, due to severe overexpansion of the nozzle. In vacuum (3 kPa), the exhaust was imaged while feed pressure was varied from 100 to 450 kPa. The nozzle was overexpanded, and the flow was seen to be supersonic. The shock cell period, ranging from 320 to 610 µm, was linearly dependent on feed pressure. With activated heaters, the shock cell separation increased. The effect of the heaters was more prominent at low feed pressure, and an increase in specific impulse of 20% was calculated. It was also shown that schlieren imaging can be used to detect leaks, making it a valuable, safe and noninvasive aid in quality control of the thrusters. (paper)

  3. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  4. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  5. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-12-15

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  6. Phenotypic T Cell Exhaustion in a Murine Model of Bacterial Infection in the Setting of Pre-Existing Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Rohit; Wagener, Maylene; Breed, Elise R.; Liang, Zhe; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L.

    2014-01-01

    While much of cancer immunology research has focused on anti-tumor immunity both systemically and within the tumor microenvironment, little is known about the impact of pre-existing malignancy on pathogen-specific immune responses. Here, we sought to characterize the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response following a bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice with established subcutaneous pancreatic adenocarcinomas were infected with Listeria monocytogen...

  7. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weidong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1 null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+ using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+ to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP

  8. Proteomic analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, coal tar extract, and diesel exhaust extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooven, L.A.; Baird, W.M. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. for Zoology

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adducts have been associated with carcinogenesis, which is accompanied by multiple alterations in gene expression. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis to distinguish protein expression changes induced in MCF-7 cells by individual PAH (B(a)P and DB(a,l)P) and PAH mixtures (coal tar extract (SRM 1597) and diesel exhaust extract (SRM 1975)). Spots of interest were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Our results have shown alterations in the expression of heat-shock proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, DNA associated proteins, and glycolytic and mitochondrial proteins. The proteins that were universally altered in expression were actin cytoplasmic 1, tubulin alpha and myosin light chain alkali, cyclophilin B, and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein B1 (a protein involved in access to telomerase and mRNA maturation). Additional proteins with altered expression include histone H{sub 2}A.1, heat-shock protein 70-2, galectin-3, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, ATP synthase, and electron transfer flavoprotein. While sharing similarities, each PAH treatment exhibited a unique proteomic fingerprint.

  9. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission. PMID:25184737

  10. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  11. Ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the exhaust far downstream of the reconnection x-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Keizo, E-mail: keizo.fujimoto@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takamoto, Makoto [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 114-0015 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We have investigated the ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the reconnection exhaust far downstream of the x-line where the exhaust width is much larger than the ion gyro-radius. A large-scale particle-in-cell simulation shows that most ions are accelerated through the Speiser-type motion in the current sheet formed at the center of the exhaust. The transition layers formed at the exhaust boundary are not identified as slow mode shocks. (The layers satisfy mostly the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for a slow mode shock, but the energy conversion hardly occurs there.) We find that the ion drift velocity is modified around the layer due to a finite Larmor radius effect. As a result, the ions are accumulated in the downstream side of the layer, so that collimated ion jets are generated. The electrons experience two steps of acceleration in the exhaust. The first is a parallel acceleration due to the out-of-plane electric field E{sub y} which has a parallel component in most area of the exhaust. The second is a perpendicular acceleration due to E{sub y} at the center of the current sheet and the motion is converted to the parallel direction. Because of the second acceleration, the electron outflow velocity becomes almost uniform over the exhaust. The difference in the outflow profile between the ions and electrons results in the Hall current in large area of the exhaust. The present study demonstrates the importance of the kinetic treatments for collisionless magnetic reconnection even far downstream from the x-line.

  12. Ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the exhaust far downstream of the reconnection x-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the reconnection exhaust far downstream of the x-line where the exhaust width is much larger than the ion gyro-radius. A large-scale particle-in-cell simulation shows that most ions are accelerated through the Speiser-type motion in the current sheet formed at the center of the exhaust. The transition layers formed at the exhaust boundary are not identified as slow mode shocks. (The layers satisfy mostly the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for a slow mode shock, but the energy conversion hardly occurs there.) We find that the ion drift velocity is modified around the layer due to a finite Larmor radius effect. As a result, the ions are accumulated in the downstream side of the layer, so that collimated ion jets are generated. The electrons experience two steps of acceleration in the exhaust. The first is a parallel acceleration due to the out-of-plane electric field Ey which has a parallel component in most area of the exhaust. The second is a perpendicular acceleration due to Ey at the center of the current sheet and the motion is converted to the parallel direction. Because of the second acceleration, the electron outflow velocity becomes almost uniform over the exhaust. The difference in the outflow profile between the ions and electrons results in the Hall current in large area of the exhaust. The present study demonstrates the importance of the kinetic treatments for collisionless magnetic reconnection even far downstream from the x-line

  13. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  14. Single-epitope DNA vaccination prevents exhaustion and facilitates a broad antiviral CD8+ T cell response during chronic viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Christina; Stryhn, Anette; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2004-01-01

    Induction of a monospecific antiviral CD8+ T cell response may pose a risk to the host due to the narrow T cell response induced. At the individual level, this may result in selection of CD8+ T cell escape variants, particularly during chronic viral infection. Second, prior immunization toward a...... single dominant epitope may suppress the response to other viral epitopes, and this may lead to increased susceptibility to reinfection with escape variants circulating in the host population. To address these issues, we induced a memory response consisting solely of monospecific, CD8+ T cells by use of...... DNA vaccines encoding immunodominant epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We analyzed the spectrum of the CD8+ T cell response and the susceptibility to infection in H-2(b) and H-2(d) mice. Priming for a monospecific, CD8+ T cell response did not render mice susceptible to viral...

  15. Involvement of MEK-ERK1-2 pathway in the anti-oxidant response in C6 glioma cells after diesel exhaust particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Francesca; Milani, Chiara; Botto, Laura; Lonati, Elena; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Palestini, Paola

    2016-05-27

    Ultrafine particles translocate to the central nervous system and activate oxidative stress-related pathways. The transcription factor Nrf2 activation by ERK1-2 has been suggested as a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. C6 glioma cells have been treated with different doses of diesel exhaust particles (25μg/ml, DEP25, and 50μg/ml, DEP50), for different times. Cells have been screened for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, and for the activation of the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway. The same markers have been examined after inhibition of MEK, the kinase upstream to ERK1-2. 3h and 24h of DEP25 and DEP50 induced a significant increase in HO-1 levels. After 24h, DEP25 and DEP50 induced an increase in HO-1 and Cyp1b1 levels, while increase in OGG1 level was observed only with DEP25. After 5h of treatment with DEP25, ERK1-2 resulted phosphorylated, concomitantly with a significant increase in HO-1 levels, no changes in iNOS levels, and decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes. After treatment with MEK inhibitor U0126, ERK1-2 showed no activation, with a consequent decrease in Nrf2, no increase in HO-1 and a significant increase of iNOS. MEK inhibitor is able to deplete anti-oxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway is involved in regulating the anti-oxidant strategies to compensate the oxidative status induced by DEP treatment. PMID:27091075

  16. Cell toxicity and oxidative potential of engine exhaust particles: impact of using particulate filter or biodiesel fuel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Leseman, Daan L A C; Samaras, Zissis; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-06-01

    The link between emissions of vehicular particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects is well established. However, the influence of new emission control technologies and fuel types on both PM emissions and health effects has been less well investigated. We examined the health impact of PM emissions from two vehicles equipped with or without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both vehicles were powered either with diesel (B0) or a 50% v/v biodiesel blend (B50). The DPF effectively decreased PM mass emissions (∼85%), whereas the fuel B50 without DPF lead to less reduction (∼50%). The hazard of PM per unit distance driven was decreased for the DPF-equipped vehicle as indicated by a reduced cytotoxicity, oxidative, and pro-inflammatory potential. This was not evident and even led to an increase when the hazard was expressed on a per unit of mass basis. In general, the PM oxidative potential was similar or reduced for the B50 compared to the B0 powered vehicle. However, the use of B50 resulted in increased cytotoxicity and IL-6 release in BEAS-2B cells irrespective of the expression metric. This study shows that PM mass reduction achieved by the use of B50 will not necessarily decrease the hazard of engine emissions, while the application of a DPF has a beneficial effect on both PM mass emission and PM hazard. PMID:23597117

  17. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  18. Monitoring, recording and balance assessment of the release of radioactive substances via the exhaust air and waste water of Siemens' Hot Cell Facility at Seligenstaedter Strasse 100 in Karlstein, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual radioactive releases from Siemens' hot cell facility in Karlstein, Germany, via exhaust air and waste water are far lower than the permitted release values of 2 x 106 Bq (via water) and 5 x 104 Bq (via air). The equipment, procedures and methods applied at Karlstein for monitoring releases, recording data and keeping the required activity balance sheet are described in the report. (orig.)

  19. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements for...

  20. Oxidant generation and toxicity enhancement of aged-diesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianfeng; Wyatt, Anna; Kamens, Richard M.

    Diesel exhaust related airborne Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease. The underlying toxicological mechanisms are of great scientific interest. A hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. In this study, the main objective was to determine whether aged-diesel exhaust PM has a higher oxidant generation and toxicity than fresh diesel exhaust PM. The diesel exhaust PM was generated from a 1980 Mercedes-Benz model 300SD, and a dual 270 m 3 Teflon film chamber was utilized to generate two test atmospheres. One side of the chamber is used to produce ozone-diesel exhaust PM system, and another side of the chamber was used to produce diesel exhaust PM only system. A newly optimized dithiothreitol (DTT) method was used to assess their oxidant generation and toxicity. The results of this study showed: (1) both fresh and aged-diesel exhaust PM had high oxidant generation and toxicity; (2) ozone-diesel exhaust PM had a higher toxicity response than diesel exhaust PM only; (3) the diesel exhaust PM toxicity increased with time; (4) the optimized DTT method could be used as a good quantitative chemical assay for oxidant generation and toxicity measurement.

  1. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  2. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust particles exhibit alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity associated with decrease in antioxidant defenses and imbalance in pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; de Souza, Claudia Emanuele Carvalho; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Frias, Daniela Perroni; Matsuda, Monique; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Ferreira, Márcia Zotti Justo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines produce adverse alterations in cells of the airways by activating intracellular signaling pathways and apoptotic gene overexpression, and also by influencing metabolism and cytoskeleton changes. This study used human bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) in culture and evaluates their exposure to DEPs (15ug/mL for 1 and 2 h) in order to determine changes to cell rheology (viscoelasticity) and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEPs were found to have a significant loss in stiffness, membrane stability, and mitochondrial activity. The genes involved in apoptosis [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 and caspase-3)] presented inversely proportional expressions (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively), low expression of the genes involved in antioxidant responses [SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1); SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) (p = 0.01)], along with an increase in cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) (p = 0.01). These results suggest that alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity could be associated with oxidative stress and imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. PMID:26856867

  3. Analysis on Impulse Characteristics of PDRE with Exhaust Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-bo; Weng, Chun-sheng; Lv, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning

    2014-06-01

    The exhaust characteristics related to impulse was investigated in a pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE) by tunable diode laser absorption sensing system. The instantaneous parameters of temperature, velocity and pressure were obtained for exhaust at engine exit. Analysis on impulse characteristics based on control volume of the PDRE was conducted for a single operation circle with experimental results. It was concluded that the impulse (3.26 N·s) achieved by exhaust measurements was in agreement with that (3.09 N·s) by a load cell. The impulse caused by exhaust momentum experienced an extremely sharp ascending, a steep rising and a slow increment in sequence. The exhausts during the sharp ascending and steep rising were under expansion with high mass weighted average temperature (>1266 K), so there was a possible promotion for exhausts utilizing.

  4. Modal Analysis of Exhaust System

    OpenAIRE

    Myrén, Marcus; Olsson, Jörgen

    1999-01-01

    A modal analysis is performed on an exhaust system for cars. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are correlated between experimental and finite element models. MAC-values are calculated. Theories and guidelines for modal analyses of exhaust systems are discussed.

  5. Soy Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Emissions Differ in Size, Chemical Composition and Stimulation of Inflammatory Responses in Cells and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E; Palmer, Brian C.; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine usin...

  6. Degradation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells due to CO and CO 2 poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Mon; Chu, Hsin-Sen; Lu, Meng-Xi; Weng, Fang-Bor; Jung, Guo-Bin; Lee, Chi-Yuan

    The CO and CO 2 poisoning effects on the degradation of cell performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) under transient stage were investigated. The mechanism of CO poisoning lies in the preferential adsorbing of CO to the platinum surface and the blocking of active sites of hydrogen. These phenomena were described with adsorption, desorption, and electro-oxidation processes of CO and hydrogen in the present work. In addition, it is well known that the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS) is the main effect of the CO 2 poisoning, through which a large part of the catalytic surface area becomes inactive due to the hydrogen dissociation. The predicted results showed that, by contaminating the fuel with 10 ppm CO at the condition of P H = 0.8 atm and PCO2 = 0.2 atm , the current density of the PEM fuel cell was lowered 28% with rate constant of RWGS k rs from zero to 0.02. With 50 ppm CO, the performance drop was only 18%. For the reformed gas, CO 2 poisoning became much more significantly when the CO content in the reactant gas was small.

  7. Chylomicron remnant model emulsions induce intracellular cholesterol accumulation and cell death due to lysosomal destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Kyoko; Morita, Shin-ya; Okamoto, Naoko; Takata, Eriko; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Chylomicron remnants, which carry dietary fats and cholesterol, play a role in promoting atherosclerosis. Chylomicron remnants are characterized by high cholesterol content at the surface, different from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) containing high amounts of esterified cholesterol (CE) in the core. We prepared cholesterol-rich emulsions (TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions) as models for chylomicron remnants and compared their effects on J774 macrophages with acetylated-LDL (ac-LDL). Internalization of TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions into macrophages reduced cell viability, whereas ac-LDL did not. Surprisingly, there was no difference in intracellular free cholesterol content between cells incubated with TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions and with ac-LDL. Furthermore, cholesterol in TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions and ac-LDL both were internalized into J774 macrophages; however, incubation with TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions induced leakage of lysosomal protease, cathepsin-L, to cytosol, which was not observed for incubation with ac-LDL. Inhibition of the activity of cathepsin-L recovered the viability of macrophages that ingested TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions. We suggest an alternative fate of cholesterol-rich emulsions taken up by macrophages, which is different from other atherogenic lipoproteins rich in CE; internalization of TO-PC/cholesterol emulsions into macrophages induces rapid free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes and cell death due to lysosomal destabilization. PMID:25661161

  8. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponenti...

  9. The effect of AQP3 deficiency on fuel selection during a single bout of exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Han, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Hae-Rahn

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is an integral membrane protein that facilitates the transport of water and glycerol across cell membranes. However, the precise localization and function of AQP3 in skeletal muscles is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity of AQP3 knockout mice to perform a single bout of exhausting exercise and analyzed the parameters related to skeletal muscle energy metabolism during exhausting exercise. Mice were exposed to a single bout of treadmill running at a speed of 12 m/min with 10° inclination until exhaustion, and sacrificed immediately, 24 h and 48 h after exercise. Both immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence staining revealed that AQP3 is expressed at the cell surface with no evidence of colocalization with either AQP1 or AQP4 in hamstring skeletal muscles. When exposed to a single bout of exhaustive exercise, AQP3 knockout mice fatigued more easily with the average time to exhaustion shorter than the wild-type mice. After exhausting exercise, plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, muscle triglyceride, and muscle free fatty acid levels decreased compared with the values before exercise in both AQP3 knockout and wild-type mice. However, muscle glycerol concentration after exercise decreased in the wild-type mice, but rather increased in AQP3 knockout mice. These findings suggest that decreased glycerol efflux from the skeletal muscles in AQP3 knockout mice may result in low exercise capacity, presumably due to the limitations in the constant energy supply through hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol during the prolonged endurance exercise. PMID:27138166

  10. Ileal Intussusception Due to Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Resected 12 Years Previously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Chino, Osamu; Tajima, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Yokoyama, Daiki; Hanashi, Tomoko; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2015-12-01

    An 88-year-old woman, with a history of resection of stage IIA lung cancer in 1998, was referred to our hospital in August 2010 complaining of upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and dark brown stools. After endoscopic examination, she was admitted with a diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Vomiting occurred when food intake was resumed after fasting. Intestinal obstruction was suspected on abdominal radiography, and complete small bowel obstruction was confirmed by contrast-enhanced imaging after placement of an ileus tube. A small intestinal tumor with intussusception was detected by computed tomography. At laparotomy, there was no ascites. Intussusception was found due to an ileal tumor located approximately 50 cm from the ileocecal valve, and we performed partial small bowel resection. The resected small intestine contained a submucosal tumor approximately 40 mm in diameter that had penetrated the bowel wall to reach the serosa. Pathological examination revealed a submucosal tumor that showed poor continuity with the surrounding mucosa, while the histology was squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was CK7 positive, CK20 negative, TTF-1 negative, and CK10 positive. Based on these findings, we made a diagnosis of small intestinal metastasis at 12 years after radical resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:26662663

  11. Phosphor-doping enhanced efficiency in bilayer organic solar cells due to longer exciton diffusion length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated bilayer organic solar cells (OSCs) in the structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PtOEP:MEH-PPV/C70/Al, where MEH-PPV was doped with platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP). Enhanced exciton diffusion length (LD) is realized via converting generated singlet excitons to triplet excitons. Investigation based on transfer matrix simulations reveals that it is the extended exciton LD of the doping donor layer that leads to the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement, when compared with those of the OSCs with a non-doping donor layer. As a result of the increased LD, Jsc and PCE increase by 30% and 42% respectively for a device with 5 wt% PtOEP-doped 25 nm-thick donor layer. Meanwhile, by doping with phosphorescent bis(1-phenyl-isoquinoline)(acetylacetonato)iridium(III), the reduction in open-circuit voltage and the comparable Jsc are shown due to its higher HOMO level and higher LUMO level, leading to the decrease of PCE. It demonstrates that doping a polymer with a suitable phosphorescent molecule is an important approach to be considered to increase the exciton LD. - Highlights: • Optical model based on transfer matrix method was used to study phosphor-doped organic planar hetero-junction solar cells. • The enhanced exciton diffusion length was experimentally investigated by absorption, PL, time-resolved transient PL, J–V and EQE curves. • Only suitable phosphor dyes can increase exciton diffusion length

  12. Lifespan differences in hematopoietic stem cells are due to imperfect repair and unstable mean-reversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans B Sieburg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-long supply of blood cells depends on the long-term function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs are functionally defined by their multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. Because of their self-renewal capacity, HSCs were thought to have indefinite lifespans. However, there is increasing evidence that genetically identical HSCs differ in lifespan and that the lifespan of a HSC is predetermined and HSC-intrinsic. Lifespan is here defined as the time a HSC gives rise to all mature blood cells. This raises the intriguing question: what controls the lifespan of HSCs within the same animal, exposed to the same environment? We present here a new model based on reliability theory to account for the diversity of lifespans of HSCs. Using clonal repopulation experiments and computational-mathematical modeling, we tested how small-scale, molecular level, failures are dissipated at the HSC population level. We found that the best fit of the experimental data is provided by a model, where the repopulation failure kinetics of each HSC are largely anti-persistent, or mean-reverting, processes. Thus, failure rates repeatedly increase during population-wide division events and are counteracted and decreased by repair processes. In the long-run, a crossover from anti-persistent to persistent behavior occurs. The cross-over is due to a slow increase in the mean failure rate of self-renewal and leads to rapid clonal extinction. This suggests that the repair capacity of HSCs is self-limiting. Furthermore, we show that the lifespan of each HSC depends on the amplitudes and frequencies of fluctuations in the failure rate kinetics. Shorter and longer lived HSCs differ significantly in their pre-programmed ability to dissipate perturbations. A likely interpretation of these findings is that the lifespan of HSCs is determined by preprogrammed differences in repair capacity.

  13. TUNEL-positive cells in the surgical border of an amputation due to infected diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker-Méndez, C; Guzmán-Aguilar, R M; Hernández-Cueto, M A; Huerta-Yepez, S; Jarillo-Luna, R A; González-Veyrand, E; González-Bonilla, C R

    2012-02-01

    Diabetic infected foot is the outcome of progressive vascular and neurological damage caused by persistent chronic hyperglycemia. Due to acute hypoxia and infection, the tissues develop extensive necrosis and gangrene, which often require amputation. The decision regarding the level of amputation relies mainly on the personal experience of the surgeon who must identify the healthy tissue without necrosis. However, tissue cells under stress may succumb before clear evidence of necrosis is present. In this study, dying cells with DNA damage were identified in the necrotic lesions and surgical borders of amputations. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to identify apoptosis in the surgical borders of amputations required to treat infected diabetic foot. Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated bio-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the superficial and deep tissues of wounds, and in the surgical borders of 10 consecutive adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) who underwent amputation due to infected diabetic foot. The severity of the disease was classified by the Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score on admission, and laboratory data were collected and bacteriological cultures were obtained from the lesions. The ankle/arm blood pressure index was measured, the blood flow in the affected limb was evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography and color Doppler and pulse oximetry were performed during surgery. A total of 5 males and 5 females, aged 45-84 years (58.8 ± 14.1), were included. The APACHE II score was 2-18 points (8 ± 5.7). A total of 9 patients developed sepsis and 2 succumbed. A total of 5 patients required above-ankle amputation, and 5 required toe disarticulation. The ankle/arm blood pressure index ranged from 0.23-0.85 (0.51 ± 0.23). Apoptotic cells were found in ulcers and abscesses, and in areas without necrosis. In the surgical borders of the amputations

  14. Processing of exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon carbide is an important component in exhaust gas filters for diesel engines. Norway produces and refines SiC, which is used in fireproof and ceramic industry and as an abrasive. It is also increasingly used in electronic industry. The emission from diesel engines consists of small spherical soot particles with an appendage of fuel, lubricating oil, water and sulphur compounds. These particles are intercepted by silicon carbide filters. There is a world-wide demand for environmentally friendly diesel engines and a growing demand for silicon carbide. From 2002, the EU permits a maximum emission of 0.025 grams per km of driving

  15. Heat transfer and chemical kinetics in the exhaust system of a cold-start engine fitted with a three-way catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.H.; Hoang, D.L. [Nanyang Technological Univ., School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang (Singapore); Zhou, P.L. [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ., Dept. of Marine Technology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    Modelling of cold-start engine exhaust behaviour is a difficult task as it involves complicated heat transfer processes associated with water condensation and evaporation at the walls of the exhaust manifold/pipe and monolith cells, and the chemical reactions of CO/HC/NO in the three-way catalytic converter. This paper presents a model that is capable of predicting the exhaust gas temperatures along the exhaust system and across the catalyst monolith, both spatially and temporally, from the moment when the engine is cranked. The conversions of CO/HC/NO to harmless carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen at the catalytic converter downstream have been validated satisfactorily by the experimental data. The distortion of measured NO emission data/signals due to the dynamic behaviour of the chemiluminescence analyser has been reconstructed by means of a signal inference technique before these signals were used to validate the predictive capability of the model developed. (Author)

  16. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Protection by IGF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34+ irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34+ from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. (author)

  17. Phosphor-doping enhanced efficiency in bilayer organic solar cells due to longer exciton diffusion length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kang [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Hou, Lintao, E-mail: thlt@jnu.edu.cn [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: wangping996633@163.com [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xia, Yuxin [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen, Dongcheng; Xiao, Biao [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-07-01

    We fabricated bilayer organic solar cells (OSCs) in the structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PtOEP:MEH-PPV/C{sub 70}/Al, where MEH-PPV was doped with platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP). Enhanced exciton diffusion length (L{sub D}) is realized via converting generated singlet excitons to triplet excitons. Investigation based on transfer matrix simulations reveals that it is the extended exciton L{sub D} of the doping donor layer that leads to the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement, when compared with those of the OSCs with a non-doping donor layer. As a result of the increased L{sub D}, J{sub sc} and PCE increase by 30% and 42% respectively for a device with 5 wt% PtOEP-doped 25 nm-thick donor layer. Meanwhile, by doping with phosphorescent bis(1-phenyl-isoquinoline)(acetylacetonato)iridium(III), the reduction in open-circuit voltage and the comparable J{sub sc} are shown due to its higher HOMO level and higher LUMO level, leading to the decrease of PCE. It demonstrates that doping a polymer with a suitable phosphorescent molecule is an important approach to be considered to increase the exciton L{sub D}. - Highlights: • Optical model based on transfer matrix method was used to study phosphor-doped organic planar hetero-junction solar cells. • The enhanced exciton diffusion length was experimentally investigated by absorption, PL, time-resolved transient PL, J–V and EQE curves. • Only suitable phosphor dyes can increase exciton diffusion length.

  18. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments...... due to the much higher level of transition metals. CONCLUSION: Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and...... can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were...

  19. Tolvaptan Treatment in Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion due to Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahit Gur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experience of ADH receptor antagonist (-vaptanes treatment in hyponatremia in malign patient is very limited. 68 years old male patient admitted to our department with a complain of nause, vomitting and epigastric pain. He has advanced stage of small cell lung cancer. He had treated with cisplatin and etoposide regimen 10 days ago as a first cure. We diagnosed inapropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome (SIADH with low sodium level (118 meq/dl. Although the treatment with water restriction and 3% NaCl infusion, sodium level was not in normal. So we ordered 30 mg tolvaptan tablet. And then sodium levels were reached normal. After one month of discharge from hospital, he has hospitilized with same symptom and diagnosis. And again we ordered same treatment procedure and tolvaptane treatment. He had normal sodium (136 mEq/dl level during his follow up. This case demostrate that tolvaptane treatment is suitable aproaches in hyponatremia due to SIADH in oncologic patient.

  20. Secondary Involvement of the Mandible due to Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mosannen Mozaffary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cutaneous malignancy among Caucasians. Rare examples of aggressive and neglected BCC have been reported. Here we report a unique case of a neglected BCC with significant jaw involvement. A 50-year-old female, referred by an otorhinologist, presented with a large ulcer on her chin, which was extended to her mandibular vestibule. The ulcer was 9×5.5 cm in size, and tissue destruction, necrosis was observed in the central portion, and the mandibular bone was exposed. On intraoral examination, tooth mobility and severe bone loss were evident. Due to the primary cutaneous origin of the lesion, BCC was considered as preliminary diagnosis. Biopsy was performed and diagnosis of BCC was confirmed. The diseased mandibular bone was resected and reconstructed with a surgical plate. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with deltopectoral flap. The patient refused secondary stage plastic surgery. Although BCC is not a lethal malignancy, if left untreated and neglected, it can result in severe destruction, disfigurement, and even mortality.

  1. MMP-19 deficiency causes aggravation of colitis due to defects in innate immune cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, R; Tureckova, J; Kanchev, I; Khoylou, M; Skarda, J; Prochazka, J; Spoutil, F; Beck, I M; Zbodakova, O; Kasparek, P; Korinek, V; Chalupsky, K; Karhu, T; Herzig, K-H; Hajduch, M; Gregor, M; Sedlacek, R

    2016-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potential biomarkers for disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials targeting MMPs have not succeeded, likely due to poor understanding of the biological functions of individual MMPs. Here, we explore the role of MMP-19 in IBD pathology. Using a DSS-induced model of colitis, we show evidence for increased susceptibility of Mmp-19-deficient (Mmp-19(-/-)) mice to colitis. Absence of MMP-19 leads to significant disease progression, with reduced survival rates, severe tissue destruction, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory modulators in the colon and plasma, and failure to resolve inflammation. There was a striking delay in neutrophil infiltration into the colon of Mmp-19(-/-) mice during the acute colitis, leading to persistent inflammation and poor recovery; this was rescued by reconstitution of irradiated Mmp-19(-/-) mice with wild-type bone marrow. Additionally, Mmp-19-deficient macrophages exhibited decreased migration in vivo and in vitro and the mucosal barrier appeared compromised. Finally, chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) was identified as a novel substrate of MMP-19, suggesting a link between insufficient processing of CX3CL1 and cell recruitment in the Mmp-19(-/-) mice. MMP-19 proves to be a critical factor in balanced host response to colonic pathogens, and for orchestrating appropriate innate immune response in colitis. PMID:26555704

  2. Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Joeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS, cell energy production (ATP and cell lysosome integrity (NRU. The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549 and liver (HepG2 derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more

  3. 241-SY modular exhauster pad analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to show the analytical results which were reached in analyzing the new 241-SY modular exhauster concrete pad and retaining wall. The analysis covers wind loading (80 mph), an equivalent static load due to a seismic event, and from those two results, a determination of the pad thickness and the location and size of reinforcement bar was made. The analysis of the exhauster assembly and sampling cabinet evaluated overturning of the assemblies as a whole. An analysis was then performed for the bolting requirements for these two assemblies. The reason why this was broken up into components was to determine if the individual components could take the load exerted by the workset case loading condition, whether it be wind or seismic. The retaining wall that will be located near the new concrete pad was also analyzed. The retaining wall was evaluated to determine the area of reinforcement required, the location of reinforcement, as well as the mass and configuration of the wall to prevent overturning or sliding. The wall was considered Non-Safety Class 4. Additional piping was required to tie-in the new exhauster to the existing primary ventilation ductwork. The design for the tie-in includes two butterfly valves, a tee fitting, elbows, flanges, straight pipe sections, and two new pipe supports to accommodate the additional weight. The valves will enable the new and existing exhausters to be isolated independently. The ductwork, couplings, and supports were analyzed for structural adequacy given Safety Class 2 loads

  4. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  5. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major were examined by immunohistochemistry, and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC......, identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some...... keratinocytes and endothelial cells also showed these characteristics, they may also act as APC. By examining tissue samples from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes it was possible to follow the probable route of trafficking of various inflammatory cells between the skin lesion and lymph nodes. Leishmania...

  6. Host Cell Death due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Has Features of Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, John K.; Majumdar, Swastika; Pickhardt, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a cause of prolonged watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. The ability of EPEC to kill host cells was investigated in vitro in assays using two human cultured cell lines, HeLa (cervical) and T84 (colonic). EPEC killed epithelial cells as assessed by permeability to the vital dyes trypan blue and propidium iodide. In addition, EPEC triggered changes in the host cell, suggesting apoptosis as the mode of death; such changes included earl...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  9. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  10. Host cell death due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli has features of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, J K; Majumdar, S; Pickhardt, D F

    1999-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a cause of prolonged watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. The ability of EPEC to kill host cells was investigated in vitro in assays using two human cultured cell lines, HeLa (cervical) and T84 (colonic). EPEC killed epithelial cells as assessed by permeability to the vital dyes trypan blue and propidium iodide. In addition, EPEC triggered changes in the host cell, suggesting apoptosis as the mode of death; such changes included early expression of phosphatidylserine on the host cell surface and internucleosomal cleavage of host cell DNA. Genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and wortmannin, an inhibitor of host phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, markedly increased EPEC-induced cell death and enhanced the features of apoptosis. EPEC-induced cell death was contact dependent and required adherence of live bacteria to the host cell. A quantitative assay for EPEC-induced cell death was developed by using the propidium iodide uptake method adapted to a fluorescence plate reader. With EPEC, the rate and extent of host cell death were less that what has been reported for Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, three other genera of enteric bacteria known to cause apoptosis. However, rapid apoptosis of the host cell may not favor the pathogenic strategy of EPEC, a mucosa-adhering, noninvasive pathogen. PMID:10225923

  11. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer: an unproven association.

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer associated with diesel exhaust has been calculated from 14 case-control or cohort studies. We evaluated the findings from these studies to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to implicate diesel exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Four studies found increased risks associated with long-term exposure, although two of the four studies were based on the same cohort of railroad workers. Six studies were inconclusive due to missing information on smoking habits, ...

  12. Recurrent Pancreatitis Due to a Cystic Pancreatic Tumor: A Rare Presentation of Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondo M; Krishna M; Nguyen J; Scolapio J; Aqel B

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acinar cell carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy of the pancreas. It has characteristic histomorphology, immunohistochemistry profile, and clinicopathological behavior. CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of recurrent pancreatitis secondary to acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. We describe the endoscopic ultrasound characteristic, treatment and the surgical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Acinar cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic tumors pre...

  13. Recurrent Pancreatitis Due to a Cystic Pancreatic Tumor: A Rare Presentation of Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acinar cell carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy of the pancreas. It has characteristic histomorphology, immunohistochemistry profile, and clinicopathological behavior. CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of recurrent pancreatitis secondary to acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. We describe the endoscopic ultrasound characteristic, treatment and the surgical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Acinar cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic tumors presenting with recurrent pancreatitis.

  14. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  15. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549 cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM, such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG in calf thymus DNA, which might be due to the much higher level of transition metals. Conclusion Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and small differences in cytotoxicity. Although it cannot be ruled out that SRMs and authentic street particles might elicit different effects in animal experimental models, this study indicates that on the cellular level, SRM1650 and SRM2975 are suitable surrogate samples for the study of authentic street particles.

  16. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nazri Hassan; Noor Haslina Mohd Noor; Shah Reza Johan Noor; Salamah Ahmad Sukri; Rapiaah Mustafa; Hans Van Rostenberghe Luc Aster

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transf...

  17. Variations in insulin responsiveness in rat fat cells are due to metabolic differences rather than insulin binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Nilsson, Poul; Sonne, Ole;

    1983-01-01

    Insulin resistance was studied by comparing insulin response and insulin binding in four groups of rats. Glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells from male Wistar rats weighing 340 g was less responsive to a supramaximal dose of insulin than glucose metabolism in fat cells from rats weighing 200 g...... to fat cells. Insulin binding was not correlated to the plasma insulin level which however was reflected in the lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, these results indicate that variations in insulin responsiveness in fat cells are due to alterations in cellular metabolism....... Induction of streptozotocin-diabetes in rats weighing 200 g resulted in a marked decrease in the insulin responsiveness of fat cells. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions of 340 g rats had the opposite effect and restored the insulin responsiveness of fat cells. The responsiveness in the four groups was...

  18. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  19. A Model for Compression-Weakening Materials and the Elastic Fields due to Contractile Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rosakis, Phoebus; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2014-01-01

    We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law, that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material, than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.

  20. Changes of the balancing between anode and cathode due to fatigue in commercial lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Karin; Jakes, Peter; Scharner, Sebastian; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    The electrode balancing defines the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium-ion cell and is a crucial point considering lifetime and safe operation. The electrode balancing varies during fatigue which results in changes of the individual electrode potentials for fixed (dis-)charge voltages of the full-cell. Therefore the materials are cycled closer or beyond their electrochemical (meta-)stability window. This leads to accelerated degradation reactions or even to safety problems. The origin of the changes in the cell balancing is the limited amount of mobile lithium, which decreases during cycling due to the loss of lithiated active material a), the reduction of accessible lattice sites in the active materials b) and the loss of active lithium outside the electrodes c). In most of the commercial cells a) and b) can be attributed to the cathode, c) occurs due to reactions on the anode surface. Changes in the electrode balancing of three differently fatigued 7 Ah lithium-ion cells are investigated by electrochemical cycling of full- and half-cells, assembled from cell components of the fatigued 7 Ah cells. Based on these results the observed performance drop is assigned to a), b) or c) mentioned above and the capacity losses are quantified.

  1. Interleukin-6 expression under gravitational stress due to vibration and hypergravity in follicular thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that exposing cell lines in vitro to parabolic flights changes their gene expression and protein production patterns. Parabolic flights and spaceflight in general are accompanied by transient hypergravity and vibration, which may impact the cells and therefore, have to be considered too. To estimate the possible impact of transient hypergravity and vibration, we investigated the effects of these forces separately using dedicated ground-based facilities. We placed follicular thyroid ML-1 and CGTH W-1 cancer cells in a specific centrifuge (MuSIC Multi Sample Incubator Centrifuge; SAHC Short Arm Human Centrifuge simulating the hypergravity phases that occur during one (P1 and 31 parabolas (P31 of parabolic flights, respectively. On the Vibraplex device, the same cell lines were treated with vibration waves corresponding to those that occur during a whole parabolic flight lasting for two hours. After the various treatments, cells were harvested and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, focusing on the genes involved in forming (ACTB, MYO9, TUBB, VIM, TLN1, and ITGB1 and modulating (EZR, RDX, and MSN the cytoskeleton, as well as those encoding growth factors (EGF, CTGF, IL6, and IL8 or protein kinases (PRKAA1 and PRKCA. The analysis revealed alterations in several genes in both cell lines; however, fewer genes were affected in ML-1 than CGTH W-1 cells. Interestingly, IL6 was the only gene whose expression was changed in both cell lines by each treatment, while PKCA transcription remained unaffected in all experiments. We conclude that a PKCa-independent mechanism of IL6 gene activation is very sensitive to physical forces in thyroid cells cultured in vitro as monolayers.

  2. Status Epilepticus Due to Severe HHV-6 Encephalitis in an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Chordia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 after stem cell transplantation occurs frequently. It is associated with clinical manifestations varying from nonspecific symptoms such as fevers or rash, to severe life threatening complications including post-transplantation limbic encephalitis. We report a case of severe HHV-6 encephalitis with viremia in an allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplant recipient who presented with status epilepticus unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy.  With intravenous ganciclovir and supportive care, the patient’s condition improved. Awareness of HHV-6 infection in stem cell transplant recipients may help with early diagnosis and improved outcome.

  3. Interleukin-6 Expression under Gravitational Stress Due to Vibration and Hypergravity in Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Ma; Markus Wehland; Ganna Aleshcheva; Jens Hauslage; Kai Waßer; Ruth Hemmersbach; Manfred Infanger; Johann Bauer; Daniela Grimm

    2013-01-01

    It is known that exposing cell lines in vitro to parabolic flights changes their gene expression and protein production patterns. Parabolic flights and spaceflight in general are accompanied by transient hypergravity and vibration, which may impact the cells and therefore, have to be considered too. To estimate the possible impact of transient hypergravity and vibration, we investigated the effects of these forces separately using dedicated ground-based facilities. We placed follicular thyroi...

  4. Changes in cell morphology due to plasma membrane wounding by acoustic cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Schlicher, Robyn K.; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Radhakrishna, Harish; Apkarian, Robert P.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation-mediated wounding (i.e., sonoporation) has great potential to improve medical and laboratory applications requiring intracellular uptake of exogenous molecules; however, the field lacks detailed understanding of cavitation-induced morphological changes in cells and their relative importance. Here, we present an in-depth study of the effects of acoustic cavitation on cells using electron and confocal microscopy coupled with quantitative flow cytometry. High resolution image...

  5. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  6. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Bernardo, Maria E.; Locatelli, Franco [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Pavia (Italy); Meloni, Giulia [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Institute of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Spinazzola, Angelo [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore, Crema CR (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  7. Modeling of photon and pair production due to quantum electrodynamics effects in particle-in-cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -M; Gibbon, P; Li, Y -T

    2016-01-01

    We develop the particle-in-cell (PIC) code KLAPS to include the photon generation via the Compton scattering and electron-positron creation via the Breit-Wheeler process due to quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. We compare two sets of existing formulas for the photon generation and different Monte Carlo algorithms. Then we benchmark the PIC simulation results.

  8. Mathematical Models Describing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Death Due to Electroporation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermol, Janja; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2015-10-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon used in the treatment of tumors by electrochemotherapy, non-thermal ablation with irreversible electroporation, and gene therapy. When treating patients, either predefined or variable electrode geometry is used. Optimal pulse parameters are predetermined for predefined electrode geometry, while they must be calculated for each specific case for variable electrode geometry. The position and number of electrodes are also determined for each patient. It is currently assumed that above a certain experimentally determined value of electric field, all cells are permeabilized/destroyed and under it they are unaffected. In this paper, mathematical models of survival in which the probability of cell death is continuously distributed from 0 to 100 % are proposed and evaluated. Experiments were performed on cell suspensions using electrical parameters similar to standard electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation parameters. The proportion of surviving cells was determined using clonogenic assay for assessing the ability of a cell to grow into a colony. Various mathematical models (first-order kinetics, Hülsheger, Peleg-Fermi, Weibull, logistic, adapted Gompertz, Geeraerd) were fitted to experimental data using a non-linear least-squares method. The fit was evaluated by calculating goodness of fit and by observing the trend of values of models' parameters. The most appropriate models of cell survival as a function of treatment time were the adapted Gompertz and the Geeraerd models and, as a function of the electric field, the logistic, adapted Gompertz and Peleg-Fermi models. The next steps to be performed are validation of the most appropriate models on tissues and determination of the models' predictive power. PMID:26223863

  9. CD133-positive cells are resistant to TRAIL due to up-regulation of FLIP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobalová, Renata; McDermott, L.; Stantic, M.; Prokopová, Kateřina; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 373, č. 4 (2008), s. 567-571. ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Cancer stem cells * apoptosis * resistance to apoptosis induction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2008

  10. Inhibition of pH fronts in corrosion cells due to the formation of cerium hydroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, M. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cerium-based corrosion inhibitors on the pH front between the alkaline cathode and acidic anode in corrosion cells has been studied. The cerium component of these inhibitors can affect the pH front since it precipitates in an alkaline environment as cerium hydroxide, which is important

  11. Periodic Colony Formation of Bacteria Due to their Cell Reproduction and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, H.; Wakita, J.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matsushita, M.

    We have experimentally investigated periodic pattern formation produced by bacterial species Proteus mirabilis, which forms concentric-ring-like colonies by repeating migration and rest alternately on the surface of a solid agar medium. We distinguish three phases (initial lag phase, the following migration and consolidation phases that appear alternately) for the colony growth. Here we mainly used physical approaches in order to try to understand the formation of concentric-ring-like colonies, such as cutting the part of a colony during its growth. Global chemical signals governing the colony formation from the center were not found. We also checked phase entrainment quantitatively by letting two colonies collide with each other and confirmed that it does not take place in macroscopic scales. When we cut a colony just behind the migrating front shortly after the migration started, the migration ended earlier and the following consolidation lasted longer. However, the following cycles were not influenced by the cut, i.e., the following migration and consolidation phases were both found to return normal. The cut results in the stop of supply of cell population to the migrating front by internal waves. In fact the cell population on the new terrace during the first migration after the cut was less than that without cut. Furthermore, the cell population density was found to be recovered to the ordinary value by the end of the consolidation. All these experimental results suggest that the most important factor for the repetition of migration and consolidation phases is the cell population density.

  12. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  13. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust system. 23.1123 Section 23.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  16. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the results. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenicity and the genotoxicity of complete diesel exhaust compared to an organic exhaust particle extract from the same diesel exhaust in a bacterial and a eukaryotic system, that is, a complex human lung cell model. Both, complete exhaust and organic extract were found to act mutagenic/genotoxic, but the amplitudes of the effects differed considerably. Furthermore, our data indicate that the nature of the mutagenicity may not be identical for complete exhaust and particle extracts. Because in addition, differences between the responses of the different biological systems were found, we suggest that a comprehensive assessment of exhaust toxicity is preferably performed with complete exhaust and with biological systems representative for the organisms and organs of interest (i.e., human lungs) and not only with the Ames test. PMID:24697289

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pulmonary involvement by neoplastic plasma cells in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, D B; Farber, J. L.; Gottlieb, J E

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma occurs infrequently and may be difficult to distinguish from more common primary lung tumours, metastatic disease, or other pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A patient who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was subsequently found to have multiple myeloma with involvement of lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Only one other report of ARDS in association with multiple myeloma was found, and there are no previous reports...

  18. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault's two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations

  19. Marked Direct Hyperbilirubinemia due to Ceftriaxone in an Adult with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyeh Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs are a significant cause of liver injury. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI can cause acute hepatitis, cholestasis, or a mixed pattern. Ceftriaxone is a commonly used antibiotic and has been associated with reversible biliary sludge, pseudolithiasis, and cholestasis. A 32-year-old male with sickle cell disease was admitted to the hospital for acute sickle cell crisis. On the second day of hospitalization, he developed cough and rhonchi with chest X-ray revealing right middle lobe infiltrates. Ceftriaxone and azithromycin were initiated. Subsequently, he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and mild transaminitis. His total bilirubin trended upwards from 3.3 mg/dL on admission to 17 mg/dL. It was predominantly conjugated bilirubin, with preadmission bilirubin levels of 3-4 mg/dL. His transaminases were mildly elevated as well compared to previous levels. Extensive workup for bilirubin elevation was unremarkable. Ceftriaxone was switched to levofloxacin and the hyperbilirubinemia improved. On ambulatory follow-up, his bilirubin remained below 4 mg/dL. Ceftriaxone may be associated with marked direct hyperbilirubinemia particularly in sickle cell patients with chronic liver chemistry abnormalities. In the case of elevated bilirubin with concomitant ceftriaxone use, elimination of the offending agent should be considered.

  20. Preliminary study of the influence of solar cell degradation due to ESD on solar array power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Teppei; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kawakita, Shiro; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; 奥村 哲平; 豊田 和弘; 川北 史朗; 今泉 充; Cho, Mengu

    2008-01-01

    In space, an ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) can occur on a solar array due to the plasma interaction. One of the issues of ESD is the degradation of solar cell electric performance. To establish the power degradation estimation method due to ESD in solar arrays, light current-voltage characteristics are evaluated in the current value at maximum power. From the results of the calculation, InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar arrays potentially suffer more serious power degradation than Si solar array.

  1. Inhibition of pH fronts in corrosion cells due to the formation of cerium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cerium-based corrosion inhibitors on the pH front between the alkaline cathode and acidic anode in corrosion cells has been studied. The cerium component of these inhibitors can affect the pH front since it precipitates in an alkaline environment as cerium hydroxide, which is important since the corrosion inhibition mechanism of the cerium component is a result of its deposition as a highly electrical resistive (passivation) layer on the cathode. It is studied whether the cerium can reach the cathode when fed into the corrosion cell from an external source after the onset of corrosion. To this end a simulation model was set up that includes the Poisson–Nernst–Planck theory to describe ion transport and the Frumkin–Butler–Volmer equation to describe charge transfer at the electrodes. In this model both the self-dissociation of water and the formation of cerium hydroxide are taken into account. To support our findings experimentally a corrosion cell consisting of an aluminum and copper electrode was used, in which the pH fronts were visualized using a pH-indicator. Two types of inhibitors were used; namely, highly soluble CeCl3 and sparsely soluble cerium dibutylphosphate, Ce(dbp)3. The results show that CeCl3 can reduce the size of the alkaline region and reach the cathode to form a passivation layer, whereas the solubility in case of Ce(dbp)3 is too low to supply sufficient amounts of trivalent cerium cations to penetrate the alkaline region. This behavior can be explained by the simulation results, which reveal a threshold for the corrosion inhibitor solubility below which no passivation of the cathode occurs

  2. Pure red cell aplasia due to azathioprine therapy for Crohn′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various mechanisms contribute to anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, drug-related causes being less frequent. The hematological and other adverse events of azathioprine (AZA therapy are well documented, but drug-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA is an uncommon event. We hereby describe two cases of AZA-associated PRCA in patients with Crohn′s disease. The diagnosis was supported by pathological reports, and prompt hematological recovery was seen with discontinuation of the offending drug. This report highlights the need to consider this rare entity in IBD patients in appropriate settings and for adopting adequate precautionary measures.

  3. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    OpenAIRE

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M C; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 ...

  4. Corneal Endothelial Cell Changes Due to Combined Phacoemulsification-Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation and Transpupillary Silicone Oil Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Alp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined phacoemulsification-posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation and removal of transpupillary silicone oil on the corneal endothelial cell layer. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included seven eyes of 7 patients who had intravitreal hemorrhage resulting from retinal detachment or tractional retinal detachment due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. Complicated cataract developed, and phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation combined with transpupillary silicon oil removal were performed. Preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelial cell count values were taken by Topcon SP-2000P automatic non-contact specular microscopy and were assessed by IMAGEnet 2000 Endothelial Cell Analysis. The results were compared with the findings in the literature. Results: The mean endothelial cell density (ECD was 2461 cell/mm2 preoperatively. The silicone oil removal was performed after an average of 10±3.5 months (range 5-14 months, and then endothelial cells were counted after a mean of 17±21.2 months (range 1-49 months of the combined surgery. The mean ECD was determined as 1906 cell/mm2 postoperatively. While mean endothelial cell loss was found to be 32% in two patients with diabetes mellitus, five non-diabetic patients had 19% cell loss. Corneal decompensation was not observed in any patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: After combined phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation and transpupillary silicone oil removal, significant reduction in endothelial cells was observed. We detected that this reduction was greater in diabetics. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 424-7

  5. Caspase 8 and maspin are downregulated in breast cancer cells due to CpG site promoter methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic changes associated with promoter DNA methylation results in silencing of several tumor suppressor genes that lead to increased risk for tumor formation and for progression of the cancer. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing were used for determination of proapoptotic gene Caspase 8 (CASP8) and the tumor suppressor gene maspin promoter methylation in four breast cancer and two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Involvement of histone H3 methylation in those cell lines were examined by CHIP assay. The CpG sites in the promoter region of CASP8 and maspin were methylated in all four breast cancer cell lines but not in two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc) selectively inhibits DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and restored CASP8 and maspin gene expression in breast cancer cells. 5-aza-dc also reduced histone H3k9me2 occupancy on CASP8 promoter in SKBR3cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-aza-dc significant decrease in nuclear expression of Di-methyl histone H3-Lys27 and slight increase in acetyl histone H3-Lys9 in MCF-7 cells. CASP8 mRNA and protein level in MCF-7 cells were increased by the 5-aza-dc in combination with TSA. Data from our study also demonstrated that treatment with 5-FU caused a significant increase in unmethylated CASP8 and in CASP8 mRNA in all 3 cancer lines. CASP8 and maspin expression were reduced in breast cancer cells due to promoter methylation. Selective application of demethylating agents could offer novel therapeutic opportunities in breast cancer

  6. Estimation of the mechanical consequences due to the saturation of a radwaste storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    Man y projects of underground repositories for high level rad wastes involve cells containing waste canisters surrounded by an engineered clay barrier. The cell is closed by a clay plug isolating the canisters from the gallery. By hydrating progressively, the barrier and the plug swell, seal the gaps and provide a good global mechanical stability of the waste - clay barrier - host rock system. From a physical point of view, the evolution of the clay behaviour is governed by thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes, these three processes being coupled in the following way: the waste induces a thermal field; interstitial water infiltrates the clay material; temperature modifies the fluid density and viscosity and vaporizes the liquid water; steam diffuses towards the cold area and condensates; the capillary pressure induces mechanical stresses which in turn modify the porosity accessible to the interstitial water. In this paper, we take into consideration the hydro-mechanical aspect of the phenomenon. The hydraulic model is based on a mixed hybrid finite element formulation, on the Darcy's law and the resolution of the Richard's equation. This model only takes into account the water flows inside the ground: air flows, thermal exchanges and water vaporization are assumed to be negligible. (author)

  7. Estimation of the mechanical consequences due to the saturation of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man y projects of underground repositories for high level rad wastes involve cells containing waste canisters surrounded by an engineered clay barrier. The cell is closed by a clay plug isolating the canisters from the gallery. By hydrating progressively, the barrier and the plug swell, seal the gaps and provide a good global mechanical stability of the waste - clay barrier - host rock system. From a physical point of view, the evolution of the clay behaviour is governed by thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes, these three processes being coupled in the following way: the waste induces a thermal field; interstitial water infiltrates the clay material; temperature modifies the fluid density and viscosity and vaporizes the liquid water; steam diffuses towards the cold area and condensates; the capillary pressure induces mechanical stresses which in turn modify the porosity accessible to the interstitial water. In this paper, we take into consideration the hydro-mechanical aspect of the phenomenon. The hydraulic model is based on a mixed hybrid finite element formulation, on the Darcy's law and the resolution of the Richard's equation. This model only takes into account the water flows inside the ground: air flows, thermal exchanges and water vaporization are assumed to be negligible. (author)

  8. Retinal Ganglion Cell Atrophy in Homonymous Hemianopia due to Acquired Occipital Lesions Observed Using Cirrus High-Definition-OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Tsutomu; Miki, Atsushi; Goto, Katsutoshi; Araki, Syunsuke; Takizawa, Go; Ieki, Yoshiaki; Kiryu, Junichi; Tabuchi, Akio; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kazumi; Yagita, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. Methods. Seven patients with PCA stroke were examined using Cirrus high-definition-OCT. The GCL+IPL thicknesses were divided into the hemianopic and unaffected sides. The relationship bet...

  9. Corneal Endothelial Cell Changes Due to Combined Phacoemulsification-Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation and Transpupillary Silicone Oil Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Alp; Haluk Esgin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined phacoemulsification-posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation and removal of transpupillary silicone oil on the corneal endothelial cell layer. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included seven eyes of 7 patients who had intravitreal hemorrhage resulting from retinal detachment or tractional retinal detachment due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and who underwent pars plana vitrectomy ...

  10. Facial skin metastasis due to small-cell lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbetakis Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cutaneous metastases in the facial region occur in less than 0.5% of patients with metastatic cancer. They are an important finding and are not often the first sign leading to diagnosis. Case presentation We describe the case of a 64-year-old male patient who presented with dyspnea, pleuritic pain, loss of weight and a nodule on his left cheek. A chest X-ray revealed a left upper lobe mass with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Excision biopsy of the facial nodule revealed small-cell lung carcinoma. Palliative chemo-radiotherapy was administered and the patient survived for 12 months. Conclusion A high index of suspicion is necessary for the early detection of facial cutaneous metastases. Appropriate treatment may prolong patient survival.

  11. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Boeren, S; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Vervoort, J M; Hettinga, K A

    2015-08-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 10(5) to 10(6) cells/mL were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using both one-dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and filter-aided sample preparation coupled with dimethyl labeling, both followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Minor differences were found on the qualitative level in the proteome from milk with different SCC levels, whereas the concentration of milk proteins showed remarkable changes. Not only immune-related proteins (cathelicidins, IGK protein, CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein, lactadherin), but also proteins with other biological functions (e.g., lipid metabolism: platelet glycoprotein 4, butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1, perilipin-2) were significantly different in milk from cows with high SCC level compared with low SCC level. The increased concentration of protease inhibitors in the milk with higher SCC levels may suggest a protective role in the mammary gland against protease activity. Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase showed a linear relation with SCC, which was confirmed with an ELISA. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in individual cows compared with bulk milk. These results indicate that prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase may be used as an indicator to evaluate bulk milk quality and thereby reduce the economic loss in the dairy industry. The results from this study reflect the biological phenomena occurring during subclinical mastitis and in addition provide a potential indicator for the detection of bulk milk with high SCC. PMID:26094216

  12. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Due to Restoration of E2A Activity in T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Steven T.; Nolan, Garry P.; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    1999-01-01

    Two models have been proposed for the molecular mechanism by which the Tal1 oncogene causes T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The activation model suggests that Tal1 as heterodimers with the E2A transcription factor activates the expression of oncogenes. The inhibition model postulates that Tal1 interferes with the tumor-suppressing function of E2A. In the Jurkat T cell line, originally derived from a patient with T-ALL, Tal1 is complexed with E2A proteins and the transcriptional a...

  13. [REACTIVATION OF TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING WITH EMPYEMA DUE TO ANTICANCER CHEMOTHERAPY FOR DIFFUSE LARGE B CELL LYMPHOMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Tatsuya; Hatsuse, Mayumi; Kodama, Mai; Uda, Sayaka; Yoshimura, Akihiro; Kurisu, Naoko

    2016-04-01

    A 79-year-old man with a history of tuberculosis was found to have chronic empyema in the right lung and was diagnosed with malignant diffuse large-cell lymphoma (Ann Arbor stage IIE). After completion of one course of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy, the patient developed lung abscess and sepsis caused by Streptococcus intermedius. This condition was treated with antimicrobial agents, and chemotherapy was resumed. After the second course, the chemotherapy regimen was continued without prednisolone, and after administration of the third course, a chest wall mass was found in the right lung. An acid-fast bacillus smear test of the abscess aspirate was positive, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in a polymerase chain reaction assay, leading to a diagnosis of perithoracic tuberculosis. Chemotherapy for the lymphoma was discontinued, and treatment with four oral antitubercular agents was started. This treatment led to remission of perithoracic tuberculosis. In Japan, tuberculous scar and chronic empyema are relatively common findings, and relapse of tuberculosis should always be considered for patients with these findings during chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27530021

  14. Peroxidation due to cryoprotectant treatment is a vital factor for cell survival in Arabidopsis cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Xiang-Ning; Gai, Ying; Wang, Wei-Ming; Reed, Barbara M; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Cryopreservation can be a safe and cost-effective tool for the long-term storage of plant germplasm. In Arabidopsis, the ability to recover from cryogenic treatment was lost as growth progressed. Growth could be restored in 48-h seedlings, whereas 72-h seedlings died after cryogenic treatment. Why seedling age and survival are negatively correlated is an interesting issue. A comparative transcriptomics was performed to screen differentially expressed genes between 48- and 72-h seedlings after exposure to cryoprotectant. Among differentially expressed genes, oxidative stress response genes played important roles in cryoprotectant treatment, and peroxidation was a key factor related to cell survival. Seedlings underwent more peroxidation at 72-h than at 48-h. A comprehensive analysis indicated that peroxidation injured membrane systems leading to photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation damage. Furthermore, the apoptosis-like events were found in cryogenic treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings. 48- and 72-h seedlings underwent different degrees of membrane lipid peroxidation during cryoprotectant treatment, and reducing the injury of oxidative stress was an important factor to successful cryopreservation. This study provided a novel insight of genetic regulatory mechanisms in cryopreservation, and established an excellent model to test and evaluate the effect of exogenous antioxidants and conventional cryoprotectants in plant cryopreservation. PMID:24094052

  15. Transplanted bone marrow stromal cells improve cognitive dysfunction due to aging hypoperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; YIN Shao-jun; CHEN Yu-juan; BIAN Wei-hong; YU Jing; ZHAO Yu-wu; LIU Xue-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Aging is an important risk factor for vascular dementia, and D-galactose (D-gal) injection can simulate the pathology of aging. Two-vessel occlusion of common carotid arteries (2VO) is the most popular model for vascular dementia. This study was aimed to investigate the possibility of D-gal injection plus 2VO simulating cognitive impairment of aging vascular dementia; and whether transplanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can improve the cognitive function induced by D-gal injection plus 2VO.Methods Totally 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups equivalently: control group, D-gal group,D-gal+2VO group, D-gal+2VO+saline water group, and D-gal+2VO+BMSCs group. Aging hypoperfusion rats were created by subcutaneous injection of D-gal and occlusion of two common carotid arteries. BMSCs or saline water was stereotactically transplanted into the subventricular zone as treatment vehicles at 24 hours post operation. Two-way repeat analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for significance analysis of 5 groups at 6 weeks post transplantation;moreover, Tamhane's test (equal variance not assumed) and least significant difference (LSD) test (equal variance assumed) were used for pairwise comparison in Morris water maze (MWM).Results Transplanted BMSCs distributed around the lateral ventricles and acquired the phenotypes of neurons and astrocytes. In terms of swimming path distance and escape latency in MWM, D-gal+2VO+BMSC group showed significant improvement than the D-gal+2VO group but was still obviously worse than the control group (both P <0.05).There was no significant difference in swimming speed for all 5 groups.Conclusions D-gal plus 2VO induces cognitive dysfunction. The engrafted BMSCs exhibit the beneficial effect on cognitive function via promotion interactively with host brain.

  16. Expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte interactions and oxidative stress in human endothelial cells exposed to wood smoke and diesel exhaust particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke Ali; Loft, Steffen; Roursgaard, Martin; Cao, Yi; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Toxicological effects of wood smoke particles are less investigated than traffic-related combustion particles. We investigated the effect of wood smoke particles, generated by smouldering combustion conditions, on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with or without monocytic THP...... the wood smoke particles caused increased level of DNA strand breaks and oxidised guanines at concentrations with low cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the adherence of monocytes on endothelial cells in wood smoke particle exposed cultures depend on activation of both cell types....

  17. Morphology changes in human lung epithelial cells after exposure to diesel exhaust micron sub particles (PM1.0) and pollen allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent literature there has been an increased interest in the effects of particulate matter on the respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to use an in vitro model of type II lung epithelium (A549) to evaluate the cell ability to take up sub-micron PM1.0 particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM1.0 + ALL together. Morphological analysis performed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed that PM and ALL interacted with the cell surface, then penetrating into the cytoplasm. Each single treatment was able to point out a specific change in the morphology. The cells treated appear healthy and not apoptotic. The main effect was the increase of: multilamellar bodies, lysosomal enzymes, microvilli, and presence of vesicle/vacuoles containing particles. These observations demonstrate morphological and functional alterations related to the PM1.0 and P. officinalis and confirm the induction of the inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to the inhalable particles. - Highlights: ► Cell ability to take up PM1.0 particles, Parietaria officinalis (ALL), PM1.0 + ALL. ► The cells treated appear healthy and not apoptotic. ► Each single treatment was able to point out a specific change in the morphology. ► Increase of multilamellar bodies lysosomal enzymes microvilli vesicle with particles. ► Induction of inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to the inhalable particles. - The urban environment with the combination of inhalable air pollution and particulate can damage the acinar lung units and activate cells of the immune system.

  18. Inflammatory effects on human lung epithelial cells after exposure to diesel exhaust micron sub particles (PM1.0) and pollen allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asthma is currently defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway. Several evidence indicate that vehicle emissions in cities is correlated with the allergic respiratory diseases. In the present study, we evaluated in the A549 cells the production and release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 after treatment with sub-micron PM1.0 particles (PM1.0), Parietaria officinalis (ALL), and PM1.0 + ALL together. Our data demonstrated that PM1.0 + ALL together exhibited the greatest capacity to induce A549 cells to enhance the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 compared with the only PM1.0 or ALL treatment. Interestingly, IL-13 that is necessary for allergen-induced airway hyper responsiveness, is increased in cells treated with PM1.0 + ALL together, but is higher expressed when the cells are treated only with the allergen. Our data support the hypothesis that the urban environment damage the acinar lung units and activates cells of the immune system. - Highlights: ► The genetic factors plays a key role in the development of the asthma. ► Its development can only be made in the presence of specific environmental factors. ► We evaluated in the A549 cells the production and release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. ► IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 expression increased when the A549 cells are treated with PM1.0 + ALL together. - The urban environment with the combination of inhalable air pollution and particulate are able to damage the acinar lung units and are able to activate cells of the immune system.

  19. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at Different Stages of HIV-1 Disease Is Not Associated with the Proportion of Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Larsen, Tine Kochendorf; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    cells expressing the inhibitory markers PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 was lower in ART-treated individuals compared with ART-naïve individuals and similar to the frequency in HIV-uninfected controls. The expression of the three markers was similarly independent of when therapy was initiated. Individuals treated......CD8+ T cell-restricted immunity is important in the control of HIV-1 infection, but continued immune activation results in CD8+ T cell dysfunction. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the duration of ART have been associated with immune reconstitution. Here, we evaluated whether...... restoration of CD8+ T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals was dependent on early initiation of ART. HIV-specific CD107a, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα and MIP-1β expression by CD8+ T cells and the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 were measured by flow cytometry. The frequency of CD8+ T...

  20. Poloxamer 407-induced atherosclerosis in mice appears to be due to lipid derangements and not due to its direct effects on endothelial cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Johnston

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease secondary to atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in the US. Animal models used for elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease primarily involve rabbits and pigs. Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated intraperitoneal injections of poloxamer 407 (P-407 in both male and female mice will lead to hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, suggesting the use of this polymer to develop a mouse model of atherosclerosis. In order to understand the mechanism of P-407-induced hyperlipidemia and vascular lesion formation, we evaluated the direct effects of P-407 on endothelial cell and macrophage functions in vitro, and its in vivo effects on the oxidation of circulating lipids following long-term (4 month administration. Our results demonstrated that incubation of P-407 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture did not influence either cell proliferation or interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production over a concentration range of 0-40 μM. In addition, nitric oxide production by macrophages was not affected by P-407 over a concentration range of 0-20 μM. Finally, we demonstrated that while P-407 could not induce the oxidation of LDL-C in vitro, long-term (4 month administration of P-407 in mice resulted in elevated levels of oxidized lipids in the plasma. Thus, it is suggested that the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in this mouse model of atherosclerosis does not result from either direct stimulation of endothelial cells or macrophage activation by P-407. Instead, these data would support the premise that oxidation of lipids (perhaps low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by an indirect mechanism following injection of P-407 may represent one of the mechanisms responsible for atheroma formation.

  1. Experimental investigation on influence of smoke venting velocity and vent height on mechanical smoke exhaust efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ji; Kaiyuan, Li; Wei, Zhong; Ran, Huo

    2010-05-15

    A set of burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of smoke vent height and exhausting velocity on mechanical smoke exhausting efficiency. Results have shown that the smoke exhausting process becomes more efficient due to the increased smoke vent height and the decreased exhausting velocity, which eliminate the plug-holing issue with fewer disturbances on the smoke layer interface. For each certain exhausting velocity, there is a critical value of distance between the vent and the bottom of the smoke layer. When the distance is less than the critical value, the smoke exhausting is inefficient, and the efficiency decreases sharply as the distance decreases. Contrarily, when the distance is greater than the critical value, a good efficiency can be acquired and the exhausted smoke increased relatively slowly as the distance increases. A critical Froude number, proposed by Hinkley to predict the onset of plug-holing effect in gravity venting systems, was validated in the experiments. However, the experimental results indicate that in the tests without the plug-holing, the fresh air entrained due to smoke exhausting is up to 48% of the mechanical exhausting rate. PMID:20042292

  2. Exhaustive in vivo labelling of plasmid DNA with BrdU for intracellular detection in non-viral transfection of mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme, Valérie; Heider, Andreas; Schallon, Anja; Freitag, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The study of the non-viral gene delivery process at the molecular level, e.g. during the trans-fection of mammalian cells, is currently limited by difficulties to specifically detect the trans-fected plasmid DNA within the cells. Herein we describe the in vivo production of 5-bromodeoxyuridine- (5-BrdU) labelled plasmid DNA by a thymine-requiring Escherichia coli strain leading to 92 ? 15 % BrdU incorporation while minimizing plasmid structure alteration. The labelled plas...

  3. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for industrial ventilation purposes. With the REEXS principle it is possible to create a flow pattern in front of the exhaust opening which will have a considerable influence on the general flow in a given r...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any aftertreatment device so its distance from the nearest exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger... the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, last aftertreatment device, or the in-use exhaust system... specify a location, measure this pressure downstream of any turbocharger. If the manufacturer does...

  5. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  6. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... combustible part of the motor vehicle. (b) No exhaust system shall discharge to the atmosphere at a...

  7. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements, 40 CFR 202.22, of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards, if inspection of the... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at...

  8. 46 CFR 128.320 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 128.320 Section 128.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 128.320 Exhaust systems. No diesel-engine exhaust...

  9. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  10. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  11. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  12. Reduced Tyk2 gene expression in β-cells due to natural mutation determines susceptibility to virus-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenichi; Mine, Keiichiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Teshima, Miho; Ogawa, Shuichiro; Kai, Yuji; Kurafuji, Toshinobu; Hirakawa, Kanako; Miyakawa, Daiki; Ikeda, Haruka; Inada, Akari; Hara, Manami; Yamada, Hisakata; Akashi, Koichi; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Ina, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Anzai, Keizo; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Fujimoto, Shuji; Kurisaki, Hironori; Shimoda, Kazuya; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that viruses play an important role in the development of diabetes. Although the diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis strain D virus induces diabetes in restricted lines of inbred mice, the susceptibility genes to virus-induced diabetes have not been identified. We report here that novel Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) gene mutations are present in virus-induced diabetes-sensitive SJL and SWR mice. Mice carrying the mutant Tyk2 gene on the virus-resistant C57BL/6 background are highly sensitive to virus-induced diabetes. Tyk2 gene expression is strongly reduced in Tyk2-mutant mice, associated with low Tyk2 promoter activity, and leads to decreased expression of interferon-inducible genes, resulting in significantly compromised antiviral response. Tyk2-mutant pancreatic β-cells are unresponsive even to high dose of Type I interferon. Reversal of virus-induced diabetes could be achieved by β-cell-specific Tyk2 gene expression. Thus, reduced Tyk2 gene expression in pancreatic β-cells due to natural mutation is responsible for susceptibility to virus-induced diabetes. PMID:25849081

  13. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  14. Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs, but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the selective ablation of Dicer1 at the early onset of male germ cell development leads to infertility, due to multiple cumulative defects at the meiotic and post-meiotic stages culminating with the absence of functional spermatozoa. Alterations were observed in the first spermatogenic wave and include delayed progression of spermatocytes to prophase I and increased apoptosis, resulting in a reduced number of round spermatids. The transition from round to mature spermatozoa was also severely affected, since the few spermatozoa formed in mutant animals were immobile and misshapen, exhibiting morphological defects of the head and flagellum. We also found evidence that the expression of transposable elements of the SINE family is up-regulated in Dicer1-depleted spermatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DICER1 is dispensable for spermatogonial stem cell renewal and mitotic proliferation, but is required for germ cell differentiation through the meiotic and haploid phases of spermatogenesis.

  15. Brachial Plexopathy due to Myeloid Sarcoma in a Patient With Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogenic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yumi; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Yoonhong; Kim, Du Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a solid, extramedullary tumor comprising of immature myeloid cells. It may occur in any organ; however, the invasion of peripheral nervous system is rare. Herein, we report the case of myeloid sarcoma on the brachial plexus. A 37-year-old woman with acute myelogenous leukemia achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. One year later, she presented right shoulder pain, progressive weakness in the right upper extremity and hypesthesia. Based on magnetic resonance images (MRI) and electrophysiologic study, a provisional diagnosis of brachial plexus neuritis was done and hence steroid pulse therapy was carried out. Three months later the patient presented epigastric pain. After upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, myeloid sarcoma of gastrointestinal tract was confirmed pathologically. Moreover, 18-fluoride fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed a fusiform shaped mass lesion at the brachial plexus overlapping with previous high signal lesion on the MRI. Therefore, we concluded the final diagnosis as brachial plexopathy due to myeloid sarcoma. PMID:23705126

  16. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Camcıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS. Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS.

  17. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Boşnak-Güçlü, Meral; Karadallı, Müşerrefe Nur; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Türköz-Sucak, Gülsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA) had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS). Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS. PMID:26060589

  18. Simulation study of dose enhancement in a cell due to nearby carbon and oxygen in particle radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jae Ik; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Jung, Won-Gyun; Yoo, SeungHoon; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Yoon, Myonggeun; Incerti, Sebastian; Geso, Moshi; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-deposition enhancement by alpha-particle irradiation in a cellular model using carbon and oxygen chemical compositions.A simulation study was performed to study dose enhancement due to carbon and oxygen for a human cell where Geant4 code used for the alpha-particle irradiation to the cellular phantom. The characteristic of dose enhancement in the nucleus and cytoplasm by the alpha-particle radiation was investigated based on concentrations of the carbon and oxygen compositions and was compared with those by gold and gadolinium.The results show that both the carbon and oxygen-induced dose enhancement was found to be more effective than those of gold and gadolinium. We found that the dose-enhancement effect was more dominant in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm if carbon or oxygen is uniformly distributed in a whole cell. In the condition that the added chemical composition was inserted only into the cytoplasm, the effect of the dose enhancement in nucleus become...

  19. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  20. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  1. Downregulation of NDUFB6 due to 9p24.1-p13.3 loss is implicated in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to clarify the genomic profiles of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and identify the genes responsible for development of metastasis. We analyzed the genomic profiles of 20 cases of primary ccRCC and their corresponding metastases using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and identified 32 chromosomal regions in which gene copy number alterations were detected more frequently in metastases than in the primary tumors. Among these 32 regions, 9p24.1-p13.3 loss was the most statistically significant alteration. Furthermore, we found that patients with 9p24.1-p13.3 loss in primary tumors exhibited significantly lower rates of recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival, suggesting that 9p loss in the primary tumor is a potential biomarker predicting early recurrence of metastasis. Interestingly, the genomic profiles of primary tumors with 9p loss resembled those of their corresponding metastases, though 9p loss was accumulated in the metastases derived from the primary tumors without 9p loss. Comparison of the mRNA expression levels revealed that 2 of 58 genes located at 9p24.1-p13.3 were downregulated due to gene copy number loss in ccRCCs. An overexpression study of these two genes in ccRCC cell lines revealed that downregulation of NDUFB6 due to loss at 9p24.1-p13.3 may confer a growth advantage on metastatic ccRCC cells. These results were confirmed by analyzing the data of 405 cases of ccRCC obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). On the basis of our present data, we propose that NDUFB6 is a possible tumor suppressor of metastatic ccRCCs

  2. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58% women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh system (56.7% where anti-E (33.3% was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%. Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27% neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN . Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c.

  3. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  4. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  5. Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners’ work

    OpenAIRE

    Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitkälä, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners’ (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding ...

  6. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  7. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    OpenAIRE

    H. Asilian Mahabady; Omidvar, M; A. Rezaee; A. Khavanin; S. B. Mortazavi

    2007-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and...

  8. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  9. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  10. Extremely sensitive light-induced reorientation in nondoped nematic liquid crystal cells due to photoelectric activation of the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an investigation of the extremely sensitive molecular reorientation in pure nematic liquid crystal film induced by the combined application of low dc electric field (less than 0.1 V/μm) and very low intensity optical irradiation (few mW/cm2). The effect is observed in planar cells of well-known commercial nematic mixture (E7) aligned with rubbed polyvinyl alcohol layers, which exhibit photorefractive-like effect. We analyze the dependence of the photoinduced changes in birefringence upon the applied dc voltage and the light intensity. According to our results we believe that the effect is due to photoinduced recombination of the opposite charged carriers accumulated near the interface. In the low dc voltage regime (a few volts) the voltage mainly drops on the electric double layers at the interfaces as a consequence of dc field collected charge carriers from liquid crystalline and polymeric films to the border surfaces. Irradiation with appropriate wavelength reduces the interfacial charges density, because of photoinduced carrier injection and recombination processes, and consequently, induces a relocation of the electric field from the surface to the liquid crystal bulk. The light-induced additional electric field component in the nematic film results in a lowering of the Freedericksz threshold or an enhanced molecular reorientation

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction due to the conversion of substituted cathinones to methylbenzamides in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Bjørnar; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Siltanen, Antti; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Mervaala, Eero; Korpi, Esa R; Kankuri, Esko

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of cathinone-type designer drugs, known as legal highs, has led to concerns about their potential neurotoxicity due to their similarity to methamphetamine (METH). Therefore, closer investigations of their toxic effects are needed. We investigated the effects of the cathinones 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (MDMC) and the amphetamine METH on cytotoxicity and mitochondrial respiration in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the contribution of reactive species, dopamine, Bcl-2 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on toxicity. Finally, we investigated the effect of cathinone breakdown products using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and studied their involvement in toxicity. We observed dose-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and decreases in mitochondrial respiration following treatment with all cathinones and amphetamines. Glutathione depletion increases amphetamine, but not cathinone toxicity. Bcl-2 and TNFα pathways are involved in toxicity but dopamine levels are not. We also show that cathinones, but not amphetamines, spontaneously produce reactive species and cytotoxic methylbenzamide breakdown products when in aqueous solution. These results provide an important first insight into the mechanisms of cathinone cytotoxicity and pave the way for further studies on cathinone toxicity in vivo. PMID:26462443

  12. Production of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Cells due to Acute Exposure to Tritiated Water (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average and maximum energies of the beta emission from 3H are 5.69 keV and 18.6 keV respectively. The average range in water (or soft tissues), around 0.5 1/4m (500 nm), is considerably less than the typical diameter of a cell (10-30 1/4m), and even of a cell nucleus (5-10 1/4m), thus the micro-location of the tritium atom may well be crucial in determining its biochemical consequences. Due to the high ionization density of the beta particles emitted by tritium (about 400 ion pairs/1/4m) possible interaction of tritium beta radiation with DNA may play a significant role. Tritiated water (HTO) is the main chemical form in which tritium is found in the environment. In the body it may be retained as organically bound tritium (OBT), binding to biological molecules or remaining as OBT with various degrees of solubility. OBT can be retained in the human body much longer than HTO and therefore the dose arising from OBT can reach 50% of the total tritium dose . Histones are major protein components of chromatin. They function as spools around which DNA winds and play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In the absence of histones, the DNA in chromosomes would be unmanageably long, as human cells each have about 1.8 m of DNA. During mitosis, DNA is duplicated and condensed, resulting in about 120 1/4m of chromosomes. It was recently reported that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139 (D3-H2AX) is associated with Double Strand Breaks (DSB) sites in DNA), which indicates the possibility of research based on the detection of DSBs in DNA. The phosphorylated megabase chromatin domain surrounding the DSB can be immunostained and visualized as discrete foci by fluorescence microscopy, as each DNA DSB formed produces a visible D3-H2AX focus. Since 1 Gy of radiation produces approximately 60 DSBs/cell, doses of a few mGy should be distinguishable from the background, and it was recently shown that the exposure to 1 mGy of X-rays induces a

  13. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  14. Statistical study of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that changes magnetic field configuration and converts a magnetic energy to flow energy and plasma heating. This paper presents a survey of the plasma and magnetic field parameters inside 418 reconnection exhausts identified in the WIND data from 1995-2012. The statistical analysis is oriented on the re-distribution of the magnetic energy released due to reconnection between a plasma acceleration and its heating. The results show that both the portion of the energy deposited into heat as well as the energy spent on the acceleration of the exhaust plasma rise with the magnetic shear angle in accord with the increase of the magnetic flux available for reconnection. The decrease of the normalized exhaust speed with the increasing magnetic shear suggests a decreasing efficiency of the acceleration and/or the increasing efficiency of heating in high-shear events. However, we have found that the already suggested relation between the exhaust speed and temperature enhancement would be rather considered as an upper limit of the plasma heating during reconnection regardless of the shear angle.

  15. Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy with Preservation of Gastroduodenal Artery for Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Duodenal Metastasis by Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Celiac Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare, and even rarer is a massive gastrointestinal bleeding from such tumours. Coeliac occlusive disease, although rarely symptomatic, can lead to ischaemic changes with anastomotic dehiscence and leaks when a patient undergoes pancreatoduodenectomy. A 41-year-old man with known metastasis to the adrenal glands and the second part of the duodenum close to the ampulla of Vater from clear cell renal cell carcinoma was admitted to our department due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the duodenal metastasis. Endoscopic control of the bleed was not possible, while the bleeding vessel embolization was able to control the haemorrhage only temporarily. An angiography during the embolization demonstrated the presence of stenosis of the coeliac artery and also hypertrophic inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplying the proper hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery (GDA. The patient underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient had an uneventful recovery and did not experience further bleeding. Also the blood flow to the liver was compromised as shown by the normal liver function tests (LFTs postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a preservation of the GDA during an emergency pancreatoduodenectomy.

  16. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines due to cell cycle dysregulation and induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, Andrea; Ziemann, Frank; Wittig, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Philipps-University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, BMFZ - Biomedical Research Center, Marburg (Germany); Mayer, Christina; Wagner, Steffen; Klussmann, Jens-Peter; Wittekindt, Claus [Justus Liebig University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Giessen (Germany); Dreffke, Kirstin [Philipps-University, Institute for Radiobiology and Molecular Radiooncology, Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) respond favourably to radiotherapy as compared to HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We investigated DNA damage response in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines aiming to identify mechanisms, which illustrate reasons for the increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancers of the oropharynx. Radiation response including clonogenic survival, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and cell cycle redistribution in four HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) cell lines was evaluated. HPV-positive cells were more radiosensitive (mean SF2: 0.198 range: 0.22-0.18) than HPV-negative cells (mean SF2: 0.34, range: 0.45-0.27; p = 0.010). Irradiated HPV-positive cell lines progressed faster through S-phase showing a more distinct accumulation in G2/M. The abnormal cell cycle checkpoint activation was accompanied by a more pronounced increase of cell death after x-irradiation and a higher number of residual and unreleased DSBs. The enhanced responsiveness of HPV-related HNSCC to radiotherapy might be caused by a higher cellular radiosensitivity due to cell cycle dysregulation and impaired DNA DSB repair. (orig.) [German] Fuer Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist im Vergleich zu Patienten mit nicht-HPV-assoziierten Tumoren ein besseres Ueberleben nach Radiotherapie gesichert. Ziel der Untersuchung war die Identifizierung von Unterschieden in der zellulaeren DNA-Schadensantwort von HPV-positiven und HPV-negativen Zelllinien, wodurch die bereits in Erprobung stehende Deeskalation einer Radiotherapie bei Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten HNSCC durch experimentelle Daten abgesichert werden koennte. Klonogenes Ueberleben, Induktion von Apoptose, DNA-Doppelstrang-Reparatur und Zellzyklusverhalten wurden in vier HPV-positiven (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) und vier HPV

  17. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  18. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk for...... cancer....

  19. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten; Koch, Uwe; Johansen, Christoffer

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk for...

  20. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  1. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  2. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert S. Braverman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  3. ß-amylase1 mutant Arabidopsis plants show improved drought tolerance due to reduced starch breakdown in guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Ott, Kirsten Verena; Bauer, Hubert; Ache, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlight bam1 mutant plants impaired in stomatal starch degradation showed an improved drought tolerance associated with a down-regulation of guard cell-specific gene expression involved in water uptake and cell expansion.

  4. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  5. Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

  6. An integral model for thermal backscattering from the exhaust plume of space-based HF laser

    OpenAIRE

    Falcovitz, Joseph; Fuhs, Allen E.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of a space-based HF laser may be hampered due to self contamination by corrosive exhaust products. We estimate one effect contributing to contaminating blackflow: thermal backscattering from the rarefaction fans flanking the exhaust ring-jet. Our computational model is based on a first-iterate approximation to the Boltzmann equation in integral form. Results indicate that thermal backscattering of corrosive speies (HF, DF) is negligible.

  7. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  8. Attenuation of radiation-induced DNA damage due to paracrine interactions between normal human epithelial and stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Developmentally, every tissue accommodates different types of cells, such as epitheliocytes and stromal cells in parenchymal organs. To better understand the complexity of radiation response, it is necessary to evaluate possible cross-talk between different tissue components. This work was set out to investigate reciprocal influence of normal human epithelial cells and fibroblasts on the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage. Methods: Model cultures of primary human thyrocytes (PT), normal diploid fibroblasts (BJ), PT/BJ cell co-culture and conditioned medium transfer were used to examine DNA damage in terms of γ-H2AX foci number per cell or by Comet assay after exposure to different doses of γ-rays. Results: In co-cultures, the kinetics of γ-H2AX foci number change was dose-dependent and similar to that in individual PT and BJ cultures. The number of γ-H2AX foci in co-cultures was significantly lower (∼25%) in both types of cells comparing to individual cultures. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual counterpart cells prior to irradiation resulted in approximately 35% reduction in the number γ-H2AX foci at 1 Gy and lower doses in both PT and BJ demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. Comet assay corroborated the results of γ-H2AX foci counting in conditioned medium transfer experiments. In contrast to medium conditioned on PT cells, conditioned medium collected from several human thyroid cancer cell lines failed to establish DNA-protected state in BJ fibroblasts. In its turn, medium conditioned on BJ cells did not change the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in cancer cell lines tested. Conclusion: The results imply the existence of a network of soluble factor-mediated paracrine interactions between normal epithelial and stromal cells that could be a part of natural mechanism by which cells protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  11. Relating reconnection rate, exhaust structure and effective resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic reconnection structure consists of a central diffusion region (CDR) and a cone or wedge shaped reconnection exhaust containing accelerated plasma flows and electromagnetic fluctuations. We predict here the relationship among the exhaust half-cone angle (θe), the half width (w) of the CDR, the outflow velocity Vo, and the effective resistivity (ηeff), which includes the effects of all the nonideal terms in the generalized Ohm's law. The effective resistivity is defined as the ratio of reconnection electric field Erec to the current density Jy at the X point and it essentially represents the loss of momentum from the current-carrying plasma particles due to scattering by waves, their inertia or outflux from the CDR. The relation is checked against relevant results previously reported from laboratory experiments, space observations, and simulations, showing excellent agreement. The relation can be used for estimating the ad-hoc effective resistivity often used in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of reconnection

  12. Influence of low doses of radiation due to 222Rn on proliferation of fibroblasts and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of low doses of radiation due to radon (within the range present in the environment) in the proliferation of normal (fibroblasts) and tumoral (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells) mammalian cells. Both fibroblast and MCF-7 cells were incubated in culture media with different levels of radon (doses of 10-15,000 μGy), or non-radon (control). After incubation the number of cells per plate was measured with a hemocytometer. The dissolution of radon in the culture media decreased the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (not the fibroblasts). Within the range of doses used in this experiment, the lowest as well as the highest doses of radiation had the lowest antiproliferative effects. Intermediate doses strongly decreased the number of final cells with respect to those in the control population

  13. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, Pvertical ground reaction force loading rate (10%, P<.01) and step length (2.1cm, P=.001) were observed during exhausted running. These small changes in suspected PFP pathomechanical factors may increase a runner׳s propensity for PFP. However, unique changes in female running mechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP. PMID:26525514

  14. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  15. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity. PMID:25096856

  16. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  17. Accumulation of sigmaS due to enhanced synthesis and decreased degradation in acidic phospholipid-deficient Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Nagahama, Hideki; Itou, Aya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    The Escherichia coli pgsA3 mutation, which causes deficiency in acidic phospholipids, leads to a significant accumulation of sigma(S). This accumulation is partly accounted for by the higher transcription level of rpoS; however, it has also been suggested that the cells accumulate sigma(S) post-transcriptionally. We found that the level of the small regulatory RNA RprA, which is involved in the promotion of rpoS translation, is higher in pgsA3 cells than in pgsA(+) cells. Induction of altered rpoS mRNA that does not depend on RprA in pgsA(+) cells did not increase the level of sigma(S) to the high level observed in pgsA3 cells, suggesting post-translational sigma(S) accumulation in the latter. The mRNA levels of clpX and clpP, whose products form a ClpXP protease that degrades sigma(S), were much reduced in pgsA3 cells. Consistent with the reduced mRNA levels, the half-life of sigma(S) in pgsA3 cells was much longer than in pgsA(+) cells, indicating that downregulation of the degradation is a major cause for the high sigma(S) content. We show that the downregulation can be partially attributed to activated CpxAR in the mutant cells, which causes repression of rpoE on whose gene product the expression of clpPX depends. PMID:20455949

  18. Unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature differences among the cells in a lithium-ion battery pack with parallel combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Naixing; Zhang, Xiongwen; Shang, BinBin; Li, Guojun

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells. A thermal-electrochemical model is developed for the parallel-connected battery pack. The effects of temperature difference on the unbalanced discharging performances are studied by simulations and experiments. For the parallel-connected cells, the cell at higher temperature experiences a larger current in the early discharging process before approximately 75% of depth of discharge (DOD). When the discharge process approaches the voltage turn point of the battery pack, the discharge current through the cell at higher temperature begins to decrease significantly. After the DOD reaches approximately 90%, the discharge current of the cell at higher temperature rises again. Correspondingly, the changes in the discharging current through the cell at lower temperature are opposite to that of the cell at higher temperature. Simulations also show that the temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells greatly aggravates the imbalance discharge phenomenon between the cells, which accelerates the losses of the battery pack capacity. For the parallel-connected battery pack, the capacity loss rate approximately increases linearly as the temperature difference between the cells increases. This trend is magnified with the increase of operating temperature.

  19. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  20. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER`s nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified.

  1. An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

  2. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  3. CacyBP/SIP inhibits Doxourbicin-induced apoptosis of glioma cells due to activation of ERK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan; Zhan, Wenjian; Cao, Tong; Tang, Tianjin; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Zhichao; Fu, Chunling; Qian, Fengyuan; Yu, Rutong; Shi, Hengliang

    2016-03-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) was previously reported to promote the proliferation of glioma cells. However, the effect of CacyBP/SIP on apoptosis of glioma is poorly understood. Here, our study shows that CacyBP/SIP plays a role in inhibiting doxorubicin (DOX) induced apoptosis of glioma cells U251 and U87. Overexpression of CacyBP/SIP obviously suppressed the DOX-induced cell apoptosis. On the contrary, silencing of CacyBP/SIP significantly promoted it. Further investigation indicated that inhibition of apoptosis by CacyBP/SIP was relevant to its nuclear translocation in response to the DOX treatment. Importantly, we found that the level of p-ERK1/2 in nuclei was related to the nuclear accumulation of CacyBP/SIP. Finally, the role of CacyBP/SIP was confirmed in vivo in a mouse model with the cell line stably silencing CacyBP/SIP. Taken together, our results suggest that CacyBP/SIP plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis of glioma cells which might be mediated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which will provide some guidance for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26825673

  4. Severe hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-D in a D+ patient with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ipe, Tina S.; Wilkes, Jennifer J.; Hartung, Helge D.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Chou, Stella T.; Friedman, David F.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old male with sickle cell disease presented with pain, dark urine, and fatigue 10 days after a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe anemia, blood type O+, and anti-D in the serum. Anti-D in a D+ patient led to RH genotyping which revealed homozygosity for RHD*DAU4 that encodes partial D antigen. Anti-D in this patient whose RBCs exclusively express partial D caused a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction after exposure to D+ RBCs. The finding o...

  5. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  6. Hypoglycaemia induced by Trichinella infection is due to the increase of glucose uptake in infected muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Kajita, K; Nishina, M; Takahashi, Y

    2009-03-01

    The present study investigates how Trichinella infection induces host hypoglycaemia and explores a potential relationship between infection and the insulin signalling pathway. The results showed that mice infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibited a temporary decrease in blood glucose level between 8 and 28 days p.i. and the kinetics of the glucose levels corresponded to the process of muscle larval growth and development. Histochemical results showed that glycogen accumulation increased in infected muscle cells during the period of hypoglycaemia. Analysis of gene expression profiles with quantitative PCR demonstrated that insulin signalling pathway-related genes, such as insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (Akt2) were up-regulated in infected muscle cells during infection and these expression changes correlated with the kinetics of blood glucose level, glycogen accumulation and the process of larval growth and development in infected muscle cells. Western blot analysis clarified that the expression of IR and Akt2 proteins increased in muscle tissues infected with both species of Trichinella. This study suggests that hypoglycaemia induced by Trichinella infection is the result of an increase in glucose uptake by infected muscle cells via up-regulation of insulin signalling pathway factors. PMID:18838075

  7. ß-amylase1 mutant Arabidopsis plants show improved drought tolerance due to reduced starch breakdown in guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Ott, Kirsten Verena; Bauer, Hubert; Ache, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    In plants, drought stress is a major growth limiting factor causing cell water loss through open stomata. In this study, guard cell-specific transcripts from drought-stressed Arabidopsis plants were analysed and a down-regulation of β-amylase 1 (BAM1) was found. In previous studies, BAM1 was shown to be involved in stomatal starch degradation under ambient conditions. Impaired starch breakdown of bam1 mutant plants was accompanied by decreased stomatal opening. Here, it is shown that drought tolerance of bam1 mutant plants is improved as compared with wild-type controls. Microarray analysis of stomata-specific transcripts from bam1 mutant plants revealed a significant down-regulation of genes encoding aquaporins, auxin- and ethylene-responsive factors, and cell-wall modifying enzymes. This expression pattern suggests that reduced water uptake and limited cell wall extension are associated with the closed state of stomata of bam1 mutant plants. Together these data suggest that regulation of stomata-specific starch turnover is important for adapting stomata opening to environmental needs and its breeding manipulation may result in drought tolerant crop plants. PMID:26139825

  8. Atomic force microscopy of 3T3 and SW-13 cell lines: An investigation of cell elasticity changes due to fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of single cells are of increasing interest both from a fundamental cell biological perspective and in the context of disease diagnostics. In this respect, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a powerful tool for imaging and assessing mechanical properties of biological samples. However, while these tests are typically carried out on chemically fixed cells, the most important data is that on living cells. The present study applies AFM technique to assess the Young's modulus of two cell lines: mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) and human epithelial cancer cells (SW-13). Both living cells and those fixed with paraformaldehyde were investigated. This analysis quantifies the difference between Young's modulus for these two conditions and provides a coefficient to relate them. Knowing the relation between Young's modulus of living and fixed cells, allows carrying out and comparing data obtained during steady-state measurements on fixed cells that are more frequently available in the clinical and research settings and simpler to maintain and probe. - Highlights: • The influence of fixation process on NIH/3T3 and SW13 cell elasticity was studied. • The two cell lines have been chosen for their different cytoskeletal structures. • There is a difference between AFM data collected at 37 °C and room temperature. • At RT, the longer the time out of the incubator the softer the cells appear. • A coefficient to relate elasticity between fixed and leaving cells is provided

  9. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Shirou, E-mail: kawakita.shirou@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Imaizumi, Mitsuru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Cu (In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in III{sub Cu} defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of III{sub Cu} defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

  10. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu (In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in IIICu defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of IIICu defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2

  11. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have stagnant... an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating ventilating air used by personnel— (1) There must be...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff... carrying flammable fluids. (b) If an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating ventilating air— (1)...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recommend that you use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust... ultrasonic flow meter for raw exhaust flow measurement, we recommend that you calibrate it as described in... Exhaust-flow calibration. (a) Calibrate exhaust-flow meters upon initial installation. Follow...

  15. Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(pic) Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Genco, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The co...

  16. Internalization and cytotoxicity effects of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in murine endothelial cells: Studies on internal dosages due to loaded mass agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Monika A; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Poplawska, Magdalena; Kosmider, Anita; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Slawomir; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Bamburowicz, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) qualified as metal-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials offer a potential scope for an increasing number of biomedical applications. In this study, we have focused on the investigation of cellular fate and resulting cytotoxic effects of CEINs synthesized using a carbon arc route and studied in murine endothelial (HECa-10) cells. The CEIN samples were characterized as pristine (the mean diameter between 47 and 56nm) and hydrodynamic (the mean diameter between 270 and 460nm) forms and tested using a battery of methods to determine the cell internalization extent and cytotoxicity effects upon to the exposures (0.0001-100μg/ml) in HECa-10 cells. Our studies evidenced that the incubation with CEINs for 24h is accompanied with substantial changes of Zeta potential in cells which can be considered as a key factor for affecting the membrane transport, cellular distribution and cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that CEINs have entered the endothelial cell through the endocytic pathway rather than by passive diffusion and they were mainly loaded as agglomerates on the cell membrane and throughout the cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus. The studies show that CEINs induce the mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicities in a dose-dependent manner resulting from the internal dosages due to CEIN agglomerates. Our results highlight the importance of the physicochemical characterization of CEINs in studying the magnetic nanoparticle-endothelial cell interactions because the CEIN mass agglomerates can sediment more or less rapidly in culture models. PMID:27107485

  17. Severe hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-D in a D+ patient with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Tina S; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Hartung, Helge D; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T; Friedman, David F

    2015-03-01

    A 5-year-old male with sickle cell disease presented with pain, dark urine, and fatigue 10 days after a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe anemia, blood type O+, and anti-D in the serum. Anti-D in a D+ patient led to RH genotyping, which revealed homozygosity for RHD*DAU4 that encodes partial D antigen. Anti-D in this patient whose RBCs exclusively express partial D caused a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction after exposure to D+ RBCs. The finding of anti-D in a D+patient should be investigated by molecular methods to help distinguish an alloantibody from an autoantibody. PMID:25171447

  18. Diversity of T cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein likely due to protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh R Aragam

    Full Text Available Circumsporozoite protein (CS is a leading vaccine antigen for falciparum malaria, but is highly polymorphic in natural parasite populations. The factors driving this diversity are unclear, but non-random assortment of the T cell epitopes TH2 and TH3 has been observed in a Kenyan parasite population. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the variable C terminal region of the protein allows the assessment of the impact of diversity on protein structure and T cell epitope assortment. Using data from the Gambia (55 isolates and Malawi (235 isolates, we evaluated the patterns of diversity within and between epitopes in these two distantly-separated populations. Only non-synonymous mutations were observed with the vast majority in both populations at similar frequencies suggesting strong selection on this region. A non-random pattern of T cell epitope assortment was seen in Malawi and in the Gambia, but structural analysis indicates no intramolecular spatial interactions. Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. In addition, free energy analysis suggests residues forming and behind the novel pocket within CS are tightly constrained and well conserved in all alleles. In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. In combination, these findings suggest the diversity of T cell epitopes in CS may be primarily an evolutionary response to intermolecular interactions at the surface of the protein potentially counteracting antibody-mediated immune recognition or evolving host receptor diversity.

  19. Unifocal Granuloma of Femur due to Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the long bones in pediatric population constitutes a challenge when the case history and clinical data are uncharacteristic. We believe that the description of few clinically and histologically proven cases to verify the existence of radiological signs useful for diagnosis may be of interest. Here, we describe a case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH presenting as unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of femur along with a brief review of the literature.

  20. Brachial Plexopathy due to Myeloid Sarcoma in a Patient With Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogenic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yumi; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Yoonhong; Kim, Du Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a solid, extramedullary tumor comprising of immature myeloid cells. It may occur in any organ; however, the invasion of peripheral nervous system is rare. Herein, we report the case of myeloid sarcoma on the brachial plexus. A 37-year-old woman with acute myelogenous leukemia achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. One year later, she presented right shoulder pain, progressive weakness in the right upper extremity and hypesthesia. Based on magnetic resonance images ...

  1. Renal cell carcinoma containing macroscopic fat on CT mimics an angiomyolipoma due to bone metaplasia without macroscopic calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, L; M. Atri; Sherman, C; Sharir, S

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) containing foci of macroscopic fat, which were pathologically proven to be areas of osseous metaplasia. The macroscopic fat was not associated with calcification on the pre-operative CT scan. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of RCC that contain osseous metaplasia without evidence of macroscopic calcification on CT. The finding is significant because standard imaging practice is to classify a renal mass containing intratumoral macrosc...

  2. High-resolution characterization of sequence signatures due to non-random cleavage of cell-free DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrananda, Dineika; Thorne, Natalie P.; Bahlo, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background High-throughput sequencing of cell-free DNA fragments found in human plasma has been used to non-invasively detect fetal aneuploidy, monitor organ transplants and investigate tumor DNA. However, many biological properties of this extracellular genetic material remain unknown. Research that further characterizes circulating DNA could substantially increase its diagnostic value by allowing the application of more sophisticated bioinformatics tools that lead to an improved signal to n...

  3. Modeling the increased efficiency due to light scattering effects in conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Purkrt, Adam; Špringer, Jiří; Poruba, Aleš; Vaněček, Milan; Goris, L.; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Vandewal, K.; Manca, J.; Vanderzande, D.

    Munich: WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005 - (Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.), s. 362-365 ISBN 3-936338-19-1. [European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference /20./. Barcelona (ES), 06.06.2005-10.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : organic solar cell * light trapping * modeling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins. PMID:27004682

  5. 力竭运动后不同时相大鼠心脏窦房结ADAMTS-1的变化%The Change in ADAMTS-1 of Sinoatrial Node Cells at Different Time Phases after Exhaustive Exercise in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红霞; 常芸

    2011-01-01

    swimming groups 6 days per week for a total of 2 weeks. After 2-week normal feeding,2-hour exhaustive swimming was carried out for the single exhaustive swimming group. The samples were drawn from rats immediately, and at 4, 12, and 24 hours after exhaustive swimming. The SAN cells were spotted and collected with the approach of laser microdissection (LMD) . The mRNA and protein expression of ADAMTS-1 in SAN were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR,immunochemistry and image analysis. Results The ADAMTS-1 mRNA and protein in SAN of the single exhaustive swimming group and repeated exhaustive swimming group at 4, 12, and 24 hours after exhaustive swimming were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05),especially at 4 hours after; however, expression of ADAMTS-1 protein was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.01 ) . Conclusion The ADAMTS-1 protein in SAN is highly expressed right after exhaustive exercise, whereas lower level of its transcription and protein reveals in the following other time-phrases, which probably impairs the sinoatrial node.

  6. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. PMID:26844787

  7. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  8. Activation of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Bone and Joint Infection due to Staphylococci Expressing or Not the Small Colony Variant Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bone and joint infections (BJI are devastating diseases. Relapses are frequently observed, as some pathogens, especially staphylococci, can persist intracellularly by expressing a particular phenotype called small colony variant (SCV. As natural killer (NK cells are lymphocytes specialized in the killing of host cells infected by intracellular pathogens, we studied NK cells of patients with chronic BJI due to staphylococci expressing or not SCVs (10 patients in both groups. Controls were patients infected with other bacteria without detectable expression of SCVs, and healthy volunteers. NK cell phenotype was evaluated from PBMCs by flow cytometry. Degranulation capacity was evaluated after stimulation with K562 cells in vitro. We found that NK cells were activated in terms of CD69 expression, loss of CD16 and perforin, in all infected patients in comparison with healthy volunteers, independently of the SCV phenotype. Peripheral NK cells in patients with chronic BJI display signs of recent activation and degranulation in vivo in response to CD16-mediated signals, regardless of the type of bacteria involved. This could involve a universal capacity of isolates responsible for chronic BJI to produce undetectable SCVs in vivo, which might be a target of future intervention.

  9. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  10. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  11. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  12. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  13. Mechanical and thermal stresses analysis in diesel engine exhaust valve with and without thermal coating layer on valve face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi,Sahib Shihab Ahmed, Nabeel Abdulhadi Ghayadh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates mechanical and thermal stresses that arise in the exhaust valve due to its operating with and without thermal coating layer (ceramic on face exhaust valve. Three dimensional models of an exhaust valve four cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine have been presented. The governing equations were discretized using a finite-volume method (FVM and solved using multi-physics COMSOL package Version 5. The engine’s exhaust valve crown is coated with various materials in different thermal conductivity such as (Gd2Zr2O7, over a 150μm thickness of bond coat. The maximum thickness of coating is about 300 μm. Results indicate that after creating a coating layer exhaust valve the temperature distribution, temperature gradients distribution, von-Mises stress distribution and displacement distribution are decreased.

  14. Feeding a Gas Turbine with Aluminum Plant Exhaust for Increased CO2 Concentration in Capture Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Jordal, Kristin; Anantharaman, Rahul; Genrup, Magnus; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Bakken, Jørn; Lilliestråle, Astrid; Mejdell, Thor; Holt, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum production contributes to global CO2 emissions both due to the production process itself and due to the generation of electric power required for aluminum production. A concept is presented for increasing the CO2 concentration in the aluminum exhaust from ∼1% to ∼5% through the feeding of aluminum plant exhaust gas to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). The specific energy demand for CO2 capture is therewith reduced for both the aluminum plant and the NGCC. An evaluation was made of...

  15. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved. (letter)

  16. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved.

  17. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  18. PAX8 is transcribed aberrantly in cervical tumors and derived cell lines due to complex gene rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Pedroza-Torres, Abraham; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; De Leon, David Cantu; Morales-González, Fermín; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Mendez, Jorge; García-Castillo, Verónica; Bautista-Isidro, Osvaldo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor PAX8, a member of the paired box-containing gene family with an important role in embryogenesis of the kidney, thyroid gland and nervous system, has been described as a biomarker in tumors of the thyroid, parathyroid, kidney and thymus. The PAX8 gene gives rise to four isoforms, through alternative mRNA splicing, but the splicing pattern in tumors is not yet established. Cervical cancer has a positive expression of PAX8; however, there is no available data determining which PAX8 isoform or isoforms are present in cervical cancer tissues as well as in cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines. Instead of a differential pattern of splicing isoforms, we found numerous previously unreported PAX8 aberrant transcripts ranging from 378 to 542 bases and present in both cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumor samples. This is the first report of PAX8 aberrant transcript production in cervical cancer. Reported PAX8 isoforms possess differential transactivation properties; therefore, besides being a helpful marker for detection of cancer, PAX8 isoforms can plausibly exert differential regulation properties during carcinogenesis. PMID:27175788

  19. BP neural network based online prediction of steam turbine exhaust dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Danmei; CHEN Chang; XIONG Yangheng; GAO Shang; WANG Chun

    2014-01-01

    In large scale condensing turbine unit,the exhaust status always lies in wet steam area.Due to the lack of effective measuring method,the exhaust dryness of the steam turbine is difficult to obtain di-rectly,which has been the difficult problem in online economic analysis for thermal power units.By taking an N1000-25/600/600 ultra-supercritical steam turbine as an example,the nonlinear mapping ability of BP neural network was used to establish a model which can reflect the relationship between exhaust dryness and unit load and exhaust pressure.After learning and training under some typical conditions,this model was used for exhaust dryness online calculation under full condition.The results show the final error of the training samples and verifying samples were controlled within -0.006 1 and -0.001 0,which satisfies the accuracy requirement for engineering calculation,indicating the established BP neural network can be used in exhaust dryness prediction.

  20. A method for a numeric prediction of gas turbine exhaust ducts out door noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guivarch, M.

    1995-10-01

    When Electricite de France (EDF) ordered a 216 MWe gas turbine in 1986, the preliminary evaluation of the noise radiated by the exhaust duct had been a difficult problem. Therefore, EDF has developed an acoustic model of the exhaust duct of the turbine in order to compare the solutions proposed by different builders and to test the influence of the exhaust duct geometry modification on the environmental sound level. This model is based on bidimensional modelling of the exhaust duct and is developed in three main steps: a computation of the flow in the exhaust duct using a k - {epsilon} code. This computation provides the basic data needed for modeling the noise generated downstream the silencers and the convected field for the computation of sound propagation; a computation of the noise generated by the flow turbulence downstream the silencers. It is based on the Ribner modelling of noise radiated by turbulent subsonic free jets and uses the results of the flow computation. In this way, we compute the turbulent noise levels and assume that the total noise levels throughout the duct exit is the sum of the turbulent noise and of the turbine noise; a computation of sound propagation in the exhaust duct. This computation takes into account the flow and the attenuation of sound due to the silencers. In a first stage, it is validated by measurements taken when the machine is out of operating condition. The second stage provides the turbine noise levels throughout the tack exit. (author) 8 refs.

  1. Hypotension due to Chemotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome Undergoing Hemodialysis: A First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first case of small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome during hemodialysis (HD. A 72-year-old male patient receiving HD experienced progressive muscle weakness. He was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome due to an increased serum level of anti-voltage-gated calcium channel antibody and aspiration cytology on endobronchial ultrasonography for the swelling of a subcarinal lymph node. He received chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (300 mg/m2 and etoposide (50 mg/m2, to which he had a partial response. However, the second therapy course could not be administered because of the unexpected development of severe hematological adverse events, which also prevented him from undergoing further HD. This case indicates that caution should be taken when using chemotherapy for such patients because of hypotension due to chemotherapy, with which it is impossible to undergo HD.

  2. Circulating tumour cells escape from EpCAM-based detection due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorges Tobias M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating tumour cells (CTCs have shown prognostic relevance in metastatic breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer. For further development of CTCs as a biomarker, we compared the performance of different protocols for CTC detection in murine breast cancer xenograft models (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and KPL-4. Blood samples were taken from tumour bearing animals (20 to 200 mm2 and analysed for CTCs using 1. an epithelial marker based enrichment method (AdnaTest, 2. an antibody independent technique, targeting human gene transcripts (qualitative PCR, and 3. an antibody-independent approach, targeting human DNA-sequences (quantitative PCR. Further, gene expression changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT were determined with an EMT-specific PCR assay. Methods We used the commercially available Adna Test, RT-PCR on human housekeeping genes and a PCR on AluJ sequences to detect CTCs in xenografts models. Phenotypic changes in CTCs were tested with the commercially available “Human Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition RT-Profiler PCR Array”. Results Although the AdnaTest detects as few as 1 tumour cell in 1 ml of mouse blood spiking experiments, no CTCs were detectable with this approach in vivo despite visible metastasis formation. The presence of CTCs could, however, be demonstrated by PCR targeting human transcripts or DNA-sequences - without epithelial pre-enrichment. The failure of CTC detection by the AdnaTest resulted from downregulation of EpCAM, whereas mesenchymal markers like Twist and EGFR were upregulated on CTCs. Such a change in the expression profile during metastatic spread of tumour cells has already been reported and was linked to a biological program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Conclusions The use of EpCAM-based enrichment techniques leads to the failure to detect CTC populations that have undergone EMT. Our findings may explain clinical results where low

  3. Circulating tumour cells escape from EpCAM-based detection due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have shown prognostic relevance in metastatic breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer. For further development of CTCs as a biomarker, we compared the performance of different protocols for CTC detection in murine breast cancer xenograft models (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and KPL-4). Blood samples were taken from tumour bearing animals (20 to 200 mm2) and analysed for CTCs using 1. an epithelial marker based enrichment method (AdnaTest), 2. an antibody independent technique, targeting human gene transcripts (qualitative PCR), and 3. an antibody-independent approach, targeting human DNA-sequences (quantitative PCR). Further, gene expression changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined with an EMT-specific PCR assay. We used the commercially available Adna Test, RT-PCR on human housekeeping genes and a PCR on AluJ sequences to detect CTCs in xenografts models. Phenotypic changes in CTCs were tested with the commercially available “Human Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition RT-Profiler PCR Array”. Although the AdnaTest detects as few as 1 tumour cell in 1 ml of mouse blood spiking experiments, no CTCs were detectable with this approach in vivo despite visible metastasis formation. The presence of CTCs could, however, be demonstrated by PCR targeting human transcripts or DNA-sequences - without epithelial pre-enrichment. The failure of CTC detection by the AdnaTest resulted from downregulation of EpCAM, whereas mesenchymal markers like Twist and EGFR were upregulated on CTCs. Such a change in the expression profile during metastatic spread of tumour cells has already been reported and was linked to a biological program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The use of EpCAM-based enrichment techniques leads to the failure to detect CTC populations that have undergone EMT. Our findings may explain clinical results where low CTC numbers have been reported even in patients with late

  4. Air pollution of hydrocarbons exhausted from vehicle in tunnels, bridges of Istanbul and detection of 3-nitrophthalic in seawater near the side of boat

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Selin Cumalı and Kasım Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The air pollution due to exhausted gas from vehicles was studied in tunnels, bridges in Istanbul city and the contribution of exhausted gas from boat to the seawater in Golden Horn. The component of hydrocarbons of fuels and exhausted gas from vehicles was also compared. The gas samples were collected in tubes containing Tenax GR or activated charcoal adsorbent. They were extracted with dichloro-methane and analysis performed by UVF, GC/MS and HPLC. The petroleum hydrocarbon amounts ...

  5. Impaired apoptotic cell clearance in CGD due to altered macrophage programming is reversed by phosphatidylserine-dependent production of IL-4

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby F.; Frasch, S. Courtney; McPhillips, Kathleen; Vandivier, R. William; Harry, Brian L.; Riches, David W.H.; Henson, Peter M.; Bratton, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by overexuberant inflammation and autoimmunity that are attributed to deficient anti-inflammatory signaling. Although regulation of these processes is complex, phosphatidylserine (PS)–dependent recognition and removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by phagocytes are potently anti-inflammatory. Since macrophage phenotype also plays a beneficial role in resolution of inflammation, we hypothesized that impaired efferocytosis in CGD due to ...

  6. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  7. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G; Alghamdi, Fahad A; Baeesa, Saleh S

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  8. CMV latent infection improves CD8+ T response to SEB due to expansion of polyfunctional CD57+ cells in young individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pera

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV latent infection has a deleterious effect on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly, suggesting that CMV restricts immunological diversity impairing the immune system functionality in old age. Polyfunctional T cells produce multiple cytokines and higher amounts than mono-functional T cells. High number of polyfunctional T cells correlates with better prognosis during infection. Thus, the efficiency of T cell response associates with quality (polyfunctionality rather than with quantity (percentage of T cells. We analyze the effect of CMV infection on CD8+ T cells polyfunctionality --degranulation (CD107a, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production--, from young CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative individuals and in middle age CMV-seropositive donors, in response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB. Our results show a higher percentage of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young CMV-seropositive individuals compared to CMV-seronegative. Also, we find an expansion of CD8+CD57+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, which are more polyfunctional than CD8+CD57- cells. In middle age individuals there is a higher frequency of SEB-responding CD8+ T cells, mainly TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma producers, whereas the percentage of polyfunctional cells (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/CD107a is similar to the percentages found in young CMV-seropositive. Therefore, whereas it has been shown that CMV latent infection can be detrimental for immune response in old individuals, our results indicate that CMV-seropositivity is associated to higher levels of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young and middle age donors. This increase in polyfunctionality, which can provide an immunological advantage in the response to other pathogens, is due to a CD8+CD57+ T cell expansion in CMV-seropositive individuals and it is independent of age. Conversely, age could contribute to the inflammation found in old individuals by increasing the percentage of cells

  9. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles can interfere with the associated cellular mechanistic response to diesel exhaust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Mueller, Loretta; Popovicheva, Olga B; Raemy, David O; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J D

    2012-10-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the biological response of a sophisticated in vitro 3D co-culture model of the epithelial airway barrier to a co-exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust using a realistic air-liquid exposure system. Independent of the individual effects of either diesel exhaust or CeO(2) NPs investigation observed that a combined exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust did not cause a significant cytotoxic effect or alter cellular morphology after exposure to diesel exhaust for 2h at 20μg/ml (low dose) or for 6h at 60μg/ml (high dose), and a subsequent 6h exposure to an aerosolized solution of CeO(2) NPs at the same doses. A significant loss in the reduced intracellular glutathione level was recorded, although a significant increase in the oxidative marker HMOX-1 was found after exposure to a low and high dose respectively. Both the gene expression and protein release of tumour necrosis factor-α were significantly elevated after a high dose exposure only. In conclusion, CeO(2) NPs, in combination with diesel exhaust, can significantly interfere with the cell machinery, indicating a specific, potentially adverse role of CeO(2) NPs in regards to the biological response of diesel exhaust exposure. PMID:22960666

  10. On-chip automation of cell-free protein synthesis: new opportunities due to a novel reaction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, V; Georgi, L; Blechert, M; Bergmeister, M; Zwanzig, M; Wüstenhagen, D A; Bier, F F; Jung, E; Kubick, S

    2016-01-21

    Many pharmaceuticals are proteins or their development is based on proteins. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an innovative alternative to conventional cell based systems which enables the production of proteins with complex and even new characteristics. However, the short lifetime, low protein production and expensive reagent costs are still limitations of CFPS. Novel automated microfluidic systems might allow continuous, controllable and resource conserving CFPS. The presented microfluidic TRITT platform (TRITT for Transcription - RNA Immobilization & Transfer - Translation) addresses the individual biochemical requirements of the transcription and the translation step of CFPS in separate compartments, and combines the reaction steps by quasi-continuous transfer of RNA templates to enable automated CFPS. In detail, specific RNA templates with 5' and 3' hairpin structures for stabilization against nucleases were immobilized during in vitro transcription by newly designed and optimized hybridization oligonucleotides coupled to magnetizable particles. Transcription compatibility and reusability for immobilization of these functionalized particles was successfully proven. mRNA transfer was realized on-chip by magnetic actuated particle transfer, RNA elution and fluid flow to the in vitro translation compartment. The applicability of the microfluidic TRITT platform for the production of the cytotoxic protein Pierisin with simultaneous incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid for fluorescence labeling was demonstrated. The new reaction mode (TRITT mode) is a modified linked mode that fulfills the precondition for an automated modular reactor system. By continual transfer of new mRNA, the novel procedure overcomes problems caused by nuclease digestion and hydrolysis of mRNA during TL in standard CFPS reactions. PMID:26554896

  11. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  12. Effects of CoQ10 supplementation and swimming training on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan, N; Revan, S; Balci, S S; Belviranli, M; Pepe, H; Gökbel, H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of swimming training and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. The study was carried out with 4-month-old young adult male Wistar rats. Sixty four rats were divided mainly into two groups: trained and control. Each group was further divided into four subgroups: rest, exhausted, rest with CoQ10, exhausted with CoQ10. The training program consisted of swimming one hour each day, five days a week, for six weeks. At the end of sixth week, rats in exhausted exercise group were forced to swim until exhaustion and then they were immediately sacrificed, while rats in rest group were sacrificed at rest. Training alone or in combination with CoQ10 supplementation reduced to increasing MDA levels due to exhaustive exercise in rat heart (pExhaustive exercise effect was significant on SOD activity. Exhaustive exercise increased GSH levels in control groups while decreased GSH levels in training groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that CoQ10 supplementation combined with training may inhibit lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the heart tissue. Also, it can be said that SOD activity and GSH levels were not influenced by CoQ10 supplementation (Fig. 4, Tab. 1, Ref. 69). PMID:22794511

  13. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  14. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals. PMID:22063629

  15. The many unknowns concerning the bioenergetics of exhaustion and senescence during chronic viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSchurich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system cannot be continuously reactivated throughout the lifetime of an organism, there is a finite point at which repeated antigenic challenge leads to the loss of lymphocyte function or the cells themselves. Antigen-specific T cells can be compromised in two ways through the distinct processes of replicative senescence and exhaustion. Senescence is initiated by a DNA damage response whereas exhaustion triggers inhibitory receptors to dampen the immune response. These two distinct pathways not only differ in their initiation but growing evidence suggests that their bioenergetics is also different. We review here recent findings uncovering the metabolism of these unique states.

  16. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  17. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  18. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

  19. Apoptosis-induced cell death due to oleanolic acid in HaCaT keratinocyte cells--a proof-of-principle approach for chemopreventive drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid in food materials and is a component of the leaves and roots of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., Aralia chinensis L. and more than 120 other plant species. There are several reports validating its antitumor activity against different cancer cells apart from its hepatoprotective activity. However, antitumor activity against skin cancer has not been studied well thus far. Hence the present study of effects of OA against HaCaT (immortalized keratinocyte) cells--a cell-based epithelial model system for toxicity/ethnopharmacology-based studies--was conducted. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH·) and FRAP were determined spectrophotometrically. Proliferation was assessed by XTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 hrs with exposure to various concentrations (12.5-200 μM) of OA. Apoptotic induction potential of OA was demonstrated using a cellular DNA fragmentation ELISA method. Morphological studies were also carried out to elucidate its antitumor potential. The results revealed that OA induces apoptosis by altering cellular morphology as well as DNA integrity in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, with comparatively low cytotoxicity. The moderate toxicity observed in HaCaT cells, with induction of apoptosis, possibly suggests greater involvement of programmed-cell death-mediated mechanisms. We conclude that OA has relatively low toxicity and has the potential to induce apoptosis in HaCaT cells and hence provides a substantial and sound scientific basis for further validation studies. PMID:22901164

  20. Experimental demonstration and modeling of the internal light scattering profile within solar cells due to random dielectric scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2016-01-01

    Many photovoltaic technologies are shifting toward thin-film devices to simultaneously reduce costs and improve carrier collection efficiencies; however, the need for nearly complete light absorption within the semiconductor to achieve large short-circuit currents constrains this thickness reduction. Light trapping strategies can be employed to increase absorption in thinner devices. Random scattering coatings offer a simple, cost-effective way to increase solar cell absorption without the drawback of increased surface recombination or reduced bandwidth that occurs when using surface texturing or gratings. However, coatings that show excellent performance as scatterers in free space generally do not enhance device absorption as much as an ideal Lambertian scatterer. Here, we present an experimental technique and theoretical model that accurately describes the absorption improvement that is achievable with coatings based on random ensembles of dielectric scatterers. We find that the ideal Lambertian model substantially overestimates the experimental scattering results, but significant path length enhancements are still achievable. The experimental techniques presented here should enable the testing of various optical models that attempt to surpass the ray optics light trapping limit, which have in many cases been hindered by the experimental difficulty of coupling the incident light into the optical modes of the absorber.

  1. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Kumar Agrawal; Shrawan Kumar Singh; Shailendra Sinha; Mritunjay Kumar Shukla

    2004-06-01

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission of a diesel engine is by late injection of fuel into the combustion chamber. This technique is effective but increases fuel consumption by 10–15%, which necessitates the use of more effective NOx reduction techniques like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx, but appreciable particulate emissions are observed at high loads, hence there is a trade-off between NOx and smoke emission. To get maximum benefit from this trade-off, a particulate trap may be used to reduce the amount of unburnt particulates in EGR, which in turn reduce the particulate emission also. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust opacity. The experimental setup for the proposed experiments was developed on a two-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled, compression ignition engine. A matrix of experiments was conducted for observing the effect of different quantities of EGR on exhaust gas temperatures and opacity.

  2. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  3. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314. ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  4. Silver doped catalysts for treatment of exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Paul Worn (Peoria, IL); Hester, Virgil Raymond (Edelstein, IL); Ragle, Christie Susan (Havana, IL); Boyer, Carrie L. (Shiloh, IL)

    2009-06-02

    A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.

  5. Storage method of radioactive exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To positively separate and recover radioactive rare gases from exhaust gases without the former being released into open air and to store the recovered radioactive rare gases for a long period of time under sufficient safety control. Structure: A double cylinder is temporarily assembled within a preparation room, the assembled cylinder is placed on a truck, after which the truck is transported to a sealing equipment room to separate the cap, gas piping is connected to a radioactive exhaust gas feed valve, and the cylinder is interiorly held vacuum and thereafter the radioactive exhaust gases are sealed therein. Next, liquid nitrogen is fed through a valve into a cover cylinder and a gas seal valve is closed. Then, the truck loaded with the double cylinder with the exhaust gases sealed is transported to a welding position, where the cap is coupled, for automatic welding. Upon completion of welding process, the double cylinder is inserted into a leak testing vessel to ensure of good weldability using a leak detector, after which the double cylinder is stored in the pool. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Interactive Scenario Analysis of Exhaustible Resource Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, Arthur J.; Gilbert, John

    2006-01-01

    We provide several interactive models that can be used in an intermediate- or graduate-level, natural-resource economics course to numerically solve a host of exhaustible-resource problems, and thereby help to verify the intuition and symbolic solutions typically provided in textbooks. Examples are drawn from Tietenberg (2006).

  7. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  8. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  9. Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Cecic, Ivana; Lee, Anthony M D; Kyle, Alastair H; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre M

    2013-10-01

    Autofluorescence (AF) imaging provides valuable information about the structural and chemical states of tissue that can be used for early cancer detection. Optical scattering and absorption of excitation and emission light by the epithelium can significantly affect observed tissue AF intensity. Determining the effect of epithelial attenuation on the AF intensity could lead to a more accurate interpretation of AF intensity. We propose to use optical coherence tomography coregistered with AF imaging to characterize the AF attenuation due to the epithelium. We present imaging results from three vital tissue models, each consisting of a three-dimensional tissue culture grown from one of three epithelial cell lines (HCT116, OVCAR8, and MCF7) and immobilized on a fluorescence substrate. The AF loss profiles in the tissue layer show two different regimes, each approximately linearly decreasing with thickness. For thin cell cultures (cultures (>400 μm), the AF loss profiles have different intercepts but similar slopes. The data presented here can be used to estimate AF loss due to a change in the epithelial layer thickness and potentially to reduce AF bronchoscopy false positives due to inflammation and non-neoplastic epithelial thickening. PMID:24108573

  10. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  11. Narcolepsy: Autoimmunity, Effector T Cell Activation Due to Infection, or T Cell Independent, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Induced Neuronal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Adriano; Gast, Heidemarie; Reith, Walter; Recher, Mike; Birchler, Thomas; Bassetti, Claudio L.

    2010-01-01

    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602. The disease typically starts in adolescence. Recent developments in narcolepsy research support the hypothesis of…

  12. Efeitos da suplementação de fibras solúveis sobre as células do sistema imune após exercício exaustivo em ratos treinados Effects of soluble fibers supplementation on immune system cells after exhausting exercise in trained rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. Donatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A intensidade, volume, modalidade de exercício, assim como o nível de aptidão e fatores nutricionais podem alterar a reposta imunológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação crônica de farelo de aveia (fonte de fibras solúveis sobre as células do sistema imunológico em ratos treinados, frente a um teste de exaustão. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, ± dois meses, peso ± 200g, divididos em três grupos (n = 9, cada um: 1 controle sedentário (C; 2 treinado oito semanas submetido ao teste de exaustão (EX; e 3 treinado oito semanas submetido ao teste de exaustão com suplementação de 30% de farelo de aveia (EXA. O treinamento consistiu de 60 minutos de natação diários, cinco dias por semana durante oito semanas. As análises realizadas foram: contagem total de leucócitos, linfócitos dos linfonodos mesentéricos, macrófagos peritoneais e capacidade fagocitária de macrófagos peritoneais. Aplicou-se o teste estatístico ANOVA two way, seguido do post hoc de Tukey com p Exercise modality, volume, intensity, as well as physical fitness and nutritional factors may modulate the immune response. The purpose of this investigation was to verify the effects of chronic oat bran supplementation on immune cells in trained rats submitted to an extenuating test. Wistar rats (two months old, +200g weight, divided into three groups (n = 9, per group were used: 1 a sedentary control (C 2 trained for eight weeks submitted to an exhaustion test (EX, and 3 trained for eight weeks submitted to an exhaustion test with 30% oat bran supplementation (EXA. Training consisted of 60 daily minutes of swimming, five days a week, during eight weeks. The analyses conducted were: total leukocytes, lymphocytes from lymph nodes, peritoneal macrophages and peritoneal macrophages phagocytic capacity. Statistical analyses were done by the two-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p < 0.05. EX group presented leukocytosis when

  13. Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles. 27 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  15. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  16. High-throughput functional genomics identifies genes that ameliorate toxicity due to oxidative stress in neuronal HT-22 cells: GFPT2 protects cells against peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzler, Jürgen; Link, Dieter; Schäfer, Rolf; Liebetrau, Wolfgang; Kazinski, Michael; Bonin-Debs, Angelika; Behl, Christian; Buckel, Peter; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    We describe a novel genetic screen that is performed by transfecting every individual clone of an expression clone collection into a separate population of cells in a high-throughput mode. We combined high-throughput functional genomics with experimental validation to discover human genes that ameliorate cytotoxic responses of neuronal HT-22 cells upon exposure to oxidative stress. A collection of 5,000 human cDNAs in mammalian expression vectors were individually transfected into HT-22 cells, which were then exposed to H(2)O(2). Five genes were found that are known to be involved in pathways of detoxification of peroxide (catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, peroxiredoxin-1, peroxiredoxin-5, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). The presence of those genes in our "hit list" validates our screening platform. In addition, a set of candidate genes was found that has not been previously described as involved in detoxification of peroxide. One of these genes, which was consistently found to reduce H(2)O(2) -induced toxicity in HT-22, was GFPT2. This gene is expressed at significant levels in the central nervous system (CNS) and encodes glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFPT) 2, a rate-limiting enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. GFPT has recently also been shown to ameliorate the toxicity of methylmercury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death in part by protein modification as well as enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The protective effect of GFPT2 against H(2)O(2) toxicity in neuronal HT-22 cells may be similar to its protection against methylmercury in yeast. Thus, GFPT appears to be conserved among yeast and men as a critical target of methylmercury and ROS-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:15181156

  17. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  18. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  19. Development of a ferritic ductile cast iron for improved life in exhaust applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Due to coming emission legislations, the temperature is expected to increase in heavy-duty diesel engines, specifically in the hot-end of the exhaust system affecting components, such as exhaust- and turbo manifolds. Since the current material in the turbo manifold, a ductile cast iron named SiMo51, is operating close to its limits there is a need for material development in order to maintain a high durability of these components. When designing for increased life, many material properties ne...

  20. On the Performance of Exhaustive Search with Cooperating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Toni; Krstevski, Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of elegant algorithms for solving complex problem, exhaustive search has retained its significance since many real-life problems exhibit no regular structure and exhaustive search is the only possible solution. The advent of high-performance computing either via multicore processors or distributed processors emphasizes the possibility for exhaustive search by multiple search agents. Here we analyse the performance of exhaustive search when it is conducted by multiple se...

  1. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  2. Exhaustive proteome mining for functional MHC-I ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian P; Perna, Anna M; Weissmüller, Sabrina; Bauer, Stefanie; Pillong, Max; Baleeiro, Renato B; Reutlinger, Michael; Folkers, Gerd; Walden, Peter; Wrede, Paul; Hiss, Jan A; Waibler, Zoe; Schneider, Gisbert

    2013-09-20

    We present the development and application of a new machine-learning approach to exhaustively and reliably identify major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) ligands among all 20(8) octapeptides and in genome-derived proteomes of Mus musculus , influenza A H3N8, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Focusing on murine H-2K(b), we identified potent octapeptides exhibiting direct MHC-I binding and stabilization on the surface of TAP-deficient RMA-S cells. Computationally identified VSV-derived peptides induced CD8(+) T-cell proliferation after VSV-infection of mice. The study demonstrates that high-level machine-learning models provide a unique access to rationally designed peptides and a promising approach toward "reverse vaccinology". PMID:23772559

  3. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao;

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  4. 33 CFR 331.12 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS § 331.12 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. No... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative... administrative remedies under this part. The appellant is considered to have exhausted all...

  5. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.111... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.111-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure B90-7 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  6. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia, and... cooling provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases. (b) Each heat exchanger used for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation exhaust. 111.33-9 Section 111.33-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each...

  9. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.407 Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (a) The marine engine manufacturer is liable for emission...

  10. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 90... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.407 Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (a) The engine manufacturer is liable...

  11. Real-time diagnostics of a jet engine exhaust using an intra-pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Hay, Kenneth G.; Langford, Nigel; Johnson, Mark P.; Black, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract It has been demonstrated that an intra-pulse scanned quantum cascade laser spectrometer may be used to obtain real-time diagnostics of the amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water, in the ?exhaust of an aero- gas turbine (turbojet) engine operated in a sea level test cell. Measurements have been made of the rapid changes in composition following ignition, the composition under steady state operating conditions, and the composition changes across the exhaust pl...

  12. Study of Performance on Recharging the Borehole by Means of Exhaust-air Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; FAHL(E)N Per

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance analysis of recharging the borehole by means of exhaust-air energy is carried out. The results show that a vertical borehole used as heat source for a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) can be recharged in high efficiency. With equal heat transfer capabilities of exhaust-air coil and borehole collector, the system provides a maximum overall efficiency. However, due to ground infinite capacity, the optimum brine flow rate is different from conventional twoexchanger system. The recharging system provides two peak overall efficiencies when the capacity ratio Cr = 5 for laminar flow and Cr = 15 for turbulent flow respectively.The overall efficiency is independent of exhaust-air temperature and undisturbed ground temperature,although the fluid properties depend on temperature. In practical system lower ethyl percentage brine should be chosen if the freezing point meets the system request,which can provide a higher overall efficiency.

  13. Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-18

    Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions. PMID:24471707

  14. Anesthesiologists work-related exhaustion: A comparison study with other hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Riad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff Methods: One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Results: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12 were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups ( P = 0.001. Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists ( P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups ( P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.

  15. [Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Shan, Fa-Bo; Guan, Li-Bin; Cai, Ming-Chun

    2012-04-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the changes of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) level in skeletal muscle after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sea level and high altitude groups. The rats in high altitude group were submitted to simulated 5 000 m of high altitude in a hypobaric chamber for 24 h, and sea level group was maintained at normal conditions. All the rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise. The exhaustion time was recorded. Before and after the exercise, blood lactate and glycogen content in skeletal muscle were determined; AMPK and pAMPK levels in skeletal muscle were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the exhaustion time was significantly decreased after exposure to high altitude. At the moment of exhaustion, high altitude group had lower blood lactate concentration and higher surplus glycogen content in gastrocnemius compared with sea level group. Exhaustive exercise significantly increased the pAMPK/AMPK ratio in rat skeletal muscles from both sea level and high altitude groups. However, high altitude group showed lower pAMPK/AMPK ratio after exhaustion compared to sea level group. These results suggest that, after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia, the decrement in exercise capacity may not be due to running out of glycogen, accumulation of lactate or disturbance in energy status in skeletal muscle. PMID:22513470

  16. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  17. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  18. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  19. Analyzing the exhaustiveness of the synapse protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkovic, Bojan; Ciancaglini, Vincenzo; Ognjanovic, Zoran; Glavan, Paola; Liquori, Luigi; Maksimovic, Petar

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Synapse protocol is a scalable protocol designed for information retrieval over inter-connected heterogeneous overlay networks. In this paper, we give a formal description of Synapse using the Abstract State Machines framework. The formal description pertains to Synapse actions that manipulate distributed keys. Based on this formal description, we present results concerning the expected exhaustiveness for a number of scenarios and systems maintained by the Synaps...

  20. Tokamak exhaust process for the ITER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER project calls for an unprecedented amount of hydrogen isotopes to be processed. To facilitate environmental responsibility and economic application of fusion technology, the re-use of hydrogen isotopes is vital. The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the front end of the ITER Tritium Plant, the Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) System. The TEP system must separate the Tokamak exhaust gases into a stream containing only hydrogen isotopes and a stream containing only non-hydrogen gases. The USIPO has selected the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in partnership with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to complete the TEP portion of the project. SRNL's participation builds on the laboratory's decades of work with hydrogen and its isotopes deuterium and tritium - providing the applied research and development that supports the Savannah River Site's handling of tritium. SRNL's experience and expertise in large-scale tritium processing systems and its track record of effective project execution are a unique combination that is key to the success of the ITER project. LANL brings to the partnership experience and expertise in tritium processing technologies specific to the fusion program. This knowledge and understanding were gained through the development and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos for over 20 years starting in the late 1970's. The US's implementation of the tokamak exhaust processing (TEP) system will provide a technically mature, robust, and cost-effective solution for the separation of hydrogen isotopes from the tokamak exhaust stream. The TEP technology, design challenges, and project status will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  2. Low temperature operation and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient temperature has the greatest effect on the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines during the initial cold star and before the engine is fully warmed-up. Fuel evaporation is poor in a cold engine and the fuel-air mixture must be made richer to ensure that the engine weill start and be driveable. However, the combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture is incomplete because of the lack of oxygen, and the exhaust gases will contain an excessive amount of carbon monoxide (CO). The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in a combustion engine is tied to high temperatures and oxygen concentrations. The conditions in a non-warmed engine using a rich fuel-air mixture are unfavourable for the formation of NO/sub x/ and the emission of NO/sub x/ may even diminish with falling ambient temperature. When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature the exhaust emissions are usually independent of the ambient temperature if the engine is equipped with intake air preheating that is sufficiently powerful. The reduction efficiency of a catalytic converter mainly depends on its operation temperature. Continuous operation at low temperatures may cause rapid poisoning of the converter. At low temperatures, carbon and other particles that do not burn collect on the active surface of the converter reducing its effectiveness.

  3. Acute liver failure due to natural killer-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: A case report and review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan S Dellon; Shannon R Morris; Wozhan Tang; Cherie H Dunphy; Mark W Russo

    2006-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation for liver transplantation. We describe an unusual case of a patient who presented with ascites, jaundice, and encephalopathy and was found to have ALF due to natural killer (NK)-like T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The key immunophenotype was CD2+, CD3+, CD7+, CD56+. This diagnosis, which was based on findings in the peripheral blood and ascitic fluid, was confirmed with liver biopsy, and was a contraindication to liver transplantation. A review of the literature shows that hematologic malignancies are an uncommon cause of fulminant hepatic failure, and that NK-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a relatively recently recognized entity which is characteristically CD3+ and CD56+. This case demonstrates that liver biopsy is essential in diagnosing unusual causes of acute liver failure, and that infiltration of the liver with NK-like T-cell lymphoma/leukemia can cause acute liver failure.

  4. Limbal Stem Cell Allografts and Corneal Transplant in a Patient with Severe Corneal Melting and Perforation due to Thermokeratoplasty andCross-Linking Treatment Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Garduño-Vieyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal stem cell allografts in a patient with a persistent epithelial defect as well as corneal melting and perforation due to severe ultraviolet light burn and thermokeratoplasty treatment for keratoconus. Methods: A 21-year-old female patient with corneal melting, perforation and a persistent epithelial defect in her left eye secondary to iatrogenic treatment for keratoconus, thermokeratoplasty and cross-linking was treated with penetrating keratoplasty, using a 9.0-mm diameter corneal graft and limbal stem cell allograft implants. At the end of the procedure, subtenonian injections of a combination of bevacizumab and triamcinolone were given. Results: The patient had a favorable outcome 48 h after surgery, with an improvement of symptoms and a complete corneal healing. By the third week after surgery, she had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and a clear corneal graft, which remained stable for the 9 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Treatment with limbal stem cell allografts and penetrating keratoplasty in a female patient with a large corneal defect and melting in her left eye was effective. Larger studies are warranted to explore the real impact of this procedure.

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  6. Exhaust gas assisted reforming of rapeseed methyl ester for reduced exhaust emissions of CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions of compression ignition (CI) engines fueled with biodiesel are generally higher compared to conventional diesel fuelling. Previous research work in CI engines has shown that the partial replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can reduce NOx and smoke emissions without significant changes to the engine efficiency. In the present study, the production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) has been investigated experimentally as a way to provide the required hydrogen for the reduction of biodiesel emissions. For comparison, tests with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were also performed. The reforming experiments were carried out in a mini reactor supplied with exhaust gas from a single cylinder CI engine. In all cases, the reactor inlet temperature was kept at 290-bar C which was chosen as a typical low exhaust gas temperature of diesel engines operating at part load. The engine operating condition (speed, load) was the same in all the tests and the reactor product gas was examined as a function of the reactor fuel flow rate and the composition of fuel and engine exhaust gas. Up to 17% hydrogen content of the reformer product was achieved and the results indicated that the main reactions in the reformer were the exothermic complete oxidation of part of the fuel and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Reforming of RME produced more hydrogen with higher fuel conversion efficiency compared to ULSD reforming

  7. Novel catalytic converter for natural gas powered diesel engines to meet stringent exhaust emission regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc. (Canada); Matros, Yu.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies Inc. (United States); Sallamie, N.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ. (Canada); Windawi, H. [Johnson Matthey (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The implementation of stringent exhaust emission regulations has led to the development of natural gas powered dual fuel systems with electronic multiport injection. The high compression ratio of the baseline diesel engine was maintained to keep the high thermal efficiency of diesel cycles. The dual fuel system is mainly powered by natural gas and ignited by a diesel pilot. Extensive experimental results indicate that the diesel dual fuel system provides simultaneous reductions in NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. The system also has low exhaust THC and CO under heavy-duty operations. With the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter, low emission operation has been extended to a larger range, from medium to full loads for all testing speeds. However, conventional converters exhibit poor conversion efficiency at low engine loads due to the low exhaust temperature levels. This leads to increased exhaust emissions during low load operations, especially for the non-reactive hydrocarbons, specifically, methane. To solve this problem, a novel automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment system - the reversing flow catalytic converter - has been developed. The prototype Reversing Flow Converter (RFC) consists of a diversion flow valve and a catalytic monolith converter. The diversion valve periodically re-directs the engine exhaust flow through the catalyst in alternative directions. The duration of flow in each direction is determined by engine operating conditions to obtain an ideal temperature profile along the axis of the monolith. The catalytic converter was designed to have high methane conversion efficiency. Associated techniques, such as retarding fuel injection, exhaust gas recirculation, and the variation of diesel pilot to natural gas ratio, can be used to raise exhaust temperature and bring the catalytic converter to light-off temperatures quicker. Engine dynamometer tests showed that CO conversion rate was above 95% and CH{sub 4

  8. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  9. Is the increased relative biological effectiveness of high LET particles due to spatial or temporal effects? Characterization and OER in V79-4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of producing biological damage varies with radiation quality. Conventional explanations rely on spatial differences in the radiation track structure; generally however there are also very large temporal differences in delivery of the radiation at the cellular level. High-LET radiation normally deposits substantial amounts of energy by individual heavily ionizing tracks on a timescale of the order of picoseconds. By contrast each low-LET radiation track deposits a small amount of energy. Many of these tracks, distributed over the whole cell, are required to deliver an equivalent dose to a high-LET track and they are usually delivered over much longer timescales (typically seconds) during which chemical, biochemical and biological processes are occurring. In this paper the design, characterization and initial application of a high-brightness, laser-plasma ultrasoft x-ray source is described. This has been used to investigate the importance of the temporal differences by irradiating mammalian cells with an energy deposition with spatial properties of low-LET radiation and temporal properties similar to high-LET radiation. The present system delivers a typical dose, to the incident surface of the cells, of 0.12 Gy per pulse delivered in <10 ps. The capabilities of the x-ray source were tested by determining the survival of V79-4 hamster cells irradiated with picosecond pulses of ultrasoft x-rays under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, which were found to be consistent with previously published non pulsed data with x-rays of similar energy. These results support the expectation that the disappearance of an oxygen effect for high-LET radiation particles is due to their spatial properties rather than the very short timescale of each particle traversal. For other effects, particularly non-targeted phenomena such as induced genomic instability, expectations may be less clear cut. (author)

  10. Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT. In contrast, almost all other solid cancers in adults are incurable once they have spread beyond the primary site. Cell lines derived from TGCTs are hypersensitive to cisplatin reflecting the clinical response. Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC, but the critical DNA damage has not been defined. This study was aimed at investigating the formation and repair of intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by cisplatin in TTC and their contribution to TTC hypersensitivity. Results We observed that repair of intrastrand crosslinks is similar in cisplatin sensitive TTC and resistant bladder cancer cells, whereas repair of ICLs was significantly reduced in TTC. γH2AX formation, which serves as a marker of DNA breaks formed in response to ICLs, persisted in cisplatin-treated TTC and correlated with sustained phosphorylation of Chk2 and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage. Expression of the nucleotide excision repair factor ERCC1-XPF, which is implicated in the processing of ICLs, is reduced in TTC. To analyse the causal role of ERCC1-XPF for ICL repair and cisplatin sensitivity, we over-expressed ERCC1-XPF in TTC by transient transfection. Over-expression increased ICL repair and rendered TTC more resistant to cisplatin, which suggests that ERCC1-XPF is rate-limiting for repair of ICLs resulting in the observed cisplatin hypersensitivity of TTC. Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.

  11. Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a Delta Wing and a Swept Wing-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Lake, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic travel is not allowed over populated areas due to the disturbance caused by the sonic boom. Research has been performed on sonic boom reduction and has included the contribution of the exhaust nozzle plume. Plume effect on sonic boom has progressed from the study of isolated nozzles to a study with four exhaust plumes integrated with a wing-body vehicle. This report provides a baseline analysis of the generic wing-body vehicle to demonstrate the effect of the nozzle exhaust on the near-field pressure profile. Reductions occurred in the peak-to-peak magnitude of the pressure profile for a swept wing-body vehicle. The exhaust plumes also had a favorable effect as the nozzles were moved outward along the wing-span.

  12. Exhaustive Search for Fuzzy Gene Networks from Microarray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, B A; Fitch, J P; Quong, J N; Quong, A A

    2003-07-07

    Recent technological advances in high-throughput data collection allow for the study of increasingly complex systems on the scale of the whole cellular genome and proteome. Gene network models are required to interpret large and complex data sets. Rationally designed system perturbations (e.g. gene knock-outs, metabolite removal, etc) can be used to iteratively refine hypothetical models, leading to a modeling-experiment cycle for high-throughput biological system analysis. We use fuzzy logic gene network models because they have greater resolution than Boolean logic models and do not require the precise parameter measurement needed for chemical kinetics-based modeling. The fuzzy gene network approach is tested by exhaustive search for network models describing cyclin gene interactions in yeast cell cycle microarray data, with preliminary success in recovering interactions predicted by previous biological knowledge and other analysis techniques. Our goal is to further develop this method in combination with experiments we are performing on bacterial regulatory networks.

  13. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  14. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  15. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:23986878

  16. Exhaustive Versus Randomized Searchers for Nonlinear Optimization in 21st Century Computing: Solar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; AliShaykhian, Gholam

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple multi-dimensional exhaustive search method to obtain, in a reasonable time, the optimal solution of a nonlinear programming problem. It is more relevant in the present day non-mainframe computing scenario where an estimated 95% computing resources remains unutilized and computing speed touches petaflops. While the processor speed is doubling every 18 months, the band width is doubling every 12 months, and the hard disk space is doubling every 9 months. A randomized search algorithm or, equivalently, an evolutionary search method is often used instead of an exhaustive search algorithm. The reason is that a randomized approach is usually polynomial-time, i.e., fast while an exhaustive search method is exponential-time i.e., slow. We discuss the increasing importance of exhaustive search in optimization with the steady increase of computing power for solving many real-world problems of reasonable size. We also discuss the computational error and complexity of the search algorithm focusing on the fact that no measuring device can usually measure a quantity with an accuracy greater than 0.005%. We stress the fact that the quality of solution of the exhaustive search - a deterministic method - is better than that of randomized search. In 21 st century computing environment, exhaustive search cannot be left aside as an untouchable and it is not always exponential. We also describe a possible application of these algorithms in improving the efficiency of solar cells - a real hot topic - in the current energy crisis. These algorithms could be excellent tools in the hands of experimentalists and could save not only large amount of time needed for experiments but also could validate the theory against experimental results fast.

  17. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide in Diesel Engine Exhaust over Monolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitric oxide (NO in diesel engine exhaust over Cu-Zn/ZSM-5 washcoated ceramic monolithic catalysts is reported. The washcoat component was prepared by ion-exchanging ZSM-5 (Si/Al=40 with zinc while copper was incorporated through impregnation. The dispersed washcoat component was then incorporated into 400 cpsi ceramic monolith through a dipping process with the final loadings between 19.6 wt. % and 31.4 wt. %. The SCR process was studied with a feed comprising of 900 ppm NO, 2,000 ppm iso butane and 3 % oxygen at gas hourly space velocities (GHSV between 5,000 and 13,000 h-1. NO conversion increased until a loading of 23.6 wt. % to give a conversion of 88 % at 400 °C. The activity dropped at higher loadings due to the partial blockage of cell openings and diffusion limitations while unstable washcoating adherence was also demonstrated. After an initial deactivation of about 10 % in the first 48 h, this catalyst showed stable residual activity. Between 325 and 375 °C, minimal effect on the activity was detected when the space time was reduced from 0.94 s to 0.24 s, suggesting the absence of external mass transfer limitations for up to a GHSV of 16,000 h-1.

  18. Lead pollution due to exhaust gases. [Celtis occidentalis; fraxinus angustifolia; aesculus hippocastanum; hedera helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinscek, P.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the changes in the lead content of trees and shrubs on the Margaret island in Budapest as a response to the reduction in motor-vehicle traffic introduced in 1974. Compared to samples of the control area (Vacratot) the Margaret island samples were found to have a considerable higher lead content. As a consequence of the traffic modifying measure a 30% decrease in the lead content of the samples was verified. The lead pollution did not involve changes in the chlorophyll content of samples. Accumulation of lead pollution is a specific feature. Lead pollution is accumulated to a great extent (multiple of other plants) by the pilose-leaved CELTIS occidentalis, the pinnate-leaved FRAXINUS angustifolia, ssp. pannonica and the undulate-leaved AESCULUS hippocastanum as well as from among the evergreen by the stellate-hair HEDERA helix. The green belt bordering the roads by its active lead cumulation plays an important role in lessening the plumb pollution of areas more distant from the road. 14 references 3 tables.

  19. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  20. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  1. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U

    1998-08-01

    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  2. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  3. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Patrick; Annila, Arto; Kolehmainen, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster's cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  4. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast augments the Th17-promoting capability of dendritic cells by enhancing IL-23 production, and impairs their T cell stimulatory activity due to elevated IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bros, Matthias; Montermann, Evelyn; Cholaszczyńska, Anna; Reske-Kunz, Angelika B

    2016-06-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors serve to prevent degradation of the intracellular second messenger cAMP, resulting in broad anti-inflammatory effects on different cell types including immune cells. Agents that elevate cAMP levels via activation of adenylate cyclase have been shown to imprint a Th17-promoting capacity in dendritic cells (DCs). Therefore, we studied the potential of therapeutically relevant PDE inhibitors to induce a pronounced Th17-skewing capacity in DCs. Here we show that mouse bone marrow-derived (BM-) DCs when treated with the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF, trade name: Daxas) in the course of stimulation with LPS (ROF-DCs) evoked elevated IL-17 levels in cocultured allogeneic T cells. In addition, as compared with control settings, levels of IFN-γ remained unaltered, while contents of Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-10) were diminished. ROF enhanced expression of the Th17-promoting factor IL-23 in BM-DCs. In line, neutralizing antibodies specific for IL-23 or IL-6 when applied to DC/T cell cocultures partially inhibited the IL17-promoting effect of ROF-DCs. Furthermore, ROF-DCs displayed a markedly diminished allogeneic T cell stimulatory capacity due to enhanced production of IL-10, which was restored upon application of IL-10 specific neutralizing antibody to DC/T cell cocultures. Both the IL-17-inducing and impaired T cell stimulatory capacity of BM-DCs were mimicked by a specific activator of protein kinase A, while stimulation of EPACs (exchange proteins of activated cAMP) did not yield such effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that PDE4 inhibitors aside from their broad overall anti-inflammatory effects may enhance the Th17-polarizing capacity in DCs as an unwanted side effect. PMID:27070502

  5. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  6. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al2O3 catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%

  7. Analyzis of exhaust air-source heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Strautnikas, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    First there are heat losses calculations to find out needed amount of the energy for heating purposes. Then it is analized an exhaust air-source heat pump. Calculated annual electricity energy consumption and annual costs of the exhaust air-source heat pump. In the end it is compared two different heat pumps. Found out which (exhaust air-source or ground source) heat pump consumes less electricity energy consumption.

  8. Oxidation and corrosion fatigue aspects of cast exhaust manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Emission regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines are becoming increasingly restrictive to limit the environmental impacts of exhaust gases and particles. Increasing the specific power output of diesel engines would improve fuel efficiency and greatly reduce emissions, but these changes could lead to increased exhaust gas temperature, increasing demands on the exhaust manifold material. This is currently the ferritic ductile cast iron alloy SiMo51, containing about 4 wt% Si and ~1 wt% Mo, wh...

  9. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  10. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  11. Exhaust catalysis studies using in-situ positron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the kinetics of noble metal catalysts with a formulation related to that of commercial automotive exhaust catalysts, have been examined. The application of a new radioisotope tracer technique in studies of catalyst kinetics is described. Reactant and product molecules were pulsed over a catalyst under conditions such, that the reaction rates were kinetically controlled. Labelling of the reacting molecules enables the in-situ measurement of transient phenomena in a reactor as a function of time and position, if a tomograph is used as detection system. Integral reactor profiles are measured, by which concentration gradients occurring in the reactor can be studied. The large amount of data obtained during each experiment were used to quantify the kinetics. To this end, a refined mathematical model of the kinetics based on the elementary steps of adsorption, desorption and surface reaction was used to simulate the experiments. The experimental conditions in this study were representative for the cold start of a car, when the catalyst is heating up. By applying small catalyst particles and high linear velocities the influence of transport phenomena was excluded so that the experiments were carried out in the kinetically controlled regime. Reaction kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen and nitrogen oxide were studied. Experimental data obtained with surface science techniques were very useful in constructing the kinetic model. By simulating the experiments, the relevant kinetic parameters could be quantified and information on the elementary reaction steps was obtained. Since carbon dioxide adsorbs strongly to the catalyst carrier; 10% carbon dioxide was added to the gas phase (in actual automotive exhaust gas the concentration of carbon dioxide is 10 - 15%). This enabled the determination of the transients due to the interaction of gas components with the catalytically active compounds of the catalyst. (author). 446 refs.; 57 figs.; 21 tabs

  12. Emotional exhaustion and job performance: the mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Bowler, Wm Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The literature concerning the relationship between emotional exhaustion and performance led researchers to raise questions about the extent to which the variables are related. In 2 time-lagged samples, the authors found that motivation mediates the emotional exhaustion-job performance relationship. Moreover, the authors found that participants appear to target their investment of resources in response to emotional exhaustion to develop social support through social exchange; specifically, emotional exhaustion was associated with communion striving resources that were manifest in the form of organizational citizenship behaviors targeted at individuals. Implications of this relationship for theories of burnout and for management practice are discussed. PMID:17227154

  13. Present Situation of Purification Technologies for Automotive Exhaust in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is presented that eliminating and controlling the current automotive exhaust emission should be important and urgent in China, and the Chinese state emission standards have been getting stricter and stricter. Also the present purification technologies for automotive exhaust are elucidated. It is indicated that the development and the commercialization of Rare Earth based on three way catalytic converters is pretty necessary and urgent to address the current harsh automotive exhaust emission problems in China. In addition, the future automotive exhaust purification technologies are prospected.

  14. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  15. CORE ELECTRON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present observational evidence of core electron heating in solar wind reconnection exhausts. We show two example events, one which shows clear heating of the core electrons within the exhaust, and one which demonstrates no heating. The event with heating occurred during a period of high inflow Alfvén speed (V AL), while the event with no heating had a low V AL. This agrees with the results of a recent study of magnetopause exhausts, and suggests that similar core electron heating can occur in both symmetric (solar wind) and asymmetric (magnetopause) exhausts

  16. Profiling of Ubiquitination Pathway Genes in Peripheral Cells from Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia due to C9ORF72 and GRN Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serpente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the expression levels of 84 key genes involved in the regulated degradation of cellular protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in peripheral cells from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD due to C9ORF72 and GRN mutations, as compared with sporadic FTD and age-matched controls. A SABiosciences PCR array was used to investigate the transcription profile in a discovery population consisting of six patients each in C9ORF72, GRN, sporadic FTD and age-matched control groups. A generalized down-regulation of gene expression compared with controls was observed in C9ORF72 expansion carriers and sporadic FTD patients. In particular, in both groups, four genes, UBE2I, UBE2Q1, UBE2E1 and UBE2N, were down-regulated at a statistically significant (p < 0.05 level. All of them encode for members of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. In GRN mutation carriers, no statistically significant deregulation of ubiquitination pathway genes was observed, except for the UBE2Z gene, which displays E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity, and was found to be statistically significant up-regulated (p = 0.006. These preliminary results suggest that the proteasomal degradation pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of FTD associated with TDP-43 pathology, although different proteins are altered in carriers of GRN mutations as compared with carriers of the C9ORF72 expansion.

  17. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  18. Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a FIV and FeIV positive cat with a squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed with histological, serological and isoenzymatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grevot A.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis present in the Mediterranean area. Canidae (dog and fox constitute the main reservoir hosts for the parasite, whilst wild rodents or the cat can be carriers of the protozoan and are considered as secondary potential reservoirs. This paper describes a case of disseminated feline leishmaniosis with cutaneous (ulcerative, visceral (spleen and lymph nodes and blood involvement in a FIV-FelV positive cat. The microscopic identification of the Leishmania infection was initially made on a skin biopsy of the temporal area, where a squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The diagnosis of the disease was achieved by several serological techniques (ELISA, IFAT and Western-blot. The strain was obtained by blood culture, characterized by electrophoresis of isoenzymes and identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Since the infection due to L. infantum is a zoonosis, the potential feline reservoir should be more investigated. Serological analysis by Western blot on domestic cats provides a useful tool. In veterinary practice, feline leishmaniosis should be systematically included in the differential diagnosis when compatible cutaneous lesions are present, especially in the endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.

  19. Pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection after liver transplantation: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Bo Liang; Shu-Sen Zheng; Dong-Lin Li; Jun Yu; Xue-Li Bai; Liang Liang; Shi-Guo Xu; Wei-Lin Wang; Yan Shen; Min Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) due to parvovirus B19(PVB19) infection after solid organ transplantation has been rarely reported and most of the cases were renal transplant recipients. Few have been described after liver transplantation. Moreover, little information on the management of this easily recurring disease is available at present. We describe the first case of a Chinese liver transplant recipient with PVB19-induced PRCA during immunosuppressive therapy. The patient suffered from progressive anemia with the lowest hemoglobin level of 21 g/L. Bone marrow biopsy showed selectively inhibited erythropoiesis with giant pronormoblasts. Detection of PVB19-DNA in serum with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed a high level of viral load.After 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)therapy, bone marrow erythropoiesis recovered with his hemoglobin level increased to 123 g/L. He had a lowlevel PVB19 load for a 5-mo follow-up period without recurrence of PRCA, and finally the virus was cleared.Our case indicates that clearance of PVB19 by IVIG in transplant recipients might be delayed after recovery of anemia.

  20. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between...

  1. Crater Formation Due to Lunar Plume Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Thruster plume impingement on a surface comprised of small, loose particles may cause blast ejecta to be spread over a large area and possibly cause damage to the vehicle. For this reason it is important to study the effects of plume impingement and crater formation on surfaces like those found on the moon. Lunar soil, also known as regolith, is made up of fine granular particles on the order of 100 microns.i Whenever a vehicle lifts-off from such a surface, the exhaust plume from the main engine will cause the formation of a crater. This crater formation may cause laterally ejected mass to be deflected and possibly damage the vehicle. This study is a first attempt at analyzing the dynamics of crater formation due to thruster exhaust plume impingement during liftoff from the moon. Though soil erosion on the lunar surface is not considered, this study aims at examining the evolution of the shear stress along the lunar surface as the engine fires. The location of the regions of high shear stress will determine where the crater begins to form and will lend insight into how big the crater will be. This information will help determine the probability that something will strike the vehicle. The final sections of this report discuss a novel method for studying this problem that uses a volume of fluid (VOF)ii method to track the movement of both the exhaust plume and the eroding surface.

  2. Ozone Enhances Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP-Induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8 Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells through Activation of Nuclear Factors- κB (NF-κB and IL-6 (NF-IL6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kelley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05 as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 μg/ml x 4 hr alone (31 ± 3 pg/ml, n = 6, or cultures exposed to purified air (24 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 6. The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung.

  3. Regeneration of carbon nanotubes exhausted with dye reactive red 3BS using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhausted with dye reactive red 3BS were regenerated by microwave irradiation under N2 atmosphere. High regeneration efficiency was achieved and the regeneration efficiency reached 92.8% after four cycles regeneration. The decrease in adsorption capacity was suggested to be due to the deposition of decomposition residues in CNT pores, which blocked the carbon porosity and decreased the specific surface area.

  4. Optimization of Ship Propulsion Diesel Engine to Fulfill the New Requirements for Exhaust Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić, Branko; Komar, Ivan; Nikolić, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of exhaust gas emissions on the environment and air pollution from ships have received considerable attention in the past few decades. Due to the characteristics of the combustion process, typical for large marine two-stroke low-speed engines, and the use of residual fossil fuels, the world’s fleet emits into the atmosphere significant amount of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), sulphur oxides ...

  5. Cytotoxicity of the exhaust gas from a thermal reactor of MSWI baghouse ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Shue, Meei-Fang

    2007-10-01

    Baghouse ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant was heated from 25 degrees C to 800 degrees C under nitrogen in a fixed-bed reactor. The exhaust gas was passed sequentially through water, acetone and cyclohexane. The cytotoxicity testing of the three adsorbates was done with the MRC-5 cell line and the percentage cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) analysis. The highest level of toxicity of the exhaust gas was observed at 500 degrees C. The total cytotoxicity of the three adsorbates at any treatment temperature was found to be a function of the sum of organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC) and molecular chlorine (Cl(2)), of which, molecular chlorine was quantitatively the greatest. PMID:17585993

  6. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Solid state electrochemical sensors that measure nitrogen oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust have been investigated in order to help meet future on-board diagnostic (OBD) regulations for diesel vehicles. This impedancemetric detection technology consists of a planar, single cell sensor design with various sensing electrode materials and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte. No reference to ambient air is required. An impedance analysis method yields a signal that is proportional to t...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  8. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  9. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust...

  10. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING....102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  11. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.56... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal exhaustion. 400.56 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively....

  13. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  14. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  15. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. This may involve using an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  16. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine... immediately at full load and speed. The preliminary liquid-fuel-injection rate shall be such that the...

  17. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except...

  18. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  19. Attempts to predict the long-term decrease in lung function due to radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain a model which can predict long-term decrease in lung function due to radiation damage from dose-volume data for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Patients and methods: 27 patients were included, all long-term survivors after radical radiation therapy. For each patient a regression analysis was performed on a post-RT succession of measurements of FEV1 in order to estimate the decrease after 2 years and a standard error (SE) on this regression estimate. The modelling was based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) exported from the treatment planning system, and involved fits of threshold models, a mean lung dose model as well as more complex models based on the relative damaged volume (rdV). Results: Decreases after 2 years of up to 28% in FEV1 was measured (median 10%), with significant day-to-day variation in FEV1 for the individual patient. The threshold models predicted the long-term decrease in FEV1 well when the SE was interpreted as the uncertainty of the measured decrease. The best threshold value, marginally, was 30 Gy with an R2 of 0.46. The mean lung dose model did not perform so well. A complex model based on rdV performed better than any of the other models (R2 =0.52). Conclusion: The long-term decrease in FEV1 could be predicted from a simple dose-volume model when the SE was interpreted as the uncertainty of the measured decrease

  20. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-09-01

    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  1. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  2. Role of snow and cold environment in the fate and effects of nanoparticles and select organic pollutants from gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Kurien, Uday; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo B; Ariya, Parisa A

    2016-02-17

    Exposure to vehicle exhaust can drive up to 70 % of excess lifetime cancer incidences due to air pollution in urban environments. Little is known about how exhaust-derived particles and organic pollutants, implicated in adverse health effects, are affected by freezing ambient temperatures and the presence of snow. Airborne particles and (semi)volatile organic constituents in dilute exhaust were studied in a novel low-temperature environmental chamber system containing natural urban snow under controlled cold environmental conditions. The presence of snow altered the aerosol size distributions of dilute exhaust in the 10 nm to 10 μm range and decreased the number density of the nanoparticulate (<100 nm) fraction of exhaust aerosols, yet increased the 100-150 nm fraction. Upon 1 hour exhaust exposure, the total organic carbon increased in the natural snow from 0.218 ± 0.014 to 0.539 ± 0.009 mg L(-1), and over 40 additional (semi)volatile organic compounds and a large number of exhaust-derived carbonaceous and likely organic particles were identified. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) increased from near the detection limit to 52.48, 379.5, 242.7, and 238.1 μg kg(-1) (± 10 %), respectively, indicating the absorption of exhaust-derived toxic organic compounds by snow. The alteration of exhaust aerosol size distributions at freezing temperatures and in the presence of snow, accompanied by changes of the organic pollutant content in snow, has potential to alter health effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust. PMID:26758961

  3. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaveli-López, Begonya; Bagán-Sebastián, José V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the bool...

  4. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  5. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelek M.; Pech O.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the...

  6. Validation of Inlet and Exhaust Boundary Conditions for a Cartesian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shishir A.; Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Inlets and exhaust nozzles are often omitted in aerodynamic simulations of aircraft due to the complexities involved in the modeling of engine details and flow physics. However, the omission is often improper since inlet or plume flows may have a substantial effect on vehicle aerodynamics. A method for modeling the effect of inlets and exhaust plumes using boundary conditions within an inviscid Cartesian flow solver is presented. This approach couples with both CAD systems and legacy geometry to provide an automated tool suitable for parameter studies. The method is validated using two and three-dimensional test problems which are compared with both theoretical and experimental results. The numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement with theory and available data, even for extremely strong jets and very sensitive inlets.

  7. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  8. Parsimony, Exhaustivity and Balanced Detection in Neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoni, Alberto; Ribot, Jérôme; Bennequin, Daniel; Touboul, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The layout of sensory brain areas is thought to subtend perception. The principles shaping these architectures and their role in information processing are still poorly understood. We investigate mathematically and computationally the representation of orientation and spatial frequency in cat primary visual cortex. We prove that two natural principles, local exhaustivity and parsimony of representation, would constrain the orientation and spatial frequency maps to display a very specific pinwheel-dipole singularity. This is particularly interesting since recent experimental evidences show a dipolar structures of the spatial frequency map co-localized with pinwheels in cat. These structures have important properties on information processing capabilities. In particular, we show using a computational model of visual information processing that this architecture allows a trade-off in the local detection of orientation and spatial frequency, but this property occurs for spatial frequency selectivity sharper than reported in the literature. We validated this sharpening on high-resolution optical imaging experimental data. These results shed new light on the principles at play in the emergence of functional architecture of cortical maps, as well as their potential role in processing information. PMID:26587664

  9. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  10. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3...... trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME...... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  11. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today’s opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  12. Lung metastasis fails in MMTV-PyMT oncomice lacking S100A4 due to a T-cell deficiency in primary tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, Mariam; Almholt, Kasper; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Lukanidin, Eugene; Ambartsumian, Noona

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, in S100A4(-/-) PyMT tumors, a significant suppression of T-cell infiltration was documented at the transition period. In vitro, the S100A4 protein mediated the attraction of T cells. Moreover, S100A4(+/+), but not S100A4(-/-), fibroblasts stimulated the invasion of T lymphocytes into......4 in the primary tumor stimulates infiltration of T cells and activates secretion of cytokines, thus triggering sequential events that fuel tumor cells to metastasize. Similar processes could occur in the premetastatic lungs, facilitating generation of inflammatory milieu favorable for metastasis...

  13. Are heat stroke and physical exhaustion underestimated causes of acute hepatic failure?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kilian Weigand; Carina Riediger; Wolfgang Stremmel; Christa Flechtenmacher; Jens Encke

    2007-01-01

    While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise,exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon. Here we present two cases of acute hepatic failure, one due to classic heat shock, while the other occurred while the patient was doing a marathon-type running. Both cases presented with very high transaminases and significantly elevated international normalized ratio (INR). No other causes for liver failure could be identified but physical exhaustion and hyperthermia.

  14. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail

  15. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  16. Experimental and thermodynamical analyses of the diesel exhaust vortex generator heat exchanger for optimizing its operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, a vortex generator heat exchanger is used to recover exergy from the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine. Twenty vortex generators with 30° angle of attack are used to increase the heat recovery as well as the low back pressure in the exhaust. The experiments are prepared for five engine loads (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of full load), two exhaust gases amount (50 and 100%) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). After a thermodynamical analysis on the obtained data, an optimization study based on Central Composite Design (CCD) is performed due to complex effect of engine loads and water mass flow rates on exergy recovery and irreversibility to reach the best operating condition. - Highlights: • A vortex generator heat exchanger is used for diesel exhaust heat recovery. • A thermodynamic analysis is performed for experimental data. • Exergy recovery, irreversibility are calculated in different exhaust gases amount. • Optimization study is performed using response surface method

  17. Automated design of exhaust systems; Automatisierte Auslegung von Abgasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebasinski, R.; Halbei, J.; Rose, T. [J. Eberspaecher GmbH und Co. KG, Esslingen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    For some years, a significant proportion of the functional development of exhaust systems has been carried out by means of simulation programs. Nonetheless, the development process does not differ markedly from the traditional approach involving trial and error. Efficiency can only be further increased by combining the known mathematical simulation methods with modern optimisation processes. This paper presents the development methodology used at Eberspaecher to optimise exhaust tailpipe noise and exhaust emission control. The capabilities and reliability of this optimisation program are illustrated by means of examples. (orig.)

  18. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Licki Janusz; Pawelec Andrzej; Zimek Zbigniew; Witman-Zając Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high...

  19. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  20. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaftsi, Magdalena; Brennan, Paul; Spector, Stephen A; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2004-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) migration from the site of infection to the site of T-cell priming is a crucial event in the generation of antiviral T-cell responses. Here we present to our knowledge the first functional evidence that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) blocks the migration of infected monocyte-derived DCs toward lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. DC migration is blocked by viral impairment of the chemokine receptor switch at the level of the expression of CCR7 molecules. The inhibition occurs with immediate-early-early kinetics, and viral interference with NF-kappaB signaling is likely to be at least partially responsible for the lack of CCR7 expression. DCs which migrate from the infected cultures are HCMV antigen negative, and consequently they do not stimulate HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells, while CD4(+)-T-cell activation is not impaired. Although CD8(+) T cells can also be activated by alternative antigen presentation mechanisms, the spatial segregation of naive T cells and infected DCs seems a potent mechanism of delaying the generation of primary CD8(+)-T-cell responses and aiding early viral spread. PMID:14990723

  1. V-79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with antiprotons, a study of peripheral damage due to medium and long range components of the annihilation radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Sandra; Bassler, Niels; Hartley, Oliver;

    2009-01-01

    beam with fluence ranging from 4.5e8 to 4.5e9 particles, and evaluated the biological effect on cells located distal to the Bragg peak using clonogenic survival and the COMET assay. Results: Both methods show a substantial biological effect on the cells in the entrance channel and the Bragg Peak area...

  2. Increased responsiveness of rat mast cells to compound 48/80 due to removal of extracellular magnesium. Effects of ouabain and EGTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A decreased secretory response of mast cells to compound 48/80 (12% of control value) after preincubation of the cells with magnesium but without calcium was partially restored by removal of magnesium. EGTA (10 microM) blocked the restoration and decreased the restored secretory activity again, w...

  3. Radiation resistance due to high expression of miR-21 and G2/M checkpoint arrest in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is evidence that the extent of the G2/M arrest following irradiation is correlated with tumour cell survival and hence therapeutic success. We studied the regulation of cellular response to radiation treatment by miR-21-mediated modulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells and analysed miR-21 expression in breast cancer tissue samples with long-term follow up. The miR-21 expression levels were quantified (qRT-PCR) in a panel of 86 cases of invasive breast carcinomas in relation to metastasis free survival. The cellular radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells after irradiation was determined comparing two cell lines (T47D and MDA-MB-361) by cell proliferation and colony forming assays. The influence of miR-21 overexpression or downregulation on cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint arrest after irradiation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of miR-21 was transiently increased 8 hours after irradiation in the radioresistant T47D cells and significantly changed with lower extent in radiosensitive MDA-MB-361 cells. Anti-miR-21 treated breast cancer cells failed to exhibit the DNA damage-G2 checkpoint increase after irradiation. Apoptotic activity was significantly enhanced from 7% to 27% in T47D cells and from 18% to 30% in MDA-MB-361 cells 24 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. Additionally, we characterized expression of miR-21 in invasive breast carcinomas. In comparison to non-cancerous adjacent breast tissue, tumours samples had increased miR-21 expression that inversely correlated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients (p = 0.029). Our data indicate that miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells contributes to radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression. These data point to the potential of combining radiotherapy with an anti-miR-21 as a potent G2/M check point inhibitor in overcoming radiation resistance of tumours

  4. Radiation resistance due to high expression of miR-21 and G2/M checkpoint arrest in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasov Nataša

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the extent of the G2/M arrest following irradiation is correlated with tumour cell survival and hence therapeutic success. We studied the regulation of cellular response to radiation treatment by miR-21-mediated modulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells and analysed miR-21 expression in breast cancer tissue samples with long-term follow up. Methods The miR-21 expression levels were quantified (qRT-PCR in a panel of 86 cases of invasive breast carcinomas in relation to metastasis free survival. The cellular radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells after irradiation was determined comparing two cell lines (T47D and MDA-MB-361 by cell proliferation and colony forming assays. The influence of miR-21 overexpression or downregulation on cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint arrest after irradiation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Results The expression of miR-21 was transiently increased 8 hours after irradiation in the radioresistant T47D cells and significantly changed with lower extent in radiosensitive MDA-MB-361 cells. Anti-miR-21 treated breast cancer cells failed to exhibit the DNA damage-G2 checkpoint increase after irradiation. Apoptotic activity was significantly enhanced from 7% to 27% in T47D cells and from 18% to 30% in MDA-MB-361 cells 24 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. Additionally, we characterized expression of miR-21 in invasive breast carcinomas. In comparison to non-cancerous adjacent breast tissue, tumours samples had increased miR-21 expression that inversely correlated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients (p = 0.029. Conclusions Our data indicate that miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells contributes to radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression. These data point to the potential of combining radiotherapy with an anti-miR-21 as a potent G2/M check point inhibitor in overcoming radiation resistance of tumours.

  5. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  6. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs in slice preparations of entorhinal cells, have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K+ and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning, oscillatory dynamics, and navigational behaviors.

  7. Ca2(+)-sensitive binding of thrombospondin to U937 cells is due to the formation of calcium precipitate in the binding medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, X.; Mosher, D F

    1991-01-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP) binds to U937 monocytic cells in a Ca2(+)-enhancible and EDTA-inhibitable manner (Silverstein, R. L., and R. L. Nachman. 1987. J. Clin. Invest. 79:867-874; Silverstein, R. L., A. S. Asch, and R. L. Nachman. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:546-552). We reproduced the results when RPMI cell culture medium, but not when HBSS was used as binding medium. Addition of 1 mM Ca2+ to RPMI medium increased the binding of TSP to suspended U937 cells more than eightfold; the increase was bl...

  8. Changes of delayed neuronal death of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running%耐力训练及力竭运动后大鼠大脑CA1区锥体细胞迟发性神经元死亡及其线粒体的超微结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁儒; 张建军; 冯富明; 李月白; 王义生

    2012-01-01

    delayed neuronal death.To analyze the effect of changes of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running.Methods The experiment was done from June 2007 to November 2008 in Zhengzhou University.Forty male SD rats of 8 weeks old were selected and divided into 4 groups randomly with 10 rats in each group:sedentary group(without training),24 hours after acute exercise group (without training,sacrificed 24 hours later after acute exhaustion treadmill running),right after acute exercise with training group (performance endurance training program,rats were sacrificed right after acute exhaustion treadmill running),24 hours after acute exercise with training group (performance endurance training program,rats were sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustion treadmill running).Endurance training program:once a day,6 days a week.Speed increased from 10 meters per minute at the first week to 30 meters per minute at the fourth week.Training time was that from 30 minutes per day at the first week to 40 minutes per day at the fourth week.Acute exercise means an exhaustion treadmill running with the speed of 28 meters per minute.The exhaustion standard was the rat could not keep the speed and stagnant stay in the 1/3 back part of the treadmill even with electricity stimulation for 10 s more than 3 times.Rats were sacrificed with decollation.Hippocampus of the brain were separated were used to detect the changes on cell apoptosis of brain and observation of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running.Results Totally 40 SD rats were done the experimental program and involved in the result analysis.The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in brain and the degeneration of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus increased

  9. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  10. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific..., “Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary Engines,” will be considered as meeting...

  11. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  12. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  13. Modelling the current density increase due to the "light-trapping" effect in conjugated polymer/fullerene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Purkrt, Adam; Špringer, Jiří; Poruba, Aleš; Vaněček, Milan; Goris, L.; Manca, J.

    Gent: Academia Press, 2007 - (Burgelman, M.), s. 133-139 ISBN 978-90-382-1109-1. [NUMOS International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of Thin Film Solar Cells. Gent (BE), 28.03.2007-30.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 19670 - ATHLET Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solar cell * organic * simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. MiR-27b is epigenetically downregulated in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells due to promoter methylation and regulates tamoxifen sensitivity by targeting HMGB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiunan; Wu, Yumei; Liu, Aihui; Tang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    MiR-27b downregulation is significantly associated with tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. However, how it is downregulated in tamoxifen resistant (TamR) breast cancer cells and its downstream regulation were not clear. By performing MSP assay and QRT-PCR analysis with the use of 5-AZA-dC, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, we observed that TamR MCF-7 cells had significantly higher levels of methylation in the miR-27b promoter region than tamoxifen sensitive MCF-7 (TamS) cells and demethylation restored miR-27b expression. Re-expression of miR-27b sensitized TamR MCF-7 cells to tamoxifen, inhibited invasion and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like properties. By using bioinformatics analysis and following dual luciferase and western blot analysis, this study confirmed a direct regulation of miR-27b on HMGB3 expression by binding to the 3'UTR. In addition, this study also found that silencing of HMGB3 indeed partially phenocopied the effects of miR-27b in reducing tamoxifen resistance and cell invasion and in reversing EMT-like properties. Therefore, we infer that HMGB3 is a functional target of miR-27b in modulation of tamoxifen resistance and EMT. PMID:27363334

  15. Catalytic converter technologies for future exhaust emission standards; Katalysatortechnologien fuer zukuenftige Abgasgrenzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueper, P.F. [Porsche (F.) AG, Weissach (Germany); Bruestle, C. [Porsche (F.) AG, Weissach (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Due to the Californian exhaust gas legislation for the period after 1995 and the expected tightening of the European standards, new impulses were given to increase the effectiveness of the exhaust aftertreatment. A list is presented which attempts to give an overview of the question of which exhaust aftertreatment or which additional devices must be applied in order to meet the future exhaust emission standards. The ageing of the catalytic converters has been taken into account. The actual exhaust emission standards are met with the conventional systems. Additional measurements such as secondary ventilation are necessary for TLEV. In order to achieve LEV additional measurements such as lighter exhaust gas systems and modifications of the cold starting and warm-up parameters could be sufficient. There are two different systems which meet the ULEV standards: 1. Active systems with an external energy supply for heating up the main or a starting catalytic converter. These systems do not necessarily require a catalytic converter position close to the engine. 2. Passive systems with switchable starting catalytic converters and without an external energy supply for heating up the main catalytic converter. It offers an alternative to the active systems. Furthermore the switchable catalytic converter suggested by the company Porsche can be applied in charged engines. A further reduction of HC-emission will be achieved by the combination of the two systems mentioned above with HC absorbing and desorbing systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die kalifornische Abgasgesetzgebung fuer die Zeit nach 1995 und die zu erwartenden Verschaerfungen der europaeischen Grenzwerte wurden neue Entwicklungsimpulse zur Steigerung der Effektivitaet der Abgasnachbehandlung ausgeloest. Eine Antwort auf die Frage, welche Abgasnachbehandlungssysteme bzw. welche Zusatzeinrichtungen zur Erfuellung der zukuenftigen Abgasgrenzwerte eingesetzt werden muessen, wird nachfolgend versucht aufzulisten, wobei die

  16. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a larger reduction in their working week. By contrast, most employees with part-time contracts would like to increase their hours, with the preferred increase being larger in those with low levels of emo...

  17. Non-thermal plasma for exhaust gases treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva R., Elvia; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Gómez B., Fernando; Pacheco P., Joel; Colín C., Arturo; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Valdivia B., Ricardo; Santana D., Alfredo; Huertas C., José; Frías P., Hilda

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a study on a non-thermal plasma device to treat exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. Several tests using a plasma device to treat exhaust gases are conducted on a Honda GX200-196 cm3 engine at different rotational speeds. A plasma reactor could be efficient in degrading nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Monoxide and carbon dioxide treatment is minimal. However, achieving 1%-3% degradation may be interesting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  18. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in plac...

  19. Exhaustible Resources, Technology Choice and Industrialization of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Färnstrand Damsgaard, Erika

    2010-01-01

    How should the world economy adapt to the increased demand for exhaustible resources from countries like China and India? To address that issue, this paper presents a dynamic model of the world economy with two technologies for production; a resource technology which uses an exhaustible resource as an input and an alternative technology, which does not. I find that both the time path of resource extraction and the adoption of the alternative technology depend on the optimal allocation of capi...

  20. Is Adrenal Exhaustion Synonym of Syndrome Burnout at Workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Pranjić, Nurka; Nuhbegović, Sabina; Brekalo-Lazarević, Sanja; Kurtić, Azra

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is the assessment of the association of burnout syndrome with adrenal exhaustion specific symptoms and signs among 116 patients who were exposed to violence or mobbing at workplace and who were treated during 2005 to 2008 in Department of Occupational Pathology and Toxicology Tuzla; to detect symptoms and signs of adrenal exhaustion differences between patients who were exposed to act of violence as acute catastrophic event and patients who were long – term exposed...

  1. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane; Natarajan Alagumurthy; Krishnaraj Palaniradja; G Selvaraj Gunasegarane

    2010-01-01

    Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive...

  2. Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

  3. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  4. Study for conceptual design of VEO, VTOL exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittrick, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for a VEO Wing V/STOL exhaust nozzle with a two dimensional shape and having the capability for upper surface blowing, spanwise blowing, and 90 deg turning of the exhaust flow for VTOL were established. A preliminary design of the nozzle that identified the actuation scheme, key dimensions, the flowpath, and the recommended materials were prepared. The airplane characteristics resulting from integrating the study nozzle were established.

  5. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Girling, Robbie D.; Inka Lusebrink; Emily Farthing; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by...

  6. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  7. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells due to tissue-specific human sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Altman, Annette [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Hankui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Zhu Ruisen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Haberkorn, Uwe [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe_haberkorn@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2006-05-15

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used as an ideal reporter gene as well as a promising therapeutic gene. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate has proven to be more advantageous than {sup 131}I-iodide with respect to image quality, procedure and radiation dose in examination of thyroid uptake and scintigraphy. Herein, we investigated the feasibility of monitoring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in hepatoma cells (MH3924A) following tissue-specific expression. Methods: MH3924A cells were stably transfected with the recombinant retroviral vector, in which hNIS cDNA was driven by murine albumin enhancer/promoter (mAlb) and coupled to hygromycin resistance gene using an internal ribosomal entry site. Functional NIS expression in hepatoma cells was confirmed by an {sup 125}I{sup -} uptake assay. The dynamic uptake and efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was determined both in vitro and in vivo. Results: The {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was up to 254-fold higher in stably transfected MH3924A cells than in wild-type cells. However, the in vitro efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate out of recombinant cells was rapid with a half-life of less than 2 min. Further, the in vivo studies yielded clear images and quantitative data of mAlbhNIS-infected tumor xenografts using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {gamma} camera. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates enhanced {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo following tissue-specific gene transfer using a recombinant retrovirus with the albumin enhancer/promoter and the hNIS gene. It is feasible to monitor hNIS gene expression noninvasively and quantitatively using conventional {gamma} camera and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate.

  8. G1 cell cycle arrest due to the inhibition of erbB family receptor tyrosine kinases does not require the retinoblastoma protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erbB receptor family (EGFr, erbB-2, erbB-3, and erbB-4) consists of transmembrane glycoproteins that transduce extracellular signals to the nucleus when activated. erbB family members are widely expressed in epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuronal cells and contribute to the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival of these cell types. The present study evaluates the effects of erbB family signaling on cell cycle progression and the role that pRB plays in regulating this process. ErbB family RTK activity was inhibited by PD 158780 in the breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. PD 158780 (0.5 μM) inhibited EGF-stimulated and heregulin-stimulated autophosphorylation and caused a G1 cell cycle arrest within 24 h, which correlated with hypophosporylation of pRB. MCF10A cells lacking functional pRB retained the ability to arrest in G1 when treated with PD 158780. Both cell lines showed induction of p27KIP1 protein when treated with PD 158780 and increased association of p27KIP1 with cyclin E-CDK2. Furthermore, CDK2 kinase activity was dramatically inhibited with drug treatment. Changes in other pRB family members were noted with drug treatment, namely a decrease in p107 and an increase in p130. These findings show that the G1 arrest induced through inhibition of erbB family RTK activity does not require functional pRB

  9. Diminished COX-2/PGE2-Mediated Antiviral Response Due to Impaired NOX/MAPK Signaling in G6PD-Knockdown Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Ru; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Yen, Wei-Chen; Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) provides the reducing agent NADPH to meet the cellular needs for reductive biosynthesis and the maintenance of redox homeostasis. G6PD-deficient cells experience a high level of oxidative stress and an increased susceptibility to viral infections. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key mediator in the regulation of viral replication and inflammatory response. In the current study, the role of G6PD on the inflammatory response was determined in both scramble control and G6PD-knockdown (G6PD-kd) A549 cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation. A decreased expression pattern of induced COX-2 and reduced production of downstream PGE2 occurred upon TNF-α stimulation in G6PD-kd A549 cells compared with scramble control A549 cells. TNF-α-induced antiviral activity revealed that decreased COX-2 expression enhanced the susceptibility to coronavirus 229E infection in G6PD-kd A549 cells and was a result of the decreased phosphorylation levels of MAPK (p38 and ERK1/2) and NF-κB. The impaired inflammatory response in G6PD-kd A549 cells was found to be mediated through NADPH oxidase (NOX) signaling as elucidated by cell pretreatment with a NOX2-siRNA or NOX inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). In addition, NOX activity with TNF-α treatment in G6PD-kd A549 cells was not up-regulated and was coupled with a decrease in NOX subunit expression at the transcriptional level, implying that TNF-α-mediated NOX signaling requires the participation of G6PD. Together, these data suggest that G6PD deficiency affects the cellular inflammatory response and the decreased TNF-α-mediated antiviral response in G6PD-kd A549 cells is a result of dysregulated NOX/MAPK/NF-κB/COX-2 signaling. PMID:27097228

  10. Extended short-wavelength spectral response of organic/(silver nanoparticles/Si nanoholes nanocomposite films) hybrid solar cells due to localized surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films were fabricated. • An enhancement of total absorption in the AgNPs/SiNHs nanocomposite films at the short wavelength was exhibited. • Prototype solar cell device with AgNPs exhibits an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3. - Abstract: In this letter, we investigated spectral and opto-electronic conversion properties of the inorganic/organic hybrid cells by using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films, which were fabricated by the modified metal-assisted electroless etching (EE) method. It was found that the optical absorption spectra of the films with AgNPs demonstrate a clear peak and show the enhancement of total absorption at the short wavelength. The results of current–voltage (I–V) measurements show that solar cells with AgNPs exhibit an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3, in comparison with those of the samples without AgNPs. Moreover, higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) values in AgNPs-decorated solar cells were confirmed in the short-wavelength spectral region (400–700 nm), which were essential to achieve high-performance photovoltaic cells. We thought these were mainly attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects and increased light scattering of AgNPs

  11. Ruthenium-manganese / Alumina supported bimetallic alloy system for car exhaust pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of carbon monoxide emission onto the atmosphere causing pollution and environmental hazards comes from car exhaust. A bimetallic alloy system Ru:Mn supported on high surface area, alumina oxide support was developed using CO impregnation method. This system was subjected to alternate reduction and oxidation at high temperature. The purpose of this treatment was two folds. 1). To produce a large surface area for the CO adsorption emitted from car exhaust. 2). To produce potentially important saturate/ unsaturated hydrocarbon products by the hydrogenation of the deposited carbon. The prepared system was characterised using bet surface area measurement, XPS, SSIMS, TEM, EELS and CO chemisorption. After adsorption of CO, the pellets were removed and the system was subjected to CO-hydrogenation. The data indicates that CO coming from car exhaust in linearly adsorbed on the surface and the subject treatment of the system at high temperature after hydrogenation produces more unsaturated hydrocarbon products due to presence of higher oxidation states of the metal used. The alloy system was finally recovered for further use. A high surface area pellets were finally prepared and arrangements are in progress to test the prepared system for its life and working. (author)

  12. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  14. PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 Gene Expression on T-Cells and Natural Killer Cells Declines in Conjunction with a Reduction in PD-1 Protein during the Intensive Phase of Tuberculosis Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, SS; Akram, M.; King, EC; Dockrell, HM; Cliff, JM

    2015-01-01

    Background The PD-1 axis is a cell intrinsic immunoregulatory pathway that mediates T cell exhaustion in chronic infection particularly in some viral infections. We hypothesized that PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 would be highly expressed in untreated tuberculosis patients compared to controls due to their chronic infection and would decrease with successful TB treatment. Materials and Methods Untreated tuberculosis patients (n = 26) were recruited at diagnosis and followed up during treatment. House...

  15. 关于数论中的穷竭原则%Exhausting the exhaustion principle in number theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海龙

    2011-01-01

    The contents of the paper are to appear in book form shortly [ 4 ] and it has been given in the author's lectures at Abdug Salam School of Math Sci. GC Univ. Lahore, Pakistan in Feb. , 2011. We mean by the exhaustion principle that in a certain way, there is a rule which exhaust all the elements of a system, i. e. , a sort of classification. We shall illustrate this principle by significant examples. Since our examples are related to groups, the exhaustion is mostly of the form of a disjoint union of subsets Hd ( d | n) exhausting the whole group G: G = ∪d/a Hd (disjoint).

  16. New apparatus for direct counting of β particles from two-dimensional gels and an application to changes in protein synthesis due to cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is described for scanning two-dimensional gels by the direct counting of β particles instead of autoradiography. The methodology is described; results are compared with autoradiographic results; and data are presented demonstrating changed patterns of protein synthesis accompanying changes in cell density. The method is rapid and permits identification of differences in protein abundance of approximately 10% for a substantial fraction of the more prominent proteins. A modulation effect of more than 5 standard deviations, accompanying contact inhibition of cell growth, is shown to occur for an appreciable number of these proteins. The method promises to be applicable to a variety of biochemical and genetic experiments designed to delineate changes in protein synthesis accompanying changes in genome, molecular environment, history, and state of differentiation of the cell populations studied. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Child hospitalization due to severe malaria is associated with the ICAM-1(Kilifi) allele but not adherence patterns of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells to ICAM-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanziva, C.; Mpina, M.; Balthazary, S.; Mkali, H.; Mbugi, E.V.; Mosha, F.; Chilongola, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the predisposition of a mutation at position 179 of the ICAM-1 gene to child hospitalization due to malaria was mediated by changes in adherence properties of IRBCs to ICAM-1. ICAM-1 genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction of isolated DNA

  18. Unmasking Cryptococcal Meningitis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome due to Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Use in a Patient with a Poorly Differentiated Germ Cell Neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Nathan C.; Wallace, James; Frosch, Anne E.P.; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is frequently seen in patients with HIV and less frequently in patients on immune suppressive medications for other conditions. Here, we describe the first reported case of unmasking cryptococcal IRIS due to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor used in an HIV-negative patient with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

  19. Gain of Cellular Adaptation Due to Prolonged p53 Impairment Leads to Functional Switchover from p53 to p73 during DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Juni; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Ray, Pallab; Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Adhikary, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Das, Tanya; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2010-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays the central role in regulating apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. From an evolutionary perspective, the activity of p53 has to be backed up by other protein(s) in case of any functional impairment of this protein, to trigger DNA damage-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. We adopted multiple experimental approaches to demonstrate that in p53-impaired cancer cells, DNA damage caused accumulation of p53 paralogue p73 via Chk-1 that strongly impacted Bax expressi...

  20. When do emotionally exhausted employees speak up? Exploring the potential curvilinear relationship between emotional exhaustion and voice

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xin; Direnzo, Marco S.; Xu, Minya; Duan, Yilong

    2014-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to address the potential nonlinear relationship between emotional exhaustion and voice. Study 1 developed and tested a model rooted in conservation of resources theory in which responses to emotional exhaustion are determined by individual-level and group-level conditions that influence the perceived safety and efficacy of voice and drive prohibitive voice behaviors by giving rise to either resource-conservation-based or resource-acquisition-based motiva...

  1. Unregulated exhaust emissions from engine vehicles. Significance and measuring technology; Moottoriajoneuvojen saeaentelemaettoemaet pakokaasupaeaestoet. Merkitys ja mittaustekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use; Rihko, L. [Neste Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The non-regulated exhaust emissions are, as indicated by their name, components that are not regulated by legislation. Only carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), total gaseous hydrocarbons (THC), and in diesel vehicles total particulate matter are limited by the law. However, in the evaluation of the health effects of traffic and its contribution in air pollution the unregulated exhaust components are gaining an increasing importance. Without reliable large-scale measurements the development of environmental legislation regarding motor vehicles is not possible. The most important environmental effects of traffic emissions are the formation of photo chemical smog in densely trafficked areas, and global warming. The health effects are either acute, e.g., irritation of respiratory organs, or long-term, like exposure to potential carcinogens. US-EPA has specified the most significant traffic originated toxic compounds into the atmosphere: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and particulates with their organic matter. These components should be considered when developing new fuel qualities, engine concepts and exhaust gas regeneration techniques. Formaldehyde emission is already regulated in a certain context in the USA. Due to lack of regulations for these pollutants sampling and measurement techniques are partly in a developmental stage or otherwise inconsistent. There may be variability in preparing the vehicle or the engine, in sampling or in the analysis. No prescribed methodology exists. To give an insight into the state-of-the-art this work reviews the sampling and analytical techniques for the most important exhaust gas components both from diesel and gasoline fuelled vehicles and describes the methods in use at VTT. Some new results obtained at VTT are presented. (3 refs.)

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  3. Impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in respiratory chain-deficient cells but efficient compensation of energetic disadvantage by enhanced anaerobic glycolysis due to low ATP steady state levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-producing pathways, adenine nucleotide levels, oxidative stress response and Ca2+ homeostasis were investigated in cybrid cells incorporating two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations, 3243A > G and 3302A > G in tRNALeu(UUR), as well as Rho0 cells and compared to their parental 143B osteosarcoma cell line. All cells suffering from a severe respiratory chain deficiency were able to proliferate as fast as controls. The major defect in oxidative phosphorylation was efficiently compensated by a rise in anaerobic glycolysis, so that the total ATP production rate was preserved. This enhancement of glycolysis was enabled by a considerable decrease of cellular total adenine nucleotide pools and a concomitant shift in the AMP + ADP/ATP ratios, while the energy charge potential was still in the normal range. Further important consequences were an increased production of superoxide which, however, was neither escorted by major changes in the antioxidative defence systems nor was it leading to substantial oxidative damage. Most interestingly, the lowered mitochondrial membrane potential led to a disturbed intramitochondrial calcium homeostasis, which most likely is a major pathomechanism in mitochondrial diseases

  4. Electrical Effect in Silver-Point Realization Due to Cell Structure and Bias Voltage Based on Resistance Measurement Using AC and DC Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

    2015-08-01

    Electrical effects related to insulating leakage represent one of the major factors contributing to uncertainties in measurements using high-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs), especially during the realization of the silver freezing point (). This work is focused on the evaluation of the differences in resistance measurements observed when using AC resistance bridges and DC resistance bridges, hereafter, termed the AC-DC differences, as the result of various electrical effects. The magnitude of the AC-DC difference in several silver-point cells is demonstrated with several HTSPRTs. The effect of the cell structure on the AC-DC difference is evaluated by exchanging some components, part by part, within a silver-point cell. Then, the effect of the bias voltage applied to the heat pipe within the silver-point furnace is evaluated. Through the analysis of the experimental results and comparison with the reports in the literature, the importance of evaluating the AC-DC difference as a means to characterize the underlying electrical effects is discussed, considering that applying a negative bias condition to the furnace with respect to the high-temperature SPRT can minimize the AC-DC difference. Concluding recommendations are proposed on the components used in silver-point cells and the application of a bias voltage to the measurement circuit to minimize the effects of the electrical leakage.

  5. Experimental evaluation of decrease in the activities of polyphosphate/glycogen-accumulating organisms due to cell death and activity decay in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-06-15

    Decrease in bacterial activity (biomass decay) in activated sludge can result from cell death (reduction in the amount of active bacteria) and activity decay (reduction in the specific activity of active bacteria). The goal of this study was to experimentally differentiate between cell death and activity decay as the cause of decrease in bacterial activity. By means of measuring maximal anaerobic phosphate release rates, verifying membrane integrity by live/dead staining and verifying presence of 16S rRNA with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the decay rates and death rates of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system and a laboratory phosphate removing sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system were determined, respectively, under famine conditions. In addition, the decay rate and death rate of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in a SBR system with an enrichment culture of GAOs were also measured under famine conditions. Hereto the maximal anaerobic volatile fatty acid uptake rates, live/dead staining, and FISH were used. The experiments revealed that in the BNR and enriched PAO-SBR systems, activity decay contributed 58% and 80% to the decreased activities of PAOs, and that cell death was responsible for 42% and 20% of decreases in their respective activities. In the enriched GAOs system, activity decay constituted a proportion of 74% of the decreased activity of GAOs, and cell death only accounted for 26% of the decrease of their activity. PMID:20178124

  6. Deposition of Lead Sulfide Nanostructure Films on TiO2 Surface via Different Chemical Methods due to Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • TiO2 surface was fabricated by electrophoresis deposition method. • PbS nanostructure layers were deposited on the TiO2 surface via different chemical methods. • The effects of chemical deposition methods on the optical properties of fabricated surfaces were studied. • Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were made with the fabricated TiO2/PbS surfaces. • The effects of different deposition methods on DSSC performance were investigated. -- Abstract: In this work TiO2 P25 was deposited successfully on the FTO glass by electrophoresis method. Different chemical methods were served for deposition of nanosized PbS such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Also in this paper, nanosized lead sulfide was successfully deposited on TiO2 surface by hydrothermal (HT) and microwave (MW) methods. Also TiO2/PbS nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and deposited on FTO glass by doctor blade (DB) technique. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated from prepared electrodes, Pt as counter electrode, dye solution and electrolyte. The effect of chemical deposition methods were investigated on surface quality, optical properties and solar cell efficiency. The observation showed that using different chemical methods for deposition of PbS on TiO2 surface is led to fabrication solar cells with different efficiencies and performances. The electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cross-section SEM, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) made by the fabricated electrodes as working electrode and then were investigated by current density-voltage (J-V) curve and electrochemical

  7. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  8. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Rauda Lucia [Department of Geochemistry, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Martins Jorge, Maria Paulete; Pereira, Sergio Silva; Melione, Luiz Paulo [National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani [Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ma, Te Hsiu [Department of Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario, E-mail: pepino@usp.b [Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  9. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  10. Dose rate estimation in the hot cell and in the transfer flask, due to a metallic uranium foil irradiated at RECH-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission trough his Production and Services Department, has decided to develop a method to obtain fission 99 Mo, from the irradiation of low enrichment uranium target. This target is made of one metallic uranium foil inserted between two concentric aluminium cylinders. When the irradiation ends, the target will be transported in appropriated container to the RECH-1 hot cell, where a modified Cintichem method will be applied. Dose rate has been estimated in two situations, when the irradiated metallic uranium is confined in its container and when the target is inside the hot cell. Dose rate has been obtained using ISOSHLD-II code, taking into account different decay times and positions of metallic uranium target

  11. Beam dynamics enhancement due to accelerating field symmetrization in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell S-band photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1.6 cell photocathode S-Band gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is now in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). One of the main features of this RF gun is the symmetrization of the RF coupling iris with an identical vacuum pumping port located in the full cell. The effects of the asymmetry caused by the RF coupling iris were experimentally investigated by positioning a metallic plunger at the back wall of the vacuum port iris. The higher order modes produced were studied using electron beamlets with 8-fold symmetry. The 8-fold beamlets were produced by masking the laser beam. These experimental results indicate that the integrated electrical center and the geometrical center of the gun are within 175 microm. Which is within the laser alignment tolerance of 250 microm

  12. Diminished COX-2/PGE2-Mediated Antiviral Response Due to Impaired NOX/MAPK Signaling in G6PD-Knockdown Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hsin-Ru; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Yen, Wei-Chen; Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) provides the reducing agent NADPH to meet the cellular needs for reductive biosynthesis and the maintenance of redox homeostasis. G6PD-deficient cells experience a high level of oxidative stress and an increased susceptibility to viral infections. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key mediator in the regulation of viral replication and inflammatory response. In the current study, the role of G6PD on the inflammatory response was determined in both scramble...

  13. Bisphenol-A suppresses neurite extension due to inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Sayaka; Aoki, Miho; HOSOKAWA, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Masuma, Runa; Komori, Miyako; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    An endocrine disrupter, bisphenol-A is widely used in the production of plastics and coatings. Recently, it was reported that bisphenol-A affected neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain. On the basis of these reports, it was considered that bisphenol-A affected neuronal differentiation. In this study, the morphological changes in nerve growth factor (NFG)-induced differentiation caused by bisphenol-A were confirmed using a PC12 cell system. When a low concentration of bisphenol-A was added ...

  14. A new approach to cancer therapy due to appropriate uptake and retention kinetics of meta-tetrahydroxy-phenylchlorin in a human fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierrani, F; Fiedler, D; Schnitzhofer, G; Stewart, J C; Gharehbaghi, K; Henry, M; Grin, W; Grünberger, W; Krammer, B

    1996-04-01

    Studies have shown that meta-tetrahydroxy-phenylchlorin is an efficient tumor targeting agent for laser photodynamic therapy. The effectiveness of this approach for cancer treatment depends on drug concentration, incubation time and extracellular protein. We studied uptake and retention kinetics of mTHPC in a human fibroblast cell line. Our results clearly demonstrate a difference in the amount of extracellular mTHPC at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C. pH-values were always constant and not responsible for the increase. Furthermore, both absorption and fluorescence of mTHPC increase when incubated at normal human body temperature. Incubation of human fibroblast cells with mTHPC (10 micg/mL) showed that intracellular mTHPC increases in a linear manner reaching saturation after 24 hours and declining until 48 hours with concommitant increase of supernatant mTHPC. Therefore, we believe that tumor cells can be treated optimally with PDT following a delay > 24 hours after drug administration with a minimum of damage to surrounding normal tissues. PMID:8937740

  15. Inefficient fusion due to a lack of attachment receptor/co-receptor restricts productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, Rémi; Tardif, Mélanie R; Tremblay, Michel J

    2011-03-01

    Since the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of liver disease has increased to become a leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. It can be proposed that the ability of HIV-1 to infect hepatocytes could influence liver diseases. Although the presence of HIV-1 was identified in hepatocytes from HIV-1 seropositive patients, the susceptibility of hepatocytes to HIV-1 infection in vitro remains controversial. We present evidence here that human hepatoma cells are not productively infected with CD4-dependent HIV-1 strains because of inefficient fusion related to an absence of cell surface CD4 and CXCR4. However, these cells display an increased susceptibility to infection with a CD4-independent viral isolate through an interaction with galactosyl ceramide, an alternate receptor for HIV-1. This study provides further understanding of the susceptibility of human hepatocytes to HIV-1 infection. However, in vivo investigations are recommended to consolidate these data. PMID:21123542

  16. Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)-the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields-has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function. (note)

  17. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe

  18. Enhanced cadmium cytotoxicity in A549 cells with reduced glutathione levels is due to neither enhanced cadmium accumulation nor reduced metallothionein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutathione (GSH) depletion sensitizes human lung carcinoma (A549-T27) cells to the cytotoxic effects of Cd++. The effects of GSH depletion on Cd++ accumulation and Cd++-induced metallothionein (MT) content were investigated to determine the possible role of these Cd++ responses in the sensitization process. Cellular GSH was depleted to 20% to 25% of control levels with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), or diethyl maleate (DEM), respectively. Neither treatment significantly affected Cd++-induced accumulation of exogenous 35s-cysteine into intracellular MT in a dose-dependent fashion. The results indicate that neither enhanced Cd++ accumulation nor reduced MT synthesis plays a primary role in affecting enhanced Cd++ cytotoxicity in A549 cells with reduced GSH levels. Although BSO inhibition of GSH synthesis enhanced MT synthesis, it sensitized the cells to Cd++, which suggests an additive effect of GSH and MT in cadmium cytoprotection. This observation also raises the possibility that intracellular cysteine levels limit Cd++-induced MT accumulation rates

  19. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Y. G.; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2015-10-01

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.

  20. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.