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Sample records for cell exhaustion due

  1. Space shuttle contamination due to backflow from control motor exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. J.; Chan, S. T. K.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination of the space shuttle orbiter and accompanying Spacelab payloads is studied. The scattering of molecules from the vernier engines and flash evaporator nozzle after impingement on the orbiter wing surfaces, and the backflow of molecules out of the flash evaporator nozzle plume flow field due to intermolecular collisions in the plume are the problems discussed. A method was formulated for dealing with these problems, and detailed results are given.

  2. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size.

  3. From T cell "exhaustion" to anti-cancer immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeil, Grégory; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Murray, Timothy; Speiser, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    The immune system has the potential to protect from malignant diseases for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, spontaneous immune responses are often inefficient. Significant effort is required to develop reliable, broadly applicable immunotherapies for cancer patients. A major innovation was transplantation with hematopoietic stem cells from genetically distinct donors for patients with hematologic malignancies. In this setting, donor T cells induce long-term remission by keeping cancer cells in check through powerful allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effects. More recently, a long awaited breakthrough for patients with solid tissue cancers was achieved, by means of therapeutic blockade of T cell inhibitory receptors. In untreated cancer patients, T cells are dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell "exhaustion". Nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, indicating that many T cells are not entirely and irreversibly exhausted but can be mobilized to become highly functional. Novel antibody therapies that block inhibitory receptors can lead to strong activation of anti-tumor T cells, mediating clinically significant anti-cancer immunity for many years. Here we review these new treatments and the current knowledge on tumor antigen-specific T cells.

  4. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  5. Diesel exhaust particle-induced cell death of cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Mitsuyoshi; Shimada, Toshio; Uenishi, Rie; Sasaki, Naoko; Sagai, Masaru

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) on normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Inclusion of DEPs in culture media was lethal to NHBE cells. NHBE cells are more susceptible to DEPs than other normal human lung cells, normal human pulmonary artery endothelial cells and normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts. DEP-induced cell death was mainly due to necrosis. Using the fluorescence probes diacetoxymethyl 6-carboxy-3',6'-diacetoxy-2',7'-dichloro-3',6'-dideoxydihydrofluorescinate and 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, it was observed that hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen monoxide, respectively, were generated within DEP-exposed NHBE cells. DEP cytotoxicity increased or decreased with an increase or decrease in the cellular level of reduced glutathione (GSH) by treatment with L-buthionine-(R,S)-sulfoximine or ethyl reduced glutathionate, respectively. In addition, DEPs themselves decreased the cellular level of GSH in a dose-dependent manner. Upon exposure of NHBE cells to high concentrations of DEPs, their cellular GSH was depleted almost throughout. Further, the following agents decreased DEP cytotoxicity: 1) antioxidants 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol, ebselen, and N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediaminomanganese(II) dihydrate (EUK-8); 2) iron ion-chelating agents disodium bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate and desferrioxamine mesylate; 3) nitrogen monoxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and N(G)-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt; and 4) an endocytosis inhibitor quinacrine. On the basis of these observations, the mechanism of DEP cytotoxicity toward NHBE cells is discussed.

  6. New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions.

  7. Medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise induces neural cell apoptosis in the rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanni Li; Jin Liu; Hengmei Yan

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise.

  8. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  9. Hippocampal ultrastructural changes and apoptotic cell death in rats following endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exhaustive exercise can lead to apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells and myocardial cells as a result of pathological changes in the corresponding cellular ultrastructure. It is hypothesized that such changes could also occur in neurons. OBJECTIVE: To observe brain cell apoptosis and ultrastmctural changes in hippocampal neurons in rats following endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, morphological analysis was performed at the Medical Laboratory Center of Zhengzhou University between July and November 2007. MATERIALS: Forty male, 8-week-old, Sprague Dawley rats were included in this study. METHODS: Endurance training consisted of treadmill running once a day, 6 days a week, for 4 weeks. For acute exhaustive exercise, graded treadmill running was conducted. Rats were exposed to exercise at an increasing speed (10 m/min, increasing to 20 and 36 m/min for moderate- and high-intensity exhaustive exercise, respectively, and then was continued until exhaustion). A total of 40 rats were evenly distributed into the following 4 groups: Group A-rats were not exercised; Group B- rats were not trained but sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group C rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed immediately after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group D-rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apoptotic cell death was detected by the TUNEL method and hippocampal neuronal ultrastructural change was observed through using transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: All 40 rats were included in the final analysis. Subsequent to exhaustive exercise, rat cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons appeared contracted and degenerated. In addition, high amount of lipofuscin was visible in the hippocampal region. Necrotic neurons encased by glial cells appeared in

  10. Inhibitory receptor expression depends more dominantly on differentiation and activation than exhaustion of human CD8 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eLegat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of chronic antigen stimulation, such as persistent viral infection and cancer, CD8 T cells may diminish effector function, which has been termed exhaustion. Expression of inhibitory Receptors (iRs is often regarded as a hallmark of exhaustion. Here we studied the expression of eight different iRs by CD8 T cells of healthy humans, including CTLA-4, PD1, TIM3, LAG3, 2B4, BTLA, CD160 and KLRG-1. We show that many iRs are expressed upon activation, and with progressive differentiation to effector cells, even in absence of long-term (chronic antigenic stimulation. In particular, we evaluated the direct relationship between iR expression and functionality in CD8 T cells by using anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 stimulation to stimulate all cells and differentiation subsets. We observed a striking upregulation of certain iRs following the cytokine production wave, in agreement with the notion that iRs function as a negative feedback mechanism. Intriguingly, we found no major impairment of cytokine production in cells positive for a broad array of iRs, as previously shown for PD1 in healthy donors. Rather, the expression of the various iRs strongly correlated with T cell differentiation or activation states, or both. Furthermore, we analyzed CD8 T cells from lymph nodes (LNs of melanoma patients. Interestingly, we found altered iR expression and lower cytokine production by T cells from metastatic LNs, but also from non-metastatic LNs, likely due to mechanisms which are not related to exhaustion. Together, our data shows that expression of iRs per se does not mark dysfunctional cells, but is rather tightly linked to activation and differentiation. This study highlights the importance of considering the status of activation and differentiation for the study and the clinical monitoring of CD8 T cells.

  11. Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarcone, M.C.; Duistermaat, E.; Schadewijk, A. van; Jedynksa, A.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Kooter, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 311: L111–L123, 2016. First published May 17, 2016; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00064.2016.—Diesel emissions are the main source of air pollution in urban areas, and diese

  12. Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat...... exchangers with superior performance for further analysis. In this work, the on-design performances of the 4 heat exchangers are more thoroughly assessed on their corresponding optimized subsystem configurations. Afterward, their off-design performances are compared on the whole working range of the fuel...... modules are now connected into branches. The procedures of designing and optimizing this TE exhaust heat recovery subsystem are drawn out. The contribution of TE exhaust heat recovery to the HT-PEM fuel cell power system is preliminarily concluded. Its feasibility is also discussed....

  13. Potential toxicity of improperly discarded exhausted photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Cerciello, R; De Bonis, S; Mazzella, V; Cirino, P; Panzuto, R; Ciaravolo, M; Simoniello, P; Toscanesi, M; Trifuoggi, M; Avallone, B

    2016-09-01

    Low tech photovoltaic panels (PVPs) installed in the early '80s are now coming to the end of their life cycle and this raises the problem of their proper disposal. As panels contain potentially toxic elements, unconventional, complex and costly procedures are required to avoid environmental health risks and in countries where environmental awareness and economic resources are limited this may be especially problematic. This work was designed to investigate potential risks from improper disposal of these panels. To accomplish this aim an exhausted panel was broken into pieces and these were placed in water for 30 days. The resulting leached solution was analyzed to determine chemical release or used in toto, to determine its potential toxicity in established tests. The end points were seed germination (on Cucumis sativus and Lens culinaris) and effects on early development in three larval models: two crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Artemia salina, and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Our results show that the panels release small amounts of electrolytes (Na, Ca and Mg) into solution, along with antimony and manganese, with a concentration under the accepted maximum contaminant level, and nickel at a potentially toxic concentration. Developmental defects are seen in the plant and animal test organisms after experimental exposure to the whole solution leached from the broken panel. The toxic effects revealed in in vitro tests are sufficient to attract attention considering that they are exerted on both plants and aquatic animals and that the number of old PVPs in disposal sites will be very high.

  14. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  15. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaschek-Wiener, Julius; Brooks-Wilson, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, fatal genetic disorder that is characterized by segmental accelerated aging. The major causal mutation associated with HGPS triggers abnormal messenger RNA splicing of the lamin A gene leading to changes in the nuclear architecture. To date, two models have been proposed to explain how mutations in the lamin A gene could lead to HGPS, structural fragility and altered gene expression. We favor a compatible model that links HGPS to stem cell-driven tissue regeneration. In this model, nuclear fragility of lamin A-deficient cells increases apoptotic cell death to levels that exhaust tissues' ability for stem cell-driven regeneration. Tissue-specific differences in cell death or regenerative potential, or both, result in the tissue-specific segmental aging pattern seen in HGPS. We propose that the pattern of aging-related conditions present or absent in HGPS can provide insight into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to normal aging.

  16. Hepatic compartmentalization of exhausted and regulatory cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, L; Trehanpati, N; Poonia, S; Daigh, L; Sarin, S Kumar; Masur, H; Kottilil, S

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated intrahepatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis is likely the result of dysregulation within both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, but the exact contribution of peripheral blood and liver lymphocyte subsets remains unclear. Prolonged activation and expansion of immunoregulatory cells have been thought to play a role. We determined immune cell subset frequency in contemporaneous liver and peripheral blood samples from chronic HCV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and biopsy-derived liver-infiltrating lymphocytes from 26 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 10 chronic HCV-infected and 10 HIV-infected individuals were assessed for various subsets of T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cell, natural killer (NK) cell and NK T-cell frequency by flow cytometry. CD8(+) T cells expressing the exhaustion marker PD-1 were increased in HCV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals (P = 0.02), and HIV coinfection enhanced this effect (P = 0.005). In the liver, regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, as well as CD4(+) CD25(+) PD1(+) T cells, were more frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected than in HCV-monoinfected samples (P HIV infection (P ≤ 0.005 for all). Low CD8(+) expression was observed only in PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells from HCV-infected individuals and healthy controls (P = 0.002) and was associated with enhanced expansion of exhausted CD8(+) T cells when exposed in vitro to PHA or CMV peptides. In conclusion, in HIV/HCV coinfection, ongoing HCV replication is associated with increased regulatory and exhausted T cells in the periphery and liver that may impact control of HCV. Simultaneous characterization of liver and peripheral blood highlights the disproportionate intrahepatic compartmentalization of immunoregulatory T cells, which may contribute to establishment of chronicity and hepatic fibrogenesis in HIV coinfection.

  17. Diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Cohn, Corey Alexander;

    2008-01-01

    The particulate phase of diesel engine exhaust is likely carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induced mutagenicity/carcinogenicity are still largely unknown. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72 h incubations with 37.5 or 75 microg....../ml DEP (NIST SRM 1650) in the FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cell line. We measured DEP-induced acellular and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and compared with ROS production induced by carbon black, which we have previously shown is mutagenic in this cell line [N.R. Jacobsen, A.......T. Saber, P. White, P. Moller, G. Pojana, U. Vogel, S. Loft, J. Gingerich, L. Soper, G.R. Douglas, H. Wallin. Increased mutant frequency by carbon black, but not quartz, in the lacZ and cII transgenes of mutamouse lung epithelial cells, Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 48(6) (2007) 451-461]. The mutant frequency...

  18. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122 recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL and CD4 T cell count and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy. To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of 'exhaustion' or 'immune checkpoint' markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches.

  19. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  20. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in envi...

  1. Diesel exhaust particulate extracts inhibit transcription of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cell viability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Klinge, Carolyn M. [University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulate extracts (DEPEs), prepared from a truck run at different speeds and engine loads, would inhibit genomic estrogen receptor activation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we examined how DEPEs affect NRF-1-regulated TFAM expression and, in turn, Tfam-regulated mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, MTCO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) expression as well as cell proliferation and viability. We report that 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), and raloxifene increased NRF-1 transcription in HUVECs in an ER-dependent manner. DEPEs inhibited NRF-1 transcription, and this suppression was not ablated by concomitant treatment with E{sub 2}, 4-OHT, or raloxifene, indicating that the effect was not due to inhibition of ER activity. While E{sub 2} increased HUVEC proliferation and viability, DEPEs inhibited viability but not proliferation. Resveratrol increased NRF-1 transcription in an ER-dependent manner in HUVECs, and ablated DEPE inhibition of basal NRF-1 expression. Given that NRF-1 is a key nuclear transcription factor regulating genes involved in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, these data suggest that DEPEs may adversely affect mitochondrial function leading to endothelial dysfunction and resveratrol may block these effects. (orig.)

  2. Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Maria C; Duistermaat, Evert; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2016-07-01

    Diesel emissions are the main source of air pollution in urban areas, and diesel exposure is linked with substantial adverse health effects. In vitro diesel exposure models are considered a suitable tool for understanding these effects. Here we aimed to use a controlled in vitro exposure system to whole diesel exhaust to study the effect of whole diesel exhaust concentration and exposure duration on mucociliary differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC). PBEC cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed for 60 to 375 min to three different dilutions of diesel exhaust (DE). The DE mixture was generated by an engine at 47% load, and characterized for particulate matter size and distribution and chemical and gas composition. Cytotoxicity and epithelial barrier function was assessed, as well as mRNA expression and protein release analysis. DE caused a significant dose-dependent increase in expression of oxidative stress markers (HMOX1 and NQO1; n = 4) at 6 h after 150 min exposure. Furthermore, DE significantly increased the expression of the markers of the integrated stress response CHOP and GADD34 and of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL8, as well as release of CXCL8 protein. Cytotoxic effects or effects on epithelial barrier function were observed only after prolonged exposures to the highest DE dose. These results demonstrate the suitability of our model and that exposure dose and duration and time of analysis postexposure are main determinants for the effects of DE on differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells.

  3. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin

    developed three-dimensional numerical model in ANSYS Fluent®. This thesis introduces the progress of this project in a cognitive order. The first chapter initially prepares the theory and characteristics of the fuel cell system and TE devices. Project motivations are conceived. Then similar studies existing......This thesis presents two case studies on improving the efficiency and the loadfollowing capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system by the application of thermoelectric (TE) devices. TE generators (TEGs) are harnessed to recover the system exhaust gas...

  4. Early and Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Result in Comparable Reductions in CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion Marker Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, Rachel; Hartogensis, Wendy; Deguit, Christian D; Krone, Melissa; Hoh, Rebecca; Hecht, Rick; Pilcher, Christopher D; Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G; Hunt, Peter W; McCune, Joseph M

    2017-03-23

    In untreated HIV infection, CD8+ T cell exhaustion (i.e., decreased proliferative and effector capacity) is associated with high levels of expression of co-inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, TIGIT, CD160, and 2B4. This is evident for both HIV-specific and non-HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection decreases but may not completely normalize the expression of such "exhaustion markers." Compared to initiation of ART later in the course of disease, initiation soon after infection reduces some parameters of chronic inflammation and adaptive immune dysfunction. However, it is not known if Early ART (e.g., initiated within the first six months after HIV infection) versus Delayed ART (e.g., initiated during chronic infection) preferentially reduces expression of exhaustion markers. We evaluated exhaustion marker expression on subsets of circulating effector and memory CD8+ T cells at longitudinal pre- and post-ART (two and five years on ART) time points from n=19 (Early ART) and n=23 (Delayed ART) individuals. Prior to ART, TIGIT and CD160 were expressed on a statistically significantly higher proportion of effector and transitional memory cells from individuals in the Delayed ART group: the timing of ART initiation, however, did not consistently affect the expression of the exhaustion markers once viral suppression was achieved. Understanding which factors do and do not regulate aspects of CD8+ T cell exhaustion, including the expression of exhaustion markers, is critical to inform the rational design of CD8+ T cell-based therapies to treat HIV, for which CD8+ T cell exhaustion remains an important barrier to efficacy.

  5. Comparison of the toxicity of diesel exhaust produced by bio- and fossil diesel combustion in human lung cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Müller, Loretta; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Alternative fuels are increasingly combusted in diesel- and gasoline engines and the contribution of such exhausts to the overall air pollution is on the rise. Recent findings on the possible adverse effects of biodiesel exhaust are contradictive, at least partly resulting from the various fuel qualities, engine types and different operation conditions that were tested. However, most of the studies are biased by undesired interactions between the exhaust samples and biological culture media. We here report how complete, freshly produced exhausts from fossil diesel (B0), from a blend of 20% rapeseed-methyl ester (RME) and 80% fossil diesel (B20) and from pure rapeseed methyl ester (B100) affect a complex 3D cellular model of the human airway epithelium in vitro by exposing the cells at the air-liquid interface. The induction of pro-apoptotic and necrotic cell death, cellular morphology, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory responses were assessed. Compared to B0 exhaust, B20 exhaust decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses, whereas B100 exhaust, depending on exposure duration, decreased oxidative stress but increased pro-inflammatory responses. The effects are only very weak and given the compared to fossil diesel higher ecological sustainability of biodiesel, it appears that - at least RME - can be considered a valuable alternative to pure fossil diesel.

  6. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mansilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES. The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  7. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briault, Pauline; Rieu, Mathilde; Laucournet, Richard; Morel, Bertrand; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    This project deals with the development and the electrochemical characterization of anode supported single chamber SOFC in a simulated environment of thermal engine exhaust gas. In the present work, a gas mixture representative of exhaust conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. Only oxygen content is varied leading to different gas mixtures characterized by three ratios R = HC/O2. Concerning the cell components, a cermet made of nickel and an electrolyte material, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) is used as anode and two cathode materials, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Pr2NiO4+δ (PNO), are evaluated. The prepared cells are investigated in the various gas mixtures for temperatures ranging from 450 °C to 600 °C. Ni-CGO/CGO/LSCF-CGO cell has delivered a maximum power density of 15 mW cm-2 at 500 °C with R = HC/O2 = 0.21, while lower power densities are obtained for the other ratios, R = 0.44 and R = 0.67. Afterwards, LSCF and PNO cathode materials are compared and LSCF is found to deliver the highest power densities. Finally, by improving the electrolyte microstructure, some cells presenting a maximum power density of 25 mW cm-2 at 550 °C are produced. Moreover, up to 17% of initial HC are eliminated in the gas mixture.

  8. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  9. Sepsis Induces Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion and Myelosuppression through Distinct Contributions of TRIF and MYD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajia Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.

  10. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease.

  11. Biological effects of atmospheric particles on human bronchial epithelial cells. Comparison with diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Augustin; Sourdeval, Matthieu; Meyer, Martine; Marano, Francelyne; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the increase of respiratory disorders with high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) levels although the underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. PM are a complex mixture of particles with different origins but in urban areas, they mainly contain soots from transport like Diesel exhaust particles (DEP). In order to determine whether PM biological effects can be explained by the presence of DEP, the effects of urban PM, DEP and carbon black particles (CB) were compared on a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE14o-). Two types of PM were used : reference material (RPM) and PM with an aerodynamic diameter particles. However, DEP and to a lower extent PM inhibited cell proliferation, induced the release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, GM-CSF, and generated a pro-oxidant state as shown by the increased intracellular peroxides production. By contrast, CB never induced such effects. Nevertheless CB are more endocytosed than DEP whereas PM are the less endocytosed particles. In conclusion, PM induced to a lower extent the same biological effects than DEP in 16-HBE cells suggesting that particle characteristics should be thoroughly considered in order to clearly correlate adverse effects of PM to their composition and to clarify the role of DEP in PM effects.

  12. CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggert, Marcus; Frederiksen, Juliet; Lund, Ole; Betts, Michael R.; Biague, Antonio; Nielsen, Morten; Tauriainen, Johanna; Norrgren, Hans; Medstrand, Patrik; Karlsson, Annika C.; Jansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: HIV type 2 (HIV-2) represents an attenuated form of HIV, in which many infected individuals remain ‘aviremic’ without antiretroviral therapy. However, aviremic HIV-2 disease progression exists, and in the current study, we therefore aimed to examine if specific pathological characteristics of CD4+ T cells are linked to such outcome. Design: HIV-seronegative (n = 25), HIV type 1 (HIV-1) (n = 33), HIV-2 (n = 39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n = 13)-infected study participants were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: CD4+ T-cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T-cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. Results: HIV-2-infected individuals had early and late-differentiated CD4+ T-cell clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion programmed death-1 (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected individuals. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer individuals. CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegative individuals, aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals had T-bet+ CD4+ T cells that showed elevated immune activation/exhaustion, and particularly the frequencies of PD-1+ cells were associated with a suboptimal percentage of CD4+ T cells. Conclusion: Increased frequencies of CD4+ T cells with an activated/exhausted phenotype correlate with exacerbated immunodeficiency in aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals. Thus, these findings encourage studies on the introduction of antiretroviral therapy also to individuals with aviremic HIV-2 infection. PMID:27525551

  13. Task failure during exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia is due to reduced muscle activation caused by central mechanisms while muscle metaboreflex does not limit performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eTorres-Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22±2 years performed a 10s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg during 10 or 60s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P<0.05 than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P<0.05. Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF and median (IS-MdPF power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P<0.05. Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23% and burst duration (+10% increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P<0.05, with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within one minute even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of

  14. T-bet and Eomes Are Differentially Linked to the Exhausted Phenotype of CD8+T Cells in HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Tauriainen, Johanna; Yamamoto, Takuya;

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells was elevated in chronically infected individuals and highly associated with a T-betdimEomeshi expressional profile. Interestingly, both resting and activated HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic infection were almost exclusively T-betdimEomeshi cells, while CMV-specific CD8+ T cells...... displayed a balanced expression pattern of T-bet and Eomes. The T-betdimEomeshi virus-specific CD8+ T cells did not show features of terminal differentiation, but rather a transitional memory phenotype with poor polyfunctional (effector) characteristics. The transitional and exhausted phenotype of HIV...

  15. Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-α and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

  16. Activation and Exhaustion of Adaptive Immune Cells in Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Dimpu; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-09-01

    In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the immune reaction is responsible for viral clearance and preventing their spread within the host. However, the immune system is dysfunctional in patients with chronic HBV infection, leading to an inadequate immune response against the virus. A major factor contributing to inefficient immune function is the phenomenon of immune exhaustion. Hence, understanding immune activation and exhaustion during HBV infection is important, as it would provide insight in developing immunotherapy to control chronic HBV infection. The aim of this review is to highlight the existing information on immune effector functions and immune exhaustion in response to HBV infection.

  17. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES INDUCE ABERRANT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL DIRECTED CELL MOVEMENT BY DISRUPTION OF POLARITY MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of the respiratory epithelium contributes to the progression of a variety of respiratory diseases that are aggravated by exposure to air pollutants, specifically traffic-based pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Recognizing that lung repair following inj...

  18. Sustained PU.1 levels balance cell-cycle regulators to prevent exhaustion of adult hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Philipp B; Zhang, Pu; Ye, Min; Welner, Robert S; Nombela-Arrieta, César; Bach, Christian; Kerenyi, Marc; Bartholdy, Boris A; Zhang, Hong; Alberich-Jordà, Meritxell; Lee, Sanghoon; Yang, Henry; Ng, Felicia; Zhang, Junyan; Leddin, Mathias; Silberstein, Leslie E; Hoefler, Gerald; Orkin, Stuart H; Göttgens, Berthold; Rosenbauer, Frank; Huang, Gang; Tenen, Daniel G

    2013-03-07

    To provide a lifelong supply of blood cells, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) need to carefully balance both self-renewing cell divisions and quiescence. Although several regulators that control this mechanism have been identified, we demonstrate that the transcription factor PU.1 acts upstream of these regulators. So far, attempts to uncover PU.1's role in HSC biology have failed because of the technical limitations of complete loss-of-function models. With the use of hypomorphic mice with decreased PU.1 levels specifically in phenotypic HSCs, we found reduced HSC long-term repopulation potential that could be rescued completely by restoring PU.1 levels. PU.1 prevented excessive HSC division and exhaustion by controlling the transcription of multiple cell-cycle regulators. Levels of PU.1 were sustained through autoregulatory PU.1 binding to an upstream enhancer that formed an active looped chromosome architecture in HSCs. These results establish that PU.1 mediates chromosome looping and functions as a master regulator of HSC proliferation.

  19. *Differential injury in healthy and cytokine-treated epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles involves interaction of superoxide and nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Individuals with chronic pulmonary inflammation due to disease are more susceptible to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Increasing evidence suggests that these adverse...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to...

  1. PRE-TREATMENT WITH DIESEL EXHAUST EXTRACT ALTERS INFLUENZA VIRUS REPLICATION IN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Exhaust (DE) has been demonstrated to generate inflammatory responses in the lung and modify immune responses to allergens. However, little is known about the effects of DE on common respiratory viral infections. We examined whether exposure to DE extracts (DEE) modifies i...

  2. 4-1BB Costimulation Ameliorates T Cell Exhaustion Induced by Tonic Signaling of Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Adrienne H.; Haso, Waleed M.; Shern, Jack F.; Wanhainen, Kelsey M.; Murgai, Meera; Ingaramo, Maria; Smith, Jillian P.; Walker, Alec J.; Kohler, M. Eric; Venkateshwara, Vikas R.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Patterson, George H.; Fry, Terry J.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have mediated dramatic anti-tumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but tumor regression has rarely occurred using CARs targeting other antigens. It remains unknown whether the impressive effects of CD19 CARs relate to greater susceptibility of hematologic malignancies to CAR therapies, or superior functionality of the CD19 CAR itself. We discovered that tonic CAR CD3ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR scFvs, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits anti-tumor efficacy. Such activation is present to varying degrees in all CARs studied, with the exception of the highly effective CD19 CAR. We further identify that CD28 costimulation augments, while 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates, exhaustion induced by persistent CAR signaling. Our results provide biological explanations for the dramatic anti-tumor effects of CD19 CARs and for the observations that CD19.BBz CAR T cells are more persistent than CD19.28z CAR T cells in clinical trials. PMID:25939063

  3. The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cell escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernando; Domingues, Cátia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Estrela, Jéssica; Encarnação, João; Pires, Ana Salomé; Laranjo, Mafalda; Alves, Vera; Teixo, Ricardo; Sarmento, Ana Bela; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2016-04-01

    Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role in controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data a little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients.

  4. Fucoidan Extracted from Hijiki Protects Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Against Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure-Induced Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Sook; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Soo; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of fucoidan against the decreased function of primary cultured bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMECs) after exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). BBMECs were extracted from bovine brains and cultured until confluent. To evaluate the function of BBMECs, we performed a permeability test using cell-by-cell equipment and by Western blot analysis for zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1), which is a tight junction protein of BMECs, and evaluated oxidative stress in BBMECs using the DCFH-DA assay and the CUPRAC-BCS assay. The increased oxidative stress in BBMECs following DEP exposure was suppressed by fucoidan. In addition, permeability of BBMECs induced by DEP exposure was decreased by fucoidan treatment. Our results showed that fucoidan protects against BBMEC disruption induced by DEP exposure. This study provides evidence that fucoidan might protect the central nervous system (CNS) against DEP exposure.

  5. Diesel exhaust particle-induced cell death of human leukemic promyelocytic cells HL-60 and their variant cells HL-NR6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, M; Uenishi, R; Shimada, T; Yamanaka, S; Yabuki, M; Utsumi, K; Sagai, M

    2001-04-01

    The cytotoxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) toward human leukemic promyelocytic cells HL-60 was examined. DEPs were toxic and cytotoxicity increased in a dose-dependent manner. All cells died with 750 microg/ml DEPs in culture media. Apoptosis occurred in HL-60 cells exposed to DEPs. The cytotoxicity of DEP extracts with organic solvents was much lower than those of DEPs and organic solvent-washed residual DEPs. HL-NR6 cells, an HL-60 variant cell line, having higher superoxide dismutase and catalase activities than HL-60 cells, were more resistant to DEP cytotoxicity. When preincubated with the fluorescent probe diacetoxymethyl 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescinate diacetate and then exposed to DEPs, HL-60 cells emitted green fluorescence under blue illumination, indicating that reactive oxygen species were generated within the cells. The DEP cytotoxicity correlated inversely with the cellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), which had been attenuated with L-buthionine-(R,S)-sulfoximine, a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, and was lowered with ethyl reduced glutathionate, a GSH carrier across biomembranes. Further, DEPs themselves decreased the cellular concentration of GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The alpha-tocopherol model compound 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol decreased DEP cytotoxicity, while alpha-tocopherol had no effect. In addition, quinacrine, an endocytosis inhibitor, decreased DEP cytotoxicity. These results show that DEPs are cytotoxic and suggest that the cytotoxicity results from generation of reactive oxygen species by DEPs which have been incorporated into cells.

  6. Distinct Metabolic Requirements of Exhausted and Functional Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells in the Same Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurich, Anna; Pallett, Laura J; Jajbhay, Danyal; Wijngaarden, Jessica; Otano, Itziar; Gill, Upkar S; Hansi, Navjyot; Kennedy, Patrick T; Nastouli, Eleni; Gilson, Richard; Frezza, Christian; Henson, Sian M; Maini, Mala K

    2016-08-02

    T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1(hi) T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1(hi) HBV-specific T cells were dependent on glucose supplies, unlike the more functional cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells that could utilize oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of glucose. The inability of HBV-specific T cells to switch to oxidative phosphorylation was accompanied by increased mitochondrial size and lower mitochondrial potential, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interleukin (IL)-12, which recovers HBV-specific T cell effector function, increased their mitochondrial potential and reduced their dependence on glycolysis. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial defects limit the metabolic plasticity of exhausted HBV-specific T cells.

  7. Distinct Metabolic Requirements of Exhausted and Functional Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells in the Same Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schurich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1hi T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1hi HBV-specific T cells were dependent on glucose supplies, unlike the more functional cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific T cells that could utilize oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of glucose. The inability of HBV-specific T cells to switch to oxidative phosphorylation was accompanied by increased mitochondrial size and lower mitochondrial potential, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interleukin (IL-12, which recovers HBV-specific T cell effector function, increased their mitochondrial potential and reduced their dependence on glycolysis. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial defects limit the metabolic plasticity of exhausted HBV-specific T cells.

  8. Phenotypic T cell exhaustion in a murine model of bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Mittal

    Full Text Available While much of cancer immunology research has focused on anti-tumor immunity both systemically and within the tumor microenvironment, little is known about the impact of pre-existing malignancy on pathogen-specific immune responses. Here, we sought to characterize the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response following a bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice with established subcutaneous pancreatic adenocarcinomas were infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared to those in control mice without cancer. While the kinetics and magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion and accumulation was comparable between the cancer and non-cancer groups, bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited increased expression of the coinhibitory receptors BTLA, PD-1, and 2B4. Furthermore, increased inhibitory receptor expression was associated with reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-2 production by bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the cancer group. Taken together, these data suggest that cancer's immune suppressive effects are not limited to the tumor microenvironment, but that pre-existing malignancy induces phenotypic exhaustion in T cells by increasing expression of coinhibitory receptors and may impair pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation.

  9. Electrochemical enhancement of nitric oxide removal from simulated lean-burn engine exhaust via solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Wu, Chung-Ying; Lin, Yu-Hsien

    2011-07-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) unit is constructed with Ni-YSZ as the anode, YSZ as the electrolyte, and La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3)-Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) as the cathode. The SOFC operation is performed at 600 °C with a cathode gas simulating the lean-burn engine exhaust and at various fixed voltage, at open-circuit voltage, and with an inert gas flowing over the anode side, respectively. Electrochemical enhancement of NO decomposition occurs when an operating voltage is generated; higher O(2) concentration leads to higher enhancement. Smaller NO concentration results in larger NO conversion. Higher operating voltage and higher O(2) concentration can lead to both higher NO conversion and lower fuel consumption. The molar rate of the consumption of the anode fuel can be very much smaller than that of NO to N(2) conversion. This makes the anode fuel consumed in the SOFC-DeNO(x) process to be much less than the equivalent amount of ammonia consumed in the urea-based selective catalytic reduction process. Additionally, the NO conversion increases with the addition of propylene and SO(2) into the cathode gas. These are beneficial for the application of the SOFC-DeNO(x) technology on treating diesel and other lean-burn engine exhausts.

  10. CD40 activation rescues antiviral CD8⁺ T cells from PD-1-mediated exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Isogawa

    Full Text Available The intrahepatic immune environment is normally biased towards tolerance. Nonetheless, effective antiviral immune responses can be induced against hepatotropic pathogens. To examine the immunological basis of this paradox we studied the ability of hepatocellularly expressed hepatitis B virus (HBV to activate immunologically naïve HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cell receptor (TCR transgenic T cells after adoptive transfer to HBV transgenic mice. Intrahepatic priming triggered vigorous in situ T cell proliferation but failed to induce interferon gamma production or cytolytic effector function. In contrast, the same T cells differentiated into cytolytic effector T cells in HBV transgenic mice if Programmed Death 1 (PD-1 expression was genetically ablated, suggesting that intrahepatic antigen presentation per se triggers negative regulatory signals that prevent the functional differentiation of naïve CD8⁺ T cells. Surprisingly, coadministration of an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody (αCD40 inhibited PD-1 induction and restored T cell effector function, thereby inhibiting viral gene expression and causing a necroinflammatory liver disease. Importantly, the depletion of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs strongly diminished the αCD40 mediated functional differentiation of HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cells, suggesting that activation of mDCs was responsible for the functional differentiation of HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cells in αCD40 treated animals. These results demonstrate that antigen-specific, PD-1-mediated CD8⁺ T cell exhaustion can be rescued by CD40-mediated mDC-activation.

  11. Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-liang BU; Yu-dong JIA; Yu-ling MI; Jin-xing LIN; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    As a component of diesel exhaust particles,3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol,PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health.In the present study,the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant fiavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated.Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week.PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells).PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation,as well as a decrease in glutathione level,superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.Furthermore,treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells.In addition,testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice.In contrast,combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity.These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production.

  12. Delayed presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency due to prolonged maternal T cell engraftment

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh Z.

    2010-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder with heterogenous genetic etiologies. We describe a typical case in a 9-year-old boy that was masked by a clinically functional maternal T cell engraftment leading to late presentation with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirus infection, probably following exhaustion of maternally engrafted cells. Based on immunological findings, he had a T- B+SCID phenotype. This report suggests that in rare cases, ...

  13. Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis due to Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddati, Achuta K; Marak, Creticus P

    2012-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a high rate of mortality. It is known to metastasize to the lung, liver, bone and brain. However, manifestation through lymphatic spread to the lungs is rare. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is commonly observed in malignancies of the breast, lung, pancreas, colon and cervix. It is unusual to observe lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs due to renal cell carcinoma. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs may result in severe respiratory distress and may be the direct cause of death. Currently, there are no known modalities of preventing or slowing lymphangitic carcinomatosis besides treating the primary tumor. However, early detection may change the course of the disease and may prolong survival. This is compounded by the difficulty involved in diagnosing lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lung which frequently involves lung biopsy. Immunohistochemical studies are often used in conjunction with regular histochemistry in ascertaining the primary tumor and in differentiating it from pulmonary metastasis. In this case report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of renal cell carcinoma in a patient which manifested as lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. The patient underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor with lymph node resection but presented with a fulminant lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs within two weeks. Immunohistochemistry of the tissue obtained by the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis which was subsequently corroborated during his autopsy. This case illustrates the necessity of an urgent follow-up of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in such patients.

  14. Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis due to Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achuta K. Guddati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease with a high rate of mortality. It is known to metastasize to the lung, liver, bone and brain. However, manifestation through lymphatic spread to the lungs is rare. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is commonly observed in malignancies of the breast, lung, pancreas, colon and cervix. It is unusual to observe lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs due to renal cell carcinoma. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs may result in severe respiratory distress and may be the direct cause of death. Currently, there are no known modalities of preventing or slowing lymphangitic carcinomatosis besides treating the primary tumor. However, early detection may change the course of the disease and may prolong survival. This is compounded by the difficulty involved in diagnosing lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lung which frequently involves lung biopsy. Immunohistochemical studies are often used in conjunction with regular histochemistry in ascertaining the primary tumor and in differentiating it from pulmonary metastasis. In this case report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of renal cell carcinoma in a patient which manifested as lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. The patient underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor with lymph node resection but presented with a fulminant lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the lungs within two weeks. Immunohistochemistry of the tissue obtained by the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis which was subsequently corroborated during his autopsy. This case illustrates the necessity of an urgent follow-up of chemotherapy and immunotherapy in such patients.

  15. Investigation of Solar Cells Power Degradation Due to Electrostatic Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fayazi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellites are surrounded with protons, electrons and heavy charged particles. Space radiation impact on satellite sub-systems cause several anomalies which are important problem for satellite designers. Until recently, the majority of spacecraft primary power systems used solar arrays and rechargeable batteries to supply 28 V. For low-inclination spacecraft, 28 V systems have not been observed to arc. As the power requirements for spacecraft increased, however, high-voltage solar arrays were baselined to minimize total mass and increase power production efficiency. With the advent of 100 V systems in the late 1980s, arcing began to be observed on a number of spacecraft. The mechanism proposed in this paper, described electrical and physical degradation of solar cells due to electrostatic discharge anomalies on satellites. The cell was characterized again after arcing to determine the change in efficiency. This paper details the process for designing the circuit to create the arcing, and the different setups used to degrade the cells electrically and physically. It also describes the final setups to be used in space laboratory. This model is designed using Matlab and SPENVIS. Identification and simulation this mechanism is an important step in solar array design for space application

  16. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed at the air-liquid interface to diesel exhaust: First study in TNO's powertrain test center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Alblas, M.J.; Jedynska, A.D.; Steenhof, M.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Ras, M.G. van

    2013-01-01

    Air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures enable in vitro testing ofmixtures of gases and particles such as diesel exhaust (DE). The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of exposing human lung epithelial cells at the ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in the sta

  17. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  18. Automobile exhaust particle-induced apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; Wang, X L; Li, X Y

    2001-05-31

    To study the effect of particulate extracts (PE) collected from a heavy traffic road in Lanzhou City, on MRC-5 cell apoptosis, and to explore the toxicity action of PE and its mechanism. Cultured MRC-5 cells were incubated in the extracts of different concentrations. Inhibition of proliferation was measured with a colorimetric 3-[4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological assessment of apoptosis was performed with fluorescence microscopy and electronic microscopy. Extracted DNA from the cells was electrophoresed on agarose gel in order to observe DNA fragmentation. The amount of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. The results indicated that exposure of exponentially growing MRC-5 cells exposed to PE 5-160 microg l(-1) for 24-96 h resulted in dose- and time-dependent reduction of survival of MRC-5 cells. After treatment with PE, markedly morphological changes of MRC-5 cells including "apoptotic bodies", were observed with a fluorescence microscope. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA from the cells treated with PE for 48 and 72 h revealed a "ladder" pattern. PE induced apoptosis in low doses but necrosis in high doses. Apoptotic rates were 12.95, 17.40 and 29.80% after treatment with PE 5, 10, and 20 microg l(-1), respectively. A typical sub-diploid apoptosis peak was demonstrated in MRC-5 cells treated with PE. A significant dose-effect response and time-effect correlation could be found between apoptosis rates and PE. All results confirmed that the PE could induce and accelerate apoptosis in low doses but necrosis in high doses.

  19. Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Morey, Robert; O'Neil, Ryan C; He, Yupeng; Daughtry, Brittany; Schultz, Matthew D; Hariharan, Manoj; Nery, Joseph R; Castanon, Rosa; Sabatini, Karen; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Tachibana, Masahito; Kang, Eunju; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ahmed, Riffat; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Van Dyken, Crystal; Polat, Alim; Sugawara, Atsushi; Sparman, Michelle; Gokhale, Sumita; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Ecker, Joseph R; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-07-10

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

  20. Exhaustive exercise--a near death experience for skeletal muscle cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Montag, Johannes; Franz, Alexander; McCourt, Molly L; Mester, Joachim; Nosaka, Kazunori Ken

    2014-12-01

    In sports medicine, muscle enzymes in the blood are frequently used as an indicator of muscle damage. It is commonly assumed that mechanical stress disrupts plasma membrane to an extent that allows large molecules, such as enzymes, to leak into the extracellular space. However, this does not appear to fully explain changes in muscle enzyme activity in the blood after exercise. Apart from this mechanically induced membrane damage, we hypothesize that, under critical metabolic conditions, ATP consuming enzymes like creatine kinase (CK) are "volitionally" expulsed by muscle cells in order to prevent cell death. This would put themselves into a situation comparable to that of CK deficient muscle fibers, which have been shown in animal experiments to be virtually infatigable at the expense of muscle strength. Additionally we expand on this hypothesis with the idea that membrane blebbing is a way for the muscle fibers to store CK in fringe areas of the muscle fiber or to expulse CK from the cytosol by detaching the blebs from the plasma membrane. The blebbing has been shown to occur in heart muscle cells under ischaemic conditions and has been speculated to be an alternative pathway for the expulsion of troponin. The blebbing has also been seen skeletal muscle cells when intracellular calcium concentration increases. Cytoskeletal damage, induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by calcium activated proteases in concert with increasing intracellular pressure, seems to provoke this type of membrane reaction. If these hypotheses are confirmed by future investigations, our current understanding of CK as a blood muscle damage marker will be fundamentally affected.

  1. Delayed presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency due to prolonged maternal T cell engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh Z.

    2010-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder with heterogenous genetic etiologies. We describe a typical case in a 9-year-old boy that was masked by a clinically functional maternal T cell engraftment leading to late presentation with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirus infection, probably following exhaustion of maternally engrafted cells. Based on immunological findings, he had a T- B+SCID phenotype. This report suggests that in rare cases, engrafted maternal T cell might persist for long time leading to partial constitution of immune function and delayed clinical presentation of SCID. PMID:20427943

  2. Activation and exhaustion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells occur in different splenic compartments during infection with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaikhan, Ganchimeg; Miyakoda, Mana; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Kimura, Daisuke; Akbari, Masoud; Yuda, Masao; Yui, Katsuyuki

    2017-06-01

    The spleen is the major organ in which T cells are primed during infection with malaria parasites. However, little is known regarding the dynamics of the immune responses and their localization within the splenic tissue during malaria infection. We examined murine CD8(+) T cell responses during infection with Plasmodium berghei using recombinant parasites expressing a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) protein and compared the responses with those elicited by Listeria monocytogenes expressing the same antigen. OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells were mainly activated in the white pulp of the spleen during malaria infection, as similarly observed during Listeria infection. However, the fates of these activated CD8(+) T cells were distinct. During infection with malaria parasites, activated CD8(+) T cells preferentially accumulated in the red pulp and/or marginal zone, where cytokine production of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells decreased, and the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors increased. These cells preferentially underwent apoptosis, suggesting that T cell exhaustion mainly occurred in the red pulp and/or marginal zone. However, during Listeria infection, OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells only transiently expressed inhibitory receptors in the white pulp and maintained their ability to produce cytokines and become memory cells. These results highlighted the distinct fates of CD8(+) T cells during infection with Plasmodium parasites and Listeria, and suggested that activation and exhaustion of specific CD8(+) T cells occurred in distinct spleen compartments during infection with malaria parasites.

  3. TIGIT Marks Exhausted T Cells, Correlates with Disease Progression, and Serves as a Target for Immune Restoration in HIV and SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen M Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection induces phenotypic and functional changes to CD8+ T cells defined by the coordinated upregulation of a series of negative checkpoint receptors that eventually result in T cell exhaustion and failure to control viral replication. We report that effector CD8+ T cells during HIV infection in blood and SIV infection in lymphoid tissue exhibit higher levels of the negative checkpoint receptor TIGIT. Increased frequencies of TIGIT+ and TIGIT+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells correlated with parameters of HIV and SIV disease progression. TIGIT remained elevated despite viral suppression in those with either pharmacological antiretroviral control or immunologically in elite controllers. HIV and SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were dysfunctional and expressed high levels of TIGIT and PD-1. Ex-vivo single or combinational antibody blockade of TIGIT and/or PD-L1 restored viral-specific CD8+ T cell effector responses. The frequency of TIGIT+ CD4+ T cells correlated with the CD4+ T cell total HIV DNA. These findings identify TIGIT as a novel marker of dysfunctional HIV-specific T cells and suggest TIGIT along with other checkpoint receptors may be novel curative HIV targets to reverse T cell exhaustion.

  4. Implication of scavenger receptors in the interactions between diesel exhaust particles and immature or mature dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassalle Philippe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP is associated with an increased incidence of respiratory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which DEP have an effect on human health are not completely understood. In addition to their action on macrophages and airway epithelial cells, DEP also modulate the functions of dendritic cells (DC. These professional antigen-presenting cells are able to discriminate unmodified self from non-self thanks to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll like Receptors (TLR and Scavenger Receptors (SR. SR were originally identified by their ability to bind and internalize modified lipoproteins and microorganisms but also particles and TLR agonists. In this study, we assessed the implication of SR in the effects of DEP associated or not with TLR agonists on monocyte-derived DC (MDDC. For this, we studied the regulation of CD36, CXCL16, LOX-1, SR-A1 and SR-B1 expression on MDDC treated with DEP associated or not with TLR2, 3 and 4 ligands. Then, the capacity of SR ligands (dextran sulfate and maleylated-ovalbumin to block the effects of DEP on the function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated DC has been evaluated. Results Our data demonstrate that TLR2 agonists mainly augmented CXCL16, LOX-1 and SR-B1 expression whereas DEP alone had only a weak effect. Interestingly, DEP modulated the action of TLR2 and TLR4 ligands on the expression of LOX-1 and SR-B1. Pretreatment with the SR ligand maleylated-ovalbumin but not dextran sulfate inhibited the endocytosis of DEP by MDDC. Moreover, this SR ligand blocked the effect by DEP at low dose (1 μg/ml on MDDC phenotype (a decrease of CD86 and HLA-DR expression and on the secretion of CXCL10, IL-12 and TNF-α. In contrast, the decrease of IL-12 and CXCL10 secretion and the generation of oxygen metabolite induced by DEP at 10 μg/ml was not affected by SR ligands Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the modulation of

  5. Delayed menopause due to granulosa cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Murkey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old patient presented with complaints of menorrhagia. Endometrial biopsy revealed simple hyperplasia of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy was carried out. The ovaries looked grossly normal, but histopathology reported granulosa cell tumor of the right ovary. Granulosa cell tumors belong to the sexcord stromal category and account for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors. We review the features and treatment of granulosa cell tumors and the importance of screening for ovarian tumors in a case of endometrial hyperplasia and delayed menopause.

  6. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  7. Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Chen, Min

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based...... plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance...... on a finite-element approach. On each discretized segment, fluid properties, heat transfer process and TEG performance are locally calculated for higher model precision. To benefit both the system design and fabrication, the way to model TEG modules is herein reconsidered; a database of commercialized compact...

  8. Increase in frequencies of circulating Th-17 cells correlates with microbial translocation, immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1 infected patients with poor CD4 T-cell reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Ranjini; Asthana, Deshratn

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the association of circulating Th-17 cells (cTh-17) with immune activation (IA), immune exhaustion (IE) and regulatory T-cells (T-regs) in 20 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients with impaired restoration of CD4 T-cell counts despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia (discordant) and compared it with 20 HIV-1 infected patients showing good immunologic and virologic responses (concordant) following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Discordant HIV-1 infected patients showed significantly higher frequencies of cTh-17 cells compared to concordant patients and healthy controls after PMA+Ionomicin stimulation. Discordant patients also showed higher CD4 T-cell immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+) than concordant patients which directly correlated with microbial translocation. Additionally, CD4 T-cells of discordant patients showed higher frequencies of CD4 T-cells expressing multiple immune exhaustion markers (Tim3+PD-1+) which correlated with immune activation indicating that combined analysis of inhibitory molecules along with PD-1 might be a better predictor for immune exhaustion of CD4 T-cells. Increased cTh-17 cell frequency correlated inversely with CD4 T-cell percentages and absolute counts and directly with CD4 T-cell immune activation and T-reg frequencies. Persistent CD4 T-cell immune activation might favor differentiation of activated CD4 T-cells toward cTh-17 phenotype in discordant patients. Discordant patients had significantly lower baseline CD4 T-cell counts and higher viral load at the initiation of HAART and higher immune activation and immune exhaustion after being on HAART for long time indicating that these factors might be associated with an increase in cTh-17 cell frequency, thus, increasing the risk of disease progression despite virologic control.

  9. Demyelinating Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenya; Fujimaki, Motoki; Kanai, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Yuta; Nakazato, Tomoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients who develop a paraneoplastic syndrome may present with neuromuscular disorders. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old man who suffered from progressive gait disturbance and muscle weakness. The results of a nerve conduction study fulfilled the criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. An abdominal CT scan detected RCC, the pathological diagnosis of which was clear cell type. After tumor resection and a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, the patient's symptoms drastically improved over the course of one year. The patient's neurological symptoms preceded the detection of cancer. A proper diagnosis and the initiation of suitable therapies resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:28049985

  10. Recurrent Syncope due to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Syncope is caused by a wide variety of disorders. Recurrent syncope as a complication of malignancy is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and to treat. Primary neck carcinoma or metastases spreading in parapharyngeal and carotid spaces can involve the internal carotid artery and cause neurally mediated syncope with a clinical presentation like carotid sinus syndrome. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from recurrent syncope due to invasion of the right carotid sinus b...

  11. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  12. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  13. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  14. Recurrent Syncope due to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is caused by a wide variety of disorders. Recurrent syncope as a complication of malignancy is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and to treat. Primary neck carcinoma or metastases spreading in parapharyngeal and carotid spaces can involve the internal carotid artery and cause neurally mediated syncope with a clinical presentation like carotid sinus syndrome. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from recurrent syncope due to invasion of the right carotid sinus by metastases of a carcinoma of the esophagus, successfully treated by radiotherapy. In such cases, surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be performed. Because syncope may be an early sign of neck or cervical cancer, the diagnostic approach of syncope in patients with a past history of cancer should include the possibility of neck tumor recurrence or metastasis and an oncologic workout should be considered.

  15. Primary instabilities in convective cells due to nonuniform heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, A. M.; Herrero, H.; Burguete, J.

    1997-09-01

    We study a convection problem in a container with a surface open to the air and heated by a long wire placed at the bottom. Coupled buoyancy and thermocapillarity effects are taken into account. A basic convective state appears as soon as a temperature gradient with horizontal component different from zero is applied. It consists of two big rolls that fill the convective cell and are parallel to the heater. A numerical solution allows us to determine this basic state. A linear stability analysis on this solution is carried out. For different values of the applied temperature gradient the basic rolls undergo a stationary bifurcation. The thresholds depend on the fluid properties, on the geometry of the heater, and on the heat exchange on the free surface. This confirms the results obtained in recent experiments.

  16. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at Different Stages of HIV-1 Disease Is Not Associated with the Proportion of Exhausted CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Larsen, Tine Kochendorf; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cell-restricted immunity is important in the control of HIV-1 infection, but continued immune activation results in CD8+ T cell dysfunction. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the duration of ART have been associated with immune reconstitution. Here, we evaluated whether restoration of CD8+ T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals was dependent on early initiation of ART. HIV-specific CD107a, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα and MIP-1β expression by CD8+ T cells and the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 were measured by flow cytometry. The frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory markers PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 was lower in ART-treated individuals compared with ART-naïve individuals and similar to the frequency in HIV-uninfected controls. The expression of the three markers was similarly independent of when therapy was initiated. Individuals treated before seroconversion displayed an HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response that included all five functional markers; this was not observed in individuals treated after seroconversion or in ART-naïve individuals. In summary, ART appears to restore the total CD8+ T cell population to a less exhausted phenotype, independent of the time point of initiation. However, to preserve multifunctional, HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells, ART might have to be initiated before seroconversion.

  17. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed ...

  18. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  19. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  20. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  1. The Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fábregas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I revisit the well-known empirical problem of manner of motion verbs with directional complements in Spanish. I present some data that, to my mind, had not received due attention in previous studies and I show that some manner of motion verbs actually allow directionals with the preposition a, while all of them allow them with prepositions like hacia or hasta. I argue that this pattern is due to a principle that states that every syntactic feature must be identified by lexical insertion, the Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle. The crucial problem with directional complements is that the Spanish preposition a is locative, in contrast with English to, and, therefore, unable to identify the Path feature. Some verbs license the directional with a because they can lexicalise Path altogether with the verb; all verbs can combine with hasta or hacia because these prepositions lexicalise Path. When neither the verb nor the preposition lexicalise the Path, the construction is ungrammatical.

  2. Quercetin attenuates oxidative damage induced by treatment of embryonic chicken spermatogonial cells with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol in diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao; Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Akira K; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid, is considered beneficial for human and animal health. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin on oxidative damage to testicular cells was studied in embryonic chickens after treatment with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) derived from diesel exhaust particles. Testicular cells were challenged with PNMPP (10(-8)-10(-6) M) alone and in combination with quercetin for 48 h. The results showed that quercetin manifested no deleterious effect on spermatogonial cells up to 1.0 microg/ml. Exposure to PNMPP (10(-6) M) induced condensed nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm and reductions in testicular cell viability and spermatogonial cell numbers (p<0.05). It also induced lipid peroxidation by an elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). Simultaneous supplementation with quercetin restored these parameters to the same levels as in the control. These data indicate that quercetin protects spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage in embryonic chickens intoxicated with PNMPP.

  3. Acute effects of diesel exhaust particles and cisplatin on oxidative stress in cultured human kidney (HEK 293) cells, and the influence of curcumin thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Badreldin H; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution with particle diameters less than 2.5μm contribute to respiratory and extra-respiratory morbidity and mortality. We have recently reported the first in vivo experimental evidence that Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of cisplatin (CP)-induced acute renal failure in rats. This in vitro study sought to determine whether and to what extent does DEP exposure exacerbate the effects of CP-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and to examine if these effects could be mitigated/prevented with curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric). Cells viability, cysteine uptake and oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase)] were evaluated in all study groups. DEP aggravated the CP- induced HEK-293 cells toxicity, as evidenced by decreasing cell viability and by inducing oxidative stress (GSH depletion, TAC impairment, and antioxidant enzymes inhibition). DEP, but not CP, significantly reduced cysteine uptake. Curcumin prevented the observed DEP and CP-induced cellular insults. These findings suggest that DEP augmented the CP-induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells. Curcumin exhibited a strong potential for protection against DEP and CP-induced cytotoxicity.

  4. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  5. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect......This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  6. Acute Effect of One Incremental Exhausting Cycling Session with Hand on the Response of T and NK Cells of Immune System in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Habibi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various sorts of physical activites cause various changes in body immune system. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of one incremental exhausting cycling session with hand on the response of T and NK cells of immune system of male physical education students. Methods: In this study, twenty male subjects with mean age of 22.4±1.8(SD years, mean Vo2 max 41.7±7.1(SD ml/kg/min and mean BMI 23±1.87(SD kg/m2 were divided randomly into control(n=10 and experimental group(n=10. The subjects of experimental group performed Sawaka. Protocol, whereas the subjects of control group did not participate in any exercise activity. Blood samples were taken from brachial vein of control and experimental subjects during pre-test, post-test and two hours after the end of exercise. For analysis of statistical data, t-independent and t-correlated tests ( =0.05 significant were used. Results: Immediately after training, the percentage of CD8 (T and CD16.56 (NK cells increased significantly (P≤0.005, P≤0.001. On the other hand, the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells and the percentage of CD4 (T cells showed significant decrease (P≤0.002, P≤0.001. In addition, the percentage of CD56 and CD16 (NK cells did not change significantly. It is worth mentioning that these changes after two hours returned to the normal state at the end of the sport test (P≤0.251, P≤0.229. Conclusion: One acute training session with hand causes both increase and decrease in T and NK cells of immune system function. But, these changes are temporary and return back to normal levels within a few hours.

  7. Effects of an iron-based fuel-borne catalyst and a diesel particle filter on exhaust toxicity in lung cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Heeb, Norbert V; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Metal-containing fuel additives catalyzing soot combustion in diesel particle filters are used in a widespread manner, and with the growing popularity of diesel vehicles, their application is expected to increase in the near future. Detailed investigation into how such additives affect exhaust toxicity is therefore necessary and has to be performed before epidemiological evidence points towards adverse effects of their application. The present study investigates how the addition of an iron-based fuel additive (Satacen®3, 40 ppm Fe) to low-sulfur diesel affects the in vitro cytotoxic, oxidative, (pro-)inflammatory, and mutagenic activity of the exhaust of a passenger car operated under constant, low-load conditions by exposing a three-dimensional model of the human airway epithelium to complete exhaust at the air-liquid interface. We could show that the use of the iron catalyst without and with filter technology has positive as well as negative effects on exhaust toxicity compared to exhaust with no additives: it decreases the oxidative and, compared to a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter, the mutagenic potential of diesel exhaust, but increases (pro-)inflammatory effects. The presence of a diesel particle filter also influences the impact of Satacen®3 on exhaust toxicity, and the proper choice of the filter type to be used is of importance with regards to exhaust toxicity. Figure ᅟ.

  8. Diesel exhaust particles increase IL-1β-induced human β-defensin expression via NF-κB-mediated pathway in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensin (hBD-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. Results IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional level. In addition, DEP further induced the NF-κB activation in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells more rapidly than in unstimulated control cells, which was showed by nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and degradation of IκB-α. The experiment using two NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC and MG132, confirmed that this increase of hBD-2 expression following DEP exposure was regulated through NF-κB-mediated pathway. Conclusion These results demonstrated that DEP exposure increases the expression of antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory cytokine at the transcriptional level in IL-1β-primed A549 epithelial cells and suggested that the increase is mediated at least partially through NF-κB activation. Therefore, DEP exposure may contribute to enhance the airway-responsiveness especially on the patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease.

  9. Hazards Due to Overdischarge in Lithium-ion Cylindrical Cells in Multi-cell Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Strangways, Brad; Nelson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells in the cylindrical Commercial-off-the-shelf 18650 design format were used to study the hazards associated with overdischarge. The cells in series or in parallel configurations were subjected to different conditions of overdischarge. The cells in parallel configurations were all overdischarged to 2.0 V for 75 cycles with one cell removed at 25 cycles to study the health of the cell. The cells in series were designed to be in an unbalanced configuration by discharging one cell in each series configuration before the start of test. The discharge consisted of removing a pre-determined capacity from the cell. This ranged from 50 to 150 mAh removal. The cells were discharged down to a predetermined end-of-discharge voltage cutoff which allowed the cell with lower capacity to go into an overdischarge mode. The cell modules that survived the 75 cycles were subjected to one overvoltage test to 4.4 V/cell.

  10. Oxidative damage to DNA by diesel exhaust particle exposure in co-cultures of human lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Roursgaard, Martin; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2012-01-01

    -DNA glycosylase or oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) sensitive sites, in mono-cultures of A549 or THP-1a and co-cultures of A549 and THP-1a cells. The strongest genotoxic effects were observed in A549 mono-cultures and SRM2975 was more potent than SRM1650b. The ROS production only increased in cells exposed...

  11. Schlieren imaging of microthruster exhausts for qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekholm, Ville; Palmer, Kristoffer; Thornell, Greger

    2012-08-01

    Schlieren imaging is a method used to visualize differences in refractive index within a medium. It is a powerful and straightforward tool for sensitive and high-resolution visualization of, e.g., gas flows. Here, heated cold gas microthrusters were studied with this technique. The thrusters are manufactured using microelectromechanical systems technology and measure 22 × 22 × 0.85 mm3. The nozzles are approximately 20 µm wide at the throat and 350 µm wide at the exit. Through these studies, verification of the functionality of the thrusters and direct visualization of the thruster exhausts were possible. At atmospheric pressure, slipping of the exhaust was observed, due to severe overexpansion of the nozzle. In vacuum (3 kPa), the exhaust was imaged while feed pressure was varied from 100 to 450 kPa. The nozzle was overexpanded, and the flow was seen to be supersonic. The shock cell period, ranging from 320 to 610 µm, was linearly dependent on feed pressure. With activated heaters, the shock cell separation increased. The effect of the heaters was more prominent at low feed pressure, and an increase in specific impulse of 20% was calculated. It was also shown that schlieren imaging can be used to detect leaks, making it a valuable, safe and noninvasive aid in quality control of the thrusters.

  12. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  13. Impaired germ cell development due to compromised cell cycle progression in Skp2-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Keiko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonads are responsible for the production of germ cells through both mitosis and meiosis. Skp2 is the receptor subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase and is a major regulator of the progression of cells into S phase of the cell cycle, which it promotes by mediating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27, an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However, the role of the Skp2-p27 pathway in germ cell development remains elusive. Results We now show that disruption of Skp2 in mice results in a marked impairment in the fertility of males, with the phenotypes resembling Sertoli cell-only syndrome in men. Testes of Skp2-/- mice manifested pronounced germ cell hypoplasia accompanied by massive apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. Flow cytometry revealed an increased prevalence of polyploidy in spermatozoa, suggesting that the aneuploidy of these cells is responsible for the induction of apoptosis. Disruption of the p27 gene of Skp2-/- mice restored germ cell development, indicating that the testicular hypoplasia of Skp2-/- animals is attributable to the antiproliferative effect of p27 accumulation. Conclusion Our results thus suggest that compromised cell cycle progression caused by the accumulation of p27 results in aneuploidy and the induction of apoptosis in gonadal cells of Skp2-/- mice. The consequent reduction in the number of mature gametes accounts for the decreased fertility of these animals. These findings reinforce the importance of the Skp2-p27 pathway in cell cycle regulation and in germ cell development.

  14. Analyses of extracted biodiesel and petroleum diesel exhaust particle and the effects on endothelial cell toxicity and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable energy source and is readily substituted in diesel engines. Combustion of biodiesel is cleaner due to the efficiency of the fuel to completely combust. Biodiesel combustion emissions contain less CO, PAHs, aldehydes, and particulate matter (PM) mas...

  15. Maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells culture due to the cells with reduced attachment rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvalova N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic detachment techniques lead to changes in cells properties. We offer a simple method of cultivating the population of cells that avoided an influence on the surface structures. Methods. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC from human umbilical cord matrix were obtained and cultivated in standard conditions. While substituting the culture media by a fresh portion, the conditioned culture medium, where the cells were maintained for three days, was transferred to other culture flacks with addition of serum and growth factors. Results. In the flacks, one day after medium transfer, we observed attached cells with typical MSC morphology. The cultures originated from these cells had the same rate of surface markers expression and clonogenic potential as those replated by standard methods. Conclusions. MSC culture, derived by preserving the cells with reduced attachment ability, actually has the properties of «parent» passage. Using this method with accepted techniques of cells reseeding would allow maintaining the cells that avoided an impact on the cell surface proteins.

  16. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham Gowd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. The aim of this research work is to experimentally measure the EMF radiated electronic pollution levels of cell phones in three different states such as on(sleep/idle mode, receive and transmit modes as an invisible environmental pollution. These measurements are carried out at the centre frequency of 1800 MHz and in the 300 MHz- 50 GHz frequency band. Another main aim is to carry out the projections of cell phones growth due to exponentially expanding mobile technology products, industrialization along with urbanization. Further to estimate the current (2013 EMF radiation pollution levels into environment and projections for 2030 due to cell phones.

  17. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels...

  18. Reversal by EGTA of the enhanced secretory responsiveness of mast cells due to treatment with ouabain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Knudsen, T; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    1990-01-01

    The effect of EGTA on the enhancement by ouabain of compound 48/80-induced secretion from mast cells was compared with the effect on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity. The time-dependent secretory enhancement by ouabain was blocked by addition of EGTA to the cell suspension concomitantly with the addition...... of ouabain, and EGTA caused a large increase in the pump activity. Addition of 10 microM EGTA to ouabain-treated cells stopped but did not reverse the enhancement. The experiments show that the effect of ouabain was due to changes in a calcium pool utilized in compound 48/80-induced secretion following...

  19. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy with cor pulmonale due to desmoplastic small round cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadimin, Evita T; Collier, Adrienne G; Gaffney, Joseph W; Fyfe, Billie

    2012-04-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented acutely after an episode of syncope with perioral cyanosis. He died 19 hours after admission due to cor pulmonale as a complication of metastatic desmoplastic small round cell tumor in the lungs with associated tumor thrombotic microangiopathy.

  20. Ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the exhaust far downstream of the reconnection x-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Keizo, E-mail: keizo.fujimoto@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takamoto, Makoto [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 114-0015 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We have investigated the ion and electron dynamics generating the Hall current in the reconnection exhaust far downstream of the x-line where the exhaust width is much larger than the ion gyro-radius. A large-scale particle-in-cell simulation shows that most ions are accelerated through the Speiser-type motion in the current sheet formed at the center of the exhaust. The transition layers formed at the exhaust boundary are not identified as slow mode shocks. (The layers satisfy mostly the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for a slow mode shock, but the energy conversion hardly occurs there.) We find that the ion drift velocity is modified around the layer due to a finite Larmor radius effect. As a result, the ions are accumulated in the downstream side of the layer, so that collimated ion jets are generated. The electrons experience two steps of acceleration in the exhaust. The first is a parallel acceleration due to the out-of-plane electric field E{sub y} which has a parallel component in most area of the exhaust. The second is a perpendicular acceleration due to E{sub y} at the center of the current sheet and the motion is converted to the parallel direction. Because of the second acceleration, the electron outflow velocity becomes almost uniform over the exhaust. The difference in the outflow profile between the ions and electrons results in the Hall current in large area of the exhaust. The present study demonstrates the importance of the kinetic treatments for collisionless magnetic reconnection even far downstream from the x-line.

  1. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p therapy such as Grounding.

  2. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  3. Hybrid Exhaust Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Gerard D. (Inventor); Logan, Charles P. (Inventor); McEnerney, Bryan William (Inventor); Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An exhaust includes a wall that has a first composite material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion and a second composite material having a second coefficient of the thermal expansion that is less than the first coefficient of thermal expansion.

  4. Gluthathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione-S-transfera...

  5. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  6. The Herpes Simplex Virus Latency-Associated Transcript Gene Is Associated with a Broader Repertoire of Virus-Specific Exhausted CD8+ T Cells Retained within the Trigeminal Ganglia of Latently Infected HLA Transgenic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Dervillez, Xavier; Khan, Arif A.; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Chilukuri, Sravya; Shukr, Nora; Fazli, Yasmin; Ong, Nicolas N.; Afifi, Rasha E.; Osorio, Nelson; Geertsema, Roger; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persistent pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), have evolved a variety of immune evasion strategies to avoid being detected and destroyed by the host's immune system. A dynamic cross talk appears to occur between the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT), the only viral gene that is abundantly transcribed during latency, and the CD8+ T cells that reside in HSV-1 latently infected human and rabbit trigeminal ganglia (TG). The reactivation phenotype of TG that are latently infected with wild-type HSV-1 or with LAT-rescued mutant (i.e., LAT+ TG) is significantly higher than TG latently infected with LAT-null mutant (i.e., LAT− TG). Whether LAT promotes virus reactivation by selectively shaping a unique repertoire of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells in LAT+ TG is unknown. In the present study, we assessed the frequency, function, and exhaustion status of TG-resident CD8+ T cells specific to 40 epitopes derived from HSV-1 gB, gD, VP11/12, and VP13/14 proteins, in human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A*0201) transgenic rabbits infected ocularly with LAT+ versus LAT– virus. Compared to CD8+ T cells from LAT– TG, CD8+ T cells from LAT+ TG (i) recognized a broader selection of nonoverlapping HSV-1 epitopes, (ii) expressed higher levels of PD-1, TIM-3, and CTLA-4 markers of exhaustion, and (iii) produced less tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, and granzyme B. These results suggest a novel immune evasion mechanism by which the HSV-1 LAT may contribute to the shaping of a broader repertoire of exhausted HSV-specific CD8+ T cells in latently infected TG, thus allowing for increased viral reactivation. IMPORTANCE A significantly larger repertoire of dysfunctional (exhausted) HSV-specific CD8+ T cells were found in the TG of HLA transgenic rabbits latently infected with wild-type HSV-1 or with LAT-rescued mutant (i.e., LAT+ TG) than in a more restricted repertoire of functional HSV-specific CD8+ T cells in the TG of HLA transgenic rabbits latently

  7. Diminished Memory T-Cell Expansion Due to Delayed Kinetics of Antigen Expression by Lentivectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Furmanov

    Full Text Available Memory CD8(+ T lymphocytes play a central role in protective immunity. In attempt to increase the frequencies of memory CD8(+ T cells, repeated immunizations with viral vectors are regularly explored. Lentivectors have emerged as a powerful vaccine modality with relatively low pre-existing and anti-vector immunity, thus, thought to be ideal for boosting memory T cells. Nevertheless, we found that lentivectors elicited diminished secondary T-cell responses that did not exceed those obtained by priming. This was not due to the presence of anti-vector immunity, as limited secondary responses were also observed following heterologous prime-boost immunizations. By dissecting the mechanisms involved in this process, we demonstrate that lentivectors trigger exceptionally slow kinetics of antigen expression, while optimal activation of lentivector-induced T cells relays on durable expression of the antigen. These qualities hamper secondary responses, since lentivector-encoded antigen is rapidly cleared by primary cytotoxic T cells that limit its presentation by dendritic cells. Indeed, blocking antigen clearance by cytotoxic T cells via FTY720 treatment, fully restored antigen presentation. Taken together, while low antigen expression is expected during secondary immunization with any vaccine vector, our results reveal that the intrinsic delayed expression kinetics of lentiviral-encoded antigen, further dampens secondary CD8(+ T-cell expansion.

  8. Cell toxicity and oxidative potential of engine exhaust particles: impact of using particulate filter or biodiesel fuel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Leseman, Daan L A C; Samaras, Zissis; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-06-01

    The link between emissions of vehicular particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects is well established. However, the influence of new emission control technologies and fuel types on both PM emissions and health effects has been less well investigated. We examined the health impact of PM emissions from two vehicles equipped with or without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both vehicles were powered either with diesel (B0) or a 50% v/v biodiesel blend (B50). The DPF effectively decreased PM mass emissions (∼85%), whereas the fuel B50 without DPF lead to less reduction (∼50%). The hazard of PM per unit distance driven was decreased for the DPF-equipped vehicle as indicated by a reduced cytotoxicity, oxidative, and pro-inflammatory potential. This was not evident and even led to an increase when the hazard was expressed on a per unit of mass basis. In general, the PM oxidative potential was similar or reduced for the B50 compared to the B0 powered vehicle. However, the use of B50 resulted in increased cytotoxicity and IL-6 release in BEAS-2B cells irrespective of the expression metric. This study shows that PM mass reduction achieved by the use of B50 will not necessarily decrease the hazard of engine emissions, while the application of a DPF has a beneficial effect on both PM mass emission and PM hazard.

  9. Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. METHODS: A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. CONCLUSION: Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.

  10. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  11. Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-12-15

    We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

  12. Cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters induced by coal oven flue exhaust mixed with pyrolized tar pitch in combination with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Dungworth, D L; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1997-02-01

    Among a variety of induced pulmonary tumours, cystic squamous cell carcinomas were observed in five Syrian hamsters that inhaled a mixture of pyrolized tar pitch with coal oven flue exhaust (PCE) and additionally received intratracheal injections of benzo(a)pyrene. The histological appearance of these particular tumours is described, compared to similar tumour types in rats and the susceptibility of both species to inert particles is discussed.

  13. Cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following irradiated packed red cells transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Kazuharu [Yamamoto-kumiai General Hospital, Noshiro, Akita (Japan); Ohta, Sukejuurou; Kojima, Yukiko; Mizunuma, Takahide; Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    1998-11-01

    We describe two cases of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following transfusion of irradiated packed red cells. Case 1: Because sudden, rapid and massive hemorrage occurred in a 69-year-old male patient undergoing the left lobectomy of the liver, 8 units of irradiated packed red cells were rapidly transfused, the patient developed cardiac arrest. Serum kalium concentration after transfusion was 7.6 mEq/l. Case 2: A 7-month-old girl scheduled for closure of a ventricular septal defect, developed cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass. The extracorporeal circuit was primed with 6 units of irradiated packed red blood cells. Serum kalium concentration immediately after the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was 10.6 mEq/l. Analysis of kalium concentration in the pilot tubes of the same packs revealed 56-61 mEq/l. These case reports suggest that fresh irradiated packed red cells should be transfused during massive bleeding and for pediatric patients to prevent severe hyperkalemia. (author)

  14. An FNA pitfall: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma due to cytoplasmic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Hijazi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the salivary gland, a key differential feature of Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC from acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is the lack of cytoplasmic granules. We report a case of a parotid mass incorrectly diagnosed on fine needle aspirate as acinic cell carcinoma due to many cells with basophilic granules suggesting serous acinar differention. Tumor resection revealed a tumor consistent with low grade adenocarcinoma that had eosinophilic, microvacuolar cytoplasm with distinct basophilic granules staining with PASD and mucicarmine. The diagnosis of MASC was confirmed with stains for GCDF-15, mammoglobin, and S100 and FISH consistent with a t(12;15 translocation. Relying on the absence of cytoplasmic granules as a feature to distinguish ACC from MASC is a diagnostic pitfall.

  15. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust particles exhibit alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity associated with decrease in antioxidant defenses and imbalance in pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; de Souza, Claudia Emanuele Carvalho; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Frias, Daniela Perroni; Matsuda, Monique; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Ferreira, Márcia Zotti Justo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines produce adverse alterations in cells of the airways by activating intracellular signaling pathways and apoptotic gene overexpression, and also by influencing metabolism and cytoskeleton changes. This study used human bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) in culture and evaluates their exposure to DEPs (15ug/mL for 1 and 2 h) in order to determine changes to cell rheology (viscoelasticity) and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEPs were found to have a significant loss in stiffness, membrane stability, and mitochondrial activity. The genes involved in apoptosis [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 and caspase-3)] presented inversely proportional expressions (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively), low expression of the genes involved in antioxidant responses [SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1); SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) (p = 0.01)], along with an increase in cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) (p = 0.01). These results suggest that alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity could be associated with oxidative stress and imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic genes.

  16. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  17. Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in Staphylococcus is most likely not due to cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Patrick; Rinker, Janina; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-02-01

    The excretion of cytoplasmic proteins (ECP) is a long-known phenomenon in bacteria and eukaryotes. So far, it was not possible to associate either a signal peptide-dependent or a signal peptide-independent pathway to ECP. Nevertheless 25% of the proteins found in Staphylococcus aureus supernatants were cytoplasmic proteins. Because the excreted proteins do not possess a common motive, the most widespread opinion is that ECP is due to cell lysis. This explanation seems to be too easy since several indications imply that there exists a yet unknown mechanism for ECP. Certainly, the up-regulation of autolysins as well as decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking increased ECP. However, in recent years, several evidences arose that cell lysis is not the only reason for ECP. It seems that ECP is a part of the normal cell cycle of S. aureus as it turned out that ECP with several model proteins occurs mainly during cell growth. It has common features as proteins secreted via the Sec translocon and finally the excretion site is the cross wall of dividing cells.

  18. Acute scrotum due to arterial bleeding mimicking non-seminomatous germ cell tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Christoph; M.Schradert; A.Amirmaki; K.Miller

    2004-01-01

    Men with testicular tumors usually present with painless increase in testis size incidentally noticed by the patient. We report a case of a young patient presenting as an emergency with acute onset of massive right-sided testicular pain without previous injury. After physical examination testicular torsion could not be excluded. Ultrasound examination of the tesds was suspicious for tesdcular tumor. Surgical exploration of the right testis by inguinal approach was performed revealing subcapsular arterial bleeding due to a small nonseminomatous germ cell tumor non-palpable on clinical examination. (Asian J Andro12004 Dec;6:379-381)

  19. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sudhakar; Natarajan, Sundaram; Parikumar, Periyasamy; Shanmugam P, Mahesh; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Green, David William; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  20. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  1. Improved performance due to selective passivation of nitrogen clusters in GaInNAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Miwa; Whiteside, Vincent R.; Al Khalfioui, Mohamed; Leroux, Mathieu; Hossain, Khalid; Sellers, Ian R.

    2015-03-01

    While GaInNAs has the potential to be a fourth-junction in multi-junction solar cells it has proved to be difficult to incorporate due to the low solubility of nitrogen in these materials. Specifically, mid-gap states attributed to nitrogen clusters have proved prohibitive for practical implementation of these systems. Here, we present the selective passivation of nitrogen impurities using a UV-activated hydrogenation process, which enables the removal of defects while retaining substitution nitrogen. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements of the intrinsic region of a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell show a classic ``s-shape'' associated with localization prior to hydrogenation, while after hydrogenation no sign of the ``s-shape'' is evident. This passivation of nitrogen centers is reflected in improved performance of solar cells structures relative to reference, unpassivated devices presenting a potential route to practical implementation of GaInNAs solar cells. The authors acknowledge support through Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology under the Oklahoma Applied Research Support Grant No. AR12.2-040.

  2. Development of experimental methods to investigate non-exhaust particle emissions from a light duty vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mathissen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle related non-exhaust particle emissions resulting from the abrasion of brakes, tires, road and the resuspension of road dust may contribute considerably to ambient air pollution. While exhaust particulate matter emissions are expected to decrease, non-exhaust emissions will rise due to higher traffic volume and the absence of legal regulations. However, there is still limited scientific knowledge of non-exhaust emissions, especially for the climate conditions found in central Europe...

  3. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    , identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some...

  4. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  5. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  6. Fatal hyperkalemia due to rapid red cell transfusion in a critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Sakiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Iwase, Yoshinori; Kitamura, Akira; Hayashida, Masakazu

    2009-10-01

    A 60-year-old woman in severe hemorrhagic shock underwent urgent laparotomy to control massive hematemesis. Severe metabolic acidosis due to hemorrhagic shock and hyperkalemia as well as hypocalcemia associated with rapid blood transfusion were aggressively corrected with administration of sodium bicarbonate, insulin, and calcium chloride. Following rapid transfusion of the last 8 units of red cell concentrate (RCC), however, cardiac arrest occurred because of hyperkalemia and did not respond to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Blood gas analysis revealed that the serum K(+) concentration had increased from 4.05 to 8.24 mEq/L over a 7-minute period, while the Ca(2+) concentration had decreased from 1.43 to 0.53 mmol/L. Rapid transfusion of irradiated RCC containing a high concentration of K(+), an extreme decrease in the circulating blood volume to dilute the exogenously administered K(+) and citrate, and severe metabolic acidosis impeding the intracellular shift of K(+) seemed to have contributed to the extremely rapid development of fetal hyperkalemia accompanied by hypocalcemia. Anesthesiologists must be aware that hyperkalemia due to rapid blood transfusion can develop extremely rapidly in patients in severe hemorrhagic shock.

  7. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  8. Nonlinear imaging techniques for the observation of cell membrane perturbation due to pulsed electric field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Erick K.; Beier, Hope T.; Thompson, Gary L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear optical probes, especially those involving second harmonic generation (SHG), have proven useful as sensors for near-instantaneous detection of alterations to orientation or energetics within a substance. This has been exploited to some success for observing conformational changes in proteins. SHG probes, therefore, hold promise for reporting rapid and minute changes in lipid membranes. In this report, one of these probes is employed in this regard, using nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) as a vehicle for instigating subtle membrane perturbations. The result provides a useful tool and methodology for the observation of minute membrane perturbation, while also providing meaningful information on the phenomenon of electropermeabilization due to nsEP. The SHG probe Di- 4-ANEPPDHQ is used in conjunction with a tuned optical setup to demonstrate nanoporation preferential to one hemisphere, or pole, of the cell given a single square shaped pulse. The results also confirm a correlation of pulse width to the amount of poration. Furthermore, the polarity of this event and the membrane physics of both hemispheres, the poles facing either electrode, were tested using bipolar pulses consisting of two pulses of opposite polarity. The experiment corroborates findings by other researchers that these types of pulses are less effective in causing repairable damage to the lipid membrane of cells.

  9. Lifespan differences in hematopoietic stem cells are due to imperfect repair and unstable mean-reversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans B Sieburg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-long supply of blood cells depends on the long-term function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs are functionally defined by their multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. Because of their self-renewal capacity, HSCs were thought to have indefinite lifespans. However, there is increasing evidence that genetically identical HSCs differ in lifespan and that the lifespan of a HSC is predetermined and HSC-intrinsic. Lifespan is here defined as the time a HSC gives rise to all mature blood cells. This raises the intriguing question: what controls the lifespan of HSCs within the same animal, exposed to the same environment? We present here a new model based on reliability theory to account for the diversity of lifespans of HSCs. Using clonal repopulation experiments and computational-mathematical modeling, we tested how small-scale, molecular level, failures are dissipated at the HSC population level. We found that the best fit of the experimental data is provided by a model, where the repopulation failure kinetics of each HSC are largely anti-persistent, or mean-reverting, processes. Thus, failure rates repeatedly increase during population-wide division events and are counteracted and decreased by repair processes. In the long-run, a crossover from anti-persistent to persistent behavior occurs. The cross-over is due to a slow increase in the mean failure rate of self-renewal and leads to rapid clonal extinction. This suggests that the repair capacity of HSCs is self-limiting. Furthermore, we show that the lifespan of each HSC depends on the amplitudes and frequencies of fluctuations in the failure rate kinetics. Shorter and longer lived HSCs differ significantly in their pre-programmed ability to dissipate perturbations. A likely interpretation of these findings is that the lifespan of HSCs is determined by preprogrammed differences in repair capacity.

  10. Cytotoxicity of diesel exhaust particle extract: a comparison among five diesel passenger cars of different manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.P.; Royer, R.E.; Brooks, A.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane extracts of diesel exhaust particles from passenger cars of differentmanufactures was studied in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. While exhaust particles from diesel cars of the same make and model yielded extracts of similar cytotoxicity, those from cars of different manufacturers yielded extracts with a 3-fold difference in cytotoxicity. Using data on the percentages of extractable organic chemicals and total exhaust particulate emission rates, the emission rates of cytotoxin into the environment from the different cars were calculated. Of the 3 factors that could affect the emission rate of cytotoxins (cytotoxicity of the extractable chemicals, amount of cytotoxins per particle, and particulate emission rate), the differences in particulate emission rates were found to be the predominant factors leading to the differences in the emission rate of cytotoxins. Our findings indicate the need to consider other chemical and physical data, not just the activities of the extracts, when the potential health risk due to the exhaust emissions of different automobiles are compared.

  11. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  12. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  13. Economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabhan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

  14. Study of Hydrodynamics due to Turbulent Mixing in Animal Cell Microcarrier Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Raghavan V.

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent mixing is essential for improving oxygenation and to provide uniform nutrients to microcarrier animal cell cultures grown in agitated stirred reactors. Large -scale microcarrier culture is plagued with problems of scale-up. Hydrodynamics due to impeller agitation was found to be one of the major causes for cell damage in microcarrier culture. Insufficient or improper scale-up of agitation environment from small-scale to large-scale has been postulated to be one of the main causes for failure of large-scale microcarrier culture. For successful scale-up of microcarrier culture, it will be useful to obtain the flow characteristics in typical reactors: macro-characteristics that provides information on zoning/unmixed regions within the reactor as well as fundamental flow information such as velocity fields and energy distribution in the impeller stream of the reactors. This information can lead to methods of scale-up that preserve flow environments in different sizes of bioreactors. Three dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3-D PTV) was used to map the flow fields in the impeller stream of the spinner vessel, 3 L bench-scale, 20 L medium -scale, and 150 L large-scale cell culture reactors. For the purposes of characterization of the 150 L large-scale reactor, an internal dual lens probe system was designed to visualize the turbulent mixing environment. 3-D (stereo) visual information obtained was used to come up with mean velocity fields and energy distribution in the impeller stream of the reactors. Fundamental flow information obtained was further used to arrive at the flow structures/patterns that exist in the impeller stream and the distribution of energy parameters: viscous dissipation rate, mean turbulent kinetic energy and the pseudo-shear rate, within the flow structures. The impeller stream of all the reactors was found to be highly anisotropic and dominated by distinct flow structures. The highest values of the energy parameters were also

  15. Impedance Spectroscopic Investigation of the Degraded Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell due to Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of ageing on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The electrical characterization of fresh and degraded DSCs is done under AM1.5G spectrum and the current density-voltage (J-V characteristics are analyzed. Short circuit current density (JSC decreases significantly whereas a noticeable increase in open circuit voltage is observed. These results have been further investigated electroanalytically using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. An increase in net resistance results in a lower JSC for the degraded DSC. This decrease in current is mainly due to degradation of TiO2-dye interface, which is observed from light and dark J-V characteristics and is further confirmed by EIS measurements. A reduction in the chemical capacitance of the degraded DSC is observed, which is responsible for the shifting of Fermi level with respect to conduction band edge that further results in an increase of open circuit voltage for the degraded DSC. It is also confirmed from EIS that the degradation leads to a better contact formation between the electrolyte and Pt electrode, which improves the fill factor of the DSC. But the recombination throughout the DSC is found to increase along with degradation. This study suggests that the DSC should be used under low illumination conditions and around room temperature for a longer life.

  16. Secondary Involvement of the Mandible due to Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mosannen Mozaffary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cutaneous malignancy among Caucasians. Rare examples of aggressive and neglected BCC have been reported. Here we report a unique case of a neglected BCC with significant jaw involvement. A 50-year-old female, referred by an otorhinologist, presented with a large ulcer on her chin, which was extended to her mandibular vestibule. The ulcer was 9×5.5 cm in size, and tissue destruction, necrosis was observed in the central portion, and the mandibular bone was exposed. On intraoral examination, tooth mobility and severe bone loss were evident. Due to the primary cutaneous origin of the lesion, BCC was considered as preliminary diagnosis. Biopsy was performed and diagnosis of BCC was confirmed. The diseased mandibular bone was resected and reconstructed with a surgical plate. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with deltopectoral flap. The patient refused secondary stage plastic surgery. Although BCC is not a lethal malignancy, if left untreated and neglected, it can result in severe destruction, disfigurement, and even mortality.

  17. Tolvaptan Treatment in Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion due to Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahit Gur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experience of ADH receptor antagonist (-vaptanes treatment in hyponatremia in malign patient is very limited. 68 years old male patient admitted to our department with a complain of nause, vomitting and epigastric pain. He has advanced stage of small cell lung cancer. He had treated with cisplatin and etoposide regimen 10 days ago as a first cure. We diagnosed inapropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome (SIADH with low sodium level (118 meq/dl. Although the treatment with water restriction and 3% NaCl infusion, sodium level was not in normal. So we ordered 30 mg tolvaptan tablet. And then sodium levels were reached normal. After one month of discharge from hospital, he has hospitilized with same symptom and diagnosis. And again we ordered same treatment procedure and tolvaptane treatment. He had normal sodium (136 mEq/dl level during his follow up. This case demostrate that tolvaptane treatment is suitable aproaches in hyponatremia due to SIADH in oncologic patient.

  18. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...... in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...

  19. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549 cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM, such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG in calf thymus DNA, which might be due to the much higher level of transition metals. Conclusion Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and small differences in cytotoxicity. Although it cannot be ruled out that SRMs and authentic street particles might elicit different effects in animal experimental models, this study indicates that on the cellular level, SRM1650 and SRM2975 are suitable surrogate samples for the study of authentic street particles.

  20. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Bridgette Janine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Yousfi, Rahima; Mohan, Viswaraman; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Moog, Christiane; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Clayette, Pascal; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1–7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS) as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b) directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID:27788205

  1. Exhaustivity in questions with non-factives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the conditions under which a person can be said to have told someone or predicted (the answer to a question like 'who sang'. It is standardly claimed that while (i the true answer must be completely specified, it is not necessary that (ii it be specified *as being* the complete answer. Here the non-factive verbs 'tell' and 'predict' are said to differ from the factive verb 'know', which typically does impose the *strong exhaustivity* requirement in (ii. We argue for an intermediate reading of 'tell' and 'predict' that requires more than (i but less than (ii. To account for this reading we claim that the exhaustivity requirement (ii imposed by 'know' is due to an operator than can apply non-locally. Applying the operator above a non-factive verb derives the intermediate reading, whereas doing so is vacuous in the case of factives. Thus, we derive the intermediate reading, and differences in the exhaustivity requirements imposed by factives and non-factives, without lexical stipulation. doi:10.3765/sp.4.2 BibTeX info

  2. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  3. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  4. Comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the extracts of methanol and gasoline engine exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zunzhen; Che, Wangjun; Liang, Ying; Wu, Mei; Li, Na; Shu, Ya; Liu, Fang; Wu, Desheng

    2007-09-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered a major source of air pollution in China, and methanol is considered as a potential substitute for gasoline fuel. In this study, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of organic extracts of condensate, particulate matters (PM) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) of gasoline and absolute methanol engine exhaust were examined by using MTT assay, micronucleus assay, comet assay and Ames test. The results have showed that gasoline engine exhaust exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cell) than methanol engine exhaust. Furthermore, gasoline engine exhaust increased micronucleus formation, induced DNA damage in A549 cells and increased TA98 revertants in the presence of metabolic activating enzymes in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, methanol engine exhaust failed to exhibit these adverse effects. The results suggest methanol may be used as a cleaner fuel for automobile.

  5. Theoretical method for estimation of power loss due to mismatch in solar cell I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasamurthy, N.; Malathi, B.; Mathur, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In order to generate power from the solar panels at a required voltage, suitable number of cells should be connected in series and parallel. There exists a mismatch in the solar cell I-V characteristics, when they are produced in a lot. When such cells are connected in a series parallel array, power loss would occur due to the mismatch. A theoretical approach is made to compute the power loss. This would suggest the designer to select proper combination of cells for minimum power loss of any configuration of the solar panel.

  6. Painful scoliosis due to superposed giant cell bone tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togral, Guray; Arikan, Murat; Hasturk, Askin E; Gungor, Safak

    2014-07-01

    Giant cell bone tumors are the most common precursor lesions of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) developing secondarily. In giant cell bone tumors containing an explicit ABC component, the observation of the solid component of the giant cell bone tumor plays a critical role in the separation of the primary ABC. In general, ABC cases together with giant cell tumors in the bone are diagnosed histopathologically. The combination of giant cell bone tumor with superposed ABC and that of painful scoliosis with backache is rarely seen in children. In this case study, we discussed the diagnosis and the treatment of a giant cell tumor and superposed an ABC present in the fifth lumbar spine in a pediatric patient admitted to our clinic with a complaint of acute scoliotic back pain.

  7. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier.

  8. Degradation of CIGS solar cells due to the migration of alkali-elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Barreau, N.; Hans, V.; Steijvers, H.; Vroon, Z.; Zeman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-encapsulated CIGS solar cells with different contents of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. The solar cells with higher alkali (Na, K) content exhibited higher initial conversion efficiencies, but degraded severely within 100 hours, while sam

  9. Soot filter for the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.

    1980-06-19

    In the previously known soot filters, the exhaust gas flows through the cylindrical filter radially from the outside to the inside. The exhaust gas touches a relatively large area of the filter housing and therefore loses a large part of the thermal energy required for post-combustion. According to the invention, these disadvantages are avoided in the new filter, where the filter material forms hollow spaces at the internal wall of the filter, which take the exhaust gas after it has flowed through the filter and carry it in an axial direction of the filter housing to the exhaust. Due to this design of the filter and the saving in heat, the areas on which the exhaust gas impinges can be kept appreciably smaller and better use can be made of the heat in the exhaust gas. The ceramic filter material can consist of an outer layer of loose ceramic fibres and an inner woven ceramic fibre mat. In order to increase the effectiveness of the filter, the soot filter can be used as a fine filter after a coarse filter.

  10. A Model for Compression-Weakening Materials and the Elastic Fields due to Contractile Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rosakis, Phoebus; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2014-01-01

    We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law, that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material, than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.

  11. A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-12-01

    We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.

  12. Changes of the balancing between anode and cathode due to fatigue in commercial lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Karin; Jakes, Peter; Scharner, Sebastian; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    The electrode balancing defines the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium-ion cell and is a crucial point considering lifetime and safe operation. The electrode balancing varies during fatigue which results in changes of the individual electrode potentials for fixed (dis-)charge voltages of the full-cell. Therefore the materials are cycled closer or beyond their electrochemical (meta-)stability window. This leads to accelerated degradation reactions or even to safety problems. The origin of the changes in the cell balancing is the limited amount of mobile lithium, which decreases during cycling due to the loss of lithiated active material a), the reduction of accessible lattice sites in the active materials b) and the loss of active lithium outside the electrodes c). In most of the commercial cells a) and b) can be attributed to the cathode, c) occurs due to reactions on the anode surface. Changes in the electrode balancing of three differently fatigued 7 Ah lithium-ion cells are investigated by electrochemical cycling of full- and half-cells, assembled from cell components of the fatigued 7 Ah cells. Based on these results the observed performance drop is assigned to a), b) or c) mentioned above and the capacity losses are quantified.

  13. Interleukin-6 expression under gravitational stress due to vibration and hypergravity in follicular thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that exposing cell lines in vitro to parabolic flights changes their gene expression and protein production patterns. Parabolic flights and spaceflight in general are accompanied by transient hypergravity and vibration, which may impact the cells and therefore, have to be considered too. To estimate the possible impact of transient hypergravity and vibration, we investigated the effects of these forces separately using dedicated ground-based facilities. We placed follicular thyroid ML-1 and CGTH W-1 cancer cells in a specific centrifuge (MuSIC Multi Sample Incubator Centrifuge; SAHC Short Arm Human Centrifuge simulating the hypergravity phases that occur during one (P1 and 31 parabolas (P31 of parabolic flights, respectively. On the Vibraplex device, the same cell lines were treated with vibration waves corresponding to those that occur during a whole parabolic flight lasting for two hours. After the various treatments, cells were harvested and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, focusing on the genes involved in forming (ACTB, MYO9, TUBB, VIM, TLN1, and ITGB1 and modulating (EZR, RDX, and MSN the cytoskeleton, as well as those encoding growth factors (EGF, CTGF, IL6, and IL8 or protein kinases (PRKAA1 and PRKCA. The analysis revealed alterations in several genes in both cell lines; however, fewer genes were affected in ML-1 than CGTH W-1 cells. Interestingly, IL6 was the only gene whose expression was changed in both cell lines by each treatment, while PKCA transcription remained unaffected in all experiments. We conclude that a PKCa-independent mechanism of IL6 gene activation is very sensitive to physical forces in thyroid cells cultured in vitro as monolayers.

  14. Status Epilepticus Due to Severe HHV-6 Encephalitis in an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Chordia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 after stem cell transplantation occurs frequently. It is associated with clinical manifestations varying from nonspecific symptoms such as fevers or rash, to severe life threatening complications including post-transplantation limbic encephalitis. We report a case of severe HHV-6 encephalitis with viremia in an allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplant recipient who presented with status epilepticus unresponsive to antiepileptic therapy.  With intravenous ganciclovir and supportive care, the patient’s condition improved. Awareness of HHV-6 infection in stem cell transplant recipients may help with early diagnosis and improved outcome.

  15. [Elimination of large pyroninophilic cells due to the effect of phytohemagglutinin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaia, S N; Bykovskiĭ, A F; Shepelenko, A M

    1975-09-01

    Large pyroninophilic lymphocytes adsorbed on the surface of target-cells disappeared after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) addition. Incubation during 45 minutes in the presence of PHA did not reveal cisternas of the granular endoplasmatic reticulum and the number of mitochondrias decreased. The H3-thymidine-labeled cells were almost eliminated. There appeared population of small lymphocytes with even outline and clear cytoplasm, poor in organellas, with ribosomas freely scattered in it. After 24--48 hours of incubation they transformed into blasts, large cells with clear nucleus and clear cytoplasm in which no cisternas of granular endoplasmatic reticulum were revealed.

  16. Estimated red blood cell thickness in microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nAnemia is one of the most common hematological disorders that are still the present in all countries around the world. Microcytic anemia is a specific kind of anemia presenting with small red blood cell. In this paper, the author discusses on the estimated red blood cell thickness, a new proposed parameter, comparing between that of iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia and further extrapolate on the clinical implication.

  17. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  18. Heterogeneity between triple negative breast cancer cells due to differential activation of Wnt and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Revollar, Gabriela; Garay, Erika; Martin-Tapia, Dolores; Nava, Porfirio; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Segovia, José; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2015-11-15

    The lack of a successful treatment for triple-negative breast cancer demands the study of the heterogeneity of cells that constitute these tumors. With this aim, two clones from triple negative breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were isolated: One with fibroblast-like appearance (F) and another with semi-epithelial (SE) morphology. Cells of the F clone have a higher migration and tumorigenesis capacity than SE cells, suggesting that these cells are in a more advanced stage of epithelial to mesenchymal transformation. In agreement, F cells have a diminished expression of the tight junction proteins claudins 1 and 4, and an increased content of β-catenin. The latter is due to an augmented activity of the canonical Wnt route and of the EGFR/PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway favoring the cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin and its transcriptional activity. In addition, F cells display increased phosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr654 by Src. These changes favor in F cells, the over-expression of Snail that promotes EMT. Finally, we observe that both F and SE cells display markers of cancer stem cells, which are more abundant in the F clone.

  19. Modeling of photon and pair production due to quantum electrodynamics effects in particle-in-cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -M; Gibbon, P; Li, Y -T

    2016-01-01

    We develop the particle-in-cell (PIC) code KLAPS to include the photon generation via the Compton scattering and electron-positron creation via the Breit-Wheeler process due to quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. We compare two sets of existing formulas for the photon generation and different Monte Carlo algorithms. Then we benchmark the PIC simulation results.

  20. Chronic ulceration of the leg following extensive scarring due to a snake bite complicated by squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, L.F.B.; Barcelos, M.G.; Nogueira Neto, N.C. [Dept. of Radiology, National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Meohas, W. [Dept. of Surgery (Bone and Soft Tissue), National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, L.W. [Department of Surgical Pathology, National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, P.A. [Pharmacology Lab. of Snake-related Toxins, Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Smith, J. [Dept. of Radiology, National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rua Humberto de Campos 974/1301, Leblon 22430 - 190, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-05-01

    Chronic ulcers of the leg are common in Brazil, perhaps more common than in the developed world. We report a case of a chronic ulcer of the leg following extensive scarring due to a bite by a venomous snake, which eventually led to a squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Bernardo, Maria E.; Locatelli, Franco [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Pavia (Italy); Meloni, Giulia [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Institute of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Spinazzola, Angelo [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore, Crema CR (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  2. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt;

    2013-01-01

    induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...... origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...

  3. Hyperglycaemia-induced chemoresistance of prostate cancer cells due to IGFBP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, K M; Uzoh, C C; Zeng, L; Persad, R A; Bahl, A; Gillatt, D; Perks, C M; Holly, J M P

    2013-10-01

    Clinically relevant prostate cancer (PCa) is more frequent in Westernised societies and increasingly men have co-morbidities associated with a Western lifestyle, primarily diabetes, characterised by hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. IGFs and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are important mediators of the effects of nutrition on growth and play a key role in the development of PCa. We used DU145, PC3 and LNCaP PCa cell lines to examine how hyperglycaemia altered their response to docetaxel. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assay was used to determine the percentage of cell death. Protein abundance was determined using western immunoblotting. Levels of IGFBP2 were measured using an ELISA. IGFBP2 gene silencing was achieved using siRNA technology. DNA methylation was assessed using combined bisulphide restriction analysis. Acetylation status of histones H3 and H4 associated with IGFBP2 gene was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hyperglycaemia reduced docetaxel-induced apoptosis by 40% for DU145 cells and by 88% for LNCaP cells. This reduced cell death was mediated by a glucose-induced up-regulation of IGFBP2, as silencing IGFBP2 negated the survival effect of high glucose. Glucose increased IGFBP2 via increasing the acetylation of histones associated with the IGFBP2 gene promoter. This finding could have important implications in relation to therapeutic strategies as epigenetic modulation could be reversible.

  4. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Kent by Newcastle University and the Terramare Institute. Samples of raw seawater and scrubber washwater were collected at the inlet and discharge of...from Ships. Research Centre Terramare . Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Couple Systems. 2010. Dry EGCS Process Dry Exhaust Gas Cleaning System (http...BP Marine. Research Centre Terramare , Wilhelmshaven, Germany and School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon

  5. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Boeren, J.A.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 105 to

  6. Rate-dependent activation failure in isolated cardiac cells and tissue due to Na+ channel block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anthony; Spindler, Anthony J; Paterson, David; Noble, Denis

    2015-11-15

    While it is well established that class-I antiarrhythmics block cardiac sodium channels, the mechanism of action of therapeutic levels of these drugs is not well understood. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and in vitro experiments, we studied the failure of activation of action potentials in single ventricular cells and in tissue caused by Na(+) channel block. Our computations of block and unblock of sodium channels by a theoretical class-Ib antiarrhythmic agent predict differences in the concentrations required to cause activation failure in single cells as opposed to multicellular preparations. We tested and confirmed these in silico predictions with in vitro experiments on isolated guinea-pig ventricular cells and papillary muscles stimulated at various rates (2-6.67 Hz) and exposed to various concentrations (5 × 10(-6) to 500 × 10(-6) mol/l) of lidocaine. The most salient result was that whereas large doses (5 × 10(-4) mol/l or higher) of lidocaine were required to inhibit action potentials temporarily in single cells, much lower doses (5 × 10(-6) mol/l), i.e., therapeutic levels, were sufficient to have the same effect in papillary muscles: a hundredfold difference. Our experimental results and mathematical analysis indicate that the syncytial nature of cardiac tissue explains the effects of clinically relevant doses of Na(+) channel blockers.

  7. Inhibition of pH fronts in corrosion cells due to the formation of cerium hydroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, M. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cerium-based corrosion inhibitors on the pH front between the alkaline cathode and acidic anode in corrosion cells has been studied. The cerium component of these inhibitors can affect the pH front since it precipitates in an alkaline environment as cerium hydroxide, which is important

  8. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger, Etienne; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Hansen, Lars H; Gelling, Richard W; Capeau, Jacqueline; Deacon, Carolyn F; Madsen, Ole D; Yakushiji, Fumiatsu; De Meyts, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 µM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells. Learning points: Loss of function of the glucagon receptor may not necessarily lead to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. Loss of function of the glucagon receptor causes hyperaminoacidemia, hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia and sometimes other pancreatic abnormalities. A hepato–pancreatic feedback regulation of the α-cells, possibly involving amino acids, may exist in humans. PMID:27933176

  9. No evidence for clonal selection due to lentiviral integration sites in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Cantilena, Amy; Métais, Jean-Yves; Xu, Xiuli; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Borate, Bhavesh; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Thomson, James A; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2010-04-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells requires the expression of defined transcription factors (among Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28) in the targeted cells. Lentiviral or standard retroviral gene transfer remains the most robust and commonly used approach. Low reprogramming frequency overall, and the higher efficiency of derivation utilizing integrating vectors compared to more recent nonviral approaches, suggests that gene activation or disruption via proviral integration sites (IS) may play a role in obtaining the pluripotent phenotype. We provide for the first time an extensive analysis of the lentiviral integration profile in human iPS cells. We identified a total of 78 independent IS in eight recently established iPS cell lines derived from either human fetal fibroblasts or newborn foreskin fibroblasts after lentiviral gene transfer of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. The number of IS ranged from 5 to 15 IS per individual iPS clone, and 75 IS could be assigned to a unique chromosomal location. The different iPS clones had no IS in common. Expression analysis as well as extensive bioinformatic analysis did not reveal functional concordance of the lentiviral targeted genes between the different clones. Interestingly, in six of the eight iPS clones, some of the IS were found in pairs, integrated into the same chromosomal location within six base pairs of each other or in very close proximity. Our study supports recent reports that efficient reprogramming of human somatic cells is not dependent on insertional activation or deactivation of specific genes or gene classes.

  10. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress due to Complex I Dysfunction Promotes Fibroblast Activation and Melanoma Cell Invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased ROS (cellular reactive oxygen species are characteristic of both fibrosis and tumour development. ROS induce the trans-differentiation to myofibroblasts, the activated form of fibroblasts able to promote cancer progression. Here, we report the role of ROS produced in response to dysfunctions of mitochondrial complex I, in fibroblast activation and in tumour progression. We studied human fibroblasts with mitochondrial dysfunctions of complex I, leading to hyperproduction of ROS. We demonstrated that ROS level produced by the mutated fibroblasts correlates with their activation. The increase of ROS in these cells provides a greater ability to remodel the extracellular matrix leading to an increased motility and invasiveness. Furthermore, we evidentiated that in hypoxic conditions these fibroblasts cause HIF-1α stabilization and promote a proinvasive phenotype of human melanoma cells through secretion of cytokines. These data suggest a possible role of deregulated mitochondrial ROS production in fibrosis evolution as well as in cancer progression and invasion.

  11. Calcium Alternans is Due to an Order-Disorder Phase Transition in Cardiac Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Echebarria, Blas; Spalding, Jon; Shiferaw, Yohannes

    2015-03-01

    Electromechanical alternans is a beat-to-beat alternation in the strength of contraction of a cardiac cell, which can be caused by an instability of calcium cycling. Using a distributed model of subcellular calcium we show that alternans occurs via an order-disorder phase transition which exhibits critical slowing down and a diverging correlation length. We apply finite size scaling along with a mapping to a stochastic coupled map model, to show that this transition in two dimensions is characterized by critical exponents consistent with the Ising universality class. These findings highlight the important role of cooperativity in biological cells, and suggest novel approaches to investigate the onset of the alternans instability in the heart.

  12. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  13. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Larger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 μM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.

  14. Cytotoxicity of diesel exhaust particle extract--a comparison among five diesel passenger cars of different manufactures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.P.; Royer, R.E.; Brooks, A.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane extracts of diesel exhaust particles from passenger cars of different manufactures was studied in cultured chinese hamster ovary cells. While exhaust particles from diesel cars of the same make and model yielded extracts of similar cytotoxicity, those from cars of different manufactures yielded extracts with a 3-fold difference in cytotoxicity. Using data on the percentages of extractable organic chemicals and total exhaust particulate emission rates, the emission rate of cytotoxin into the environment from the different cars were calculated. Of the 3 factors that could affect the emission rate of cytotoxins (cytotoxicity of the extractable chemicals, amount of cytotoxins per particle, and particulate emission rate), the differences in particulate emission rates were found to be the predominant factors leading to the differences in the emission rate of cytotoxins. Our findings indicate the need to consider other chemical and physical data, not just the activities of the extracts, when the potential health risk due to the exhaust emissions of different automobiles are compared.

  15. An autopsy case of subacute cor pulmonale due to pulmonary tumor cell emboli in a patient with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Teruhiko; Takagi, Haruhi; Fujii, Mitsuhiro; Iwakami, Naoko; Yoshimi, Kaku; Koyama, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masako; Yoshioka, Masakata; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a severe respiratory condition and malnutrition. Radiological and electrophysiological findings suggested the existence of inexplicable cor pulmonale. Although we commenced to determine the causes of her severe condition, she suddenly died 3 days after admission. Postmortem autopsy revealed tumor cell microemboli in the small pulmonary arteries due to gastric cancer. Such a case of cor pulmonale as the first clinical manifestation is exceptionally rare. Occult malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis when one encounters a patient with subacutely aggravated respiratory condition and inexplicable cor pulmonale.

  16. Cetuximab insufficiently inhibits glioma cell growth due to persistent EGFR downstream signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Poulsen, Hans S;

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression and/or amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present in 35-45% of primary glioblastoma multiforme tumors and has been correlated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of cetuximab and intracellular signaling pathways downstream...... of EGFR, important for cell survival and proliferation. We show insufficient EGFR downregulation and competition with endogenous EGFR ligands upon cetuximab treatment. Dose-response experiments showed inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation without affecting two of the prominent downstream signaling pathways...

  17. Pure red cell aplasia due to azathioprine therapy for Crohn′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various mechanisms contribute to anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, drug-related causes being less frequent. The hematological and other adverse events of azathioprine (AZA therapy are well documented, but drug-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA is an uncommon event. We hereby describe two cases of AZA-associated PRCA in patients with Crohn′s disease. The diagnosis was supported by pathological reports, and prompt hematological recovery was seen with discontinuation of the offending drug. This report highlights the need to consider this rare entity in IBD patients in appropriate settings and for adopting adequate precautionary measures.

  18. Pure red cell aplasia due to azathioprine therapy for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Nagesh; Pai, C Ganesh; Deltombe, Thylbert

    2016-01-01

    Various mechanisms contribute to anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), drug-related causes being less frequent. The hematological and other adverse events of azathioprine (AZA) therapy are well documented, but drug-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon event. We hereby describe two cases of AZA-associated PRCA in patients with Crohn's disease. The diagnosis was supported by pathological reports, and prompt hematological recovery was seen with discontinuation of the offending drug. This report highlights the need to consider this rare entity in IBD patients in appropriate settings and for adopting adequate precautionary measures.

  19. Expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte interactions and oxidative stress in human endothelial cells exposed to wood smoke and diesel exhaust particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke Ali; Loft, Steffen; Roursgaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -1 expression on HUVECs in mono-cultures. However, only the exposure to wood smoke particles was associated with increased expression of TNF and IL8 mRNA in THP-1 cells. We found no effect on the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species by the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA, whereas especially...... the wood smoke particles caused increased level of DNA strand breaks and oxidised guanines at concentrations with low cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the adherence of monocytes on endothelial cells in wood smoke particle exposed cultures depend on activation of both cell types....

  20. Golgi enlargement in Arf-depleted yeast cells is due to altered dynamics of cisternal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Madhura; Papanikou, Effrosyni; Iyer, Prasanna; Pandya, Koushal; Jain, Bhawik Kumar; Ganguly, Abira; Sharma, Chandrakala; Pawar, Ketakee; Austin, Jotham; Day, Kasey J.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Glick, Benjamin S.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulation of the size and abundance of membrane compartments is a fundamental cellular activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) gene yields larger and fewer Golgi cisternae by partially depleting the Arf GTPase. We observed a similar phenotype with a thermosensitive mutation in Nmt1, which myristoylates and activates Arf. Therefore, partial depletion of Arf is a convenient tool for dissecting mechanisms that regulate Golgi structure. We found that in arf1Δ cells, late Golgi structure is particularly abnormal, with the number of late Golgi cisternae being severely reduced. This effect can be explained by selective changes in cisternal maturation kinetics. The arf1Δ mutation causes early Golgi cisternae to mature more slowly and less frequently, but does not alter the maturation of late Golgi cisternae. These changes quantitatively explain why late Golgi cisternae are fewer in number and correspondingly larger. With a stacked Golgi, similar changes in maturation kinetics could be used by the cell to modulate the number of cisternae per stack. Thus, the rates of processes that transform a maturing compartment can determine compartmental size and copy number. PMID:24190882

  1. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  2. Caspase 8 and maspin are downregulated in breast cancer cells due to CpG site promoter methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeffler Phillip

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic changes associated with promoter DNA methylation results in silencing of several tumor suppressor genes that lead to increased risk for tumor formation and for progression of the cancer. Methods Methylation specific PCR (MSP and bisulfite sequencing were used for determination of proapoptotic gene Caspase 8 (CASP8 and the tumor suppressor gene maspin promoter methylation in four breast cancer and two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Involvement of histone H3 methylation in those cell lines were examined by CHIP assay. Results The CpG sites in the promoter region of CASP8 and maspin were methylated in all four breast cancer cell lines but not in two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc selectively inhibits DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and restored CASP8 and maspin gene expression in breast cancer cells. 5-aza-dc also reduced histone H3k9me2 occupancy on CASP8 promoter in SKBR3cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA and 5-aza-dc significant decrease in nuclear expression of Di-methyl histone H3-Lys27 and slight increase in acetyl histone H3-Lys9 in MCF-7 cells. CASP8 mRNA and protein level in MCF-7 cells were increased by the 5-aza-dc in combination with TSA. Data from our study also demonstrated that treatment with 5-FU caused a significant increase in unmethylated CASP8 and in CASP8 mRNA in all 3 cancer lines. Conclusions CASP8 and maspin expression were reduced in breast cancer cells due to promoter methylation. Selective application of demethylating agents could offer novel therapeutic opportunities in breast cancer.

  3. Corneal Endothelial Cell Changes Due to Combined Phacoemulsification-Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation and Transpupillary Silicone Oil Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Alp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined phacoemulsification-posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation and removal of transpupillary silicone oil on the corneal endothelial cell layer. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included seven eyes of 7 patients who had intravitreal hemorrhage resulting from retinal detachment or tractional retinal detachment due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. Complicated cataract developed, and phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation combined with transpupillary silicon oil removal were performed. Preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelial cell count values were taken by Topcon SP-2000P automatic non-contact specular microscopy and were assessed by IMAGEnet 2000 Endothelial Cell Analysis. The results were compared with the findings in the literature. Results: The mean endothelial cell density (ECD was 2461 cell/mm2 preoperatively. The silicone oil removal was performed after an average of 10±3.5 months (range 5-14 months, and then endothelial cells were counted after a mean of 17±21.2 months (range 1-49 months of the combined surgery. The mean ECD was determined as 1906 cell/mm2 postoperatively. While mean endothelial cell loss was found to be 32% in two patients with diabetes mellitus, five non-diabetic patients had 19% cell loss. Corneal decompensation was not observed in any patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: After combined phacoemulsification-PC-IOL implantation and transpupillary silicone oil removal, significant reduction in endothelial cells was observed. We detected that this reduction was greater in diabetics. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 424-7

  4. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at Different Stages of HIV-1 Disease Is Not Associated with the Proportion of Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Larsen, Tine Kochendorf

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cell-restricted immunity is important in the control of HIV-1 infection, but continued immune activation results in CD8+ T cell dysfunction. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the duration of ART have been associated with immune reconstitution. Here, we evaluated whether...... restoration of CD8+ T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals was dependent on early initiation of ART. HIV-specific CD107a, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα and MIP-1β expression by CD8+ T cells and the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 were measured by flow cytometry. The frequency of CD8+ T...... cells expressing the inhibitory markers PD-1, 2B4 and CD160 was lower in ART-treated individuals compared with ART-naïve individuals and similar to the frequency in HIV-uninfected controls. The expression of the three markers was similarly independent of when therapy was initiated. Individuals treated...

  5. Facial skin metastasis due to small-cell lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbetakis Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cutaneous metastases in the facial region occur in less than 0.5% of patients with metastatic cancer. They are an important finding and are not often the first sign leading to diagnosis. Case presentation We describe the case of a 64-year-old male patient who presented with dyspnea, pleuritic pain, loss of weight and a nodule on his left cheek. A chest X-ray revealed a left upper lobe mass with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Excision biopsy of the facial nodule revealed small-cell lung carcinoma. Palliative chemo-radiotherapy was administered and the patient survived for 12 months. Conclusion A high index of suspicion is necessary for the early detection of facial cutaneous metastases. Appropriate treatment may prolong patient survival.

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma in left flank due to saree: Largest reported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Mandhane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Saree is a female costume unique for Indian ladies. This includes a superficial cloth and a skirt underneath which is fastened securely to the waist by a cord. Persistent and long term wearing of this costume has resulted in waist dermatoses. Waist dermatoses theoretically may present with malignant transformation. Here we present a case of 60 year old female who presented with left flank ulcer following chronic irritation from saree, biopsy was taken and it showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. We decided to do wide excision with tension free suturing. Post operatively the patient followed up for 12 week and has shown to be disease free. This turns out to be the third case being reported and the largest ever to be reported in the literature. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1803-1806

  7. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  8. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  9. [Two Cases of Germ Cell Tumors with Hyperthyroidism Due to High Serum hCGLevels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Ichiro; Nitta, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Waku, Natsui; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kawai, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable. We diagnosed the patient with hyperthyroidism and started oral propranolol and thiamazole. Subsequently, his tachycardia and tremor disappeared. On day 12 of the first course of BEP, his hCG level decreased to less than 50,000 mIU/ml. Also, his fT4 level returned to the normal range. Case 2 : A 29-year-old man presented with a left scrotal mass. He was diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer (embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma) with multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastases. On the admission day, his serum hCG and fT4 levels were high ; 3.23 million mIU/ml and 2.2 ng/dl, respectively. The TSH level was low at 0.011 mIU/ml. On day 3 of the first course of BEP, his hCG and fT4 levels increased to 4.5 million mIU/ml and 3.0 ng/dl, respectively. He complained of tachycardia, tremor and hyperhydrosis. He was started on propranolol and potassium iodide. After the treatment, histachycardia, tremor and hyperhidrosisdis appeared. HisfT4 level normalized on day 17 of the first course of BEP. The TSH-like activity of hCG is considered to be responsible for paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism among germ cell cancer patients with high hCG levels. To our knowledge, thisisthe first report of such a case in Japan. However, thisphenomenon isnot rare among patients with extremely high hCG levels. Therefore, we should be careful of these patients.

  10. Extreme dissipation event due to plume collision in a turbulent convection cell

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    An extreme dissipation event in the bulk of a closed three-dimensional turbulent convection cell is found to be correlated with a strong reduction of the large-scale circulation flow in the system that happens at the same time as a plume emission event from the bottom plate. The reduction in the large-scale circulation opens the possibility for a nearly frontal collision of down- and upwelling plumes and the generation of a high-amplitude thermal dissipation layer in the bulk. This collision is locally connected to a subsequent high-amplitude energy dissipation event in the form of a strong shear layer. Our analysis illustrates the impact of transitions in the large-scale structures on extreme events at the smallest scales of the turbulence, a direct link that is observed in a flow with boundary layers. We also show that detection of extreme dissipation events which determine the far-tail statistics of the dissipation fields in the bulk requires long-time integrations of the equations of motion over at least ...

  11. Extreme dissipation event due to plume collision in a turbulent convection cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.

    2016-10-01

    An extreme dissipation event in the bulk of a closed three-dimensional turbulent convection cell is found to be correlated with a strong reduction of the large-scale circulation flow in the system that happens at the same time as a plume emission event from the bottom plate. The reduction in the large-scale circulation opens the possibility for a nearly frontal collision of down- and upwelling plumes and the generation of a high-amplitude thermal dissipation layer in the bulk. This collision is locally connected to a subsequent high-amplitude energy dissipation event in the form of a strong shear layer. Our analysis illustrates the impact of transitions in the large-scale structures on extreme events at the smallest scales of the turbulence, a direct link that is observed in a flow with boundary layers. We also show that detection of extreme dissipation events which determine the far-tail statistics of the dissipation fields in the bulk requires long-time integrations of the equations of motion over at least a hundred convective time units.

  12. Gravitational instability due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in a Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreme, A.; Nadal, F.; Pouligny, B.; Jeandet, P.; Liger-Belair, G.; Meunier, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present an experimental study of the gravitational instability triggered by dissolution of carbon dioxide through a water-gas interface. We restrict the study to vertical parallelepipedic Hele-Shaw geometries, for which the thickness is smaller than the other dimensions. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is quickly increased, leading to a denser layer of CO2-enriched water underneath the surface. This initially one-dimensional diffusive layer destabilizes through a convection-diffusion process. The concentration field of carbon dioxide, which is visualized by means of a pH-sensitive dye, shows a fingering pattern whose characteristics (wavelength and amplitude growth rate) are functions of the Rayleigh (Ra) and the Darcy (Da) numbers. At low Rayleigh numbers, the growth rate and the wave numbers are independent of the Rayleigh number and in excellent agreement with the classical results obtained numerically and theoretically in the Darcy regime. However, above a threshold of Ra√{Da} of the order of 10, the growth rate and the wave number strongly decrease due to the Brinkman term associated with the viscous diffusion in the vertical and longitudinal directions. In this Darcy-Brinkman regime, the growth rate and the wave number depend only on the thickness-based Rayleigh number Ra√{Da} . The classical Rayleigh-Taylor theory including the Brinkman term has been extended to this diffusive gravitational instability and gives an excellent prediction of the growth rate over four decades of Rayleigh numbers. However, the Brinkman regime seems to be valid only until Ra√{Da}=1000 . Above this threshold, the transverse velocity profile is no longer parabolic, which leads to an overestimation of the wave number by the theory.

  13. Changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water pretreatment and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Jianfei; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Corn stover is a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This work investigated physical and chemical changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water (HCW) pretreatment at 170-190 °C in a tube reactor. Chemical composition analysis showed the soluble hemicellulose content increased with pretreatment temperature, whereas the hemicellulose content decreased from 29 to 7 % in pretreated solids. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the parenchyma-type second cell-wall structure of the plant was almost completely removed at 185 °C, and the sclerenchyma-type second cell wall was greatly damaged upon addition of 5 mmol/L ammonium sulfate during HCW pretreatment. These changes favored accessibility for enzymatic action. Enzyme saccharification of solids by optimized pretreatment with HCW at 185 °C resulted in an enzymatic hydrolysis yield of 87 %, an enhancement of 77 % compared to the yield from untreated corn stover.

  14. Depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish causes growth retardation due to mitotic delay and p53-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hyunsook

    2013-03-01

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine mitotic kinase that is required for centrosome maturation. Many cancer cells over-express Aurora-A, and several reports have suggested that Aurora-A has prognostic value in the clinical treatment of cancer. Therefore, inhibitors for Aurora-A kinase have been developed. However, studies on Aurora-A are largely performed in cancer cell lines and are sometimes controversial. For effective evaluation of Aurora-A inhibitors in cancer treatment, it is essential to understand its function at the organism level. Here, we report the crucial functions of Aurora-A in homeostasis of spindle organization in mitosis using zebrafish embryogenesis as a model system. Using morpholino technology, we show that depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish embryogenesis results in short bent trunks, accompanied by growth retardation and eventual cell death. Live-imaging and immunofluorescence analyses of the embryos revealed that the developmental defects are due to problems in mitosis, manifested through monopolar and disorganized spindle formation. Aurora-A-depleted cells exhibited mitotic arrest with congression failure, leading to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell death in the absence of Aurora-A was partially rescued by co-injection of the p53 morpholino, suggesting that apoptosis after Aurora-A depletion is p53-dependent. The clinical implications of these results relate to the indication that Aurora-A inhibitors may be effective towards cancers with intact p53.

  15. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  16. Cystine accumulation attenuates insulin release from the pancreatic β-cell due to elevated oxidative stress and decreased ATP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Bernadette; Sumayao, Rodolfo; Slattery, Craig; McMorrow, Tara; Newsholme, Philip

    2015-12-01

    The pancreatic β-cell has reduced antioxidant defences making it more susceptible to oxidative stress. In cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder, an altered redox state may contribute to cellular dysfunction. This rare disease is caused by an abnormal lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin, which causes excessive accumulation of cystine in the lysosome. Cystinosis associated kidney damage and dysfunction leads to the Fanconi syndrome and ultimately end-stage renal disease. Following kidney transplant, cystine accumulation in other organs including the pancreas leads to multi-organ dysfunction. In this study, a Ctns gene knockdown model of cystinosis was developed in the BRIN-BD11 rat clonal pancreatic β-cell line using Ctns-targeting siRNA. Additionally there was reduced cystinosin expression, while cell cystine levels were similarly elevated to the cystinotic state. Decreased levels of chronic (24 h) and acute (20 min) nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion were observed. This decrease may be due to depressed ATP generation particularly from glycolysis. Increased ATP production and the ATP/ADP ratio are essential for insulin secretion. Oxidised glutathione levels were augmented, resulting in a lower [glutathione/oxidised glutathione] redox potential. Additionally, the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced, apoptosis levels were elevated, as were markers of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the basal and activated phosphorylated forms of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB were increased in cells with silenced Ctns. From this study, the cystinotic-like pancreatic β-cell model demonstrated that the altered oxidative status of the cell, resulted in depressed mitochondrial function and pathways of ATP production, causing reduced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion.

  17. AFM study shows prominent physical changes in elasticity and pericellular layer in human acute leukemic cells due to inadequate cell-cell communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia V.; Patel, Sapan J.; Dokukin, Maxim E.; Clarkson, Bayard; Sokolov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical properties of single cells in vitro or ex vivo and their pericellular interfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention as a potential biophysical (and possibly prognostic) marker of various diseases and cell abnormalities. At the same time, the influence of the cell environment on the biomechanical properties of cells is not well studied. Here we use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that cell-cell communication can have a profound effect on both cell elasticity and its pericellular coat. A human pre-B p190BCR/ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (ALL3) was used in this study. Assuming that cell-cell communication is inversely proportional to the distance between cells, we study ALL3 cells in vitro growing at different cell densities. ALL3 cells demonstrate a clear density dependent behavior. These cells grow very well if started at a relatively high cell density (HD, >2 × 105 cells ml-1) and are poised to grow at low cell density (LD, communication must be taken into account when studying biomechanics of cells, in particular, correlating cell phenotype and its biophysical properties.

  18. Efficiency enhancement due to self-organization of nano-structures in Cd(S, Te) solar cell material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    CdTe is one of the most important solar cell materials. Its energy gap is 1.44 eV, which is ideal for solar cell application. So far, conversion efficiency of 18.3 percent has been realized, but it is lower than the Shockley-Queisser limit. In this paper, we propose computational materials design for enhancing conversion efficiency by using self-organization in Cd(Te, S) alloy semiconductor. Firstly, we performed cluster expansion of total energy of the Cd(Te, S) system and simulated self-organization of nano-structures in Cd(Te, S) by using Monte Carlo method. It is found that layered structure becomes stable by applying strain during the crystal growth. The electronic structure of the self-organized layered structure was calculated by using the hybrid method (HSE06) implemented in the VASP code to derive optical absorption coefficient. By using the calculated absorption coefficient the efficiency limit was derived based on the Shockley-Queisser theory. It is shown that the efficiency limit does not change so much due to the nano-structure formation. However, our calculation shows spatial separation between photo-generated electrons and holes. This might enhance the efficiency due to the suppression of recombination.

  19. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  20. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  1. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  2. Involvement of T-cell immunoregulation by ochnaflavone in therapeutic effect on fungal arthritis due to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jue-Hee

    2011-07-01

    Arthritis due to pathogenic fungi is a serious disease causing rapid destruction of the joint. In the pathogenesis of arthritis, T lymphocytes are considered to be one of the major immune cells. In present study, we examined the T cell immunoregulatory effect by ochnaflavone (Och), a biflavonoid, on arthritis caused by Candida albicans that is the most commonly associated with fungal arthritis. To examine the effects of ochnaflavonon Candida albicans-caused septic arthritis, an emulsified mixture of C. albicans cell wall and complete Freund's adjuvant (CACW/CFA) was injected into BALB/c mice via hind footpad route on days -3, -2, and -1. On Day 0, Och at 1 or 2 mg/dose/time was intratraperitoneally given to mice with the swollen footpad every other day for 3 times. The footpad-edema was measured for 20 days. Results revealed that Och reduced the edema at all dose levels and furthermore, there was app. 45% reduction of the edema in animals given 2 mg-dose at the peak of septic arthritis (p arthritis caused by C. albicans. Thus, it can be concluded that Och would be an ideal immunologically evaluated agent for treating of Candida arthritis.

  3. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  4. Minimizing ultraviolet noise due to mis-matches between detector flow cell and post column mobile phase temperatures in supercritical fluid chromatography: effect of flow cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Terry A

    2014-10-17

    A mis-match between the post-column mobile phase temperature and the UV detector flow cell temperature can cause significant UV noise in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Deviations as little as 5 °C can increase noise as much as 5 times, making the detector unsuited for trace analysis. Two approaches were used to minimize this noise. When a flow cell was in direct thermal contact (metal on metal) with the detector optical bench, the mobile phase temperature was actively controlled to the measured flow cell temperature, by using one of the heat exchangers (HX) in the column compartment. However, with some older, but still widely used flow cell designs, this required repeated, hourly monitoring of the flow cell temperature and repeated manual adjustment of the heat exchanger temperature, due to thermal drift. Flow cell design had a strong influence on susceptibility to this thermally induced noise. Thermally insulating the flow cell from the optical bench made some cells much less susceptible to such thermally induced noise. Five different flow cells, some insulated, some un-insulated, were evaluated. Most had a truncated conical flow path, but one had a cylindrical flow path. Using either approach, the ASTM noise, with a 10mm, 13 μL conical flow cell, could be optimized to ≈0.007 mAU at 2.5 Hz, in SFC, which is very near the 0.006 mAU manufacturer's specification for HPLC. The insulated version of this flow cell required far less optimization, compared to the un-insulated version. At 150 bar, an experimental 3mm, 2 μL flow cell, with only one side insulated, yielded noise slightly too high (≈0.16-0.18 mAU) for trace analysis, at 80 Hz. However, at 200 bar, noise at 80 Hz was noise ratio (S/N) >10. Even partially un-insulated, this flow cell design was much less susceptible to thermally induced noise. Further insulating this flow cell design failed to improve performance.

  5. Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs, but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the selective ablation of Dicer1 at the early onset of male germ cell development leads to infertility, due to multiple cumulative defects at the meiotic and post-meiotic stages culminating with the absence of functional spermatozoa. Alterations were observed in the first spermatogenic wave and include delayed progression of spermatocytes to prophase I and increased apoptosis, resulting in a reduced number of round spermatids. The transition from round to mature spermatozoa was also severely affected, since the few spermatozoa formed in mutant animals were immobile and misshapen, exhibiting morphological defects of the head and flagellum. We also found evidence that the expression of transposable elements of the SINE family is up-regulated in Dicer1-depleted spermatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DICER1 is dispensable for spermatogonial stem cell renewal and mitotic proliferation, but is required for germ cell differentiation through the meiotic and haploid phases of spermatogenesis.

  6. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  7. The physiological response of diploid and triploid brook trout to exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, C A; Kieffer, J D; Benfey, T J

    2003-01-01

    Using triploidy as an experimental model, we examined whether cell size limits the post-exercise recovery process in fish. Because triploids generally possess larger cells, which could affect many physiological and biochemical processes, we hypothesized that triploids would take longer to recover from exhaustive exercise compared to diploids. To test this, we measured plasma lactate, glucose and osmolality, and white muscle energy stores (glycogen, phosphocreatine and ATP) and lactate before and immediately following exhaustive exercise and during recovery at 2 and 4 h post-exercise. In addition, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Overall, diploid and triploid brook trout showed similar metabolic responses exercise, but plasma osmolality, white muscle lactate, white muscle ATP and post-exercise oxygen consumption rates recovered earlier in triploids compared to diploids. The results of this study suggest that the characteristic larger cell size of triploidy does not limit the physiological response to, or recovery from, exhaustive exercise.

  8. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  9. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... would likely result in burning, charring, or damaging the electrical wiring, the fuel supply, or any... immediately below the fuel tank or the fuel tank filler pipe. (c) The exhaust system of a bus powered by a... bus. (d) The exhaust system of a bus using fuels other than gasoline shall discharge to the...

  10. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  11. Simulation study of dose enhancement in a cell due to nearby carbon and oxygen in particle radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jae Ik; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Jung, Won-Gyun; Yoo, SeungHoon; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Yoon, Myonggeun; Incerti, Sebastian; Geso, Moshi; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-deposition enhancement by alpha-particle irradiation in a cellular model using carbon and oxygen chemical compositions.A simulation study was performed to study dose enhancement due to carbon and oxygen for a human cell where Geant4 code used for the alpha-particle irradiation to the cellular phantom. The characteristic of dose enhancement in the nucleus and cytoplasm by the alpha-particle radiation was investigated based on concentrations of the carbon and oxygen compositions and was compared with those by gold and gadolinium.The results show that both the carbon and oxygen-induced dose enhancement was found to be more effective than those of gold and gadolinium. We found that the dose-enhancement effect was more dominant in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm if carbon or oxygen is uniformly distributed in a whole cell. In the condition that the added chemical composition was inserted only into the cytoplasm, the effect of the dose enhancement in nucleus become...

  12. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Camcıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS. Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS.

  13. Circuit transients due to negative bias arcs-II. [on solar cell power systems in low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Two new models of negative-bias arcing on a solar cell power system in Low Earth Orbit are presented. One is an extended, analytical model and the other is a non-linear, numerical model. The models are based on an earlier analytical model in which the interactions between solar cell interconnects and the space plasma as well as the parameters of the power circuit are approximated linearly. Transient voltages due to arcs struck at the negative thermal of the solar panel are calculated in the time domain. The new models treat, respectively, further linear effects within the solar panel load circuit and non-linear effects associated with the plasma interactions. Results of computer calculations with the models show common-mode voltage transients of the electrically floating solar panel struck by an arc comparable to the early model but load transients that differ substantially from the early model. In particular, load transients of the non-linear model can be more than twice as great as those of the early model and more than twenty times as great as the extended, linear model.

  14. 大蒜素抗运动性氧应激和DNA损伤的作用研究%Effect of allicin on DNA damage and oxidative stress of human peripheral blood cell induced by exhaustive exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏美华; 杨多多; 许庆忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察补充大蒜素对人体力竭运动后外周血细胞DNA的损伤效应及血清中SOD、GSH和MDA活性的影响,探讨大蒜素抗DNA氧化损伤的作用机制。方法:选取16名健康男运动员(年龄21.06±1.02岁),随机分为两组包括对照组8名(C组,补充淀粉安慰剂胶囊)和实验组8名( T组,补充大蒜素胶囊),运动前14天各组每天分别口服安慰剂和大蒜素胶囊,补剂后所有被试均参加Bruce力竭运动方案,并分别在补剂前、补剂后和运动后即刻这三个阶段对两组受试者进行采血抗凝,采用单细胞凝胶电泳( SCGE)技术检测人体外周血细胞DNA损伤情况,并测定血浆中超氧化物岐化酶( SOD)活性、谷胱甘肽( GSH)和丙二醛( MDA)含量。结果:补剂前和补剂后,对照组和实验组的DNA损伤水平与氧化应激水平无显著性差异( P>0.05);运动后即刻实验组运动员外周血细胞的DNA损伤水平显著低于对照组力竭运动后的水平,其MDA水平、SOD和GSH含量较力竭对照组亦出现显著降低( P0. 05 ). Moreover,exercise -induced decrease of DNA damage and the level of SOD,GSH and MDA in the supplement group were significantly more in comparison with those in the placebo group(P<0. 001),instead,the DNA damage and the level of SOD,GSH and MDA in-creased significantly after exercise. Conclusions:The exhaustive exercise could result in the DNA damage on human peripheral blood cell and induce high level of oxidative stress. However,the alli-cin could reduce free radicals and prevent DNA damage from oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.

  15. Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

  16. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  17. 四逆汤含药血清对心肌毒性大鼠乳鼠血清Bcl-2 Bax水平影响的研究%To Study of Effection of Blood Serum of Decoction for Treating Yang Exhaustion on Serum Baxand Bcl-2in Adriamycin Induced Cardio-toxicity in Myocardial Cell of Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿; 费洪新; 石小芳; 刘文华; 黄小义; 杨德助; 张腾腾

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨四逆汤含药血清抗心肌毒性的疗效及其作用机制.方法:采用盐酸阿霉素(ADB)损伤Wistar大鼠乳鼠心肌导致心肌毒性为模型.随机分为正常组、心脏毒性ADR模型对照组、卡托普利组、四逆汤含药血清组.测定大鼠乳鼠血清Bcl-2、Bax水平,并应用光镜观察心肌组织的病理变化.结果:与正常组比较,阿霉素致心肌毒性大鼠乳鼠血清Bax水平显著降低.血清Bcl-2水平明显升高,四逆汤及卡托普利均能降低Bcl-2水平,升高Bax水平(P<0.05).光镜显示,四逆汤含药血清治疗组心肌细胞损伤程度明显低于模型组.结论:四逆汤含药血清能调节改善心肌毒性大鼠乳鼠的神经内分泌功能,拮抗过度激活的神经内分泌系统.%Objective:To explore the clinical effect and machenism of blood serum of decoction for treating yang ex-haustion on adriamycin induced cardio-toxicity in myocardial cell. Methods: Wistar rats were used to make cardio-toxicity in myocardial cell of rat model by injection of adriamyc into the peritoneum. The other 10 Wistar mrs were divided into the normal group. Model rats were randomly divided into model control group. Captopril group and blood serum of decoction for treating yang exhaustion group. Results : Compared with the normal group, serum baxlevel significantly decreased and Bcl -2level significantly increased. Compared with the model failure group, serum Bcl -2level significantly decreased and the level of baxsignificantly increased in the blood serum of decoction for treating yang exhaustion group and the Captopfil group(P < 0. 05). The degree of mycardial damage in the blood serum of decoction for treating yang exhaustion group was obviously lower than that in the model group. Conclusion: Blood senun of decoction for treating yang exhaustion can modify the nerval endocrine function of cardio - toxicity in myocardial cell failure rat and can antagonize the hyperactive nerval endocrine system.

  18. Transient Dynamics of Elastic Hele-Shaw Cell Due to External Forces with Application to Impulse Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Tulchinsky, Arie

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient dynamics of a viscous liquid contained in a narrow gap between a rigid surface and a parallel elastic plate. The elastic plate is deformed due to an externally applied time-varying pressure-field. We model the flow-field via the lubrication approximation, and the plate deformation by the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. We obtain a self-similarity solution for the case of an external point force acting on the elastic plate. The pressure and deformation field during and after the application of the external force are derived and presented by closed form expressions. We examine a uniform external pressure acting on the elastic plate over a finite region and during a finite time period, similar to the viscous-elastic interaction time-scale. The interaction between elasticity and viscosity is shown to reduce by order of magnitude the pressure within the Hele-Shaw cell compared with the externally applied pressure, thus suggesting such configurations may be used for impact mitigation.

  19. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity.

  20. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  1. CD40 agonist converting CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway enhances PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aizhang; Wang, Rong; Freywald, Andrew; Stewart, Kristoffor; Tikoo, Suresh; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2017-03-11

    Expansion of PD-1-expressing CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and associated CTL exhaustion are chief issues for ineffective virus-elimination in chronic infectious diseases. PD-1 blockade using antagonistic anti-PD-L1 antibodies results in a moderate conversion of CTL exhaustion. We previously demonstrated that CD40L signaling of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific vaccine, OVA-Texo, converts CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway in OVA-expressing adenovirus (AdVova)-infected B6 mice showing CTL inflation and exhaustion. Here, we developed AdVova-infected B6 and transgenic CD11c-DTR (termed AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR) mice with chronic infection, and assessed a potential effect of CD40 agonist on the conversion of CTL exhaustion and on a potential enhancement of PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in our chronic infection models. We demonstrate that a single dose of anti-CD40 alone can effectively convert CTL exhaustion by activating the mTORC1 pathway, leading to CTL proliferation, up-regulation of an effector-cytokine IFN-γ and the cytolytic effect in AdVova-B6 mice. Using anti-CD4 antibody and diphtheria toxin (DT) to deplete CD4(+) T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs), we discovered that the CD40 agonist-induced conversion in AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR mice is dependent upon host CD4(+) T-cell and DC involvements. Moreover, CD40 agonist significantly enhances PD-1 antagonist effectiveness in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of CD40 signaling in the conversion of CTL exhaustion and its ability to enhance PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Therefore, our findings may positively impact the design of new therapeutic strategies for chronic infectious diseases.

  2. Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy with Preservation of Gastroduodenal Artery for Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Duodenal Metastasis by Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Celiac Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare, and even rarer is a massive gastrointestinal bleeding from such tumours. Coeliac occlusive disease, although rarely symptomatic, can lead to ischaemic changes with anastomotic dehiscence and leaks when a patient undergoes pancreatoduodenectomy. A 41-year-old man with known metastasis to the adrenal glands and the second part of the duodenum close to the ampulla of Vater from clear cell renal cell carcinoma was admitted to our department due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the duodenal metastasis. Endoscopic control of the bleed was not possible, while the bleeding vessel embolization was able to control the haemorrhage only temporarily. An angiography during the embolization demonstrated the presence of stenosis of the coeliac artery and also hypertrophic inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplying the proper hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery (GDA. The patient underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient had an uneventful recovery and did not experience further bleeding. Also the blood flow to the liver was compromised as shown by the normal liver function tests (LFTs postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a preservation of the GDA during an emergency pancreatoduodenectomy.

  3. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-04-01

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust.

  4. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number... outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated on each side of each instrument, but you...

  6. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  7. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  8. Exhaustivity and intonation: a unified theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents a precise, unified and explanatory theory of human conversation, centered on two broad phenomena: exhaustivity implications and intonational meaning. In a nutshell: (i) speakers have two types of communicative intentions, namely information sharing and attention sharing, (

  9. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  10. Sorption dehumidification of natural gas exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    The calorific value of natural gas can be fully utilized only if the water vapour in the exhaust gases is condensed. This can be achieved in condensing boilers. Another possibility is to dry the exhaust before discharge by sorption dehumidification. The sorbent can be regenerated directly by the boiler. The vapour developed in the regenerator can be condensed in a condenser with useful effect. Simulations given an efficiency higher than 97% with respect to the Gross Calorific value. (author).

  11. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  12. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  13. Substitution among exhaustible resources and intergenerational equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1978-06-01

    Hartwick (American Econ. Rev., 66 (Dec. 1977)) showed that implicit in R.M. Solow's model of intergenerational equity and exhaustible resources (Rev. Econ. Studies (Symposium, 1974) 29-46) was the savings-investment rule: society should invest in reproducible capital precisely the current returns from the use of flows of exhaustible resources in order to maintain per capita consumption constant. Population was assumed to remain constant. Solow and Hartwick assumed that there was only one exhaustible resource. Beckmann (American Econ. Rev., 65, 695-99 (Sept 1975)) investigated optimal growth in models with many exhaustible resources. In this paper the case of many exhaustible resources is considered and results are derived on substitution among resources and on the nature of paths of development. One of Beckmann's results on substitution is analyzed. The approach is first to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of general savings functions and then to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of the special savings function referred to above. Results indicate the Solow's existence theorem remains valid for the case of many exhaustible resources and some light is shed on the existence of paths for production functions not of the Cobb-Douglas form. 12 references.

  14. Decreased CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus infected B cells in multiple sclerosis is not due to decreased HLA class I expression on B cells or monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csurhes Peter A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS have a decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells reactive to their own Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infected B cells. We have proposed that this might predispose to the development of MS by allowing EBV-infected autoreactive B cells to accumulate in the central nervous system. The decreased CD8+ T cell response to EBV results from a general CD8+ T cell deficiency and also a decreased proportion of EBV-specific T cells within the total CD8+ T cell population. Because decreased HLA class I expression on monocytes and B cells has been reported in MS and could influence the generation and effector function of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells, the present study was undertaken to measure the expression of HLA molecules on B cells and monocytes in patients with MS. Methods We used flow cytometry to determine the proportions of T cells, natural killer cells, B cells and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to quantify the expression of HLA molecules on T cells, B cells and monocytes of 59 healthy subjects and 62 patients with MS who had not received corticosteroids or immunomodulatory therapy in the previous 3 months. Results The levels of HLA class I and class II molecules expressed on T cells, B cells and monocytes were normal in patients with MS, with the exception of two patients with secondary progressive MS with very low class II expression on B cells. In confirmation of previous studies we also found that the percentage of CD8+ T cells was significantly decreased whereas the percentage of CD4+ T cells and the CD4:CD8 ratio were significantly increased in patients with MS compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions The decreased CD8+ T cell response to EBV-infected B cells in MS patients is not due to decreased HLA class I expression on monocytes or B cells. In a small proportion of patients decreased HLA class II expression on B cells might impair the CD8+ T cell response to EBV by

  15. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines due to cell cycle dysregulation and induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, Andrea; Ziemann, Frank; Wittig, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Philipps-University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, BMFZ - Biomedical Research Center, Marburg (Germany); Mayer, Christina; Wagner, Steffen; Klussmann, Jens-Peter; Wittekindt, Claus [Justus Liebig University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Giessen (Germany); Dreffke, Kirstin [Philipps-University, Institute for Radiobiology and Molecular Radiooncology, Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) respond favourably to radiotherapy as compared to HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We investigated DNA damage response in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines aiming to identify mechanisms, which illustrate reasons for the increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancers of the oropharynx. Radiation response including clonogenic survival, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and cell cycle redistribution in four HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) cell lines was evaluated. HPV-positive cells were more radiosensitive (mean SF2: 0.198 range: 0.22-0.18) than HPV-negative cells (mean SF2: 0.34, range: 0.45-0.27; p = 0.010). Irradiated HPV-positive cell lines progressed faster through S-phase showing a more distinct accumulation in G2/M. The abnormal cell cycle checkpoint activation was accompanied by a more pronounced increase of cell death after x-irradiation and a higher number of residual and unreleased DSBs. The enhanced responsiveness of HPV-related HNSCC to radiotherapy might be caused by a higher cellular radiosensitivity due to cell cycle dysregulation and impaired DNA DSB repair. (orig.) [German] Fuer Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist im Vergleich zu Patienten mit nicht-HPV-assoziierten Tumoren ein besseres Ueberleben nach Radiotherapie gesichert. Ziel der Untersuchung war die Identifizierung von Unterschieden in der zellulaeren DNA-Schadensantwort von HPV-positiven und HPV-negativen Zelllinien, wodurch die bereits in Erprobung stehende Deeskalation einer Radiotherapie bei Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten HNSCC durch experimentelle Daten abgesichert werden koennte. Klonogenes Ueberleben, Induktion von Apoptose, DNA-Doppelstrang-Reparatur und Zellzyklusverhalten wurden in vier HPV-positiven (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) und vier HPV

  16. T-lymphocyte subset dynamics in well-treated HIV-infected men during a bout of exhausting exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Birgitte R; Kolte, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals the substantial lymphocytosis during a bout of exhausting exercise constitutes primarily mature T cells from the peripheral lymphoid organs but naïve T cells are also recruited. This study investigated whether the defective CD4 + T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood during......-infected patients are also reflected in defective acutely mobilized active immune cells following exhausting exercise. The CD4 + T-lymphocyte count is highly sensitive to physical activity....

  17. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  18. Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B K; Cronn, D R

    1986-02-01

    The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for tests conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels.

  19. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  20. Dislocation Starvation and Exhaustion Hardening in Mo-alloy Nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Claire [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Lowry, M. B. [University of California, Berkeley; Oh, Jason [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Asif, S.A. Syed [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Warren, O. [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Shan, Zhiwei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China & Hysitron, Inc., MN; George, Easo P [ORNL; Minor, Andrew [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of defects in Mo alloy nanofibers with initial dislocation densities ranging from 0 to 1.6 1014 m2 were studied using an in situ push-to-pull device in conjunction with a nanoindenter in a transmission electron microscope. Digital image correlation was used to determine stress and strain in local areas of deformation. When they had no initial dislocations the Mo alloy nanofibers suffered sudden catastrophic elongation following elastic deformation to ultrahigh stresses. At the other extreme fibers with a high dislocation density underwent sustained homogeneous deformation after yielding at much lower stresses. Between these two extremes nanofibers with intermediate dislocation densities demonstrated a clear exhaustion hardening behavior, where the progressive exhaustion of dislocations and dislocation sources increases the stress required to drive plasticity. This is consistent with the idea that mechanical size effects ( smaller is stronger ) are due to the fact that nanostructures usually have fewer defects that can operate at lower stresses. By monitoring the evolution of stress locally we find that exhaustion hardening causes the stress in the nanofibers to surpass the critical stress predicted for self-multiplication, supporting a plasticity mechanism that has been hypothesized to account for the rapid strain softening observed in nanoscale bcc materials at high stresses.

  1. The death of sertoli cells and the capacity to phagocytize elongated spermatids during testicular regression due to short photoperiod in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Esther; Ferrer, Concepción; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, germ cells are removed by apoptosis during this process and the apoptotic remains are phagocytized by Sertoli cells. The aim of this work was to investigate morphologically whether the testicular regression process due to short photoperiod leads to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and whether, during testicular regression, the elongated spermatids are eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. To this end, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster subjected to short photoperiod by means of several morphological techniques using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], semi-thin section vimentin, immunohistochemistry, SBA lectin, and TUNEL staining), fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E and semi-thin sections identified Sertoli cells with a degenerated morphology. Greater portion of Sertoli cells that were positive for TUNEL staining were observed especially during the mild regression (MR) and strong regression (SR) phases. In addition, TEM identified the characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Moreover, during testicular regression and using light microscopy, some elongated spermatids were seen in basal position next to the Sertoli cell nucleus. This Sertoli phagocytic activity was higher in MR and SR phases. TEM confirmed this to be the result of the phagocytic activity of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, during testicular regression in Syrian hamster due to short photoperiod, when germ cells are known to be lost through apoptosis, there is morphological evidences that Sertoli cells are also lost through apoptosis, while some elongated spermatids are phagocytized and eliminated by the Sertoli cells.

  2. PEM fuel cell cathode carbon corrosion due to the formation of air/fuel boundary at the anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Qi, Zhigang; Ramani, Manikandan; Elter, John F.

    The impacts of unprotected start up and shut down on fuel cell performance degradation was investigated using both single cell and dual cell configurations. It was found that the air/fuel boundary developed at the anode side after a fuel cell shut down or during its restart caused extremely quick degradation of the cathode. The thickness, the electrochemical active surface area, and the performance of the cathode catalyst layer were significantly reduced. By using a dual cell configuration, cathode potential as high as two times of open circuit voltage was measured, and the corrosion current flowing externally between the two cells was detected and quantified. Carbon catalyst-support corrosion/oxidation at such a high potential was largely responsible for the accelerated fuel cell performance degradation.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or...

  5. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection must be provided in compliance... in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a steel... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section...

  7. Function of Treg Cells Decreased in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Due To the Effect of Prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Cervera-Castillo, Hernando; Zenteno-Galindo, Edgar; Barile-Fabris, Leonor; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Prolactin has different functions, including cytokine secretion and inhibition of the suppressor effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells in healthy individuals. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by defects in the functions of B, T, and Treg cells. Prolactin plays an important role in the physiopathology of SLE. Our objective was to establish the participation of prolactin in the regulation of the immune response mediated by Treg cells from patients with SLE. CD4CD25CD127 cells were purified using magnetic beads and the relative expression of prolactin receptor was measured. The functional activity was evaluated by proliferation assay and cytokine secretion in activated cells, in the presence and absence of prolactin. We found that both percentage and function of Treg cells decrease in SLE patients compared to healthy individuals with statistical significance. The prolactin receptor is constitutively expressed on Treg and effector T (Teff) cells in SLE patients, and this expression is higher than in healthy individuals. The expression of this receptor differs in inactive and active patients: in the former, the expression is higher in Treg cells than in Teff cells, similar to healthy individuals, whereas there is no difference in the expression between Treg and Teff cells from active patients. In Treg:Teff cell cocultures, addition of prolactin decreases the suppressor effect exerted by Treg cells and increases IFNγ secretion. Our results suggest that prolactin plays an important role in the activation of the disease in inactive patients by decreasing the suppressor function exerted by Treg cells over Teff cells, thereby favoring an inflammatory microenvironment.

  8. Analysis of Current Pulses in HeLa-Cell Permeabilization Due to High Voltage DC Corona Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Nevendra K; Chonco, Louis; Ijumba, Nelson M; Chetty, Leon; Govender, Thavendran; Parboosing, Raveen; Davidson, Innocent E

    2016-09-01

    Corona discharges are commonly utilized for numerous practical applications, including bio-technological ones. The corona induced transfer of normally impermeant molecules into the interior of biological cells has recently been successfully demonstrated. The exact nature of the interaction of the corona discharge with a cell membrane is still unknown, however, previous studies have suggested that it is either the electric fields produced by ions or the chemical interaction of the reactive species that result in the disruption of the cell membrane. This disruption of the cell membrane allows molecules to permeate into the cell. Corona discharge current constitutes a series of pulses, and it is during these pulses that the ions and reactive species are produced. It stands to reason, therefore, that the nature of these corona pulses would have an influence on the level of cell permeabilization and cell destruction. In this investigation, an analysis of the width, rise-time, characteristic frequencies, magnitude, and repetition rate of the nanosecond pulses was carried out in order to establish the relationship between these factors and the levels of cell membrane permeabilization and cell destruction. Results obtained are presented and discussed.

  9. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  10. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations.

  11. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Nan-qi; SU Hua; LIU Jun

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple.Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer).The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually..

  12. Investigations on the change of texture of plant cells due to preservative treatments by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Anand, Arun

    2014-10-01

    Texture change is observed in preserved fruits and vegetables. Responsible factors for texture change during preservative treatments are cell morphology, cell wall structure, cell turger, water content and some biochemical components, and also the environmental conditions. Digital Holographic microscopy (DHM) is a quantitative phase contrast imaging technique, which provides three dimensional optical thickness profiles of transparent specimen. Using DHM the morphology of plant cells preserved by refrigeration or stored in vinegar or in sodium chloride can be obtained. This information about the spatio-temporal evolution of optical volume and thickness can be an important tool in area of food processing. Also from the three dimensional images, the texture of the cell can be retrieved and can be investigated under varying conditions.

  13. Ceramic hot film sensor for exhaust gas mass flow measurements in automotive applications; Keramischer Heissfilmsensor zur Abgasmassenstrommessung in automotiven Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismon, Heinrich; Grimm, Karsten; Toennesmann, Andres; Nigrin, Sven [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany); Wienand, Karlheinz; Muziol, Matthias [Heraeus Sensor Technology GmbH, Kleinostheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Due to increasingly stringent emission standards, a number of internal measures as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have become state-of-the-art technology for passenger car and heavy duty engines. However, the full potential of these measures, for example the cooled external exhaust gas recirculation, can only be utilized if the engine control is adapted adequately well in all engine states. Thus, the requirements for future engine controls become more demanding and consequently the standards for sensors used in the control loop will increase. In this context this article introduces a new exhaust gas mass flow sensor based or the principle of hot film anemometry. The sensor comprising a ceramic sensor element is developed especially for the use in engine exhaust gases providing the exhaust gas mass flow as a direct measurement and control variable. Next to the sensor technology first results of engine tests are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Mechanical and thermal stresses analysis in diesel engine exhaust valve with and without thermal coating layer on valve face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi,Sahib Shihab Ahmed, Nabeel Abdulhadi Ghayadh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates mechanical and thermal stresses that arise in the exhaust valve due to its operating with and without thermal coating layer (ceramic on face exhaust valve. Three dimensional models of an exhaust valve four cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine have been presented. The governing equations were discretized using a finite-volume method (FVM and solved using multi-physics COMSOL package Version 5. The engine’s exhaust valve crown is coated with various materials in different thermal conductivity such as (Gd2Zr2O7, over a 150μm thickness of bond coat. The maximum thickness of coating is about 300 μm. Results indicate that after creating a coating layer exhaust valve the temperature distribution, temperature gradients distribution, von-Mises stress distribution and displacement distribution are decreased.

  15. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, Pmechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP.

  16. BP neural network based online prediction of steam turbine exhaust dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Danmei; CHEN Chang; XIONG Yangheng; GAO Shang; WANG Chun

    2014-01-01

    In large scale condensing turbine unit,the exhaust status always lies in wet steam area.Due to the lack of effective measuring method,the exhaust dryness of the steam turbine is difficult to obtain di-rectly,which has been the difficult problem in online economic analysis for thermal power units.By taking an N1000-25/600/600 ultra-supercritical steam turbine as an example,the nonlinear mapping ability of BP neural network was used to establish a model which can reflect the relationship between exhaust dryness and unit load and exhaust pressure.After learning and training under some typical conditions,this model was used for exhaust dryness online calculation under full condition.The results show the final error of the training samples and verifying samples were controlled within -0.006 1 and -0.001 0,which satisfies the accuracy requirement for engineering calculation,indicating the established BP neural network can be used in exhaust dryness prediction.

  17. Tracheal ulcer due to Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takeo; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Nishio, Suehiro; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a tracheal stenosis circumscribed with soft tissue density and a left pulmonary nodule. Open biopsy of a right submandibular lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus gene products. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a tracheal necrotizing ulcer. After chemotherapy, the tracheal ulcer resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly with a tracheal ulcer.

  18. Characterization and analysis of diesel exhaust odor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, P.A.; Shala, F.J.; Cernansky, N.P.; Suffet, I.H.

    1987-04-01

    An analytical method was developed to determine which compound or compounds in the oxygenated fraction of diesel exhaust were changing in intensity and number with respect to the odor correlation between human sensory panels and diesel exhaust samples as developed at Arthur D. Little, Inc. A sample fractionation with silica Sep-Pak cartridges and gas chromatography analysis procedures were developed to analyze exhaust odor samples. By use of a chromatographic computer profiling method, correlations were developed indicating a linear relation between log (odor intensity) and log (concentration) of specific character impact peaks (which may or may not be odorous themselves). Excellent correlations were obtained with the character impact peaks identified as benzaldehyde and a methylbenzaldehyde isomer in this study. Correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.90, respectively, were obtained for the sample set. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    the alloy development work, extensive microstructure quantification was performed, the results of which validated the predictive thermodynamical calculations. The heat treatment results showed that a relation exists between the solution treated microstructure and the mechanical properties. This lead......Transport by ship remains the most economical and environmentally friendly mode of transport with a very low weight specific CO2 footprint. Further increase of the fuel efficiency of large ships will results in a higher internal engine temperature. To allow this without compromising the reliability...... of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...

  20. 力竭运动后不同时相大鼠心脏窦房结ADAMTS-1的变化%The Change in ADAMTS-1 of Sinoatrial Node Cells at Different Time Phases after Exhaustive Exercise in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红霞; 常芸

    2011-01-01

    swimming groups 6 days per week for a total of 2 weeks. After 2-week normal feeding,2-hour exhaustive swimming was carried out for the single exhaustive swimming group. The samples were drawn from rats immediately, and at 4, 12, and 24 hours after exhaustive swimming. The SAN cells were spotted and collected with the approach of laser microdissection (LMD) . The mRNA and protein expression of ADAMTS-1 in SAN were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR,immunochemistry and image analysis. Results The ADAMTS-1 mRNA and protein in SAN of the single exhaustive swimming group and repeated exhaustive swimming group at 4, 12, and 24 hours after exhaustive swimming were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05),especially at 4 hours after; however, expression of ADAMTS-1 protein was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.01 ) . Conclusion The ADAMTS-1 protein in SAN is highly expressed right after exhaustive exercise, whereas lower level of its transcription and protein reveals in the following other time-phrases, which probably impairs the sinoatrial node.

  1. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  2. Monitoring of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, P.

    1994-12-01

    In Chapter 1 the origin and toxicity of incomplete combustion products of diesel fuel are discussed. Chapter 2 deals with methods that can be used for the identification and quantitation of airborne diesel exhaust-derived contaminants in the working place (environmental monitoring). Chemical substances may be used as indicators for source apportionment or markers for toxicity. A short-term in vitro bioassay may be used for (semi)quantitative determination of the mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust-derived airborne contaminants. Results are presented that support the use of 1-nitropyrene as a marker for the mutagenic activity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts. In Chapter 3 the development of methods for the determination of diesel exhaust-derived metabolites in biological samples is described. The application of new Salmonella typhimurium strains for the detection of urinary metabolites of nitroarenes is investigated. An immunoassay is presented as a method that may be used to track down persons with high occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. The possibilities for measurement of early biological effects are explored in Chapter 4. A method for the determination of hemoglobin adducts was used to investigate the role of the intestinal micro flora in the formation of such adducts derived from diesel exhaust constituents in rats equipped with a human micro flora. The formation of hemoglobin adducts is compared to the formation of DNA adducts in rats treated with two model compounds, in the presence or absence of a micro flora. The applicability of the described methods is discussed in Chapter 5. Prospects and recommendations for future research are given. 23 figs., 41 tabs., 660 refs., 4 appendices

  3. Auto-regeneration of mice testicle seminiferous tubules due to malnutrition based on stem cells mobilization using honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Safitri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study revealed a significantly different of C34 and CD45 expressions between groups, also an increase SSCs expression and testicle seminiferous tubules cells regeneration as well.

  4. Developing sulfide-oxidizing biofilm on H2S-exhausted carbon for sustainable bio-regeneration and biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Yan, Rong; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2009-05-30

    The feasibility of developing biofilm on exhausted carbon using pre-deposited sulfur compounds as the sole energy source was studied, aiming to re-use them in odor biofiltration. The exhausted carbon with different properties, including surface pH, sulfur content and porosity, was used. A series of off-line trials were conducted to investigate the release of sulfur compounds from the exhausted carbon and the attachment of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on the exhausted carbon. Without any pre-treatment, a few bacteria attachment on exhausted carbon was observed by SEM, due to possibly the limitation of reduced sulfur compounds release for bacterial growth. The biofilm development was much improved by adding NaOH solution to partially pre-desorb the deposited sulfur into liquid phase, which provided initial energy for bacterial growth. With the attached bacteria, the further significant release of the deposited sulfur was achieved through an additional driving force: biodegradation. The key issues for developing biofilm on exhausted carbon were concluded, which mainly concerned of desorption of pre-deposited reduced sulfur compounds and porosity of carbon. The sulfur-associated reactions occurring in developing biofilm on exhausted carbon was proposed. Bio-regeneration of exhausted carbon in the course of biofilm development was also preliminarily assessed.

  5. Dose response relationship of disturbed migration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmanto, W.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1998-10-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.0, 2.25 or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation on gestation day 21. Pups were sacrificed 12 hr after exposure, and on postnatal day 5 (P5), P7 and P9. Their cerebella were observed immunohistochemically using anti-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptor antibody to identify Purkinje cells. These cells were disturbed to migrate and remained in the internal granular layer and white matter of the cerebellum. They had short dendrites, and some showed an abnormal direction of dendrites in rats exposed to 2.25 or 2.5 Gy. Alignment of Purkinje cells was also disturbed when examined either on P5, P7 or P9 especially by doses of 2.25 and 2.5 Gy. There was a relationship between X-ray doses and the number of cells piling up in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The dose-response relationship with the number of ectopic Purkinje cells was noted in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  6. Raised herd somatic cell count due to Staphylococcus aureus following the failure of an automatic teat spraying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, P W

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the failure of a single jet exit race automatic teat spray (ATS) system resulting in the spread of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a 135-cow dairy herd, which showed an increased herd somatic cell count from 91,000/ml to 554,000/ml over a nine-month period. S aureus was isolated from 34 of 46 high cell count cows. The milking procedures were modified and manual teat spraying was restarted. Bacteriology was used to identify S aureus positive high cell count cows, and first and second lactation cows were treated during lactation. If their cell counts were not reduced, these were then culled. High cell count S aureus cows in lactation three or above were culled. The three-month geometric mean cell count fell to below 150,000/ml within five months. As all replacements were home-bred, S aureus infection must have spread from within the herd itself. All other causes have been eliminated, and this spread is attributed to the failure of the ATS to carry out effective postmilking teat disinfection. The advantages and disadvantages of ATS systems are discussed, especially in relation to robotic or voluntary milking systems.

  7. Exhaust gas system for space heating equipment. Abgassystem fuer Raumheizgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.; Kramp, A.

    1980-11-06

    The invention concerns an exhaust gas system for space heating equipment, particularly for equipment operated by liquid gas and used in caravans and similar vehicles. According to the invention, the exhaust gas system consists of a double walled pipe and a damming valve. This exhaust gas system makes it possible to cool the exhaust gas and therefore prevents too much heating at the outlet of the exhaust chimney and the penetration through the appropriate roof. If the outlet opening of the exhaust chimney should be blocked, the exhaust gases are taken to the outside through the space between the double-walled pipe via the damming valve. The usual non-return valve only operates if there is direct return flow in the exhaust chimney and therefore in the inner exhaust gas pipe of the double-walled pipe. This considerably increases the working safety of the whole system of space hating.

  8. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  9. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Kumar Agrawal; Shrawan Kumar Singh; Shailendra Sinha; Mritunjay Kumar Shukla

    2004-06-01

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission of a diesel engine is by late injection of fuel into the combustion chamber. This technique is effective but increases fuel consumption by 10–15%, which necessitates the use of more effective NOx reduction techniques like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx, but appreciable particulate emissions are observed at high loads, hence there is a trade-off between NOx and smoke emission. To get maximum benefit from this trade-off, a particulate trap may be used to reduce the amount of unburnt particulates in EGR, which in turn reduce the particulate emission also. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust opacity. The experimental setup for the proposed experiments was developed on a two-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled, compression ignition engine. A matrix of experiments was conducted for observing the effect of different quantities of EGR on exhaust gas temperatures and opacity.

  10. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  11. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  12. Protein overexport in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant is not due to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, K I; Venkov, P V

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain MW11 is a temperature-sensitive mutant which exports twenty times more proteins at 37 degrees C than parental or wild-type strains do. To understand the mechanism underlying the protein overexport in the mutant the possibility of an altered cell-wall structure leading to facilitated release of cell-surface proteins was studied. Data on calcofluor white and zymolyase sensitivities, resistance to killer 1 toxin and determination of exported acid phosphatase and invertase did not provide evidence for alterations in the cell-wall structure that could explain the protein overexport phenotype. The results were obtained in experiments when transcription of mutated gene was discontinued which permits the full expression of the protein overexport phenotype.

  13. Serial right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in rapid-onset severe heart failure due to giant cell myocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haelst, Paul L.; Brugemann, Johan; Diercks, Gilles F.; Suurmeijer, Albert; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a serious condition that warrants immediate diagnosis and treatment. It often presents as rapidly progressive heart failure and/or malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Here, we describe a 34-year-old patient with myasthenia gravis who presented with GCM 2 weeks after re

  14. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  15. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  16. Infrared spectroradiometer for rocket exhaust analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, W. F.

    1968-01-01

    Infrared spectroradiometer measures high-resolution spectral absorption, emission, temperature, and concentration of chemical species in radically symmetric zones of the exhaust plumes of large rocket engines undergoing static firing tests. Measurements are made along predetermined lines of sight through the plume.

  17. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Shirou, E-mail: kawakita.shirou@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Imaizumi, Mitsuru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Cu (In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in III{sub Cu} defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of III{sub Cu} defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

  18. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  19. Unifocal Granuloma of Femur due to Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the long bones in pediatric population constitutes a challenge when the case history and clinical data are uncharacteristic. We believe that the description of few clinically and histologically proven cases to verify the existence of radiological signs useful for diagnosis may be of interest. Here, we describe a case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH presenting as unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of femur along with a brief review of the literature.

  20. Acute myocardial infarction mimicking squamous cell lung cancer with bone metastases due to hypercalcemia: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chong-feng; XU Geng; CHEN Yang-xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the most severe coronary artery disease, is one of the most frequent cardiac emergencies, and early diagnosis and treatment are very important to decrease the subsequent cardiac adverse events such as malignant arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. But in fact, lots of diseases are similar to AMI in clinical practice, of which the most common are myocarditis, pulmonary embolism in department of cardiology. Here we report a case of AMI-like squamous cell lung cancer with bone metastases.

  1. Diversity of T cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein likely due to protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh R Aragam

    Full Text Available Circumsporozoite protein (CS is a leading vaccine antigen for falciparum malaria, but is highly polymorphic in natural parasite populations. The factors driving this diversity are unclear, but non-random assortment of the T cell epitopes TH2 and TH3 has been observed in a Kenyan parasite population. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the variable C terminal region of the protein allows the assessment of the impact of diversity on protein structure and T cell epitope assortment. Using data from the Gambia (55 isolates and Malawi (235 isolates, we evaluated the patterns of diversity within and between epitopes in these two distantly-separated populations. Only non-synonymous mutations were observed with the vast majority in both populations at similar frequencies suggesting strong selection on this region. A non-random pattern of T cell epitope assortment was seen in Malawi and in the Gambia, but structural analysis indicates no intramolecular spatial interactions. Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. In addition, free energy analysis suggests residues forming and behind the novel pocket within CS are tightly constrained and well conserved in all alleles. In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. In combination, these findings suggest the diversity of T cell epitopes in CS may be primarily an evolutionary response to intermolecular interactions at the surface of the protein potentially counteracting antibody-mediated immune recognition or evolving host receptor diversity.

  2. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  3. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  4. The role of psychological flexibility in the demands-exhaustion-performance relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Veldhoven, van M.J.P.M.; Biron, M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees in the service sector deal with a variety of emotional job demands due to interactions with clients. Emotional job demands often result in heightened levels of emotional exhaustion and decreased levels of performance. The current study aims to explore whether the adaptive behavioural patte

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous...

  6. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  7. Progressive renal failure due to renal infiltration by BK polyomavirus and leukaemic cells: which is the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Nicholas; Dewdney, Alex; Marley, Nicholas; Cranfield, Tanya; Venkat-Raman, Gopalakrishnan

    2011-02-01

    Renal infiltration with leukaemic cells is a common finding in patients suffering with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) but rarely does it lead to significant renal dysfunction. Similarly, BK nephropathy is a recognized cause of graft failure in renal transplant recipients but rarely causes significant disease in native kidneys. In the few reports where leukaemic infiltration of the kidney has led to significant renal impairment, the pathological process causing renal dysfunction is not identified on biopsy. In these cases, it is unclear whether BK polyomavirus (BKV) nephropathy has been excluded. We describe a case of dual pathologies in a patient with Binet stage C CLL and deteriorating renal function where renal biopsy reveals leukaemic infiltration of the kidney occurring alongside BKV nephropathy. The relative importance of each pathology in relation to the rapid decline to end-stage renal failure remains unclear, but the presence of both pathologies appears to impart a poor prognosis. Additionally, we describe the novel histological finding of loss of tubular integrity resulting in tubular infiltration and occlusion by leukaemic cells. It is possible that the patient with advanced CLL is at particular risk of BK activation, and the presence of BK nephropathy may compromise tubular integrity allowing leukaemic cell infiltration and obstruction of tubules. This case bares remarkable resemblance to the first and only other report of its kind in the literature. It is not clear how available immunocytochemistry for polyoma infection is outside transplant centres, and it is possible that BK nephropathy is being under-diagnosed in patients with CLL in the context of declining renal function. At present, the combination of BKV nephropathy and leukaemic infiltration represents a management conundrum and the prognosis is poor. Further research is required in order to better understand the pathological process and therefore develop management strategies.

  8. Photon absorption and photocurrent in solar cells below semiconductor bandgap due to electron photoemission from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Uskov, Alexander; Gritti, Claudia;

    2014-01-01

    We model the electron photoemission frommetal nanoparticles into a semiconductor in a Schottky diode with a conductive oxide electrode hosting the nanoparticles. We show that plasmonic effects in the nanoparticles lead to a substantial enhancement in photoemission compared with devices with conti....... Such structure can form the dais of the development of plasmonic photoemission enhanced solar cells....... with continuous metal films. Optimally designed metal nanoparticles can provide an effectivemechanismfor the photon absorption in the infrared range below the semiconductor bandgap, resulting in the generation of a photocurrent in addition to the photocurrent from band-to-band absorption in a semiconductor...

  9. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  10. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  11. Activation of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Bone and Joint Infection due to Staphylococci Expressing or Not the Small Colony Variant Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bone and joint infections (BJI are devastating diseases. Relapses are frequently observed, as some pathogens, especially staphylococci, can persist intracellularly by expressing a particular phenotype called small colony variant (SCV. As natural killer (NK cells are lymphocytes specialized in the killing of host cells infected by intracellular pathogens, we studied NK cells of patients with chronic BJI due to staphylococci expressing or not SCVs (10 patients in both groups. Controls were patients infected with other bacteria without detectable expression of SCVs, and healthy volunteers. NK cell phenotype was evaluated from PBMCs by flow cytometry. Degranulation capacity was evaluated after stimulation with K562 cells in vitro. We found that NK cells were activated in terms of CD69 expression, loss of CD16 and perforin, in all infected patients in comparison with healthy volunteers, independently of the SCV phenotype. Peripheral NK cells in patients with chronic BJI display signs of recent activation and degranulation in vivo in response to CD16-mediated signals, regardless of the type of bacteria involved. This could involve a universal capacity of isolates responsible for chronic BJI to produce undetectable SCVs in vivo, which might be a target of future intervention.

  12. Preferential binding of positive nanoparticles on cell membranes is due to electrostatic interactions: A too simplistic explanation that does not take into account the nanoparticle protein corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    The internalization of nanoparticles by cells (and more broadly the nanoparticle/cell interaction) is a crucial issue both for biomedical applications (for the design of nanocarriers with enhanced cellular uptake to reach their intracellular therapeutic targets) and in a nanosafety context (as the internalized dose is one of the key factors in cytotoxicity). Many parameters can influence the nanoparticle/cell interaction, among them, the nanoparticle physico-chemical features, and especially the surface charge. It is generally admitted that positive nanoparticles are more uptaken by cells than neutral or negative nanoparticles. It is supposedly due to favorable electrostatic interactions with negatively charged cell membrane. However, this theory seems too simplistic as it does not consider a fundamental element: the nanoparticle protein corona. Indeed, once introduced in a biological medium nanoparticles adsorb proteins at their surface, forming a new interface defining the nanoparticle "biological identity". This adds a new level of complexity in the interactions with biological systems that cannot be any more limited to electrostatic binding. These interactions will then influence cell behavior. Based on a literature review and on an example of our own experience the parameters involved in the nanoparticle protein corona formation as well as in the nanoparticle/cell interactions are discussed.

  13. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  14. Unique preservation of neural cells in Hutchinson- Gilford progeria syndrome is due to the expression of the neural-specific miR-9 microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Xavier; Blondel, Sophie; Navarro, Claire; Maury, Yves; Denis, Cécile; Girard, Mathilde; Martinat, Cécile; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Levy, Nicolas; Peschanski, Marc

    2012-07-26

    One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  15. Hypotension due to Chemotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome Undergoing Hemodialysis: A First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first case of small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome during hemodialysis (HD. A 72-year-old male patient receiving HD experienced progressive muscle weakness. He was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome due to an increased serum level of anti-voltage-gated calcium channel antibody and aspiration cytology on endobronchial ultrasonography for the swelling of a subcarinal lymph node. He received chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (300 mg/m2 and etoposide (50 mg/m2, to which he had a partial response. However, the second therapy course could not be administered because of the unexpected development of severe hematological adverse events, which also prevented him from undergoing further HD. This case indicates that caution should be taken when using chemotherapy for such patients because of hypotension due to chemotherapy, with which it is impossible to undergo HD.

  16. Enhanced invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines upon co-cultivation with macrophages is due to TNF-alpha dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Thorsten; Robinson, Stephen C; Schulz, Matthias; Trümper, Lorenz; Balkwill, Frances R; Binder, Claudia

    2004-08-01

    Apart from the neoplastic cells, malignant tumours consist of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and normal cells, in particular tumour-associated macrophages (TAM). To understand the mechanisms by which TAM can influence tumour cell invasion we co-cultured the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SK-BR-3 and the benign mammary epithelial cell line hTERT-HME1 with macrophages. Co-incubation enhanced invasiveness of the tumour cells, while hTERT-HME1 remained non-invasive. Addition of the broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-inhibitor FN 439, neutralizing MMP-9 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibodies reduced invasiveness to basal levels. As shown by zymography, all cell lines produced low amounts of MMP-2, -3, -7 and -9 under control conditions. Basal MMP production by macrophages was significantly higher. Upon co-incubation, supernatant levels of MMPs -2, -3, -7 and -9 increased significantly, paralleled by an increase of MMP-2 activation. MMP-2 and -9 induction could be blocked by TNF-alpha antibodies. Co-culture of macrophages and hTERT-HME1 did not lead to MMP induction. In the co-cultures, mRNAs for MMPs and TNF-alpha were significantly up-regulated in macrophages, while the mRNA concentrations in the tumour cells remained unchanged. In summary, we have found that co-cultivation of tumour cells with macrophages leads to enhanced invasiveness of the malignant cells due to TNF-alpha dependent MMP induction in the macrophages.

  17. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia,...

  18. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  19. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as... of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe cooling water system must comply with the requirements of...

  20. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working...

  1. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual exhaust system inspection. 202... Standards § 202.22 Visual exhaust system inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable unless the exhaust system...

  2. Spontaneous extradural hemorrhage due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in a child: A rare presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) represents a local form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that occurs mostly in children. It usually presents with a gradually enlarging painless skull mass, and rarely presents a rapid clinical deterioration. This 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with EG, based on a magnetic resonance imaging scan, after presenting with a painless right parietal swelling of 7-week duration. Three weeks prior his scheduled surgery, he presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of sudden increased of the subcutaneous swelling associated with a headache, vomiting, and decreased the level of consciousness; there was no history of trauma. Brain computed tomography revealed a right parietal bone defect with large subgaleal and extradural hematoma. He underwent emergent surgical excision of the skull lesion and evacuation of the hematoma. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of EG. We aim to raise the awareness of physicians of this rare spontaneous hemorrhagic complication of EG and review the literature. PMID:27195034

  3. Krüppeling erythropoiesis: an unexpected broad spectrum of human red blood cell disorders due to KLF1 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Andrew; Xu, Xiangmin; Higgs, Douglas R; Patrinos, George P; Arnaud, Lionel; Bieker, James J; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2016-04-14

    Until recently our approach to analyzing human genetic diseases has been to accurately phenotype patients and sequence the genes known to be associated with those phenotypes; for example, in thalassemia, the globin loci are analyzed. Sequencing has become increasingly accessible, and thus a larger panel of genes can be analyzed and whole exome and/or whole genome sequencing can be used when no variants are found in the candidate genes. By using such approaches in patients with unexplained anemias, we have discovered that a broad range of hitherto unrelated human red cell disorders are caused by variants in KLF1, a master regulator of erythropoiesis, which were previously considered to be extremely rare causes of human genetic disease.

  4. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  5. CMV latent infection improves CD8+ T response to SEB due to expansion of polyfunctional CD57+ cells in young individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pera

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV latent infection has a deleterious effect on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly, suggesting that CMV restricts immunological diversity impairing the immune system functionality in old age. Polyfunctional T cells produce multiple cytokines and higher amounts than mono-functional T cells. High number of polyfunctional T cells correlates with better prognosis during infection. Thus, the efficiency of T cell response associates with quality (polyfunctionality rather than with quantity (percentage of T cells. We analyze the effect of CMV infection on CD8+ T cells polyfunctionality --degranulation (CD107a, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production--, from young CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative individuals and in middle age CMV-seropositive donors, in response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB. Our results show a higher percentage of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young CMV-seropositive individuals compared to CMV-seronegative. Also, we find an expansion of CD8+CD57+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, which are more polyfunctional than CD8+CD57- cells. In middle age individuals there is a higher frequency of SEB-responding CD8+ T cells, mainly TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma producers, whereas the percentage of polyfunctional cells (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/CD107a is similar to the percentages found in young CMV-seropositive. Therefore, whereas it has been shown that CMV latent infection can be detrimental for immune response in old individuals, our results indicate that CMV-seropositivity is associated to higher levels of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young and middle age donors. This increase in polyfunctionality, which can provide an immunological advantage in the response to other pathogens, is due to a CD8+CD57+ T cell expansion in CMV-seropositive individuals and it is independent of age. Conversely, age could contribute to the inflammation found in old individuals by increasing the percentage of cells

  6. Study of Performance on Recharging the Borehole by Means of Exhaust-air Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su; FAHL(E)N Per

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance analysis of recharging the borehole by means of exhaust-air energy is carried out. The results show that a vertical borehole used as heat source for a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) can be recharged in high efficiency. With equal heat transfer capabilities of exhaust-air coil and borehole collector, the system provides a maximum overall efficiency. However, due to ground infinite capacity, the optimum brine flow rate is different from conventional twoexchanger system. The recharging system provides two peak overall efficiencies when the capacity ratio Cr = 5 for laminar flow and Cr = 15 for turbulent flow respectively.The overall efficiency is independent of exhaust-air temperature and undisturbed ground temperature,although the fluid properties depend on temperature. In practical system lower ethyl percentage brine should be chosen if the freezing point meets the system request,which can provide a higher overall efficiency.

  7. Characterization of microbial communities in exhaust air treatment systems of large-scale pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneke, J; Lee, N M; Gaul, T W; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2010-01-01

    Exhaust air treatment has gained importance as an essential factor in intensive livestock areas due to the rising emissions in the environment. Wet filter walls of multi-stage exhaust air treatment systems precipitate gaseous ammonia and dust particles from exhaust air in washing water. Microbial communities in the biomass developed in the washing water of five large-scale exhaust air treatment units of pig housing facilities, were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. No "standard" nitrifying bacteria were found in the washing water. Instead mainly α-Proteobacteria, aggregating β- and χ-Proteobacteria, a large number of Actinobacteria, as well as individual Planctomycetales and Crenarchaeota were detected after more than twelve months' operation. The main Proteobacteria species present were affiliated to the families Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae. Furthermore, we investigated the consumption of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the washing water of one exhaust air treatment unit during a fattening period with and without pH control. Maintaining the pH at 6.0 resulted in a ca. fivefold higher ammonium concentration and a ca. fourfold lower concentration of oxidized nitrogen compounds after the fattening period was finished.

  8. Immune-mediated loss of transgene expression from virally transduced brain cells is irreversible, mediated by IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα, and due to the elimination of transduced cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirger, Jeffrey M; Puntel, Mariana; Bergeron, Josee; Wibowo, Mia; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Bondale, Niyati; Barcia, Carlos; Kroeger, Kurt M; Liu, Chunyan; Castro, Maria G; Lowenstein, Pedro R

    2012-04-01

    The adaptive immune response to viral vectors reduces vector-mediated transgene expression from the brain. It is unknown, however, whether this loss is caused by functional downregulation of transgene expression or death of transduced cells. Herein, we demonstrate that during the elimination of transgene expression, the brain becomes infiltrated with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and that these T cells are necessary for transgene elimination. Further, the loss of transgene-expressing brain cells fails to occur in the absence of IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα receptor. Two methods to induce severe immune suppression in immunized animals also fail to restitute transgene expression, demonstrating the irreversibility of this process. The need for cytotoxic molecules and the irreversibility of the reduction in transgene expression suggested to us that elimination of transduced cells is responsible for the loss of transgene expression. A new experimental paradigm that discriminates between downregulation of transgene expression and the elimination of transduced cells demonstrates that transduced cells are lost from the brain upon the induction of a specific antiviral immune response. We conclude that the anti-adenoviral immune response reduces transgene expression in the brain through loss of transduced cells.

  9. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  10. Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia due to High-grade non Hodgkin's B cell Lymphoma with Weak Response to Rituximab and Chemotherapy Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazel Khosroshahi, Behzad; Jafari, Mohammad; Vazini, Hossein; Ahmadi, Alireza; Shams, Keivan; Kholoujini, Mahdi

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by shortening of red blood cell (RBC) survival and the presence of autoantibodies directed against autologous RBCs. Approximately 20% of autoimmune hemolytic anemia cases are associated with cold-reactive antibody. About half of patients with AIHA have no underlying associated disease; these cases are termed primary or idiopathic. Secondary cases are associated with underlying diseases or with certain drugs. We report herein a rare case of cold autoimmiune hemolytic anemia due to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type with weak response to rituximab and chemotherapy regimens. For treatment B cell lymphoma, Due to lack of treatment response, we used chemotherapy regimens including R- CHOP for the first time, and then Hyper CVAD, R- ICE and ESHAP were administered, respectively. For treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, we have used the corticosteroid, rituximab, plasmapheresis and blood transfusion and splenectomy. In spite of all attempts, the patient died of anemia and aggressive lymphoma nine months after diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is a rare report from cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia in combination with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type that is refractory to conventional therapies.

  11. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  12. Operational test report, 500 CFM portable exhauster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-05-15

    A 500 cubic foot per minute (CFM) portable exhauster system was fabricated for use on 241-A-101 [a Hydrogen Watch List tank] during saltwell pumping activities. An operational test was performed on this unit during 9/20/96 through 1O/14/96 in the 241-A Tank Farm. This operational test was done in accordance with OTP-060-001 Rev 0 (See Appendix A of this report). The test was performed with exceptions.

  13. Anisotropic Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. [Physics Department, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for Nano-Science, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, 80333 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: kiselev@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kikoin, K. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: kikoin@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2006-05-01

    The properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in z direction are studied. Each spin possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres' exhaustion problem does not arise. The excitation spectrum is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. Possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.

  14. Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    and J. J. Brooks. Development of a portable miniature collection system for the exposure as- sessment within the microenvironment for carcinogens ...65 A-2. Recovery of acrylonitrile from standard sample generation system ...... ............. 66 B-I. Jet engine exhaust sampling and analysis...7 n-Butane 0.16 2.6 minutes 8 Propylene oxide 3.14 52 minutes 9 Acrylonitrile 9.35 2.6 hours 10 Phenanthrene 1.9 x 106 61 years 11 4-Bromodiphenyl

  15. Ageing characterization of exhaust flexible couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanical strength of automotive exhaust flexible couplings subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue and corrosion. Five different types of flexible coupling have been considered, realised by four different king of materials: three stainless steels (AISI 309, AISI 321, AISI 321 Ti) and a nickel alloy (Incoloy 825). These components have been tested by a dedicated procedure consisting of different cycles of fatigue, heating and corrosion. Performances ...

  16. Cytokine-mediated FOXO3a phosphorylation suppresses FasL expression in hemopoietic cell lines: investigations of the role of Fas in apoptosis due to cytokine starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Jamil, Sarwat; Denny, Trisha A; Duronio, Vincent

    2007-05-01

    We have investigated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent survival signalling pathways using several cytokines in three different hemopoietic cell lines, MC/9, FDC-P1, and TF-1. Cytokines caused PI3K- and PKB-dependent phosphorylation of FOXO3a (previously known as FKHRL1) at three distinct sites. Following cytokine withdrawal or PI3K inhibition, both of which are known to lead to apoptosis, there was a loss of FOXO3a phosphorylation, and a resulting increase in forkhead transcriptional activity, along with increased expression of Fas Ligand (FasL), which could be detected at the cell surface. Concurrently, an increase in cell surface expression of Fas was also detected. Despite the presence of both FasL and Fas, there was no detectable evidence that activation of Fas-mediated apoptotic events was contributing to apoptosis resulting from cytokine starvation or inhibition of PI3K activity. Thus, inhibition of FOXO3a activity is mediated by the PI3K-PKB pathway, but regulation of FasL is not the primary means by which cell survival is regulated in cytokine-dependent hemopoietic cells. We were also able to confirm increased expression of known FOXO3a targets, Bim and p27kip1. Together, these results support the conclusion that mitochondrial-mediated signals play the major role in apoptosis of hemopoietic cells due to loss of cytokine signalling.

  17. Significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic cells due to a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sungwoo; Kim, Sang Wook

    2012-05-01

    High-efficiency organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells utilizing a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated by using a mixed solution method. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the ZnSe QDs were dispersed in the P3HT layer. The power conversion efficiency of the OPV cells with a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe QDs was as much as 100% higher than that of the OPV cells with a planar layer due to an enhancement of the photon-harvesting ability of the congregated P3HT particles containing ZnSe QDs and to an increase of the interfacial region for efficient charge transport.

  18. Low temperature operation and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient temperature has the greatest effect on the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines during the initial cold star and before the engine is fully warmed-up. Fuel evaporation is poor in a cold engine and the fuel-air mixture must be made richer to ensure that the engine weill start and be driveable. However, the combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture is incomplete because of the lack of oxygen, and the exhaust gases will contain an excessive amount of carbon monoxide (CO). The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in a combustion engine is tied to high temperatures and oxygen concentrations. The conditions in a non-warmed engine using a rich fuel-air mixture are unfavourable for the formation of NO/sub x/ and the emission of NO/sub x/ may even diminish with falling ambient temperature. When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature the exhaust emissions are usually independent of the ambient temperature if the engine is equipped with intake air preheating that is sufficiently powerful. The reduction efficiency of a catalytic converter mainly depends on its operation temperature. Continuous operation at low temperatures may cause rapid poisoning of the converter. At low temperatures, carbon and other particles that do not burn collect on the active surface of the converter reducing its effectiveness.

  19. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  20. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  1. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  2. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  3. Effect of polluted pollen by vehicle exhaust on T helper cell 17/regulatory T cell imbalance in asthmatic mice%汽车尾气处理花粉对哮喘小鼠辅助性T细胞17/调节性T细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 徐欣欣; 周妍; 康建强; 田烨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of polluted pollen by vehicle exhaust on T helper cell(Th)17/regulatory T cell(Treg) imbalance in asthmatic mice .Methods A total of 60 cases of 6‐8 weeks of age male BALB/c mice were chosen as study objects .According to random digits table ,they were randomly divided into A to D groups and control group ,12 mice in each group .In group A ,mice were treated with A rtemisia pollen extracts as allergen and stimulator .In group B ,mice were treated with A rtemisia pollen extracts and polluted A rtemisia pollen extracts by vehicle exhaust as allergen and stimulator ,respectively .In group C ,mice were treated with polluted A rtemisia pollen extracts by vehicle exhaust and A rtemisia pollen extracts as allergen and stimulator ,respectively .In group D , mice were treated with polluted A rtemisia pollen extracts by vehicle exhaust as allergen and stimulator .In control group ,mice were treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as allergen and stimulator .Lung tissues ,bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and spleen tissues were collected from the 5 groups and processed as following : ① Histopathological changes in lung tissue of mice in different groups were observed at high magnification by hematoxylin‐eosin(HE) staining .②Statistical differences among 5 groups in levels of IL‐17A ,‐10 and the cell countings and differentiations in BALF were compared .③Statistical differences of ratios of Th17 to CD4 + T cells ,Treg cells to CD4 + T cells and Th17/Treg in the spleens mononuclearcell among 5 groups were also compared .The disposition of the animals in experimental process was in accordance with the ethical standard of animals . Results ①In asthmatic mice of groups A to D , varying degrees of bronchiolar contraction and inflammatory cellular infiltration were observed ,and all were the most serious in group D .②In BALF of asthmatic mice of group A to D ,higher IL‐17A and lower IL‐10 contents than those of

  4. p53 mutant human glioma cells are sensitive to UV-C-induced apoptosis due to impaired cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luis F Z; Roos, Wynand P; Kaina, Bernd; Menck, Carlos F M

    2009-02-01

    The p53 protein is a key regulator of cell responses to DNA damage, and it has been shown that it sensitizes glioma cells to the alkylating agent temozolomide by up-regulating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, whereas it increases the resistance to chloroethylating agents, such as ACNU and BCNU, probably by enhancing the efficiency of DNA repair. However, because these agents induce a wide variety of distinct DNA lesions, the direct importance of DNA repair is hard to access. Here, it is shown that the induction of photoproducts by UV light (UV-C) significantly induces apoptosis in a p53-mutated glioma background. This is caused by a reduced level of photoproduct repair, resulting in the persistence of DNA lesions in p53-mutated glioma cells. UV-C-induced apoptosis in p53 mutant glioma cells is preceded by strong transcription and replication inhibition due to blockage by unrepaired photolesions. Moreover, the results indicate that UV-C-induced apoptosis of p53 mutant glioma cells is executed through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, with Bcl-2 degradation and sustained Bax and Bak up-regulation. Collectively, the data indicate that unrepaired DNA lesions induce apoptosis in p53 mutant gliomas despite the resistance of these gliomas to temozolomide, suggesting that efficiency of treatment of p53 mutant gliomas might be higher with agents that induce the formation of DNA lesions whose global genomic repair is dependent on p53.

  5. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Dick; van Hoof, Niels J J; Cui, Yingchao; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime; Haverkort, Jos E M

    2016-12-27

    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to less than 70% of the theoretical maximum. Here we enhance the absorption in indium phosphide (InP) nanowire solar cells by employing broadband forward scattering of self-aligned nanoparticles on top of the transparent top contact layer. This results in a nanowire solar cell with a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.8% and a short-circuit current of 29.3 mA/cm(2) under 1 sun illumination, which is the highest reported so far for nanowire solar cells and among the highest reported for III-V solar cells. We also measure the angle-dependent photocurrent, using time-reversed Fourier microscopy, and demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional absorption enhancement for unpolarized light up to 60° with a wavelength average of 12% due to Mie scattering. These results unambiguously demonstrate the potential of semiconductor nanowires as nanostructures for the next generation of photovoltaic devices.

  6. Narcolepsy: Autoimmunity, Effector T Cell Activation Due to Infection, or T Cell Independent, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Induced Neuronal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Adriano; Gast, Heidemarie; Reith, Walter; Recher, Mike; Birchler, Thomas; Bassetti, Claudio L.

    2010-01-01

    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602. The disease typically starts in adolescence. Recent developments in narcolepsy research support the hypothesis of…

  7. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  8. Severe lactic acidosis due to thiamine deficiency in a patient with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma on total parenteral nutrition during high-dose methotrexate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Johanna; Schiaffino, Maria Cristina; Caruso, Ubaldo; Calvillo, Michaela; Minniti, Giuseppe; Dufour, Carlo

    2003-12-01

    An 11-month-old girl with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma developed profound lethargy due to severe lactic acidosis during chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Initial treatment with NaHCO3 was ineffective. Treatment with a vitamin cocktail (OH-cobalamin, pyridoxine, thiamine, riboflavine, biotin, carnitine) at pharmacologic doses rapidly improved the child's clinical and laboratory status. Lactic acidosis was caused by an impairment of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was due to lack of its necessary cofactor thiamine in the TPN. This case report indicates that lactic acidosis may be a front-line diagnosis in patients on TPN with lethargy and outlines the need for monitoring thiamine supply in TPN.

  9. High-throughput functional genomics identifies genes that ameliorate toxicity due to oxidative stress in neuronal HT-22 cells: GFPT2 protects cells against peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzler, Jürgen; Link, Dieter; Schäfer, Rolf; Liebetrau, Wolfgang; Kazinski, Michael; Bonin-Debs, Angelika; Behl, Christian; Buckel, Peter; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    We describe a novel genetic screen that is performed by transfecting every individual clone of an expression clone collection into a separate population of cells in a high-throughput mode. We combined high-throughput functional genomics with experimental validation to discover human genes that ameliorate cytotoxic responses of neuronal HT-22 cells upon exposure to oxidative stress. A collection of 5,000 human cDNAs in mammalian expression vectors were individually transfected into HT-22 cells, which were then exposed to H(2)O(2). Five genes were found that are known to be involved in pathways of detoxification of peroxide (catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, peroxiredoxin-1, peroxiredoxin-5, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). The presence of those genes in our "hit list" validates our screening platform. In addition, a set of candidate genes was found that has not been previously described as involved in detoxification of peroxide. One of these genes, which was consistently found to reduce H(2)O(2) -induced toxicity in HT-22, was GFPT2. This gene is expressed at significant levels in the central nervous system (CNS) and encodes glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFPT) 2, a rate-limiting enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. GFPT has recently also been shown to ameliorate the toxicity of methylmercury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death in part by protein modification as well as enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The protective effect of GFPT2 against H(2)O(2) toxicity in neuronal HT-22 cells may be similar to its protection against methylmercury in yeast. Thus, GFPT appears to be conserved among yeast and men as a critical target of methylmercury and ROS-induced cytotoxicity.

  10. [Multiple organ failure presumably due to alkylating agents used as preconditioning drugs for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tori; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ebe, Yusuke; Yano, Toshio; Sato, Naoko; Koike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male was diagnosed as having acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in 2006. He received induction chemotherapy including all-trans retinoic acid and initially achieved a complete remission (CR). After several courses of consolidation therapy combining anthracyclines and cytarabine, he maintained CR. In 2009, an APL relapse was diagnosed, and he was treated with arsenic trioxide. Since he achieved a second CR, he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) with a conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan and melphalan. At four months after auto-PBSCT, he developed a pneumothorax and acute respiratory failure. He died despite intensive therapy. Autopsy findings included various atypical and apoptotic cells in his pulmonary tissue. These changes were confirmed in multiple organs throughout the body, suggesting them to be drug-induced. The findings in this case suggested multiple organ failure due to alkylating agents.

  11. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  12. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  13. Cardiosphere-derived cells from pediatric end-stage heart failure patients have enhanced functional activity due to the heat shock response regulating the secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhish; Mishra, Rachana; Simpson, David; Wehman, Brody; Colletti, Evan J; Deshmukh, Savitha; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Balachandran, Keerti; Guo, Yin; Chen, Ling; Siddiqui, Osama T; Kaushal, Shalesh; Kaushal, Sunjay

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated that human neonatal cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) derived from the young are more regenerative due to their robust secretome. However, it is unclear how the decompensated pediatric heart impacts the functional activity of their CDCs. Our aim was to characterize the potency of pediatric CDCs derived from normal functioning myocardium of control heart disease (CHD) patients to those generated from age-matched end stage heart failure (ESHF) patients and to determine the mechanisms involved. ESHF-derived CDCs contained a higher number of c-kit(+) , Islet-1(+) , and Sca-1(+) cells. When transplanted into an infarcted rodent model, ESHF-derived CDCs significantly demonstrated higher restoration of ventricular function, prevented adverse remodeling, and enhanced angiogenesis when compared with CHD patients. The superior functional recovery of the ESHF-derived CDCs was mediated in part by increased SDF-1α and VEGF-A secretion resulting in augmented recruitment of endogenous stem cells and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. We determined the mechanism is due to the secretome directed by the heat shock response (HSR), which is supported by three lines of evidence. First, gain of function studies demonstrated that increased HSR induced the lower functioning CHD-derived CDCs to significantly restore myocardial function. Second, loss-of function studies targeting the HSR impaired the ability of the ESHF-derived CDCs to functionally recover the injured myocardium. Finally, the native ESHF myocardium had an increased number of c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells. These findings suggest that the HSR enhances the functional activity of ESHF-derived CDCs by increasing their secretome activity, notably SDF-1α and VEGF-A.

  14. Exhaustive Search for Fuzzy Gene Networks from Microarray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, B A; Fitch, J P; Quong, J N; Quong, A A

    2003-07-07

    Recent technological advances in high-throughput data collection allow for the study of increasingly complex systems on the scale of the whole cellular genome and proteome. Gene network models are required to interpret large and complex data sets. Rationally designed system perturbations (e.g. gene knock-outs, metabolite removal, etc) can be used to iteratively refine hypothetical models, leading to a modeling-experiment cycle for high-throughput biological system analysis. We use fuzzy logic gene network models because they have greater resolution than Boolean logic models and do not require the precise parameter measurement needed for chemical kinetics-based modeling. The fuzzy gene network approach is tested by exhaustive search for network models describing cyclin gene interactions in yeast cell cycle microarray data, with preliminary success in recovering interactions predicted by previous biological knowledge and other analysis techniques. Our goal is to further develop this method in combination with experiments we are performing on bacterial regulatory networks.

  15. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  16. Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K.; Kiselev, M. N.; Materials Science Division; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev; Ludwig-Maximilians Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in the z direction. Each spin in this model possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres exhaustion problem does not occur. The high-temperature perturbational description is matched to exact low-T Bethe-ansatz solution. The excitation spectrum of the model is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. The disordered phases and possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.

  17. Note on the economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazian, V.A.; Callen, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    The nature of a firm's structure and its production policies are shown to be a factor in whether the company achieves an optimal resource extraction rate. A Cournot oligopoly model is used to illustrate the divergence between the oligopolist and the monopolist response to competition in resource extraction. A decreasing sensitivity to resource exhaustion is evident with a corresponding increase in competition. Social welfare, from the point of view of resource conservation, will be enhanced by the monopolistic structure. 6 references.

  18. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  19. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  20. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  1. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  2. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapsinskaite, Agne; Razon, Selen; Balagué Serre, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE) values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  3. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  4. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  5. Central line-related bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a patient with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Salah; Xu, Jiru; McClurg, Robert B; Rooney, Paul J; Millar, B Cherie; Alexander, H Denis; Kettle, Paul; Moore, John E

    2005-04-01

    A 42-year-old male patient with a history of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) developed a central line-related bacteremia due to the presence of a Gram-negative bacillus, which was difficult to identify conventionally. Sequencing of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene identified the organism as Roseomonas mucosa with a homology score of 100% with 1003 bases called. Due to difficulties with the phenotypic identification of this genus, coupled with its emergence in line-related bacteremia in hematology patients with malignancy, Roseomonas spp. should be considered in cases of line-related infection in such patients with atypical Gram-negative organisms. Although several cases have been reported in the literature of line-related sepsis due to Roseomonas gilardii, only a few cases have been reported of Roseomonas mucosa infection in patients with hematological malignancy. This report highlights the benefits of the integration of a sequence-based typing approach in the identification of difficult-to-identify bacterial isolates employing partial regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Continued routine adoption of such techniques by clinical diagnostic laboratories may prove beneficial for the correct identification of blood-borne infections, as well as for the correct epidemiological characterization of unusual causal agents of bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals.

  6. Humans lack iGb3 due to the absence of functional iGb3-synthase: implications for NKT cell development and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Christiansen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3, is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested that NKT cell development is normal in mice that were rendered deficient for the enzyme iGb3 synthase (iGb3S. We demonstrate that spliced iGb3S mRNA was not detected after extensive analysis of human tissues, and furthermore, the iGb3S gene contains several mutations that render this product nonfunctional. We directly tested the potential functional activity of human iGb3S by expressing chimeric molecules containing the catalytic domain of human iGb3S. These hybrid molecules were unable to synthesize iGb3, due to at least one amino acid substitution. We also demonstrate that purified normal human anti-Gal immunoglobulin G can bind iGb3 lipid and mediate complement lysis of transfected human cells expressing iGb3. Collectively, our data suggest that iGb3S is not expressed in humans, and even if it were expressed, this enzyme would be inactive. Consequently, iGb3 is unlikely to represent a primary natural ligand for NKT cells in humans. Furthermore, the absence of iGb3 in humans implies that it is another source of foreign Galalpha(1,3Gal xenoantigen, with obvious significance in the field of xenotransplantation.

  7. Method for the removal of dust from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzmann, H.; Wohlfarth, J.P.

    1976-11-02

    A stream of raw material is passed through a preheater to a furnace and a stream of exhaust gases from the furnace is passed through the preheater to preheat the raw material. Dust is electrostatically precipitated from the exhaust gases leaving the preheater, and the temperature of such exhaust gases is controllably raised to improve the efficiency of the dust removal by bypassing a controlled proportion of at least one of the streams around at least a portion of the preheater.

  8. Study of Vehicle Exhaust Variation with Test Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays harmful gas in vehicle exhaust has pollute d air heavily. To prevent the environment from polluting, the request of emissions control legislation becomes more stringent. New legislation prescribes not only the emissions limitation of vehicles, but also testing instruments and methods. Test car must be operated on the chassis dynamometer and data must be collect ed and analyzed with prescriptive exhaust analysis system as well. The mass of harmful exhaust gas, containing the concentration an...

  9. NANOMETER SIZE DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE SELECTIVELY TOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS: THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA, PHAGOCYTOSIS, AND NADPH OXIDASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes the neurotoxic response of cultured brain cells to diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP produces an early production of free radicals (i.e., oxidative stress) in one CNS cell type (the microglial) and the subsequent degeneration of specific neuronal...

  10. Acute liver failure due to natural killer-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: A case report and review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan S Dellon; Shannon R Morris; Wozhan Tang; Cherie H Dunphy; Mark W Russo

    2006-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation for liver transplantation. We describe an unusual case of a patient who presented with ascites, jaundice, and encephalopathy and was found to have ALF due to natural killer (NK)-like T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The key immunophenotype was CD2+, CD3+, CD7+, CD56+. This diagnosis, which was based on findings in the peripheral blood and ascitic fluid, was confirmed with liver biopsy, and was a contraindication to liver transplantation. A review of the literature shows that hematologic malignancies are an uncommon cause of fulminant hepatic failure, and that NK-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a relatively recently recognized entity which is characteristically CD3+ and CD56+. This case demonstrates that liver biopsy is essential in diagnosing unusual causes of acute liver failure, and that infiltration of the liver with NK-like T-cell lymphoma/leukemia can cause acute liver failure.

  11. Nanoparticle abraxane possesses impaired proliferation in A549 cells due to the underexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1/GNA1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Ma, Yan; Gong, He; Yang, Shu; Fang, Qiaojun; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abraxane (Abr), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle applied for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported to be more effective than paclitaxel (PTX). To further understand the molecular mechanisms that produce this superior drug efficacy of Abr, a quantitative proteomic approach has been applied to investigate the global protein expression profiles of lung cancer cell A549 treated with Abr and PTX. Only one protein, namely, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1), showed significant differential expression (P<0.05) in the cutoff of 2.0 fold, suggesting that Abr can be used safely as a substitute for PTX. GNA1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation and has several important functions such as embryonic development and growth. Albumin plays a major role in the regulation of this protein. In summary, this study first shows that the superior drug effect of Abr is mainly due to the downregulation of GNA1, which causes proliferative delay and cell adhesion defect. It is also noteworthy that the deficiency of GNA1 might reduce insulin secretion which correlates with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Emotional exhaustion and job performance: the mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Bowler, Wm Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The literature concerning the relationship between emotional exhaustion and performance led researchers to raise questions about the extent to which the variables are related. In 2 time-lagged samples, the authors found that motivation mediates the emotional exhaustion-job performance relationship. Moreover, the authors found that participants appear to target their investment of resources in response to emotional exhaustion to develop social support through social exchange; specifically, emotional exhaustion was associated with communion striving resources that were manifest in the form of organizational citizenship behaviors targeted at individuals. Implications of this relationship for theories of burnout and for management practice are discussed.

  13. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal, a product found in cooking oil fumes, induces cell proliferation and cytokine production due to reactive oxygen species in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Louis W; Lo, Wai-Sze; Lin, Pinpin

    2005-10-01

    Dienaldehydes are by-products of peroxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and commonly found in many foods or food-products. Both National Cancer Institute (NCI) and NTP have expressed great concern on the potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of dienaldehydes. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE or 2,4-De), a specific type of dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and has been associated with lung adenocarcinoma development in women due to their exposure to oil fumes during cooking. Cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were exposed to 0.1 or 1.0 microM tt-DDE for 45 days, and oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, GSH/GSSG ratio, cell proliferation, and expression of TNFalpha and IL-1beta were measured. The results show that tt-DDE induced oxidative stress, an increase in ROS production, and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio (glutathione status) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with 1.0 microM tt-DDE for 45 days increased cell proliferation and the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1beta. Cotreatment of BEAS-2B cells with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and release of cytokines. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE-induced changes may be due to increased ROS production and enhanced oxidative stress. Since increased cell proliferation and the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are believed to be involved in tumor promotion, our results suggest that tt-DDE may play a role in cancer promotion. Previous studies on dienaldehydes have focused on their genotoxic or carcinogenic effects in the gastrointestinal tract; the present study suggests a potential new role of tt-DDE as a tumor promoter in human lung epithelial cells.

  14. Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT. In contrast, almost all other solid cancers in adults are incurable once they have spread beyond the primary site. Cell lines derived from TGCTs are hypersensitive to cisplatin reflecting the clinical response. Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC, but the critical DNA damage has not been defined. This study was aimed at investigating the formation and repair of intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by cisplatin in TTC and their contribution to TTC hypersensitivity. Results We observed that repair of intrastrand crosslinks is similar in cisplatin sensitive TTC and resistant bladder cancer cells, whereas repair of ICLs was significantly reduced in TTC. γH2AX formation, which serves as a marker of DNA breaks formed in response to ICLs, persisted in cisplatin-treated TTC and correlated with sustained phosphorylation of Chk2 and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage. Expression of the nucleotide excision repair factor ERCC1-XPF, which is implicated in the processing of ICLs, is reduced in TTC. To analyse the causal role of ERCC1-XPF for ICL repair and cisplatin sensitivity, we over-expressed ERCC1-XPF in TTC by transient transfection. Over-expression increased ICL repair and rendered TTC more resistant to cisplatin, which suggests that ERCC1-XPF is rate-limiting for repair of ICLs resulting in the observed cisplatin hypersensitivity of TTC. Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.

  15. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  16. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor. PMID:28218700

  17. Study on acoustical properties of sintered bronze porous material for transient exhaust noise of pneumatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxiang; Zhao, Shengdun; Ishihara, Kunihiko

    2013-05-01

    A novel approach is presented to study the acoustical properties of sintered bronze material, especially used to suppress the transient noise generated by the pneumatic exhaust of pneumatic friction clutch and brake (PFC/B) systems. The transient exhaust noise is impulsive and harmful due to the large sound pressure level (SPL) that has high-frequency. In this paper, the exhaust noise is related to the transient impulsive exhaust, which is described by a one-dimensional aerodynamic model combining with a pressure drop expression of the Ergun equation. A relation of flow parameters and sound source is set up. Additionally, the piston acoustic source approximation of sintered bronze silencer with cylindrical geometry is presented to predict SPL spectrum at a far-field observation point. A semi-phenomenological model is introduced to analyze the sound propagation and reduction in the sintered bronze materials assumed as an equivalent fluid with rigid frame. Experiment results under different initial cylinder pressures are shown to corroborate the validity of the proposed aerodynamic model. In addition, the calculated sound pressures according to the equivalent sound source are compared with the measured noise signals both in time-domain and frequency-domain. Influences of porosity of the sintered bronze material are also discussed.

  18. Dexamethasone stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood indicates glucocorticoid-receptor hypersensitivity in job-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Gerber, Markus; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Beck, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Work-related stress can lead to various health problems ranging from job-related exhaustion to psychiatric and somatic diseases. Biomarkers of job-related exhaustion could help to improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms and might be useful to guide prevention and treatment strategies. The present study included 12 male cases suffering from job-related exhaustion and 12 matched healthy controls. Severity of exhaustion was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Whole genome expression profiles derived from whole blood cells (baseline and following glucocorticoid-receptor (GR) stimulation with 1.5mg dexamethasone p.o.) and corresponding plasma cortisol levels were analyzed. All cases participated in regular aerobic exercise for 12 consecutive weeks and were then re-assessed at follow-up for exhaustion symptoms as well as for cortisol levels and gene expression profiles. At baseline, we found increased basal cortisol levels and an enhanced suppression of plasma cortisol concentrations following dexamethasone in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1.6-fold more transcripts were significantly regulated by dexamethasone in cases as compared to controls. At follow-up after 12 weeks of regular exercise training which was accompanied by significantly improved exhaustion severity scores, cortisol levels and gene expression profiles of cases normalized to the levels observed in controls. In conclusion, we detected GR-induced neuroendocrine and gene expression changes in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion which are in line with an increased sensitivity of GR function. This GR dysregulation normalized with symptom recovery.

  19. Ozone enhances the airway inflammation initiated by diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jenny; Pourazar, Jamshid; Forsberg, Bertil; Adelroth, Ellinor; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders

    2007-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, with particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O(3)) both indicated to be of considerable importance. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) and O(3) generate substantial inflammatory effects in the airways. However, as yet it has not been determined whether a subsequent O(3) exposure would add to the diesel-induced airway inflammatory effects. Healthy subjects underwent two separate exposure series: A 1-h DE exposure at a PM-concentration of 300 microg/m(3), followed after 5h by a 2-h exposure to filtered air and 0.2 ppm O(3), respectively. Induced sputum was collected 18 h after the second exposure. A significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils (PMN) and concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was seen in sputum post DE+O(3) vs. DE+air (p<0.05 and <0.05, respectively). Significant associations were observed between the responses in MPO concentration and total PMN cells (p=0.001), and also between MPO and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (p<0.001). The significant increase of PMN and MPO after the DE+O(3) exposures, compared to DE+air, denotes an O(3)-induced magnification of the DE-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the correlation between responses in MPO and number of PMNs and MMP-9 illustrate that the PMNs are activated, resulting in a more potent inflammatory response. The present study indicates that O(3) exposure adds significantly to the inflammatory response that is established by diesel exhaust. This interaction between exposure to particulate pollution and O(3) in sequence should be taken into consideration when health effects of air pollution are considered.

  20. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  1. Global positive polarity items and obligatory exhaustivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Spector

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a distinction between two types of positive polarity items (PPIs which has not been recognized so far. While for some PPIs, anti-licensing is a strictly local phenomenon, for other PPIs anti-licensing should be stated as a global condition. I aim to contribute to a principled explanation for the distribution of a significant subset of global PPIs, by relating it to specific semantic properties of the relevant items. More specifically, I argue that PPIs such as soit ... soit ..., quelques and almost trigger obligatory exhaustivity effects and scalar inferences, and that independently motivated constraints regarding the generation of such inferences can account for their distribution. The paper also briefly addresses the case of other global PPIs, e.g., at least, for which a similar account is not straightforwardly available. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.11 BibTeX info

  2. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  3. Lidar measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Phan D.; Curtis, David; Farley, Robert; Soletsky, Philip; Davidson, Gilbert; Gelbwachs, Jerry A.

    1997-10-01

    The Mobile Lidar Trailer (MLT) was developed and operated to characterize launch vehicle exhaust plume and its effects on the environment. Two recent applications of this facility are discussed in this paper. In the first application, the MLT was used to characterize plumes in the stratosphere up to 45 km in support of the Air Force Space and Missile Center's Rocket Impact on Stratospheric Ozone program. Solid rocket motors used by Titan IV and other heavy launch vehicles release large quantities of gaseous hydrochloric acid in the exhaust and cause concerns about a possible depletion of the ozone layer. The MLT was deployed to Cape Canaveral Air Station since October 1995 to monitor ozone and to investigate plume dynamics and properties. Six campaigns have been conducted and more are planned to provide unique data with the objective of addressing the environmental issues. The plume was observed to disperse rapidly into horizontally extended yet surprisingly thin layer with thickness recorded in over 700 lidar profiles to be less than 250 meters. MLT operates with the laser wavelengths of 532, 355 and 308 nm and a scanning receiving telescope. Data on particle backscattering at the three wavelengths suggest a consistent growth of particle size in the 2-3 hour observation sessions following the launch. In the second type of application, the MLT was used as a remote sensor of nitrogen dioxide, a caustic gaseous by-product of common liquid propellant oxidizer. Two campaigns were conducted at the Sol Se Mete Canyon test site in New Mexico in December 1996 an January 1997 to study the dispersion of nitrogen dioxide and rocket plume.

  4. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent deformation or deterioration. (b) Exhaust flame arrester. (1) The exhaust system of the engine shall be provided with a flame arrester to prevent propagation of flame or discharge of heated particles to a surrounding flammable mixture. The flame arrester shall be so positioned that only...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1509 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a) The exhaust gas sampling system shall transport...

  6. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph... cooling water system must comply with the requirements of this paragraph. (1) Water for cooling...

  7. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a)...

  9. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a larg

  10. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  11. The purification of internal combustion engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.J.; Jorgensen, Norman; Carlow, J.S.; Raybone, David.

    1994-03-02

    In this patent, improved catalytic reduction of exhaust gas pollutants from internal combustion engines is described. During the warm-up phase of the cycle, a plasma discharge is initiated in the exhaust gases upstream of the catalytic converter. The plasma is controlled using sensors which detect the catalyst temperature and gas pressure and flow rate. (UK)

  12. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust...

  13. Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer in miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evalu

  14. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  15. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  16. Nanoparticle abraxane possesses impaired proliferation in A549 cells due to the underexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1/GNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao MZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Minzhi Zhao,* Haiyun Li,* Yan Ma, He Gong, Shu Yang, Qiaojun Fang, Zhiyuan Hu Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Abraxane (Abr, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle applied for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported to be more effective than paclitaxel (PTX. To further understand the molecular mechanisms that produce this superior drug efficacy of Abr, a quantitative proteomic approach has been applied to investigate the global protein expression profiles of lung cancer cell A549 treated with Abr and PTX. Only one protein, namely, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1, showed significant differential expression (P<0.05 in the cutoff of 2.0 fold, suggesting that Abr can be used safely as a substitute for PTX. GNA1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation and has several important functions such as embryonic development and growth. Albumin plays a major role in the regulation of this protein. In summary, this study first shows that the superior drug effect of Abr is mainly due to the downregulation of GNA1, which causes proliferative delay and cell adhesion defect. It is also noteworthy that the deficiency of GNA1 might reduce insulin secretion which correlates with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: quantitative proteomics, nano-drug, drug efficacy, lung cancer, molecular mechanisms, abraxane

  17. Acidification due to microbial dechlorination near a trichloroethene DNAPL is overcome with pH buffer or formate as electron donor: experimental demonstration in diffusion-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jo; Maes, Nele; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Acidification due to microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) can limit the bio-enhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This study related the dissolution enhancement of a TCE DNAPL to the pH buffer capacity of the medium and the type of electron donor used. In batch systems, dechlorination was optimal at pH7.1-7.5, but was completely inhibited below pH6.2. In addition, dechlorination in batch systems led to a smaller pH decrease at an increasing pH buffer capacity or with the use of formate instead of lactate as electron donor. Subsequently, bio-enhanced TCE DNAPL dissolution was quantified in diffusion-cells with a 5.5 cm central sand layer, separating a TCE DNAPL layer from an aqueous top layer. Three different pH buffer capacities (2.9 mM-17.9 mM MOPS) and lactate or formate as electron donor were applied. In the lactate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor increased from 1.5 to 2.2 with an increase of the pH buffer capacity. In contrast, in the formate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor (2.4±0.3) was unaffected by the pH buffer capacity. Measurement of the pore water pH confirmed that the pH decreased less with an increased pH buffer capacity or with formate instead of lactate as electron donor. These results suggest that the significant impact of acidification on bio-enhanced DNAPL dissolution can be overcome by the amendment of a pH buffer or by applying a non acidifying electron donor like formate.

  18. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  19. Hotelling's economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levhari, D.; Liviatan, N.

    1977-05-01

    This paper provides some extensions of Hotelling's fundamental paper (Journal of Political Economy, 39: 137-75 (1931)) on the economic theory of exhaustible resources. One of the main modifications introduced concerns the assumption of complete versus incomplete exhaustion of the resource. Under complete exhaustion the concept of 'full marginal cost' must include a term that reflects the alternative cost of producing an extra unit at the terminal time; under incomplete exhaustion this term vanishes. To derive these results, the authors present a formula for the ''full marginal cost'' of extracting exhaustible resources. The principle that marginal profit has to increase over time exponentially at a rate equal to the rate of interest (r percent rule) is shown to be valid only under special conditions. The modifications to this rule are discussed.

  20. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  1. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  2. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-09-01

    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  3. RhoA, Rho kinase, JAK2, and STAT3 may be the intracellular determinants of longevity implicated in the progeric influence of obesity: Insulin, IGF-1, and leptin may all conspire to promote stem cell exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Patrick C

    2006-01-01

    The aging process in higher mammals is increasingly being shown to feature a potentially substantial contribution from the longitudinal deterioration of normative stem cell dynamics seen with the passage of time. The precise mechanistic sequence producing this phenomenon is not entirely understood, but recent evidence has strongly implicated intracellular downstream effectors of endocrinologic pathways thought to be engaged by the obese state, specifically the insulin, IGF-1, and leptin signaling pathways. Among the intracellular effectors of these signals, a uniquely potent influence on stem cell dynamics may be attributable to Rho/ROCK, JAK kinase activity and STAT3 activity. In particular, it has already been shown that specific tyrosine kinase activities, such as that seen with Rho kinase, are presently thought to be associated with adverse health outcomes in numerous clinical contexts. Furthermore, the Rho GTPase is thought to be contributing to end-stage renal disease. However, in addition to its contribution to organ system dysfunction, the Rho/ROCK pathway has recently been shown to be activated by insulin and IGF-1, providing a tantalizing connection to nutrition and aging science. The JAK-STAT pathway, in contrast, has long been associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, but has recently been implicated in leptin signaling as well. Importantly, JAK-STAT signaling has, similarly to Rho/ROCK signaling, been implicated as capable of accelerating stem cell proliferation. The implications of these recent determinations, in light of the recent finding of telomere attrition in humans associated with obesity, are that the intracellular determinants of aging may already be known, and the known common influence of these signaling elements on longitudinal stem cell dynamics is a pronounced induction of proliferation, an elevation that has been linked to the pathologic evolution of longitudinal organ-level dysfunction and the organismal-level physiologic decline

  4. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashio

  5. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  6. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  7. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today’s opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  8. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  9. Genotype-Property Patient-Phenotype Relations Suggest that Proteome Exhaustion Can Cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    number, expressed as an exponential function of the experimental stabilities (R-2 = 0.31, p = 0.002), and this phenotype is further aggravated by charge (R-2 = 0.51, p = 1.8 x 10-5). This finding suggests that disease relates to the copy number of misfolded proteins. Exhaustion of motor neurons due...... at the neuromuscular junctions where ALS often initiates. If true, this exhaustion mechanism implies a complete change of focus in treatment of ALS towards actively nursing the energy state and protein turnover of the motor neurons.......Late-onset neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly understood as search continues for the perceived pathogenic protein species. Previously, variants in Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) were found to destabilize and reduce net charge, suggesting a pathogenic...

  10. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  11. Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a FIV and FeIV positive cat with a squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed with histological, serological and isoenzymatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grevot A.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis present in the Mediterranean area. Canidae (dog and fox constitute the main reservoir hosts for the parasite, whilst wild rodents or the cat can be carriers of the protozoan and are considered as secondary potential reservoirs. This paper describes a case of disseminated feline leishmaniosis with cutaneous (ulcerative, visceral (spleen and lymph nodes and blood involvement in a FIV-FelV positive cat. The microscopic identification of the Leishmania infection was initially made on a skin biopsy of the temporal area, where a squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The diagnosis of the disease was achieved by several serological techniques (ELISA, IFAT and Western-blot. The strain was obtained by blood culture, characterized by electrophoresis of isoenzymes and identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Since the infection due to L. infantum is a zoonosis, the potential feline reservoir should be more investigated. Serological analysis by Western blot on domestic cats provides a useful tool. In veterinary practice, feline leishmaniosis should be systematically included in the differential diagnosis when compatible cutaneous lesions are present, especially in the endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.

  12. BREATHING 100% O2 HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION DURING A SHORT PASSIVE RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    . Nonetheless, past research has focussed on methods by which the clearance of LA- from the blood could be expedited. As the clearance of LA- from the blood occurs primarily due to import and oxidation by other cells (Mengual et al., 2003, methods trialled include breathing hyperoxic gas mixtures during recovery (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986. It has been argued, however, that due to the near horizontal nature of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve (i.e. 95%+ O2 saturated at normal alveolar PO2 (~95 mmHg; it appears unlikely that the large increase in alveolar PO2 caused by breathing 100% O2 (667% % increase over ambient air would be effective in raising actual oxygen delivery to the mitochondria by a useful margin. However, Haseler et al. (1999 have shown that increasing the inspired O2 percentage to 100% during a passive recovery from exercise significantly reduced the time constant for phosphocreatine (PCr repletion (20-s vs. 25-s, p < 0.05. Given that PCr repletion is dependent on ATP, these findings provide surety that O2 delivery to, and uptake by the mitochondria is indeed usefully increased during passive recovery by breathing 100% O2 as compared with ~21% O2 (Haseler et al., 1999. We therefore undertook this investigation because previous methodologies and results regarding hyperoxic breathing and blood LA- concentration (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986 are somewhat conflicting. Specifically; acute muscular exhaustion was not universally imposed, hyperoxia was often imposed during the exercise also, and subjects of differing aerobic or cardiovascular fitness showed differential responses. Given the above arguments, we intended to clarify the effect of breathing 100% O2 on blood LA- concentration during a brief period of passive recovery from incremental exercise to exhaustion under controlled conditions. We hypothesised that breathing 100% O2 during a 5-minute passive recovery from exhaustive incremental

  13. Are heat stroke and physical exhaustion underestimated causes of acute hepatic failure?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kilian Weigand; Carina Riediger; Wolfgang Stremmel; Christa Flechtenmacher; Jens Encke

    2007-01-01

    While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise,exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon. Here we present two cases of acute hepatic failure, one due to classic heat shock, while the other occurred while the patient was doing a marathon-type running. Both cases presented with very high transaminases and significantly elevated international normalized ratio (INR). No other causes for liver failure could be identified but physical exhaustion and hyperthermia.

  14. An analytical study on the performance of the organic Rankine cycle for turbofan engine exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadon, S.; Abu Talib, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Due to energy shortage and global warming, issues of energy saving have become more important. To increase the energy efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption, waste heat recovery is a significant method for energy saving. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has great potential to recover the waste heat from the core jet exhaust of a turbofan engine and use it to produce power. Preliminary study of the design concept and thermodynamic performance of this ORC system would assist researchers to predict the benefits of using the ORC system to extract the exhaust heat engine. In addition, a mathematical model of the heat transfer of this ORC system is studied and developed. The results show that with the increment of exhaust heat temperature, the mass flow rate of the working fluid, net power output and the system thermal efficiency will also increase. Consequently, total consumption of jet fuel could be significantly saved as well.

  15. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  16. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  17. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  18. Real-time diagnostics of a jet engine exhaust using an intra-pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Hay, Kenneth G.; Langford, Nigel; Johnson, Mark P.; Black, John D.

    2011-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that an intra-pulse scanned quantum cascade laser spectrometer may be used to obtain real-time diagnostics of the amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water, in the exhaust of an aero gas turbine (turbojet) engine operated in a sea level test cell. Measurements have been made of the rapid changes in composition following ignition, the composition under steady state operating conditions, and the composition changes across the exhaust plume. The minimum detection limit for CO in a double pass through a typical gas turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter, with 0.4 seconds integration time, is approximately 2 ppm.

  19. Experimental and computational data from a small rocket exhaust diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel E.

    1993-06-01

    The Diagnostics Testbed Facility (DTF) at the NASA Stennis Space Center in Mississippi is a versatile facility that is used primarily to aid in the development of nonintrusive diagnostics for liquid rocket engine testing. The DTF consists of a fixed, 1200 lbf thrust, pressure fed, liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen rocket engine, and associated support systems. An exhaust diffuser has been fabricated and installed to provide subatmospheric pressures at the exit of the engine. The diffuser aerodynamic design was calculated prior to fabrication using the PARC Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code. The diffuser was then fabricated and tested at the DTF. Experimental data from these tests were acquired to determine the operational characteristics of the system and to correlate the actual and predicted flow fields. The results show that a good engineering approximation of overall diffuser performance can be made using the PARC Navier-Stokes code and a simplified geometry. Correlations between actual and predicted cell pressure and initial plume expansion in the diffuser are good; however, the wall pressure profiles do not correlate as well with the experimental data.

  20. Isolation of a mutant MDBK cell line resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection due to a block in viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E F; Donis, R O

    1995-04-20

    A cell line, termed CRIB, resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been derived from the MDBK bovine kidney cell line. CRIB cells were obtained by selection and cloning of cells surviving infection with a highly cytolytic BVDV strain. CRIB cells contain no detectable infectious or defective BVDV as ascertained by cocultivation, animal inoculation, indirect immunofluorescence, Western immunoblot, Northern hybridization, and RNA PCR. Inoculation of CRIB cells with 24 cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV strains does not result in expression of viral genes or amplification of input virus. Karyotype and isoenzyme analyses demonstrated that CRIB are genuine bovine cells. CRIB cells are as susceptible as the parental MDBK cells to 10 other bovine viruses, indicating that these cells do not have a broad defect blocking viral replication. Transfection of CRIB cells with BVDV RNA or virus inoculation in the presence of polyethylene-glycol results in productive infection, indicating that the defect of CRIB cells is at the level of virus entry. CRIB cells are the first bovine cells reported to be resistant to BVDV infection in vitro and may be a useful tool for studying the early interactions of pestiviruses with host cells.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... averaging Pitot tube, a hot-wire anemometer, or other measurement principle. This would generally not... cooling. (2) If cooling causes exhaust temperatures above 202 °C to decrease to below 180 °C, do...

  2. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  3. Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

  4. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  5. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  6. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  7. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  8. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  9. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  10. Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

  11. In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odagiri Takashi

    2010-03-01

    SLA in mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust is due to facilitated release of dopamine in the PFC. Conclusions These results indicate that exposure of mice in utero to a low concentration of diesel exhaust decreases SLA and alters the neurochemical monoamine metabolism of several regions of the brain.

  12. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  13. The Optimal Depletion of Exhaustible Resource under Different Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wei; Wu Kangping

    2012-01-01

    There are few papers in the literature focusing on the issue of the optimal depletion of exhaustible resources in the framework of variable time preference. This paper attempts to analyze the pure consumption of exhaustible resource under hy- perbolic time preference, and to discuss the optimal depletion rate and the effect of the protection of the exhaustible resource under different commitment abilities. The results of model show that the case of the hyperbolic discount with the full commitment of the govemment is equivalent to the case of constant discount of the social planner problem. In that case, the optimal depletion rate and the initial consumption of exhaustible resource are the slowest. On the contrary, they are the highest and the myopic behaviors lead to excessive consumption of exhaustible resources inevitably without commitment. Otherwise, in the case of partial commit- ment, the results are between the cases of full commitment and of no commitment. Therefore, with the hyperbolic time preference, the optimal depletion rate of resource depends on the commitment ability. Higher commitment ability leads to lower effective rate of time preference, and consequently, lower depletion rate and lower initial depletion value. The improvement of commitment ability can decrease the impatience and myopia behaviors, and contribute to the protection of the exhaustible resources.

  14. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  15. Analysis of exhaustive limited service for token ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Jeffery H.

    1990-01-01

    Token ring operation is well-understood in the cases of exhaustive, gated, gated limited, and ordinary cyclic service. There is no current data, however, on queueing models for the exhaustive limited service type. This service type differs from the others in that there is a preset maximum (omega) on the number of packets which may be transmitted per token reception, and packets which arrive after token reception may still be transmitted if the preset packet limit has not been reached. Exhaustive limited service is important since it closely approximates a timed token service discipline (the approximation becomes exact if packet lengths are constant). A method for deriving the z-transforms of the distributions of the number of packets present at both token departure and token arrival for a system using exhaustive limited service is presented. This allows for the derivation of a formula for mean queueing delay and queue lengths. The method is theoretically applicable to any omega. Fortunately, as the value of omega becomes large (typically values on the order of omega = 8 are considered large), the exhaustive limited service discipline closely approximates an exhaustive service discipline.

  16. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-09-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  17. Laboratory-scale investigation of UV treatment of ammonia for livestock and poultry barn exhaust applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Erin M; Koziel, Jacek A; Jenks, William S

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using deep ultraviolet (UV) treatment for abatement of ammonia (NH(3)) in livestock and poultry barn exhaust air was examined in a series of laboratory-scale experiments. These experiments simulated moving exhaust air through an irradiation chamber with variables of UV wavelength and dose, NH(3) concentrations, humidity, and presence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Ammonia, initially at relevant barn exhaust concentrations in air, was substantially or completely reduced by irradiation with 185 nm light. Reactions were monitored using chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, of which the latter was found to be the most informative and flexible. Detected nitrogen-containing products included N(2)O, NH(4)NO(3), and HNO(3). It was presumed that atomic oxygen is the primary photochemical product that begins the oxidative cascade. The data show that removal of NH(3) is plausible, but they highlight concerns over pollution swapping due to formation of ozone and N(2)O.

  18. Changes of delayed neuronal death of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running%耐力训练及力竭运动后大鼠大脑CA1区锥体细胞迟发性神经元死亡及其线粒体的超微结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁儒; 张建军; 冯富明; 李月白; 王义生

    2012-01-01

    delayed neuronal death.To analyze the effect of changes of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running.Methods The experiment was done from June 2007 to November 2008 in Zhengzhou University.Forty male SD rats of 8 weeks old were selected and divided into 4 groups randomly with 10 rats in each group:sedentary group(without training),24 hours after acute exercise group (without training,sacrificed 24 hours later after acute exhaustion treadmill running),right after acute exercise with training group (performance endurance training program,rats were sacrificed right after acute exhaustion treadmill running),24 hours after acute exercise with training group (performance endurance training program,rats were sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustion treadmill running).Endurance training program:once a day,6 days a week.Speed increased from 10 meters per minute at the first week to 30 meters per minute at the fourth week.Training time was that from 30 minutes per day at the first week to 40 minutes per day at the fourth week.Acute exercise means an exhaustion treadmill running with the speed of 28 meters per minute.The exhaustion standard was the rat could not keep the speed and stagnant stay in the 1/3 back part of the treadmill even with electricity stimulation for 10 s more than 3 times.Rats were sacrificed with decollation.Hippocampus of the brain were separated were used to detect the changes on cell apoptosis of brain and observation of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus after endurance training and exhaustion treadmill running.Results Totally 40 SD rats were done the experimental program and involved in the result analysis.The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in brain and the degeneration of pyramidal cell and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in rats' hippocampus increased

  19. Enhancement of helium exhaust by resonant magnetic perturbation fields at LHD and TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Ida, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Bader, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Evans, T. E.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Mitarai, O.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Nicolai, D.; Samm, U.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Xu, Y.; TEXTOR, the; LHD Experiment Groups

    2016-10-01

    The ability to exhaust helium as the fusion born plasma impurity is a critical requirement for burning plasmas. We demonstrate in this paper that resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields can be used to actively manipulate helium exhaust characteristics. We present results from puff/pump studies at TEXTOR as example for a tokamak with a pumped limiter and from the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the closed helical divertor as example for a heliotron/stellarator device. For LHD, the effective helium confinement time τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is a factor of 7-8 higher in the low and high density regimes explored when compared to TEXTOR discharges. This is attributed to ion root impurity transport which is one particular impurity transport regime assessed experimentally at LHD and which facilitates helium penetration to the plasma core. However, when an edge magnetic island is induced by externally applied RMP fields, τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is decreased by up to 30% and hence τ p,\\text{He}\\ast values closer to those of TEXTOR can be established. The combination of TEXTOR and LHD results suggest that a magnetic island induced by the RMP field in the plasma source region is an important ingredient for improving helium exhaust. The reduction in τ p,\\text{He}\\ast seen is caused by a combination of improved helium exhaust due to an enhanced coupling to the pumping systems, increased outward transport and a reduced fueling efficiency for the helium injected and recycling from the wall elements.

  20. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  1. Re-cultivation of Neochloris oleoabundans in exhausted autotrophic and mixotrophic media: the potential role of polyamines and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Alessandra; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Biondi, Stefania; Marchesini, Roberta; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Giovanardi, Martina; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2015-12-01

    Neochloris oleoabundans (Chlorophyta) is widely considered one of the most promising microalgae for biotechnological applications. However, the large-scale production of microalgae requires large amounts of water. In this perspective, the possibility of using exhausted growth media for the re-cultivation of N. oleoabundans was investigated in order to simultaneously make the cultivation more economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. Experiments were performed by testing the following media: autotrophic exhausted medium (E+) and mixotrophic exhausted medium after cultivation with glucose (EG+) of N. oleoabundans cells grown in a 20-L photobioreactor (PBR). Both exhausted media were replenished with the same amounts of nitrate and phosphate as the control brackish medium (C). Growth kinetics, nitrate and phosphate consumption, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic efficiency, cell morphology, and lipid production were evaluated. Moreover, the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of exhausted media and the polyamine (PA) concentrations of both algae and media were analyzed in order to test if some molecules, released into the medium, could influence algal growth and metabolism. Results showed that N. oleoabundans can efficiently grow in both exhausted media, if appropriately replenished with the main nutrients (E+ and EG+), especially in E+ and to the same extent as in C medium. Growth promotion of N. oleoabundans was attributed to PAs and alteration of the photosynthetic apparatus to FFAs. Taken together, results show that recycling growth medium is a suitable solution to obtain good N. oleoabundans biomass concentrations, while providing a more sustainable ecological impact on water resources.

  2. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Wallensten

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years.Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0, after 12 months (T12 and after 24 months (T24. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0 in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up.The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion.

  3. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  4. Increased responsiveness of rat mast cells to compound 48/80 due to removal of extracellular magnesium. Effects of ouabain and EGTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A decreased secretory response of mast cells to compound 48/80 (12% of control value) after preincubation of the cells with magnesium but without calcium was partially restored by removal of magnesium. EGTA (10 microM) blocked the restoration and decreased the restored secretory activity again...

  5. Reduced intracellular drug accumulation in drug-resistant leukemia cells is not solely due to MDR-mediated efflux but also to decreased uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oliveira Pisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of ABC family transporter proteins that promote drug efflux from cancer cells is a widely observed mechanism of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Cell adaptation in long-term culture of HL60 leukemic cells in the presence of chemotherapy leads to induction and maintenance of the ABC transporters expression, preventing further accumulation of drugs. However, we found that decreased accumulation of drugs and fluorescent dyes was also contributed by a reduced uptake by the resistant cells. Confocal time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that fluid-phase endocytosis was diminished in drug-resistant cells compared to drug-sensitive cells. Drug uptake was increased by insulin co-treatment when cells were grown in methylcellulose and monitored under the microscope, but not when cultured in suspension. We propose that multi-drug resistance is not solely achieved by enhanced efflux capacity but also by supressed intake of the drug offering an alternative target to overcome drug resistance or potentiate chemotherapy.

  6. Radiation resistance due to high expression of miR-21 and G2/M checkpoint arrest in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasov Nataša

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the extent of the G2/M arrest following irradiation is correlated with tumour cell survival and hence therapeutic success. We studied the regulation of cellular response to radiation treatment by miR-21-mediated modulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells and analysed miR-21 expression in breast cancer tissue samples with long-term follow up. Methods The miR-21 expression levels were quantified (qRT-PCR in a panel of 86 cases of invasive breast carcinomas in relation to metastasis free survival. The cellular radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells after irradiation was determined comparing two cell lines (T47D and MDA-MB-361 by cell proliferation and colony forming assays. The influence of miR-21 overexpression or downregulation on cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint arrest after irradiation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Results The expression of miR-21 was transiently increased 8 hours after irradiation in the radioresistant T47D cells and significantly changed with lower extent in radiosensitive MDA-MB-361 cells. Anti-miR-21 treated breast cancer cells failed to exhibit the DNA damage-G2 checkpoint increase after irradiation. Apoptotic activity was significantly enhanced from 7% to 27% in T47D cells and from 18% to 30% in MDA-MB-361 cells 24 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. Additionally, we characterized expression of miR-21 in invasive breast carcinomas. In comparison to non-cancerous adjacent breast tissue, tumours samples had increased miR-21 expression that inversely correlated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients (p = 0.029. Conclusions Our data indicate that miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells contributes to radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression. These data point to the potential of combining radiotherapy with an anti-miR-21 as a potent G2/M check point inhibitor in overcoming radiation resistance of tumours.

  7. Chemical chacterization of biofuel exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedynska, A.D.; Tromp, P.C.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Kooter, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Use of biodiesel is increasing following implementation of various policy instruments and a surge in demand due to growing urbanized populations. A series of experiments to characterize the chemical composition of emissions generated during combustion of petro-diesel (B0), biodiesel blends (B5, B10,

  8. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  9. An autopsy case of acute cor pulmonale and paradoxical systemic embolism due to tumour cell microemboli in a patient with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Sayuri; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Matsukage, Sho-ichi; Hamada, Mareomi

    2012-09-30

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe respiratory distress. Diagnostic imaging studies suggested the existence of inexplicable cor pulmonale. Although we immediately sought the aetiology of her severe condition, she died suddenly on the fourth day after admission. Postmortem autopsy revealed tumour cell microemboli in the small pulmonary arteries. In addition, tumour cell embolisation identical to that in primary breast cancer cells was also observed in microvessels in systemic multiple organs, such as the liver, brain, kidneys, spleen, uterus, bone marrow and adrenal glands-with simultaneous findings of peripheral infarction. Systemic tumour cell embolism mediated through the patent foramen ovale superimposed on pulmonary tumour cell emboli (PTCE) is considered to be the mechanism underlying inexplicable cor pulmonale. The rapid aggravation of her condition terminated in death.

  10. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  11. Exhaust gas side corrosion of oil fired central heating boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-09-01

    While Swiss boiler producers aim primarily at achieving low exhaust gas temperatures, in our northern neighbouring country, lower boiler water temperatures are being set as favourite objectives to be met. The first method aims at reducing the exhaust gas losses, i.e. of the heat content of the exhaust gases; the second one aims at reducing service life losses (= losses in the off-air of the boiler). Flue-gas caused corrosion, however, sets practical limits to the energy-saving reduction of the exhaust gas and boiler water temperatures. To be able to define this practical limit more exactly is the main goal of this project which is supported by NEFF and which is carried out in cooperation with the Institute for Energy Engineering of the ETHZ (Professor P. Suter). In addition to this, however, the author also head to find out about sill inexplained cases of corrosion in boilers which are being operated correctly, i.e. with comparably high boiler water and exhaust gas temperatures.

  12. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang

    2011-01-01

    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  13. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  14. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyticalsensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust ofShanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its correspondingx-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There arc manykinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harnful to people,such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. We found that the lead concentration was 6820μg/g andthe bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leadedgasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. We havealso detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its contentvaries from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highestreached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while theleaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to thehuman beings.

  15. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  16. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  17. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  18. Chemical characterization and in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particulate matter generated under varying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David P.; Drury, Bertram E.; Gould, Timothy R.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Paulsen, Michael H.; Sheppard, Lianne; Simpson, Christopher D.; Stewart, James A.; Larson, Timothy V.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution). Selected exposure concentrations of both diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and DE gases, DEP oxidative reactivity via DTT activity, and in vitro DEP toxicity in murine endothelial cells were measured for each DE atmosphere. Cell toxicity was assessed via measurement of cell proliferation (colony formation assay), cell viability (MTT assay), and wound healing (scratch assay). Differences in DE composition were observed as a function of engine load. The mean 1-nitropyrene concentration was 15 times higher and oxidative reactivity was two times higher for low engine load versus high load. There were no substantial differences in measured toxicity among the three DE exposure parameters. These results indicate that alteration of applied engine load shifts the composition and can modify the biological reactivity of DE. While engine conditions did not affect the selected in vitro toxicity measures, the change in oxidative reactivity suggests that toxicological studies with DE need to take into account engine conditions in characterizing biological effects. PMID:26539254

  19. Renal infarction due to polyarteritis nodosa in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and a brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosio Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is one of the most common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (15-20% of all cases, accounting for approximately 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It often presents autoimmune phenomena including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephrities and circulating immune complexes. Polyarteritis nodosa is an autoimmune disease characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of medium vessels, which rarely develops in association with hematological malignant disorders. Herein we report the case of a 40-year-old man who underwent lymph node biopsy in the suspicious of sarcoidosis. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was performed. The patient was successfully treated with cytarabine-based regimen for 6 cycles. Three months after the initial diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, a whole body computed tomography showed a lesion in the lower pole of the left kidney. Renal cell carcinoma was suspected, thus a nephrectomy was carried out. The histological findings were compatible with polyarteritis nodosa. To the best of our knowledge, the association between polyarteritis nodosa and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma has been described only once. This relation may be secondary to the induction of an autoimmune phenomenon by the lymphoma with the formation of circulating immune complexes, leading to vessels walls injury. A careful evaluation is needed in the management of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients with signs of renal failure in order to avoid delay of treatment and organ damage.

  20. Renal infarction due to polyarteritis nodosa in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and a brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ginori, Alessandro; Onorati, Monica; Fabbri, Alberto; Carmellini, Mario; Lazzi, Stefano; Tripodi, Sergio

    2012-05-08

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is one of the most common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (15-20% of all cases), accounting for approximately 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It often presents autoimmune phenomena including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephrities and circulating immune complexes. Polyarteritis nodosa is an autoimmune disease characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of medium vessels, which rarely develops in association with hematological malignant disorders. Herein we report the case of a 40-year-old man who underwent lymph node biopsy in the suspicious of sarcoidosis. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was performed. The patient was successfully treated with cytarabine-based regimen for 6 cycles. Three months after the initial diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, a whole body computed tomography showed a lesion in the lower pole of the left kidney. Renal cell carcinoma was suspected, thus a nephrectomy was carried out. The histological findings were compatible with polyarteritis nodosa. To the best of our knowledge, the association between polyarteritis nodosa and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma has been described only once. This relation may be secondary to the induction of an autoimmune phenomenon by the lymphoma with the formation of circulating immune complexes, leading to vessels walls injury. A careful evaluation is needed in the management of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients with signs of renal failure in order to avoid delay of treatment and organ damage.

  1. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs in slice preparations of entorhinal cells, have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K+ and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning, oscillatory dynamics, and navigational behaviors.

  2. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting observations have been reported concerning the role of CD1d-dependent natural killer T (NKT) cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS), supporting either a disease-promoting or downregulatory function. We studied the role of NKT cells in CHS by comparing the immune response in CD1d.......5% DNCB (w/v) on the ears fifteen days later. We demonstrate that CD1d KO mice, as compared with Wt littermates, have more pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells in the skin (29.1% increase; P

  3. Exhaust gas emission from a two-stroke engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippitsch, H.H.; Eichlseder, H.

    1986-01-01

    According to present day ideas, carbon monoxide CO, hydrocarbons HC and nitrogen oxide NO are regarded as harmful substances in the exhaust gas and are therefore limited by law in some countries. After a survey of the regulations in Europe and the USA, the origin of these substances in a two-stroke engine is briefly described. The effect of the type of engine is then shown by results from various engines. It was found that emission can be drastically reduced by new engine designs. The introduction of exhaust gas regulations in Austria has caused the firm of Bombadier-Rotax to intensify their development work in this field. The state of exhaust gas emission of present day mass-produced engines was compared with previous engines at this opportunity.

  4. Radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1959-07-13

    The 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust is continuously sampled for the purpose of estimating the amount of radioactive (alpha emitting) material discharged to the atmosphere. Although a record is kept of the gross amount of radioactive material discharged, few data are available concerning the size and kind of active particles in the exhaust air. Knowledge of the particle size permits: (1) an estimate of the validity of samples drawn through the sampling system, (2) a better knowledge of what the active particle ground deposition pattern might be, and (3) may provide information relating to filter performance. The kind of radioactive material discharged is important in determining relative health hazards. The object of this work was to determine the size and kind of radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust. A secondary objective was to review present routine sampling of the stream with particular regard to the particulates to be sampled.

  5. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF FILLING AND EXHAUSTING PROCESS IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The filling and exhausting processes in a pneumatic system are involved with many factors,and numerical solutions of many partial differential equations are always adapted in the study of those processes, which have been proved to be troublesome and less intuitive. Analytical solutions based on loss-less tube model and average friction tube model are found respectively by using fluid net theory,and they fit the experimental results well. The research work shows that: Fluid net theory can be used to solve the analytical solution of filling and exhausting processes of pneumatic system, and the result of loss-less tube model is close to that of average friction model, so loss-less tube model is recommended since it is simpler, and the difference between filling time and exhausting time is determined by initial and final pressures, the volume of container and the section area of tube, and has nothing to do with the length of the tube.

  6. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  7. Alteration in buccal mucosal cells due to the effect of tobacco and alcohol by assessing the silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions and micronuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Tobacco and alcohol consumption produce alteration in apparently normal buccal mucosal cells, which may cumulatively lead to carcinomatous changes. Result of these changes may be used as educational tool in cessation of habits.

  8. Orally administered Salacia reticulata extract reduces H1N1 influenza clinical symptoms in murine lung tissues putatively due to enhanced natural killer cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Romero-Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE, a plant rich in phytochemicals such as salacinol, kotalanol and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro NK cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  9. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  10. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  11. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  12. Use of electromyography to detect muscle exhaustion in finishing barrows fed ractopamine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, J A; Broxterman, R M; McCoy, G M; Craig, J C; Phelps, K J; Burnett, D D; Vaughn, M A; Barstow, T J; O'Quinn, T G; Woodworth, J C; DeRouchey, J M; Rozell, T G; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dietary ractopamine HCl (RAC) on muscle fiber characteristics and electromyography (EMG) measures of finishing barrow exhaustion when barrows were subjected to increased levels of activity. Barrows ( = 34; 92 ± 2 kg initial BW) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a conventional swine finishing diet containing 0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl (CON) or a diet formulated to meet the requirements of finishing barrows fed 10 mg/kg RAC (RAC+). After 32 d on feed, barrows were individually moved around a track at 0.79 m/s until subjectively exhausted. Wireless EMG sensors were affixed to the deltoideus (DT), triceps brachii lateral head (TLH), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles to measure median power frequency (MdPF) and root mean square (RMS) as indicators of action potential conduction velocity and muscle fiber recruitment, respectively. After harvest, samples of each muscle were collected for fiber type, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and capillary density analysis. Speed was not different ( = 0.82) between treatments, but RAC+ barrows reached subjective exhaustion earlier and covered less distance than CON barrows ( 0.29). There was a treatment × muscle interaction ( = 0.04) for end-point RMS values. The RAC diet did not change end-point RMS values in the DT or TLH ( > 0.37); however, the diet tended to decrease and increase end-point RMS in the ST and TFL, respectively ( fiber type, SDH, or capillary density measures ( > 0.10). Muscles of RAC+ barrows tended to have less type I fibers and more capillaries per fiber ( fibers of RAC+ barrows were larger ( fibers and larger type I, IIA, and IIX fibers ( fibers of the ST also contained less SDH compared with the other muscles ( fibers in the ST, possibly due to fibers being larger and less oxidative in metabolism. Size increases in type I and IIA fibers with no change in oxidative capacity could also contribute to early exhaustion of RAC

  13. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  14. Active Noise Control for Vehicle Exhaust Noise Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克强; 杨殿阁; 郑四发; 连小珉; 田中丈晴

    2003-01-01

    An active noise control (ANC) method was developed for exhaust noise reduction for medium-duty diesel trucks. A modified variable step size least mean squares (LMS) algorithm was used for the controller in a variable environment that considered the vehicle's acceleration characteristics. The variable step size time-based synchronized filtered-x LMS method (SFX-TB) used an adaptive algorithm that was more efficient than the conventional filtered-x LMS algorithm. The simulation and the experimental tests show that the control trackability and stability provided by the algorithm during acceleration enable the ANC system to effectively reduce the vehicle exhaust noise.

  15. Optimal depletion of exhaustible resources: existence and characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, T.

    1980-09-01

    A model of intertemporal allocation is considered in which there is a produced good (which can be used for consumption or for further production), and an exhaustible resource (which is essential for production), the total initial stock of which is given. The use of the resource over the (infinite) planning horizon must not exceed this available stock. A planner is assumed to evaluate consumption in each period, in terms of a utility function, and to maximize the undiscounted sum of these one-period utilities, to obtain, simultaneously, the optimal depletion of the exhaustible resource, and the optimal investment pattern. 20 references.

  16. Dynamics of aircraft exhaust plumes in the jet-regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    Full Text Available A computational model describing the two-dimensional, turbulent mixing of a single jet of exhaust gas from aircraft engines with the ambient atmosphere is presented. The underlying assumptions and governing equations are examined and supplemented by a discussion of analytical solutions. As an application, the jet dynamics of a B747-400 aircraft engine in cruise and its dependence on key parameters is investigated in detail. The computer code for this dynamical model is computationally fast and can easily be coupled to complex chemical and microphysical models in order to perform comprehensive studies of atmospheric effects from aircraft exhaust emissions in the jet regime.

  17. Activated carbon use in treating diesel engine exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Babyak, R.A. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several active carbon materials were observed to be particularly effective in processes for the removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases. This paper describes the application of active carbon materials to two diesel engine exhaust gases at McClellan AFB in California. More specifically, one application involved a large diesel engine that supplies emergency power at the Base, and the second involved a mobile diesel-fueled generator that provides auxiliary power to aircraft. The designs of systems to control emissions for each application are discussed, and the results of tests on laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale systems are presented.

  18. Non-methane hydrocarbon composition of car exhaust in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszpra, Laszio; Szilagyi, Istvan

    A one-day tunnel experiment was performed in downtown Budapest to measure the average non-methane hydrocarbon composition of the exhaust of the Hungarian car fleet. It was found that the exhaust is richer in gasoline-originated alkanes in Hungary than in the United States of America for which data for comparison were available. This phenomenon may be caused by the extended usage of cars equipped with two-stroke engines and by the lower efficiency of the engines in general but the effect of the different composition of the gasoline cannot be excluded either.

  19. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann;

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... that microdialysis can be used to determine muscle [K+]i kinetics during intense exercise, when low-intensity exercise is performed before the intense exercise. The high [K+]i levels reached at exhaustion can be expected to cause fatigue, which is supported by the finding that a faster accumulation of interstitial K...

  20. Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection impairs HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim imbalance due to CD127 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrubia, J R; Lokhande, M U; García-Garzón, S; Miquel, J; González-Praetorius, A; Parra-Cid, T; Sanz-de-Villalobos, E

    2013-02-01

    In persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reactivity is impaired and this affects HCV control. Interleukin-7 receptor (CD127) expression on these cells could regulate CTL reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim balance modulation. Bim is a pro-apoptotic molecule blocked by the action of Mcl-1. Mcl-1/Bim expression and T cell reactivity on HCV-specific CTLs were compared according to CD127 phenotype. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from HLA-A2(+) HCV(+) patients were obtained. HCV-specific CTLs were visualized by staining PBL with anti-CD8 and HLA-A2/peptide pentameric complexes (pentamer). Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 phenotype of HCV-specific CTLs was tested by staining detectable CD8(+)/pentamer(+) cells with anti-Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 antibodies. HCV-specific CTL proliferation ability after specific in vitro challenge was tested in the presence and absence of pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. All stained cells were analysed by flow cytometry. CD127(low)-expressing HCV-specific CTLs associated with high HCV viraemia, while CD127(high) correlated with undetectable viral loads (P Bim was up-regulated after antigen encounter (P Bim expression on pentamer(+) cells correlated positively with CD127 expression level (P Bim up-regulation after antigen encounter are involved in CD127(low) HCV-specific CTL hyporeactivity during chronic infection, but it can be overcome by apoptosis blockade.

  1. Extended short-wavelength spectral response of organic/(silver nanoparticles/Si nanoholes nanocomposite films) hybrid solar cells due to localized surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhixin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Wengping; Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su, Weining; Yu, Yao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films were fabricated. • An enhancement of total absorption in the AgNPs/SiNHs nanocomposite films at the short wavelength was exhibited. • Prototype solar cell device with AgNPs exhibits an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3. - Abstract: In this letter, we investigated spectral and opto-electronic conversion properties of the inorganic/organic hybrid cells by using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films, which were fabricated by the modified metal-assisted electroless etching (EE) method. It was found that the optical absorption spectra of the films with AgNPs demonstrate a clear peak and show the enhancement of total absorption at the short wavelength. The results of current–voltage (I–V) measurements show that solar cells with AgNPs exhibit an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3, in comparison with those of the samples without AgNPs. Moreover, higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) values in AgNPs-decorated solar cells were confirmed in the short-wavelength spectral region (400–700 nm), which were essential to achieve high-performance photovoltaic cells. We thought these were mainly attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects and increased light scattering of AgNPs.

  2. Primary Sjögren syndrome presenting with hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia following delivery due to Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and hemophagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaru, Yohei; Higuchi, Takakazu; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Haji, Youichiro; Okada, Masato; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Okada, Sadamu

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with hemolytic anemia without a reticulocyte response 38 days after delivery. A marked reduction in erythroid cells and an increase in macrophages with active hemophagocytosis were noted in the bone marrow. While conventional Coombs' tests were negative, the level of red blood cell (RBC)-bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) was increased. The patient was diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) based on her symptoms, positive anti-SS-A antibodies, Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia associated with RBC-bound IgG and hemophagocytosis. The unique presentation was considered to be a consequence of immunological derangement associated with pSS, pregnancy and delivery.

  3. A new model of strabismic amblyopia: Loss of spatial acuity due to increased temporal dispersion of geniculate X-cell afferents on to cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    2015-09-01

    Although the neural locus of strabismic amblyopia has been shown to lie at the first site of binocular integration, first in cat and then in primate, an adequate mechanism is still lacking. Here we hypothesise that increased temporal dispersion of LGN X-cell afferents driven by the deviating eye onto single cortical neurons may provide a neural mechanism for strabismic amblyopia. This idea was investigated via single cell extracellular recordings of 93 X and 50 Y type LGN neurons from strabismic and normal cats. Both X and Y neurons driven by the non-deviating eye showed shorter latencies than those driven by either the strabismic or normal eyes. Also the mean latency difference between X and Y neurons was much greater for the strabismic cells compared with the other two groups. The incidence of lagged X-cells driven by the deviating eye of the strabismic cats was higher than that of LGN X-cells from normal animals. Remarkably, none of the cells recorded from the laminae driven by the non-deviating eye were of the lagged class. A simple computational model was constructed in which a mixture of lagged and non-lagged afferents converge on to single cortical neurons. Model cut-off spatial frequencies to a moving grating stimulus were sensitive to the temporal dispersion of the geniculate afferents. Thus strabismic amblyopia could be viewed as a lack of developmental tuning of geniculate lags for neurons driven by the amblyopic eye. Monocular control of fixation by the non-deviating eye is associated with reduced incidence of lagged neurons, suggesting that in normal vision, lagged neurons might play a role in maintaining binocular connections for cortical neurons.

  4. Multifrequency permittivity measurements enable on-line monitoring of changes in intracellular conductivity due to nutrient limitations during batch cultivations of CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Sven; Esteban, Geoffrey; Schmid, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Lab and pilot scale batch cultivations of a CHO K1/dhfr(-) host cell line were conducted to evaluate on-line multifrequency permittivity measurements as a process monitoring tool. The beta-dispersion parameters such as the characteristic frequency (f(C)) and the permittivity increment (Deltaepsilon(max)) were calculated on-line from the permittivity spectra. The dual-frequency permittivity signal correlated well with the off-line measured biovolume and the viable cell density. A significant drop in permittivity was monitored at the transition from exponential growth to a phase with reduced growth rate. Although not reflected in off-line biovolume measurements, this decrease coincided with a drop in OUR and was probably caused by the depletion of glutamine and a metabolic shift occurring at the same time. Sudden changes in cell density, cell size, viability, capacitance per membrane area (C(M)), and effects caused by medium conductivity (sigma(m)) could be excluded as reasons for the decrease in permittivity. After analysis of the process data, a drop in f(C) as a result of a fall in intracellular conductivity (sigma(i)) was identified as responsible for the observed changes in the dual-frequency permittivity signal. It is hypothesized that the beta-dispersion parameter f(C) is indicative of changes in nutrient availability that have an impact on intracellular conductivity sigma(i). On-line permittivity measurements consequently not only reflect the biovolume but also the physiological state of mammalian cell cultures. These findings should pave the way for a better understanding of the intracellular state of cells and render permittivity measurements an important tool in process development and control.

  5. Abrogation of anti-retinal autoimmunity in IL-10 transgenic mice due to reduced T cell priming and inhibition of disease effector mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajeev K; Horai, Reiko; Viley, Angelia M; Silver, Phyllis B; Grajewski, Rafael S; Su, Shao Bo; Yazdani, Arrash T; Zhu, Wei; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Murray, Peter J; Rutschman, Robert L; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2008-04-15

    Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced by immunization of animals with retinal Ags is a model for human uveitis. The immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 regulates EAU susceptibility and may be a factor in genetic resistance to EAU. To further elucidate the regulatory role of endogenous IL-10 in the mouse model of EAU, we examined transgenic (Tg) mice expressing IL-10 either in activated T cells (inducible) or in macrophages (constitutive). These IL-10-Tg mice and non-Tg wild-type controls were immunized with a uveitogenic regimen of the retinal Ag interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Constitutive expression of IL-10 in macrophages abrogated disease and reduced Ag-specific immunological responses. These mice had detectable levels of IL-10 in sera and in ocular extracts. In contrast, expression of IL-10 in activated T cells only partially protected from EAU and marginally reduced Ag-specific responses. All IL-10-Tg lines showed suppression of Ag-specific effector cytokines. APC from Tg mice constitutively expressing IL-10 in macrophages exhibited decreased ability to prime naive T cells, however, Ag presentation to already primed T cells was not compromised. Importantly, IL-10-Tg mice that received interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-specific uveitogenic T cells from wild-type donors were protected from EAU. We suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IL-10 ameliorates the development of EAU by suppressing de novo priming of Ag-specific T cells and inhibiting the recruitment and/or function of inflammatory leukocytes, rather than by inhibiting local Ag presentation within the eye.

  6. Gain of Cellular Adaptation Due to Prolonged p53 Impairment Leads to Functional Switchover from p53 to p73 during DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays the central role in regulating apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. From an evolutionary perspective, the activity of p53 has to be backed up by other protein(s) in case of any functional impairment of this protein, to trigger DNA damage-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. We adopted multiple experimental approaches to demonstrate that in p53-impaired cancer cells, DNA damage caused accumulation of p53 paralogue p73 via Chk-1 that strongly impacted Bax expressi...

  7. Risk of discontinuation of nevirapine due to toxicities in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected patients with high and low CD4+ T-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Staszewski, Schlomo; Weber, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    It is unknown whether the increased risk of toxicities in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients initiating nevirapine-based (NVPc) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with high CD4+ T-cell counts is also observed when NVPc is initiated in cARTexperienced patients.......It is unknown whether the increased risk of toxicities in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients initiating nevirapine-based (NVPc) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with high CD4+ T-cell counts is also observed when NVPc is initiated in cARTexperienced patients....

  8. Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

    1999-06-01

    While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity.

  9. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  11. Crizotinib (PF-2341066) induces apoptosis due to downregulation of pSTAT3 and BCL-2 family proteins in NPM-ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Farid Saei; Cinar, Munevver; Mo, Zhicheng; Cervania, Melissa A; Amin, Hesham M; Alkan, Serhan

    2014-04-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is an aberrant fusion gene product with tyrosine kinase activity and is expressed in substantial subset of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). It has been shown that NPM-ALK binds to and activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Although NPM-ALK(+) ALCL overall shows a better prognosis, there is a sub-group of patients who relapses and is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. NPM-ALK is a potential target for small molecule kinase inhibitors. Crizotinib (PF-2341066) is a small, orally bioavailable molecule that inhibits growth of tumors with ALK activity as shown in a subgroup of non-small lung cancer patients with EML4-ALK expression. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of Crizotinib in ALCL cell line with NPM-ALK fusion. Crizotinib induced marked downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation, which was associated with significant apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis induction was attributed to caspase-3 cleavage and marked downregulation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins including MCL-1. These findings implicate that Crizotinib has excellent potential to treat patients with NPM-ALK(+) ALCL through induction of apoptotic cell death and downregulation of major oncogenic proteins in this aggressive lymphoma.

  12. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium–Tin–Oxide Mie Scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D.; van Hoof, N. J. J.; Cui, Y.; van Veldhoven, P. J.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Rivas, Gomez; Haverkort, J. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to l

  13. Pseudo-2D polarization model of polymer exchange membrane fuel cell including mass transport limitation due to flooding : numerical simulation and comparison with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranzana, G.; Chupin, S.; Colinart, T.; Lottin, O.; Didierjean, S. [Nancy-Univ., Vandoeuvre (France). Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee

    2007-07-01

    The electrodes of proton membrane exchange (PEM) fuel cells are fed by gases, whose properties are changing during their transition from the inlet to the outlet of the channels. For example, the reactant concentration decreases and the water concentration increases, the total pressure diminishes, the temperature is dependent on the local current density, and liquid water may appear or disappear. The electrode performances are not uniform, which can have impacts on the entire performances of the cell or on its durability. In order to observe and model these non-homogeneities, this paper presented an experimental study that involved designing, building, and testing a single PEM fuel cell that allowed measurement of both current density and temperature fields along the gas channels. The fuel cell was made of transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) so that the location of liquid water appearance in the channels could be observed. The first experimental results were compared with the predictions of a pseudo-2D model which assumed mass transfer to occur in the direction perpendicular to the membrane, but took into account the variations in concentrations, in total pressure, and in temperatures along the gas channels. It was concluded that the current density distribution depended greatly on water management. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Upregulation of the transcription factor TFEB in t(6;11)(p21;q13)-positive renal cell carcinomas due to promoter substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, RP; Schepens, M; Thijssen, J; van Asseldonk, M; van den Berg, E; Bridge, J; Schuuring, E; Schoenmakers, EFPM; van Kessel, AG

    2003-01-01

    The MITF/TFE subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factors consists of four closely related members, TFE3, TFEB, TFEC and MITF, which can form both homo- and heterodimers. Previously, we demonstrated that in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive renal cell carcinomas (RCCs),

  15. Lung metastasis fails in MMTV-PyMT oncomice lacking S100A4 due to a T-cell deficiency in primary tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between tumor and stroma cells are essential for the progression of cancer from its initial growth at a primary site to its metastasis to distant organs. The metastasis-stimulating protein S100A4 exerts its function as a stroma cell-derived factor. Genetic depletion of S100A4...... significantly reduced the metastatic burden in lungs of PyMT-induced mammary tumors. In S100A4(+/+) PyMT mice, massive leukocyte infiltration at the site of the growing tumor at the stage of malignant transition was associated with increased concentration of extracellular S100A4 in the tumor microenvironment....... In contrast, in S100A4(-/-) PyMT tumors, a significant suppression of T-cell infiltration was documented at the transition period. In vitro, the S100A4 protein mediated the attraction of T cells. Moreover, S100A4(+/+), but not S100A4(-/-), fibroblasts stimulated the invasion of T lymphocytes into fibroblast...

  16. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  17. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  18. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)). (B) ER06OC93.235 Where: (iv) Vo = Volume of gas pumped by the positive displacement pump, in cubic... displacement pump. (See calibration techniques in § 86.519.) (v) N = Number of revolutions of the positive... pump, kPa. (viii) Tp = Average temperature of dilute exhaust entering positive displacement pump...

  19. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exhaust gas dilution function at the motorcycle tailpipe exit. (3) Positive displacement pump. The Positive Displacement Pump-Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS), Figure F90-1 satisfies the first condition by... the revolutions made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional samples...

  20. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using analytic

  1. A Preliminary Model of Infrared Image Generation for Exhaust Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the irradiance calculation of all pixels on the focal plane array, a preliminary infrared imaging prediction model of exhaust plume that have considered the geometrical and the thermal resolution of the camera was developed to understanding the infrared characteristics of exhaust plume. In order to compute the irradiance incident on each pixel, the gas radiation transfer path in the plume for the instantaneous field of view corresponds to the pixel was solved by the simultaneous equation of a enclosure cylinder which covers the exhaust plume and the line of sight. Radiance of the transfer path was calculated by radiation transfer equation for nonscattering gas. The radiative properties of combustion needed in the equation was provided by employing Malkmus model with EM2C narrow band database(25cm-1. The pressure, species concentration along the path was determination by CFD analysis. The relative irradiance intensity of each pixel was converted to color in the display according to gray map coding and hot map coding. Infrared image of the exhaust plumes from a subsonic axisymmetric nozzle with different relative position of camera and the plume was predicted with the model. By changing the parameters, such as FOV and space resolution, the image of different imaging system can be predicted.

  2. Exhaustion and Technological Development: a macro-dynamic policy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractThe main components of the problem complex posed by the Club of Rome are what the joint effect will be, and how it can be influenced, of (i) population growth, (ii) increase of pollution, (iii) the exhaustion of material resources and (iv) technological development. From the discussions

  3. Stratospheric aluminum oxide. [possibly from solid-fuel rocket exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Tomandl, D.; Ferry, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    Balloons and U-2 aircraft were used to collect micrometer-sized stratospheric aerosols. It was discovered that for the past 6 years at least, aluminum oxide spheres have been the major stratospheric particulate in the size range from 3 to 8 micrometers. The most probable source of the spheres is the exhaust from solid-fuel rockets.

  4. Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

  5. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  6. Herpes viruses, cytokines, and altered hemostasis in vital exhaustion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Diest, R. van; Hamulyak, K.; Maes, M.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Appels, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections with herpes viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that vital exhaustion (VE) is associated with multiple herpesvirus infections, such as herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus

  7. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  8. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  9. Characterization of Soy Biodiesel Exhaust and Toxicological Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biofuel use across the world is increasing, very little is known about possible health effects resulting from biofuel exhaust (BE) from this relatively new source of transportation fuel. The U.S. EPA has instigated an in vivo screening approach in rodents to examine whet...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust-flow calibration. 1065.330 Section 1065.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... installing a flow meter with an off-site calibration, we recommend that you consider the effects of...

  11. Effects of diesel exhaust on influenza-induced nasal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title: Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Influenza-Induced Nasal Inflammation T L Noah, MD1,2, K Horvath, BS3, C Robinette, RN2, 0 Diaz Sanchez, PhD4 and I Jaspers, PhD1,2. 1UNC Dept. of Pediatrics, United States; 2UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, ...

  12. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken ho

  13. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  14. T lymphocyte surface expression of exhaustion markers as biomarkers of the efficacy of chemotherapy for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Irwin, Scott M.; Shang, Shaobin; Ordway, Diane; Orme, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Predictive biomarkers illustrating the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic regimens for tuberculosis still remain elusive. To date, most are predicated on assays using sputum or serum; as a result, if not predictive, treatment failure in patients may not be evident for some time. We report here the results of a simple screening study in which T cell surface markers were examined in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and then treated with drugs. These studies identified certain markers, the exhaustion markers PD-1 and TIM-3, as well as the marker KLRG-1, particularly on CD8 T cells, that changed in concert with reduction of the bacterial load in the lungs. While there is no guarantee these changes would also be seen on T cells in the blood, this approach should be further investigated. PMID:21530406

  15. Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia due to High-grade non Hodgkin's B cell Lymphoma with Weak Response to Rituximab and Chemotherapy Regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Nazel Khosroshahi, Behzad; Jafari, Mohammad; Vazini, Hossein; Ahmadi, Alireza; Shams, Keivan; Kholoujini, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by shortening of red blood cell (RBC) survival and the presence of autoantibodies directed against autologous RBCs. Approximately 20% of autoimmune hemolytic anemia cases are associated with cold-reactive antibody. About half of patients with AIHA have no underlying associated disease; these cases are termed primary or idiopathic. Secondary cases are associated with underlying diseases or with certain drugs. We report herein a rare case of c...

  16. Deafness in LIMP2-deficient mice due to early loss of the potassium channel KCNQ1/KCNE1 in marginal cells of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Marlies; Claussen, Cathrin; Rüttiger, Lukas; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Schröder, Jenny; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed a critical role of the lysosomal membrane protein LIMP2 in the regulation of membrane transport processes in the endocytic pathway. Here we show that LIMP2-deficient mice display a progressive high-frequency hearing loss and decreased otoacoustic emissions as early as 4 weeks of age. In temporal overlap to hearing impairment, fluorescence immunohistochemical studies revealed that the potassium channel KCNQ1 and its beta-subunit KCNE1 were almost completely lost in the luminal part of marginal cells in the stria vascularis, affecting first higher and later also lower frequency processing cochlear turns. Concomitant with this, the expression of megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor, was reduced in luminal surfaces of marginal cells within the stria vascularis. KCNQ1/KCNE1 and megalin were also lost in the dark cells of the vestibular system. Although LIMP2 is normally expressed in all cells of the stria vascularis, in the organ of Corti and cochlear neurons, the lack of LIMP2 preferentially caused a loss of KCNQ1/KCNE1 and megalin, and structural changes were only seen months later, indicating that these proteins are highly sensitive to disturbances in the lysosomal pathway. The spatio-temporal correlation of the loss of KCNQ1/KCNE1 surface expression and loss of hearing thresholds supports the notion that the decline of functional KCNQ1/KCNE1 is likely to be the primary cause of the hearing loss. Our findings suggest an important role for LIMP2 in the control of the localization and the level of apically expressed membrane proteins such as KCNQ1, KCNE1 and megalin in the stria vascularis.

  17. Gain of cellular adaptation due to prolonged p53 impairment leads to functional switchover from p53 to p73 during DNA damage in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Juni; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Ray, Pallab; Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Adhikary, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Das, Tanya; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2010-10-22

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays the central role in regulating apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. From an evolutionary perspective, the activity of p53 has to be backed up by other protein(s) in case of any functional impairment of this protein, to trigger DNA damage-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. We adopted multiple experimental approaches to demonstrate that in p53-impaired cancer cells, DNA damage caused accumulation of p53 paralogue p73 via Chk-1 that strongly impacted Bax expression and p53-independent apoptosis. On the contrary, when p53 function was restored by ectopic expression, Chk-2 induced p53 accumulation that in turn overshadowed p73 activity, suggesting an antagonistic interaction between p53 family members. To understand such interaction better, p53-expressing cells were impaired differentially for p53 activity. In wild-type p53-expressing cancer cells that were silenced for p53 for several generations, p73 was activated, whereas no such trend was observed when p53 was transiently silenced. Prolonged p53 interference, even in functional p53 settings, therefore, leads to the "gain of cellular adaptation" in a way that alters the cellular microenvironment in favor of p73 activation by altering p73-regulatory proteins, e.g. Chk1 activation and dominant negative p73 down-regulation. These findings not only unveil a hitherto unexplained mechanism underlying the functional switchover from p53 to p73, but also validate p73 as a promising and potential target for cancer therapy in the absence of functional p53.

  18. Growth arrest in the ribosomopathy, Bowen-Conradi syndrome, is due to dramatically reduced cell proliferation and a defect in mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Joy; Patel, Nehal; Wu, Xiaoli; Hemming, Richard; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Basra, Gagandeep Singh; Del Bigio, Marc R; Ding, Hao; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is a ribosomopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and growth failure that typically leads to death by one year of age. It is caused by a c.257A>G, p.D86G substitution in the ribosomal biogenesis protein, Essential for Mitotic Growth 1 (EMG1). We generated a knock-in of the D86G substitution in mice to characterize the effects of EMG1 deficiency, particularly in the brain, where EMG1 expression is high. Embryos homozygous for the mutation in Emg1 were small for gestational age with neural tube defects, and died between embryonic days 8.5 and 12.5. These embryos exhibited dramatically reduced cell proliferation, which we also detected in autopsy brain tissue and bone marrow of BCS patients, consistent with a requirement for high levels of EMG1 in tissues with rapid cell proliferation. In fibroblasts derived from the BCS mouse embryos, we detected a high proportion of binucleated cells, indicating that a mitotic defect underlies the growth arrest in BCS. These studies add to growing evidence of a link between ribosome biogenesis, mitotic progression, and brain development that is currently unexplored.

  19. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Y. G.; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2015-10-01

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.

  20. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y. G., E-mail: y.fedorenko@liverpool.ac.uk; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K. [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Chadwick Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.