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Sample records for cell dye z-907

  1. Thiocyanate ligand substitution kinetics of the solar cell dye Z-907 by 3-methoxypropionitrile and 4-tert-butylpyridine at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Degn, Rikke; Nguyen, Thai Hoang

    2009-01-01

    The dye sensitized solar cell dye Z-907, [RuLL´(NCS)2] may loose a thiocyanate ligand at elevated temperatures (80-100 ºC) by ligand exchange with the solar cell additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) or the electrolyte solvent 3-methoxypropionitrile (3-MPN). The mechanism in homogeneous solution...... by HPLC coupled to UV/Vis and electrospray mass spectrometry. A half life time t1/2 = 150 h was obtained for the Z-907 dye bound to TiO2 nano crystalline particles at 85 ºC in presence of 4-TBP and 3-MPN. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) with Z-907 as sensitizer and application of the so called “non...... robust” electrolytes containing 4-TBP and 3-MPN is therefore not expected to be able to pass a 1000 h thermal stress test at 85 ºC. Addition of thiocyanate to the cell electrolyte may however, eliminate or reduce the problems caused by dye thiocyanate ligand substitution in DSC cells....

  2. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

    Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam...

  3. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The influence of the addition of dye surface modifier on the performance of transparent dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Erlyta Septa; Shobih, Retnaningsih, Lilis; Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo

    2017-11-01

    The light-harvesting properties and charge injection kinetics of dye molecules play a significant role to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Dyes based on metal complexes with ruthenium complexes also a variety of metal-organic dyes such as Zn-porphyrin derivatives have been used. The requirements for dye to function as a photosensitizer in DSSC are the absorption in the visible or near-infrared regions of the solar spectrum and the binding to the semiconductor TiO2. In order to interact with the TiO2 surface it is preferable that the dye has a functional group as anchoring group such as carboxylic or other peripheral acidic. The carboxylic group is the most frequently used anchoring group, as in ruthenium-complex based dyes. However, carboxylic acid as an anchoring group is still not enough for conducting in electron injection to TiO2. In this research, 0.87 mg phosphonic acid is added to N719 and Z907 ruthenium-complex based dyes, rspectively, as a surface modifier to strengthen the anchoring group. The addition of dyes surface modifier on the transparent DSSC device performance is investigated. Under illumination of 500 Wm-2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC using N719 ruthenium increases from 2.09 % to 3.22 % by the addition of surface modifier. However, different results are obtained on Z907 dye, where efficiency decreases from 2.02 % to 1.58 %.

  5. Ultradurable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under 120°C Using Cross-Linkage Dye and Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-bond-edged Ru dye (code name: SG1051 has been studied as a novel sensitizing dye for ultradurable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The SG1051 Ru dye showed the quick dye-uptake time (1 h for the optimized condition: η=9.2%, using volatile electrolyte and the strong adsorption strength compared with standard Ru dyes (N719 and Z907, which was checked by successive dipping of dye-adsorbed nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrodes into NaOH aqueous. solution and acetonitrile. The resulting DSCs using SG1051 Ru dye and ionic-liquid electrolyte survived the durability test at 120°C for 480 h, which can be the strong interest of the industrial groups.

  6. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  7. Novel Ru(II) sensitizers bearing an unsymmetrical pyridine-quinoline hybrid ligand with extended π-conjugation: synthesis and application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougioukalakis, Georgios C; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Kontos, Athanassios G; Pefkianakis, Eleftherios K; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos; Falaras, Polycarpos

    2013-05-14

    Heteroleptic ruthenium(II) sensitizers DV42 and DV51, encompassing a novel unsymmetrical pyridine-quinoline hybrid ligand with extended π-conjugation, were synthesized, characterized, and utilized in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells. Due to the extended conjugation of DV42 and DV51, the absorption of the corresponding sensitized TiO2 films extends into the red spectral range, shifted by 30-40 nm relative to the absorption of TiO2 films sensitized with the standard Z907 ruthenium(II) dye. Contact angle measurements of DV42- and DV51-sensitized TiO2 films suggest that these films are hydrophilic with contact angle values commonly observed upon sensitization with the standard N3 ruthenium(II) dye. Electrochemical studies of the novel ruthenium(II) dyes show that their first oxidation potentials lie well below the I(-)/I3(-) redox potential allowing easy regeneration. The excited-state oxidation potentials of both dyes lie above the TiO2 conduction band, permitting efficient electron injection from the excited dye molecules into the semiconductor conduction band. Liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating DV42- or DV51-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes afford overall power conversion efficiencies of 3.24 or 4.36% respectively. These efficiencies are up to 56% of the power conversion efficiencies attained by TiO2 photoelectrodes sensitized by the benchmark Z907 ruthenium(II) dye under similar experimental conditions.

  8. Thermal degradation chemistry of ruthenium complexes in the dye-sensitized solar cell and strategies for reducing the dark current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    In the last decades dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have extensively been studied. From an economical point of view, DSCs are of high interest because the manufacturing costs of DSCs devices are significantly lower compared with other solar devices such as silicon cells. One of the success...... on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In my lecture, I will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells...... transfer from the photo anode to the mediator R+ and the oxidized dye S+ we have applied electrochemical grafting strategies to attach an electrical isolation layer of mono and multilayers of organic molecules on the TiO2 photo anode [3]....

  9. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrical conversion efficiency. (η) of 10% at AM 1·5 solar radiation.12 Although. Z907 sensitized solar cell resulted in low efficiency. *For correspondence. J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 123, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 37–46. * Indian Academy of Sciences. 37 ...

  10. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  11. Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-01-01

    We report a new class of molecular insulators that electronically passivate the surface of nanocrystalline titania films for high performance dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Using electrical impedance measurements we demonstrate that co-adsorption of dineohexyl bis-(3,3-dimethyl-butyl)-phosphinic acid (DINHOP), along with the amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer Z907Na increased substantially the power output of the cells mainly due to a retardation of interfacial recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. The use of phosphinates as anchoring groups opens up new avenues for modification of the surface by molecular insulators, sensitizers and other electro-active molecules to realize the desired optoelectronic performance of devices based on oxide junctions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  13. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  14. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  15. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al 2O 3 recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al 2O 3 recombination barriers of varying thickness were incorporated into efficient ss-DSSCs utilizing the Z907 dye adsorbed onto a 2 μm-thick nanoporous TiO 2 active layer and the HTM spiro-OMeTAD. The impact of Al 2O 3 barriers was also studied in devices employing different dyes, with increased active layer thicknesses, and with substrates that did not undergo the TiCl 4 surface treatment. In all instances, electron lifetimes (as determined by transient photovoltage measurements) increased and dark current was suppressed after Al 2O 3 deposition. However, only when the TiCl 4 treatment was eliminated did device efficiency increase; in all other instances efficiency decreased due to a drop in short-circuit current. These results are attributed in the former case to the similar effects of Al 2O 3 ALD and the TiCl 4 surface treatment whereas the insulating properties of Al 2O 3 hinder charge injection and lead to current loss in TiCl 4-treated devices. The impact of Al 2O 3 barrier layers was unaffected by doubling the active layer thickness or using an alternative ruthenium dye, but a metal-free donor-π-acceptor dye exhibited a much smaller decrease in current due to its higher excited state energy. We develop a model employing prior research on Al 2O 3 growth and dye kinetics that successfully predicts the reduction in device current as a function of ALD cycles and is extendable to different dye-barrier systems. © This journal is the Owner Societies 2012.

  16. Mordant dyes as sensitisers in dye-sensitised solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, Keith R.; Fincher, Keith W.; King, A. Lee [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Textile and Fibre Technology, P.O. Box 21, Belmont, Vic. 3216 (Australia)

    2007-10-15

    Many mordant dyes commonly used in the textile industry form coordination complexes at the surface of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}. Dyes having a salicylate chelating group are particularly effective. Forty-nine commercial mordant dyes were studied as sensitisers in a non-optimised dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and their performance compared to the N3 ruthenium complex. Although N3 produced the highest output, six mordant dyes produced photocurrents >0.2 mA. UV-visible spectra of the dye-complexed photoanodes suggest that some mordant dyes are more strongly bound to the TiO{sub 2} surface than N3. Photocatalytic oxidation of these dyes does not appear to occur in a DSSC environment. (author)

  17. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  18. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2013-09-11

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale. © 2013 SPIE.

  19. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Metal Complex Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: ... Author Affiliations. N Sekar1 Vishal Y Gehlot. Dyestuff Technology Department Institute of Chemical Technology (Formerly UDCT) Nathalal Parekh Marg Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  20. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  1. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  2. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  3. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  4. Ru-dye grafted CdS and reduced graphene oxide Ru/CdS/rGO composite: An efficient and photo tuneable electrode material for solid state dye sensitized polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Iqbal, Zafar

    2017-02-01

    This article provides a facile one step synthesis of CdS (cadmium sulphide) and CdS/rGO (reduced graphene oxide CdS nanocomposites) using DMF (N, N-Dimethyl formamide) both as a solvent and a reducing agent for the reduction of grapheme oxide. XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (Field emission scanning electron microscopy), EDX (Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis), TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), UV-Vis (UV-visible) and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the characterization of prepared samples. The prepared nano-composite was photosensitized with three well known Ru (Ruthenium) dyes i.e. N3 [cis-Bis(isothiocyanato) bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato ruthenium(II))], N719 [Di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium (II)] and Z907 [cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)(4,4'-di-nonyl-2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)]. The effect of concentration and number of anchoring groups on the grafting was extensively studied in order to explore structure-activity relationship. Photosensitization of CdS/rGO nanocomposite was evidenced by UV-Visible, PL (Photoluminiscence), FT-IR (Fourier transform infra-red) spectroscopy and I-V (current-voltage measurements). The prepared samples were found as effective electrode materials for application in SSDSSCs (solid state dye sensitized solar cells) with a maximum output efficiency of 1.01% which is two times higher than the reference device under the same experimental conditions. The components of the synthesized nanohybrid material were found to be capable of providing a uni-directional and cascade path for the flow of electrons and holes in the desired directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting Solar-Cell Dyes for Cosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Sam L. [Cavendish; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Institute; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234, Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish; Liu, Xiaogang [Cavendish

    2014-06-19

    A major limitation of using organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been their lack of broad optical absorption. Co-sensitization, in which two complementary dyes are incorporated into a DSC, offers a route to combat this problem. Here we construct and implement a design route for materials discovery of new dyes for co-sensitization, beginning with a chemically compatible series of existing laser dyes which are without an anchor group necessary for DSC use. We determine the crystal structures for this dye series, and use their geometries to establish the DSC molecular design prerequisites aided by density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. Based on insights gained from these existing dyes, modified sensitizers are computationally designed to include a suitable anchor group. A DSC co-sensitization strategy for these modified sensitizers is predicted, using the central features of highest-occupied, and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital positioning, optical absorption properties, intramolecular charge-transfer characteristics, and steric effects as selection criteria. Through this molecular engineering of a series of existing non-DSC dyes, we predict new materials for DSC co-sensitization.

  6. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  7. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  9. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  10. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  13. The effect of 4-tert-butylpyridine and Li+ on the thermal degradation of TiO2 – bound ruthenium dye N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lund, Torben

    The ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structures [RuLL’(NCS)2)] degrade slowly at elevated temperatures (t > 80 ˚C) on the surface of nano-sized TiO2 particles. The degradation takes place by reversible nucleophilic substitution reactions in which one of the thiocyanate ligands ...

  14. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  16. Dye ingredients and energy conversion efficiency at natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbay Karakuş, Mücella; Koca, İrfan; Er, Orhan; Çetin, Hidayet

    2017-04-01

    In this work, natural dyes extracted from the same genus but different species flowers were used as sensitizer in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). To clearly show dye ingredients effect on electrical characteristics, the same genus flowers were selected. The dye ingredients were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The dyes were modified by a procedure that includes refluxing in acetone. All results indicate a relationship between gallic acid quantity in dyes and solar cell efficiency. To gain further insight, the solar cell parameters were obtained by using the single-diode and double-diode models and they were compared to each other. It was observed that the applied process causes a decrease in series resistance. How the modification process and gallic acid affect energy conversion efficiency were argued in detail in the frame of results that were obtained from solar cell models.

  17. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  18. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  20. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  1. Cosensitization of Ruthenium–Polypyridyl Dyes with Organic Dyes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Numata, Youhei; Zhang, Shufang; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    Cosensitization, a technique involving sensitization of a metal-oxide semiconductor electrode with two or more different dyes, is a promising strategy to enhance light-harvesting capabilities of dye...

  2. DFT Studies on the electronic structures of indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIE XU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of indoline dyes with promising efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were studied using the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g (d level. The ground-state geometries, electronic structures and absorption spectra of these dyes are reported. The calculated results indicate that the energy levels of the HOMOs and LUMOs of these dyes are advantageous for electron injection. Their intense and broad absorption bands as well as favorable excited-state energy levels are key factor for their outstanding efficiencies in DSSCs.

  3. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 13 November 2009 © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za CONTENT head2right...Background head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2rightCollaborations and Links head2rightAcknowledgements © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average...

  4. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over

  5. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, University of California Davis, Davis CA 95616 USA; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  6. Investigating dye-sensitised solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Laura L.; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-05-01

    At present there is considerable global concern in relation to environmental issues and future energy supplies, for instance climate change (global warming) and the rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources. This trepidation has initiated a more critical investigation into alternative and renewable sources of power such as geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind and solar energy. The immense dependence on electrical power in today's society has prompted the manufacturing of devices such as photovoltaic (PV) cells to help alleviate and replace current electrical demands of the power grid. The most popular and commercially available PV cells are silicon solar cells which have to date the greatest efficiencies for PV cells. The drawback however is that the manufacturing of these cells is complex and costly due to the expense and difficulty of producing and processing pure silicon. One relatively inexpensive alternative to silicon PV cells that we are currently studying are dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC or Grätzel Cells). DSSC are biomimetic solar cells which are based on the process of photosynthesis. The SFI Strategic Research Centre for Solar Energy Conversion is a research cluster based in Ireland formed with the express intention of bringing together industry and academia to produce renewable energy solutions. Our specific research area is in DSSC and their electrical properties. We are currently developing testing equipment for arrays of DSSC and developing optoelectronic models which todescribe the performance and behaviour of DSSCs.

  7. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  8. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively.

  9. Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

    2014-05-19

    A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2 mA cm(-2), Voc =0.783 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87 % (Jsc = 16.1 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.717 V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98 % with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7 mA cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62 %. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24 %. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  11. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) reengineering using TiO2 with natural dye (anthocyanin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subodro, Rohmat; Kristiawan, Budi; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Munawaroh, Hanik; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa

    2017-01-01

    This research on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) reengineering was carried out using TiO2 with natural dye (anthocyanin). The fabrication of active carbon layer/TiO2 DSSC solar cell was based on natural dye containing anthocyanins such as mangosteen peel, red rose flower, black glutinous rice, and purple eggplant peel. DSSC was prepared with TiO2 thin layer doped with active carbon; Natural dye was analyzed using UV-Vis and TiO2 was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), meanwhile scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to obtain the size of the crystal. Keithley instrument test was carried out to find out I-V characteristics indicating that the highest efficiency occurred in DSSCs solar cell with 24-hour soaking with mangosteen peel 0.00047%.

  12. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  13. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  14. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd M. Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titania films with a thickness of up to 20 μm and deposited over a fluorine-doped tin-oxide substrate are impregnated with ruthenium dyes N-719 and N-749 using Dip and supercritical-fluid methods for the purpose of fabricating dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol. Analytical studies included thin-film analyzing and scanning electron microscopy to measure titania film thickness and porosity, UV-Vis spectroscopy to quantify dye concentration, and current-voltage device characterizations to assess energy conversion efficiency, as well as open-circuit voltage decay measurements and quantum efficiency to examine electron collection efficiency. A significant result is that using the dye N-749 in a solvent that includes supercritical carbon dioxide leads to energy conversion efficiencies that are higher for devices with a thick 20 μm semiconductor film than for the case of devices with thinner films, including the 10 μm film thickness that is traditionally considered an upper threshold. The supercritical-fluid method for the N-719 dye also enabled shorter impregnation duration than more conventional classical Dip Methods.

  15. A high-light-harvesting-efficiency coumarin dye for stable dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.S.; Cui, Y.; Hara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Dan-oh, Y.; Kasada, C.; Shinpo, A. [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2007-04-20

    A new coumarin dye for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. It exhibits near-unity light harvesting efficiency and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency over a wide spectral region in 6 {mu}m transparent TiO{sub 2} films. DSSCs based on this metal-free organic dye show long-term stability and power-conversion efficiencies of around 6 % under continuous light-soaking stress for up to 1000 h. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  17. Third row metal complexes as an alternative dye in dye sensitized solar cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Badriyah, I.; Kristy, I. O.; Dewi, N. S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2013-10-01

    Copper(II), Cobalt (II) and Iron (II) complexes as photosensitizer on Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) had been investigated. The aim of this research is to find out the respond addition of those dyes on FTO/TiO2 (FTO = fluorine Tin Oxide) thin film to visible light and the effect of various third row complexes to DSSC performance. Slip casting method was used to fabricate FTO/TiO2 and FTO/carbon thin film. The result from FTO/TiO2 UV-Vis spectra show no absorption on visible light. Dye solution was synthesized from free metal ions of Cu(II), Co(II), and Fe(II) in methanol with diphenylamine (dpa), 2,2,bypiridine (bpy), 1,10, phenathroline (phen), 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbq), and anthocyanin (ant) ligands, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to identify FTO/TiO2/dye with various sensitizer dyes. The performance of DSSC was determined by I (current) - V (voltage) curve using Keithley 2602 A System Source. In this research, DSSCs are able to convert photon energy become electrical energy. Dye used in DSSC is greatly effect in photon to current efficiency (IPCE). The greater absorption in visible region of alternative dye used gains higher IPCE spectra. TiO2 character can help spread the absorption in whole visible region. The nanosize mesoporous TiO2 of TiO2/SiPA/CoII-PAR (SiPA = silylpropilamine) have greater value than P25 TiO2/SiPA-CoII-PAR. The SiPA/FeII-PAR and SiPA/CoII-PAR dyes are better dye than tpa.

  18. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  19. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  20. Electron migration and stability of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitised photoelectrochemical solar cells with four different electrolyte combinations were assembled and characterised using current voltage measurements. The effects that the solvents (acetonitrile - ACN and propionitrile - PN) have...

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12034-016-1280-1. Dye-sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic performance of nanocomposite photocatalyst prepared by electrochemical anodization. MOHAMAD MOHSEN MOMENI. Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology ...

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  3. Effect of dye extracting solvents and sensitization time on photovoltaic performance of natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khalid Hossain

    Full Text Available In this study, natural dye sensitizer based solar cells were successfully fabricated and photovoltaic performance was measured. Sensitizer (turmeric sources, dye extraction process, and photoanode sensitization time of the fabricated cells were analyzed and optimized. Dry turmeric, verdant turmeric, and powder turmeric were used as dye sources. Five distinct types of solvents were used for extraction of natural dye from turmeric. Dyes were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The extracted turmeric dye was used as a sensitizer in the dye sensitized solar cell’s (DSSC photoanode assembly. Nano-crystalline TiO2 was used as a film coating semiconductor material of the photoanode. TiO2 films on ITO glass substrate were prepared by simple doctor blade technique. The influence of the different parameters VOC, JSC, power density, FF, and η% on the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs was analyzed. The best energy conversion performance was obtained for 2 h adsorption time of dye on TiO2 nano-porous surface with ethanol extracted dye from dry turmeric. Keywords: DSSC, Natural dye, TiO2 photoanode, Dye extracting solvent, Dye-adsorption time

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  5. Novel conjugated organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, K.; Sato, T.; Katoh, R.; Furube, A.; Yoshihara, T.; Murai, M.; Kurashige, M.; Arakawa, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ito, S.; Shinpo, A.; Suga, S. [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 564-176 Fujita, Okayama 701-0221 (Japan)

    2005-02-01

    Novel conjugated organic dyes that have N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) moieties as the electron donor and a cyanoacetic acid (CAA) moiety as the electron acceptor were developed for use in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline-TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs). We attained a maximum solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 6.8 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}) with a DSSC based on 2-cyano-7,7-bis(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)hepta-2,4,6-trienoic acid (NKX-2569): short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) = 12.9 mA cm{sup -2}, open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) = 0.71 V, and fill factor (ff) = 0.74. The high performance of the solar cells indicated that highly efficient electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} occurred. The experimental and calculated Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra clearly showed that these dyes were adsorbed on the TiO{sub 2} surface with the carboxylate coordination form. A molecular-orbital calculation indicated that the electron distribution moved from the DMA moiety to the CAA moiety by photoexcitation of the dye. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  7. Co-sensitization of organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Yang, Xichuan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-01-01

    Novel cyanine dyes, in which a tetrahydroquinoline derivative is used as an electron donor and 1-butyl-5-carboxy-3, 3-dimethyl-indol-1-ium moiety is used as an electron acceptor and anchoring group, were designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. The photovoltaic performance of these solar cells depends markedly on the molecular structure of the dyes in terms of the n-hexyl chains and the methoxyl unit. Retardation of charge recombination caused by the introduction of n-hexyl chains resulted in an increase in electron lifetime. As a consequence, an improvement of open-circuit photovoltage (V(oc)) was achieved. Also, the electron injection efficiencies were improved by the introduction of methoxyl moiety, which led to a higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)). The highest average efficiency of the sensitized devices (η) was 5.6% (J(sc)=13.3 mA cm(-2), V(oc)=606 mV, and fill factor FF=69.1%) under 100 mW cm(-2) (AM 1.5G) solar irradiation. All of these dyes have very high absorption extinction coefficients and strong absorption in a relatively narrow spectrum range (500-650 nm), so one of our organic dyes was explored as a sensitizer in co-sensitized solar cells in combination with the other two other existing organic dyes. Interestingly, a considerably improved photovoltaic performance of 8.2% (J(sc)=20.1 mA cm(-2), V(oc)=597 mV, and FF=68.3%) was achieved and the device showed a panchromatic response with a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency exceeding 85% in the range of 400-700 nm. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Novel diyne-bridged dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jing-Kun, E-mail: fjk@njust.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Sun, Tengxiao [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Tian, Yi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjun, E-mail: ZhangYingjun@hec.cn [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Jin, Chuanfei [HEC Pharm Group, HEC R& D Center, Dongguan, 523871 (China); Xu, Zhimin; Fang, Yu; Hu, Xiangyu; Wang, Haobin [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street No. 200, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Three new metal free organic dyes (FSD101-103) were synthesized to investigate the influence of diyne unit on dye molecules. FSD101 and FSD102 with diyne unit and FSD103 with monoyne unit were applied as sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The optical and electrochemical properties, theoretical studies, and photovoltaic parameters of DSSCs sensitized by these dyes were systematically investigated. By replacing the monoyne unit with a diyne unit, FSD101 exhibited broader absorption spectrum, lower IP, higher EA, lower band gap energy, higher oscillator strength, more efficient electron injection ability, broader IPCE response range and higher τ{sub e} in comparison with FSD103. Hence, DSSC sensitized by FSD101 showed higher J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} values, and demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.12%, about 2-fold as that of FSD103 (1.55%). FSD102 showed similar results as FSD101, with a power conversion efficiency of 2.98%, despite a stronger electron withdraw cyanoacrylic acid group was introduced. This may be due to the lower efficiency of the electron injection from dye to TiO{sub 2} and lower τ{sub e} of FSD102 than that of FSD101. These results indicate that the performance of DSSCs can be significantly improved by introducing a diyne unit into this type of organic dyes. - Highlights: • Diyne-bridge was introduced into dye molecules by a transition-metal-free protocol. • Power conversion efficiency grows from 1.55% to 3.12% by replacing monoyne unit with diyne unit. • FSD101 with diyne unit shows the highest electron lifetime resulting in a higher V{sub oc}.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  10. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Photoreaction Control Research Center; Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Labs., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH=CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a-a= za-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0 mA cm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60 V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH=CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80 mW cm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule. (Author)

  11. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sup 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [Photoreaction Control Research Center (PCRC) Science and Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 564-176 Fujita, Okayama 701-0221 (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH==CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a- aza-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100mWcm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0mAcm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH==CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80mWcm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule.

  12. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells: Attaching conjugated polymers to zwitterionic ruthenium dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of a zwitterionic ruthenium dye that binds to anatase surfaces and has a built-in functionality that allows for the attachment of a conjugated polymer chain is presented. The system was found to adsorb on the surface of anatase anchored by the ruthenium dye. Two types of devices were...... and the complex was adsorbed onto the surface before evaporation of gold electrodes. Alternative devices were obtained by spincoating of the polymer solution onto PEDOT:PSS covered indium-doped tin oxide substrates. PEC solar cells gave the best results and the main finding was that the polymer chain served...

  14. Cosensitization with Vat-Based Organic Dyes for Enhanced Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnezhad, Mozhgan

    2017-04-01

    Cosensitization using two organic dyes with supplementary absorption spectra on a photoelectrode is an effective method for improving the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Two organic dyes based on indigo and thioindigo have been synthesized, purified, and used to sensitize solar cells with spectral response extending across the entire visible region. To improve their photoelectric properties, different molar ratios were investigated, yielding total efficiency of 6.17% at dye 1:dye 2 = 4:6. The effect of the concentration of Cheno antiaggregation agent on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells was also considered. The results demonstrate that higher conversion efficiency ( η = 6.82%) was achieved with 10 × 10-3 M Cheno. Finally, the performance of cosensitized solar cells was measured at different temperatures between 10°C and 50°C. The results indicated that J sc decreased with increasing temperature, directly affecting the conversion efficiency.

  15. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hilal, Rifaat

    2017-06-19

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.

  16. Parametric Optimization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Far red Sensitizing Dye with Cobalt Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A.; Saikiran, M.; Kapil, G.; Pandey, S. S.; Hayase, S.

    2017-11-01

    A far-red sensitizing dye SQ-75 has been employed as a model sensitizer with Co(bpy)2+/3+ redox electrolytes to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and optimize the various device parameters which influence the overall photoconversion efficiency (PCE). It has been found that the optimization of the TiO2 thickness, surface treatment with TiCl4, and an optimum amount of the chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as coadsorber are necessary to attain the overall improved PCE. TiCl4 surface treatment on both FTO and TiO2 has been found to outperform as compared to their untreated counterparts owing to the suppression of the charge recombination. DSSCs with an optimized TiO2 thickness of 6 μm and CDCA concentration of 4 mM have exhibited best performance due to enhanced photon harvesting and reduced dye aggregation, respectively.

  17. Harvesting of microalgae cell using oxidized dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Park, Doyoung; Oh, You-Kwan; Yoon, Sukhwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, oxidized dye wastewaters were tested for their potential to be used as a cheap coagulant for microalgae harvesting. Two dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO)) were selected as model dyes, and the Fenton-like reaction under high temperature (90 °C, 1 min) employed as an oxidative treatment option. A maximum harvesting efficiency over 90% was obtained with both MB and MO at a dilution ratio of 5:1 (dye wastewater: cell culture), when the optimal oxidation condition was 20 mg/L of dye, 1 mM of FeCl3, and 0.5% of H2O2 concentration. This phenomenon could be explained by the possibility that amine groups are formed and exposed in oxidized dyes, which act as a kind of amine-based coagulant just like chitosan. This study clearly showed that dye wastewater, when properly oxidized, could serve as a potent coagulant for microalgae harvesting, potentially rendering the harvesting cost reduced to a substantial degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial fuel cell with an azo-dye-feeding cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Fang-bai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Feng, Chun-hua [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, Xiang-zhong [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

    2009-11-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed using azo dyes as the cathode oxidants to accept the electrons produced from the respiration of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain L17 in the anode. Experimental results showed that a methyl orange (MO)-feeding MFC produced a comparable performance against that of an air-based one at pH 3.0 and that azo dyes including MO, Orange I, and Orange II could be successfully degraded in such cathodes. The reaction rate constant ({kappa}) of azo dye reduction was positively correlated with the power output which was highly dependent on the catholyte pH and the dye molecular structure. When pH was varied from 3.0 to 9.0, the k value in relation to MO degradation decreased from 0.298 to 0.016 {mu}mol min{sup -1}, and the maximum power density decreased from 34.77 to 1.51 mW m{sup -2}. The performances of the MFC fed with different azo dyes can be ranked from good to poor as MO > Orange I > Orange II. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammograms of azo dyes disclosed that the pH and the dye structure determined their redox potentials. A higher redox potential corresponded to a higher reaction rate. (orig.)

  19. Rhodanine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells : spectroscopy, energy levels and photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinado, Tannia; Hagberg, Daniel P; Hedlund, Maria; Edvinsson, Tomas; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Rensmo, Håkan; Brinck, Tore; Sun, Licheng; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2009-01-07

    Three new sensitizers for photoelectrochemical solar cells were synthesized consisting of a triphenylamine donor, a rhodanine-3-acetic acid acceptor and a polyene connection. The conjugation length was systematically increased, which resulted in two effects: first, it led to a red-shift of the optical absorption of the dyes, resulting in an improved spectral overlap with the solar spectrum. Secondly, the oxidation potential decreased systematically. The excited state levels were, however, calculated to be nearly stationary. The experimental trends were in excellent agreement with density functional theory (DFT) computations. The photovoltaic performance of this set of dyes as sensitizers in mesoporous TiO2 solar cells was investigated using electrolytes containing the iodide/triiodide redox couple. The dye with the best absorption characteristics showed the poorest solar cell efficiency, due to losses by recombination of electrons in TiO2 with triiodide. Addition of 4-tert butylpyridine to the electrolyte led to a strongly reduced photocurrent for all dyes due to a reduced electron injection efficiency, caused by a 0.15 V negative shift of the TiO2 conduction band potential.

  20. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-11-26

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  1. Amine-Reactive Dyes for Dead Cell Discrimination in Fixed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P.; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Nguyen, Richard; Ambrozak, David; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Amine-reactive dyes, also known as LIVE/DEAD® fixable dead cell stains, are a class of viability dyes suitable for identifying dead cells in samples that will be fixed. These dyes cross the cell membranes of dead cells, and react with free amines in the cytoplasm. Live cells exclude these dyes because their cell membranes are intact, and free dye is washed away after staining. Notably, the reaction is irreversible; therefore, when cells are fixed and permeabilized (as with intracellular staining procedures), the bound dye remains associated with the dead cells (unlike other viability dyes). Since amine-reactive dyes are fluorescent when excited by lasers, dead cells can be identified by flow cytometry. This unit describes procedures, troubleshooting, and outcomes for using the two most commonly used amine-reactive dyes, ViViD and Aqua Blue. PMID:20578108

  2. Effect of Mixing Dyes and Solvent in Electrolyte Toward Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dyes as The Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Nurul Amalia, Silviyanti S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using natural dyes (chlorophyll, curcumin from turmeric extract, and anthocyanin from mangosteen extract) have been successfully fabricated for determining the effect of variation natural dyes, mixing dyes and acetonitrile in electrolyte toward characterization of DSSC. DSSC consists of five parts namely ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) as a substrate; TiO2 as semiconductor materials; natural dyes as an electron donor; electrolyte as electron transfer; and carbon as a catalyst that can convert light energy into electric energy. Two types of gel electrolyte based on PEG that mixed with liquid electrolyte have utilized for analyzing the lifetime of DSSC. Type I used distilled water as a solvent whilst type II used acetonitrile as a solvent with addition of concentration of KI and iodine. The main purpose of study was to investigate influence of solvent in electrolyte, variation of natural dyes and mixing dyes toward an efficiency that resulted by DSSC. The result showed that electrolyte type II is generally better than type I with efficiency 0,0556 and 0,0456 %, respectively. An efficiency values which resulted from a variation of mixed three natural dyes showed the greatest efficiency compared to mixed two natural dyes and one dye, with an efficiency value can be achieved at 0,0194 % for chlorophyll; 0,111 % for turmeric; 0,0105 % for mangosteen; 0,0244% (mangosteen and chlorophyll); 0,0117 % (turmeric and mangosteen); 0,0158 % (turmeric and chlorophyll); and 0.0566 % (mixed three natural dyes).

  3. SOLID STATE PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL CELL BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) (N719) dye has been constructed and characterized. The current density–voltage characteristics in the dark and under white light illumination and action spectra under monochromatic ...

  4. Natural dye extracted from karkadah and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells: experimental and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, S M; Soliman, K A

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and theoretical study of cyanidin natural dye as a sensitizer for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using ammonia and oxalic acid as a capping agent. The calculated average size of the synthesized ZnO with different capping agents was found to be 32.1 nm. Electronic properties of cyanidin and delphinidin dye were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. By comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data, the cyanidin dye can be used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. An efficiency of 0.006% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100  mW/cm(2) was attained. The influence of dye adsorption time on the solar cell performance is discussed.

  5. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3 were performed using density functional theory (DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers.

  6. Assessment of cell proliferation with resazurin-based fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekanska, Ewa M

    2011-01-01

    The Alamar Blue assay is based on enzymatic reduction of indicator dye by viable cells and serves as an effective tool for assessing cell proliferation and as a screening technique. It can be applied in studies concentrating on animal, plant, yeast, and bacteria cells. Among the various methods for cell viability and cytotoxicity, it utilises all features of ideal and reliable test; it is one-step, sensitive, safe, non-toxic for cells, and cost-effective.

  7. Organic Dyes Containing Coplanar Dihexyl-Substituted Dithienosilole Groups for Efficient Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Lyons

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A chromophore containing a coplanar dihexyl-substituted dithienosilole (CL1 synthesised for use in dye-sensitised solar cells displayed an energy conversion efficiency of 6.90% under AM 1.5 sunlight irradiation. The new sensitiser showed a similar fill factor and open-circuit voltage when compared with N719. Impedance measurements showed that, in the dark, the charge-transfer resistance of a cell using CL1 in the intermediate-frequency region was higher compared to N719 (69.8 versus 41.3 Ω. Under illumination at AM 1.5G-simulated conditions, the charge-transfer resistances were comparable, indicative of similar recombination rates by the oxidised form of the redox couple. The dye showed instability in ethanol solution, but excellent stability when attached to TiO2. Classical molecular dynamics indicated that interactions between ethanol and the dye are likely to reduce the stability of CL1 in solution form. Time-dependent density functional theory studies were performed to ascertain the absorption spectrum of the dye and assess the contribution of various transitions to optical excitation, which showed good agreement with experimental results.

  8. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...

  9. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 NPs. This could show an increase of about 30% in the efficiency compared to the similar cell with a photoanode made of two layers of hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs. Keywords. Dye-sensitized solar cells; hydrothermal method; TiO2 nanocrystals; multilayer photoanodes; energy conversion efficiency. 1. Introduction.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells: a successful combination of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, DSSC, are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSC are a successful combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a Pt coated counter-electrode. In general, Ru bipyridyl complexes are used as the dye sensitizers. The light-to-energy conversion performance of the cell depends on the relative energy levels of the semiconductor and dye and on the kinetics of the electron-transfer processes at the sensitized semiconductor | electrolyte interface. The rate of these processes depends on the properties of its components. This contribution presents a discussion on the influence of each of the materials which constitute the DSSC of the overall process for energy conversion. An overview of the results obtained for solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with polymer electrolytes is also presented.

  11. Improving the Spectral Response of Black Dye by Cosensitization with a Simple Indoline Based Dye in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akhtaruzzaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoline dye D-1 was successfully applied as a cosensitizer for improving the spectral response of black dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. It was observed that D-1 effectively increases the short-circuit photocurrent by offsetting the competitive light absorption by I/I3- electrolyte in the wavelength region 350–500 nm when adsorbed on the TiO2 nanocrystaline films in a mix dye system. The DSCs containing the D-1 and black dye achieved a power conversion efficiency of 9.80% with higher short-circuit photocurrent of 19.54 mA/cm2 compared to the system of black dye without cosensitization under standard AM 1.5 sunlight.

  12. Research progress of triphenylamine dye sensitizers of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng YU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC attracted widespread attention for its low cost, being easy to manufacture, large-scale production and environmentally friendly features. Sensitizer is a core component of the DSSC which plays a role in collecting sunlight and injecting excited state electron into the conduction band of the semiconductor, which is crucial to the photo-electric conversion efficiency. Organic dyes have a number of advantages such as easy synthesizing and tuning of photo-physical and electrochemical properties through molecular design. Triphenylamine is a strong electron donating group, and its non-planar spatial structure makes the degree of the dye molecules aggregation to be decreased. These properties are conducive to improve the absorption properties of the dye and the electron transport efficiency. In recent years, triphenylamine or substituted triphenylamine as electron donor of organic sensitizers becomes the research focus for improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the progress of triphenylamine photosensitive dyes is described.

  13. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Jin [Phoenix Materials, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ∼ 500 .deg. C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  14. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ˜ 500 °C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  15. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite...Gorlov, M. Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. RSC DaltonTrans. 2008, 20, 2655–2666. 7. Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Wang, P.; Humphry

  16. Theoretical study on the application of double-donor branched organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Rui-Rui [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Zhu, Kai-Li [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000, Gansu (China); Song, Yan-Lin [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Geng, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: zhiyuangeng@126.com [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China)

    2016-09-15

    A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure has been designed and calculated whereby density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for dye-sensitized solar cells. The double-donor branched dye which was consisted of two separated light-harvesting moieties was beneficial to photocurrent generation. First, we discussed the effects of different donor chains on photoelectric performance in the dye molecule, using the DTP-B8 which was a previously reported structure as the reference. Only to conclude that the suitable length can achieve the satisfactory efficiency. Secondly, to modify and sift potential sensitizers further, three series of dyes (BC-series, CB-series and CC-series) were designed and characterized. The increased molar extinction coefficient and the red-shifted λ{sub max} was attributed to an increasing in electron conjunction. This work presented a new route to design sensitizers that provide two channels for donating more electrons and improve the final efficiency. It is expected to provide some theoretical guidance on designing and synthetizing high efficiency photosensitive dye in the future experiments. - Highlights: • A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure was designed and characterized. • The double-donor branched dye was consisted of two separated light-harvesting paths. • The double-donor branched dye was beneficial to photocurrent generation. • The molar extinction coefficient was greatly improved in this novel structure. • Four promising candidates have been screened out.

  17. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  18. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  19. Cycloruthenated Chromophores for the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, Paolo Giovanni

    A series of bidentate cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(N. N)(N. N)(C. N)]+, where N. N = polypyridyl ligand and C. N = cyclometalating ligand, have been synthesized, characterized and tested in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes, in general, exhibited broader absorption profiles and cathodically shifted electrochemical potentials compared to their polypyridyl analogues. The prototypical cycloruthenated compound, [Ru(bpy)2(ppy)]+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; Hppy = 2-phenylpyridine), displayed comparable UV-vis spectral coverage to the standard DSSC dye, N3. Molar extinction coefficients were enhanced and the absorption profile was red-shifted through substitution of the molecular periphery. Molecules from the [Ru(bpy)2(ppy)] + family displayed HOMO and excited-state energy levels properly aligned for use in the DSSC. Anchoring -CO2H groups were ideally located on the bidentate polypyridyl ligands (e.g., H2dcbpy; H2dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine) because this arrangement localized excited-state electron density proximate to TiO 2. Increased molecular light absorption was accomplished by installing conjugated substituents (e.g., -NO2, -phenyl, -pyridyl, -2-thiophene-carbaldehyde) on the anionic ring of molecules with general formula [Ru(H2dcbpy)2(C. N)]+.Aromatic substituents were superior to -NO2 because of an ideally positioned lowest excited-state (i.e., localized to H2dcbpy instead of -NO2). Substitution of the anionic ring with 2-thiophene-5-carbaldehyde para to the Ru-C bond resulted in a superior absorption profile enabling a modest cell power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.3%. Replacement of one H2dcbpy ligand with bpy generated tris-heteroleptic cyclometalated Ru(II) dyes with general formula [Ru(H2dcbpy)(bpy)( C. N)]+. The use of electron-rich cyclometalating ligands,however, led to poor PCEs because of incompatible Ru electrochemical potentials for dye regeneration. Strong electron withdrawing

  20. Numerical Procedure for Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Razvan Mitroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a numerical procedure consisting of a simplified physical model and a numerical method with the aim of optimizing the performance parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We calculate the real rate of absorbed photons (in the dye spectral range Grealx by introducing a factor β<1 in order to simplify the light absorption and reflection on TCO electrode. We consider the electrical transport to be purely diffusive and the recombination process only to occur between electrons from the TiO2 conduction band and anions from the electrolyte. The used numerical method permits solving the system of differential equations resulting from the physical model. We apply the proposed numerical procedure on a classical DSSC based on Ruthenium dye in order to validate it. For this, we simulate the J-V characteristics and calculate the main parameters: short-circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and power conversion efficiency η. We analyze the influence of the nature of semiconductor (TiO2 and dye and also the influence of different technological parameters on the performance parameters of DSSCs. The obtained results show that the proposed numerical procedure is suitable for developing a numerical simulation platform for improving the DSSCs performance by choosing the optimal parameters.

  1. Charge Transport and Photocurrent Generation Characteristics in Dye Solar Cells Containing Thermally Degraded N719 Dye Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. R.; Halme, J.; Lund, T.

    2011-01-01

    By deliberately introducing the thermally degraded form of the dye solar cell sensitizer N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using synthetically prepared N719-TBP ([Ru(L-H)(2)(NCS)(4-tert-butylpyridine)](-+)N-(Bu)(4)), we have investigated the devastating influence of this ligand substitution...... product (N719-TBP) on the performance parameters of the cells. Two types of dyed solar cells, based on either N719 or N719-TBP, have been characterized employing standard current-voltage (I-V) performance test, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), and electrochemical...... in the substitution product. The observations made in this study of DSC cells dyed with the substitution product, representing a worst case scenario of cells with 100% degraded dye, are in agreement with the characteristics of N719-dyed solar cells degraded at 85 degrees C, where the effect of ligand substitution...

  2. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  3. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajab, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    .... The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol...

  4. Role of the triiodide/iodide redox couple in dye regeneration in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Elizabeth A; Le Pleux, Loïc; Fortage, Jérôme; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2012-04-17

    A series of perylene dyes with different optical and electronic properties have been used as photosensitizers in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. A key target is to develop dyes that absorb light in the red to near-infrared region of the solar spectrum in order to match photoanodes optically in tandem devices; however, the photocurrent produced was found to decrease dramatically as the absorption maxima of the dye used was varied from 517 to 565 nm and varied strongly with the electrolyte solvent (acetonitrile, propionitrile, or propylene carbonate). To determine the limitations of the energy properties of the dye molecules and to provide guidelines for future sensitizer design, we have determined the redox potentials of the diiodide radical intermediate involved in the charge-transfer reactions in different solvents using photomodulated voltammetry. E°(I(3)(-)/I(2)(•-)) (V vs Fe(Cp)(2)(+/0)) = -0.64 for propylene carbonate, -0.82 for acetonitrile, and -0.87 for propionitrile. Inefficient regeneration of the sensitizer appears to be the efficiency-limiting step in the device, and the values presented here will be used to design more efficient dyes, with more cathodic reduction potentials, for photocathodes in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) by Repeated Dye Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is being extensively investigated as the next generation energy source. Despite of the attractive features like simple fabrication process and its economic efficiency, there are some problems such as low efficiency, long fabrication time and low long-term stability. Conventionally, the dye adsorption on TiO2 photo-electrode film needs long time in the solvent with low concentration of dye to get the high efficiency. In this work, the dye coating process was considerably shortened, albeit plenty of dye was used comparing with the conventional way. Our needs were met for the best result in our working environment and the relevant conditions to our work were obtained, which were the coating temperature of 70 °C, the dye concentration of 10 mM and the coating time of 3 min. And this coating process was successively repeated several times to maximize the dye adsorption and to improve the cell efficiency. Therefore, the efficiency increased by 13% in the proper condition.

  6. High Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium and Metal-Free Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of using different concentrations of triazoloisoquinoline based small molecule as coadsorbent to modify the monolayer of a TiO2 semiconductor on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is studied. The co-adsorbent significantly enhances the open-circuit photovoltage (, the short circuit photocurrent density ( the solar energy conversion efficiency (. The co-adsorbent 4L is applied successfully to prepare an insulating molecular layer with N719 and achieve high energy conversion efficiency as high as 8.83% at 100 mW cm−2 and AM 1.5 at 1 to 0.25 (N719 : co-adsorbent molar ratio. The resulting efficiency is about 6% higher than that of a nonadditive device. The result shows that the organic small molecule 4L (2-cyano-3-(5-(4-(3-oxo-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinoline-2(3H-ylphenylthiophene-2-ylacrylic acid is the promising candidates for improvement of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell.

  7. Dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dongchuan; Zhang, Xiao Li [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800, 3168 (Australia); Barber, Richard L [MiniFAB (Aust) Pty Ltd, 1 Dalmore Drive, Scoresby Victoria 3179 (Australia); Bach, Udo [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2010-10-08

    Dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells are fabricated on back plates comprising a patterned FTO glass substrate, a selectively deposited Pt coating, a protective ZrO{sub 2} coating covering the Pt layers and a screen printed TiO{sub 2} film. Such devices show a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.64% under AM 1.5 sunlight and a peak incident photon to electron conversion efficiency of 54%. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Recent Advances in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Lenzmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. After a brief discussion of the general operation principles and a presentation of record efficiencies, stability data and key technology drivers, current trends will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte, but commercialization aspects will also be briefly addressed. The review describes the most relevant characteristics and major trends in a compact way.

  9. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices. With low-cost ... cells in use today are made of crystalline silicon (c-. SI}. The cost ... the recombination loss process well known in solid-state .... porous structure and photoelectrochemical properties ...

  10. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H S; Shenouda, S S; Fadel, M

    2018-03-05

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO 2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100mW.cm -2 . The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R=15.6-23.8mA.W -1 and η=0.13-0.25) at AM=1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  12. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H. S.; Shenouda, S. S.; Fadel, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40 nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100 mW.cm- 2. The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R = 15.6-23.8 mA.W- 1 and η = 0.13-0.25) at AM = 1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology.

  13. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interfacial energetics [23], and altering the particle morphology [ 4,25,26]. According to the university. of Notre Dame and NASA demonstrations, the carbon nanotubes could help to make nanoparticle- based solar cells more efficient and practical. The present attained of 10% -11°/o energy conversion efficiency of DSC ...

  14. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  15. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-07

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  16. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction. PMID:26738698

  17. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  18. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  19. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  20. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka

    Full Text Available To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac. These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green, Cy3 (red, and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red.

  1. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  2. Fine tuning of fluorene-based dye structures for high-efficiency p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zonghao; Li, Wenhui; Topa, Sanjida; Xu, Xiaobao; Zeng, Xianwei; Zhao, Zhixin; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; He, Hongshan

    2014-07-09

    We report on an experimental study of three organic push-pull dyes (coded as zzx-op1, zzx-op1-2, and zzx-op1-3) featuring one, two, and three fluorene units as spacers between donors and acceptors for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSC). The results show increasing the number of spacer units leads to obvious increases of the absorption intensity between 300 nm and 420 nm, a subtle increase in hole driving force, and almost the same hole injection rate from dyes to NiO nanoparticles. Under optimized conditions, the zzx-op1-2 dye with two fluorene spacer units outperforms other two dyes in p-DSSC. It exhibits an unprecedented photocurrent density of 7.57 mA cm(-2) under full sun illumination (simulated AM 1.5G light illumination, 100 mW cm(-2)) when the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple and commercial NiO nanoparticles were used as an electrolyte and a semiconductor, respectively. The cells exhibited excellent long-term stability. Theoretical calculations, impedance spectroscopy, and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveal that the zzx-op1-2 exhibits lower photocurrent losses, longer hole lifetime, and higher photogenerated hole density than zzx-op1 and zzx-op1-3. A dye packing model was proposed to reveal the impact of dye aggregation on the overall photovoltaic performance. Our results suggest that the structural engineering of organic dyes is important to enhance the photovoltaic performance of p-DSSC.

  3. Analysis of Natural Sensitizers to Enhance the Efficiency in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three vegetable dyes are used for the study: anthocyanin dye from pomegranate arils extract, betalain dye from beet root extract and chlorophyll dye from tridax procumbens leaf. The anthocyanin and betalain, anthocyanin and chlorophyll, betalain and chlorophyll dyes are blended in cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on energy gap using dye sensitized solar cells. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of pomegranate arils, beet root and tridax procumbens leaf, in the volumetric proportion 1:1, using an extraction at room temperature the greatest energy gap (eg of up to 1.87eV.

  4. Counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Huang, Yunfang; Fan, Leqing; Luo, Genggeng; Lin, Yu; Xie, Yimin; Wei, Yuelin

    2017-10-02

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as prospective solar cells for the next generation of photovoltaic technologies and have become research hotspots in the PV field. The counter electrode, as a crucial component of DSSCs, collects electrons from the external circuit and catalyzes the redox reduction in the electrolyte, which has a significant influence on the photovoltaic performance, long-term stability and cost of the devices. Solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, as well as the structure, principle, preparation and characterization of counter electrodes are mentioned in the introduction section. The next six sections discuss the counter electrodes based on transparency and flexibility, metals and alloys, carbon materials, conductive polymers, transition metal compounds, and hybrids, respectively. The special features and performance, advantages and disadvantages, preparation, characterization, mechanisms, important events and development histories of various counter electrodes are presented. In the eighth section, the development of counter electrodes is summarized with an outlook. This article panoramically reviews the counter electrodes in DSSCs, which is of great significance for enhancing the development levels of DSSCs and other photoelectrochemical devices.

  5. Interface engineering in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Dye-sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells are currently subject of intense research in the framework of renewable energies as a low-cost photovoltaic device. In particular dye-sensitised cells based on spiro-MeOTAD have gained attention as promising approach towards an organic solid-state solar cell. However, the efficiency in such dye-sensitised solid-state solar devices (SSD) was so far only ca. 10 % of the values reported at AM1.5 for the classical dye-sensitised solar cell with an electr...

  6. Characterizations of natural dye from garcinia mangostana with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitizer in dye-sensitizer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mashasriyah; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad; Hamid, Norul Hisham; Ibrahim, Mohd Adib; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2017-05-01

    Usage of natural product in improvement of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) have been look upon in research field. There is numerous different type of nature product was used as natural dye but the performance of DSSC with natural dye are low efficiency compare to DSSC with Ruthenium (II) dye due to low anchoring strength between dye molecule with TiO2 surface. This paper is about an experiment DSSC device with sensitizer of Mangosteen with Graphene Oxide as catalyst. The highest device efficiency with graphene oxide (GO) concentration of 0.50 mg/ml obtained in this experiment is 0.40% with short-circuit current density (Jsc) = 1.00 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.61 V and fill factor(FF) = 65.72%. It shows that GO helped to increase device performance by increase the ability of sensitizer absorbed onto TiO2 and adding more passageway for carriers movement between TiO2 surface and dye sensitizer.

  7. Molecular Engineering of Near Infrared Absorbing Thienopyrazine Double Donor Double Acceptor Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Hammad; Peddapuram, Adithya; Adams, Rebecca E; McNamara, Louis; Hunt, Leigh Anna; Le, Ngoc; Watkins, Davita L; Hammer, Nathan I; Schmehl, Russell H; Delcamp, Jared H

    2017-12-01

    The thienopyrazine (TPz) building block allows for NIR photon absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) when used as a π-bridge. We synthesized and characterized 7 organic sensitizers employing thienopyrazine (TPz) as a π-bridge in a double donor, double acceptor organic dye design. Donor groups are varied based on electron donating strength and sterics at the donor-π bridge bond with the acceptor groups varied as either carboxylic acids or benzoic acids on the π-bridge. This dye design was found to be remarkably tunable with solution absorption onsets ranging from 750 to near 1000 nm. Interestingly, the solution absorption measurements do not accurately approximate the dye absorption on TiO2 films with up to a 250 nm blue-shift of the dye absorption onset on TiO2. This shift in absorption and the effect on electron transfer properties is investigated via computational analysis, time-correlated single photon counting studies, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Structure-performance relationships were analyzed for the dyes in DSC devices with the highest performance observed at 17.6 mA/cm2 of photocurrent and 7.5% PCE for a cosensitized device with a panchromatic IPCE onset of 800 nm.

  8. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  10. Deciphering synergistic characteristics of microbial fuel cell-assisted dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study provided a novel evaluation scheme to quantitatively reveal "synergistic" stimulation of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability. This work also disclosed why dye decolorization was more electrochemically favorable during simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization (SBG&DD). Quantitative assessment upon stimulating effects of different decolorized metabolites on BG and DD alone was also implemented for conclusive remarks. Apparently, using MFC as the method of dye decontamination could considerably increase ca. 40-70% of electron transfer capabilities for SBG&DD, thereby significantly improving the performance of dye decontamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational design of molecules for dye sensitized solar cells and nano electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël

    sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of a loss-less level alignment quality. This scoring only takes into account a simplified absorption spectrum of the dye in combination with the alignment between the molecular levels, the semi-conductor conduction band edge and the redox mediator. To improve on this....... This is illustrated in this thesis, where a high-throughput Density Functional Theory study of a total of 5145 porphyrin based dye molecules is presented. Initially, the structures of the dyes are optimized and the frontier energy orbital energies calculated. Following this, the dyes are scored for use in a dye...

  12. A dye sensitized solar cell using natural counter electrode and natural dye derived from mangosteen peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiaugree, Wasan; Lowpa, Seksan; Towannang, Madsakorn; Rutphonsan, Phikun; Tangtrakarn, Apishok; Pimanpang, Samuk; Maiaugree, Prapen; Ratchapolthavisin, Nattawat; Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2015-10-01

    Mangosteen peel is an inedible portion of a fruit. We are interested in using these residues as components of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Carbonized mangosteen peel was used with mangosteen peel dye as a natural counter electrode and a natural photosensitizer, respectively. A distinctive mesoporous honeycomb-like carbon structure with a rough nanoscale surface was found in carbonized mangosteen peels. The efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell using carbonized mangosteen peel was compared to that of DSSCs with Pt and PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes. The highest solar conversion efficiency (2.63%) was obtained when using carbonized mangosteen peel and an organic disulfide/thiolate (T2/T-) electrolyte.

  13. Review on Metallic and Plastic Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugis, A. R.; Mansa, R. F.; Sipaut, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSCs have promoted intense research due to their low cost and eco-friendly advantage over conventional silicon-based crystalline solar cells. In recent years, lightweight flexible types of DSSCs have attracted much intention because of drastic reduction in production cost and more extensive application. The substrate that used as electrode of the DSSCs has a dominant impact on the methods and materials that can be applied to the cell and consequently on the resulting performance of DSSCs. Furthermore, the substrates influence significantly the stability of the device. Although the power conversion efficiency still low compared to traditional glass based DSSCs, flexible DSSCs still have potential to be the most efficient and easily implemented technology.

  14. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  15. Photoelectrochemistry of metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention is being paid to dye solar cells (DSCs) as the next generation in solar cell technology for their low cost alternative as compared to solid state solar cells....

  16. Optimizing porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells using large-scale ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; Pedersen, Christian S.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an attractive solution due to their low cost, relatively high efficiencies, and flexible design. Porphyrin-based dyes are characterized by strong absorption in the visible part of the spectrum and easy...... customization allowing their electronic properties to be controlled by structural variations. Here we present a computational screening study of more than 5000 porphyrin-based dyes obtained by modifying the porphyrin backbone (metal center and axial ligands), substituting hydrogen by fluorine, and adding...... the dyes with the highest level alignment quality, demonstrating the large degree of flexibility in porphyrin dye design. As a specific example of dye optimization, we show that the level alignment of the high efficiency record dye YD2-o-C8 [Yella et al., Science, 2011, 334, 629-634] can be significantly...

  17. Impact of Spin-Orbit Coupling on Photocurrent Generation in Ruthenium Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantacci, Simona; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-16

    Relativistic TDDFT calculations have been performed employing a novel computational approach to evaluate the impact of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the optical and photovoltaic properties of panchromatic Ru(II) dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The employed computational setup accurately reproduces the optical properties of the investigated dyes, allowing an assessment of the factors responsible for the varying SOC with the dye metal-ligand environment. While for the prototypical panchromatic black dye sensitizer a negligible SOC effect is found, the SOC-induced spectral broadening calculated for the recently reported DX1 dye partly enhances the light-harvesting efficiency and consequently the photocurrent generation in DSCs based on this dye.

  18. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  19. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...

  20. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassig, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2016-01-01

    The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed to the TiO2...

  1. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  2. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  3. Molecular design of new hydrazone dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, characterization and DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-07-01

    Three new sensitizers 2-{4-[2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)hydrazino)]phenyl} ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (NBHPET), 2-{4-[2-p-Chlorobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}- ethylene-1,1,2-tri carbonitrile (CBHPET) and 2-{4-[2-p- Bromobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (BBHPET) have been synthesized. The dyes showed pronounced solvatochromic effects as the polarity of the solvents increased. The structures have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The torsion in E-isomer is smaller than Z-isomer and azo isomers. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are delocalized on whole molecule while lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are distributed on the tricarbonitrile. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies are above the conduction band of titanium dioxide, highest occupied molecular orbitals of the dyes are below the redox couple of new synthesized dyes and small energy gap revealed these dyes would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of new coumarin dyes having thiophene moieties for highly efficient organic-dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohjiro, Hara; Mitsuhiko, Kurashige; Kazuhiro, Sayama; Hironori, Arakawa [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciences and Technology, Photoreaction Control Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Yasufumi, Dan-Oh; Chiaki, Kasada; Akira, Shinpo; Sadaharu, Suga [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    We have developed new coumarin dyes having thiophene moieties in order to improve the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells based on the organic dyes as photo-sensitizers. A solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 7.7% was attained under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm''-''2) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub s}c) of 14.3 mA cm''-''2, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub o}c) of 0.73 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 0.74. (authors)

  5. Novel Strategy for Tracking the Microbial Degradation of Azo Dyes with Different Polarities in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Xu, Meiying; Chen, Xingjuan; Yang, Yonggang; Wang, Haiji; Sun, Guoping

    2015-10-06

    Direct visualization evidence is important for understanding the microbial degradation mechanisms. To track the microbial degradation pathways of azo dyes with different polar characterizations, sensors based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from 1,8-naphthalimide to azo dyes were synthesized, in which the quenched fluorescence will recover when the azo bond was cleaved. In living cells, the sensor-tracking experiment showed that the low polarity and hydrophobic azo dye can be taken up into the cells and reduced inside the cells, whereas the high polarity and hydrophilic azo dye can be reduced only outside the cells because of the selective permeability of the cell membranes. These results indicated that there were two different bacterial degradation pathways available for different polarity azo dyes. To our knowledge, no fluorescent sensor has yet been designed for illuminating the microbial degradation mechanisms of organic pollutants with different characteristics.

  6. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cell based on Rose Bengal dye and nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.S.; Kumar, Manish [Defence Laboratory, Air Force, Ratanada, Jodhpur-342011, Rajasthan (India); Balraju, P.; Sharma, G.D. [Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-342005, Rajasthan (India)

    2008-08-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using Rose Bengal dye (RB) for sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} and that imparts extension in spectral response towards visible region by modifying the semiconductor surface. Further, the photoresponse of the cell was evaluated by analyzing its J-V and impedance characteristics under illumination with metal halide light source of 400 W with an incident light of 73 mW/cm{sup 2}. Various photovoltaic parameters like J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, FF were evaluated and found to be 3.22 mA, 890 mV, 0.53, respectively, resulting conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 2.09%. Impedance analysis of the cell was carried out to investigate the internal resistance of the cell by recording Cole-Cole plots in between real and imaginary impedance in dark and with illumination under variable biasing, i.e. from 0 to 3 V. (author)

  8. Gold nanoparticles bind to porphyrins. A potential dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabagiu, Sorina; Mihailescu, Gheorghe, E-mail: sorina.garabagiu@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Porphyrins could be used for designing dye sensitized solar cells. The correlation between their band gap HOMO-LUMO and the conduction band of the semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}) allows the electron transfer from the dye to the electrode, through the semiconductor. Our work reported here has revealed that a strong and large absorption band is obtained when a complex between gold nanoparticles (GNP) and porphyrin dye is formed.

  9. Density Functional Theory (DFT Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. Gîrţu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance.

  10. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  11. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  12. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-28

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations are employed to support the interpretation of the atomistic simulations.

  13. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...... subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference...... of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations...

  14. Microbial fuel cell-photoelectrocatalytic cell combined system for the removal of azo dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xizi; Pan, Qinrong; Wang, Chuqiao; Wang, Hui; Li, Hua; Li, Xianning

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel parallel circuit microbial fuel cell-photoelectrocatalytic cell (MFC-PEC) combined system was established to enhance azo dye removal. Results showed that this system had synergistic effects compared with the MFC alone. In the MFC part, a 56% decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 85% decolorization were achieved, and further reduced by 25% and 12% in the PEC part where titania nanotube functioned as the photoelectrode. For one thing, the PEC raised the maximum current of the MFC by 14.2%, which facilitated COD removal and decolorization in the MFC and promoted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level of anode microorganisms, for another, this system significantly increased the dye removal in the PEC. Besides, cyclic voltammograms illustrated intermediate products degradation in this system. Hence, the system achieved marked deep decolorization and rapid toxic intermediate products degradation of high concentration azo dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Covalent modification of photoanodes for stable dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Tulashi; Zamborini, Francis P

    2013-11-05

    This paper describes the surface modification of TiO2 with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by covalent attachment of Ru-based N719 dye molecules to TiO2 through an amide linkage for use as photoanodes (PAs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirms the surface chemistry between the TiO2 and dye. The photovoltaic efficiency of DSSCs with covalently linked dye is very similar (6-7%) to that of traditionally prepared DSSCs prepared by direct immersion when both have similar dye coverage. Importantly, the efficiency of PAs with covalently linked dye did not change after storage for more than 60 days in air, whereas the traditionally prepared PAs decreased dramatically after 1 day and lost most of their efficiency after a week. FTIR and UV-vis characterization of the dye suggests that covalent linkage improves stability by preventing the loss of the thiocyanato ligands and/or tetrabutylammonium cations on the dye. PAs with covalently linked dye are also more stable toward water, acid, heat, and UV light compared to traditionally prepared PAs and are more stable compared to other modified PAs with dye attached through electrostatic or hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  16. To probe the equivalence and opulence of nanocrystal and nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jyoti, Divya, E-mail: divyabathla17@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University College, Jaito, Distt. Faridkot, Punjab (India); Mohan, Devendra [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2016-05-06

    Dye-Sensitized solar cells based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes have been fabricated by a simple sol-gel hydrothermal process and their performances have been compared. Current density and voltage (JV) characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) plots have been set as criterion to check which one is better as a photoanode candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell. It has been observed that although open circuit voltage values for both type of cells do not differ much still, nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells are more successful having an efficiency value of 7.28%.

  17. To probe the equivalence and opulence of nanocrystal and nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Divya; Mohan, Devendra

    2016-05-01

    Dye-Sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanocrystal and TiO2 nanotubes have been fabricated by a simple sol-gel hydrothermal process and their performances have been compared. Current density and voltage (JV) characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) plots have been set as criterion to check which one is better as a photoanode candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell. It has been observed that although open circuit voltage values for both type of cells do not differ much still, nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells are more successful having an efficiency value of 7.28%.

  18. Imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DSSCs with ruthenium–metal complex dye as a good photosensitizer. The recorded photovoltaic efficiency of sample. B-based DSSCs was enhanced by 1.36% compared to sample A-based DSSCs. Keywords. Imine-linked receptors; ruthenium–metal complex; ZnO nanoparticles; dye-sensitized solar cell. 1. Introduction.

  19. A novel diphenylphosphinic acid coadsorbent for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Heping [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lin Hong, E-mail: hong-lin@tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Yizhu [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Xin [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Nano Technology Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Zhang Jing [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Ning [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Li Jianbao [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diphenylphosphinic acid (DPPA) was adopted as a novel coadsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} sensitized with N719 dye [(Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}

  20. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesis for dye sensitized solar cells application: review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available -sensitized solar cells, in air and water purification, due to their potential oxidation strength, high photo stability and non-toxicity. Till now, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the cornerstone semiconductors for dye-sensitized (DSSC) nanostructured electrodes for dye...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutikno, E-mail: smadnasri@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Semarang State University D7 Building, 2nd Floor, Unnes, Sekaran Campus, Semarang, Indonesia, 50229 (Indonesia); Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi,; Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma [Faculty of Computer Science, Dian Nuswantoro University Jl. Nakula I No. 5, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10{sup −4}%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  2. Modeling materials and processes in dye-sensitized solar cells: understanding the mechanism, improving the efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent first-principles computational modeling studies on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), focusing on the materials and processes modeling aspects which are key to the functioning of this promising class of photovoltaic devices. Crucial to the DSCs functioning is the photoinduced charge separation occurring at the heterointerface(s) between a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline, mesoporous metal oxide electrode and a redox shuttle. Theoretical and computational modeling of isolated cell components (e.g., dye, semiconductor nanoparticles, redox shuttle, etc…) as well as of combined dye/semiconductor/redox shuttle systems can successfully assist the experimental research by providing basic design rules of new sensitizers and a deeper comprehension of the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing the cell functioning and its performances. A computational approach to DSCs modeling can essentially be cast into a stepwise problem, whereby one first needs to simulate accurately the individual DSCs components to move to relevant pair (or higher order) interactions characterizing the device functioning. This information can contribute to enhancing further the target DSCs characteristics, such as temporal stability and optimization of device components. After presenting selected results for isolated dyes, including the computational design of new dyes, and model semiconductors, including realistic nanostructure models, we focus in the remainder of this review on the interaction between dye-sensitizers and semiconductor oxides, covering organic as well as metallorganic dyes.

  3. One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanowires dye sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Bayram; Wang, Lianzhou; Ozdemir, Orhan; Lu, Max; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2013-01-01

    High ordered one-dimensional (1D) Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were grown on FTO substrate by using the hydrothermal method. Nanowires structures were used as the wide band-gap semiconducting photo-electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Solar cell made from ZnO nanowire at 50 nm radius and several tens micron lengths showed high solar conversion efficiency (eta) of 2.1% and incident photon current efficiency (IPCE) 35% using nanowire/N719 dye/I-/I3- electrolyte. We also compared Ru N719 dye and N3 dye on ZnO nanowire against each other in respect to solar conversion efficiency and IPCE measurements. In the case of the N3 dye on ZnO nanowire conversion efficiency (eta) of 1.32% and IPCE 23% were obtained under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2. It was found that the performance of the Ru N719 dyes was better than about 50% that of the N3 dye in ZnO nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Performance of natural-dye-sensitized solar cells by ZnO nanorod and nanowall enhanced photoelectrodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saadaoui Saif; Ben Youssef Mohamed Aziz; Ben Karoui Moufida; Gharbi Rached; Smecca Emanuele; Strano Vincenzina; Mirabella Salvo; Alberti Alessandra; Puglisi Rosaria A

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two natural dyes extracted from henna and mallow plants with a maximum absorbance at 665 nm were studied and used as sensitizers in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs...

  5. Deep-red emissive crescent-shaped fluorescent dyes: substituent effect on live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Bingjiang; Niu, Guangle; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Zhang, Hongyan; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Pengfei

    2015-04-08

    A series of crescent-shaped fluorescent dyes (CP1-CP6) were synthesized by hybridizing coumarin and pyronin moieties with different amino substituents at both ends. The molecular structures and photophysical properties of these fluorescent dyes were investigated through X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results show that the fluorescent dyes exhibited crescent-shaped structures, deep-red emissions (approximately 650 nm), and significant Stokes shifts. In live-cell-imaging experiments, CP1 stains mitochondria, whereas CP3 and CP6 stain the lysosomes in a cytoplasm and the RNA in nucleoli. The relationships between different amino substituent groups and the imaging properties of CP dyes were discussed as well. Additionally, findings from the cytotoxicity and photostability experiments on living cells indicated the favorable biocompatibility and high photostability of the CP dyes.

  6. Cell damage and dye reduction in the quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A W; Levi, A J

    1975-01-01

    Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) is toxic to neutrophils; an effect which is greatly enhanced by endotoxin and latex particles. Cell damage, measured by the release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was closely related to dye reduction. This suggests that, in this test, dye reduction occurs largely as a result of contact between intracellular reducing compounds and NBT following damage of the outer cell membrane. The expression of dye reduction as a function of LDH release should enhance the sensitivity of the quantitative NBT test by correcting for the observed intersubject variation in cell damage. The relationship between cell damage and dye reduction is a measure of the reducing capacity of the cell. This was normal in immature, bone marrow neutrophils, but diminished in neutrophils of patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1212802

  7. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Titania Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ebrahim Jasim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost solar cells have been the subject of intensive research activities for over half century ago. More recently, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs emerged as a new class of low-cost solar cells that can be easily prepared. Natural-dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs are shown to be excellent examples of mimicking photosynthesis. The NDSSC acts as a green energy generator in which dyes molecules adsorbed to nanocrystalline layer of wide bandgap semiconductor material harvest photons. In this paper we investigate the structural, optical, electrical, and photovoltaic characterization of two types of natural dyes, namely, the Bahraini Henna and the Yemeni Henna, extracted using the Soxhlet extractor. Solar cells from both materials were prepared and characterized. It was found that the levels of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are concentration dependent. Further suggestions to improve the efficiency of NDSSC are discussed.

  8. Photoelectric Dye Used for Okayama University-Type Retinal Prosthesis Reduces the Apoptosis of Photoreceptor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihui; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Hosoya, Osamu; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film (Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis), which was implanted in subretinal space of the eyes of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, prevented retinal neurons from apoptotic death. In this study, we aimed to examine whether photoelectric dye itself would protect retinal neurons from apoptosis in RCS rats. RCS rats received intravitreous injection of different concentrations of the dye in the left eye and housed under a 12-h light-dark cycle. Saline injection in the right eye served as control. In addition, RCS rats with dye injection were kept in 24-h daily dark condition. Sections were processed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-conjugated-dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly decreased in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with those in saline-injected eyes (P = 0.0001, 2-factor analysis of variance [ANOVA]), under 12-h light-dark cycle. Significant decrease of TUNEL-positive cells was noted in the retina of rats with dye injection compared with those with saline injection, kept under 24-h dark condition (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA). Immunoreactive area for GFAP decreased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA), whereas immunoreactive area for PKCα increased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.01, 2-factor ANOVA). Photoelectric dye inhibits apoptotic death of photoreceptor cells in RCS rats and downregulates GFAP expression in retinal Müller cells. Photoelectric dye may be a candidate agent for neuroprotection in retinitis pigmentosa and other retinal diseases.

  9. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using red turnip and purple wild sicilian prickly pear fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO(2) films...

  11. The Role of Physical Techniques on the Preparation of Photoanodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmadi, Shideh; Asim, Nilofar; Alghoul, M. A; Hammadi, F. Y; Saeedfar, Kasra; Ludin, N. A; Zaidi, Saleem H; Sopian, K

    2014-01-01

      Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted numerous research, especially in the context of enhancing their efficiency and durability, due to the low-cost and environmentally friendly nature of photovoltaic (PV) technology...

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Drygała; L. A. Dobrzański; M. Szindler; M. Prokopiuk vel Prokopowicz; M. Pawlyta; K. Lukaszkowicz

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE) was analysed...

  13. Performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by using dyes mixture from chlorophyll and anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Kusumandari; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-11-01

    This article showed the effect of single and mixture natural dyes on the DSSC performance. The single dyes extracted from moss chlorophyll and mangosteen peels anthocyanin. The dyes mixture was prepared by mixing from both chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solution and the adsorption of the dye onto the working electrode were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocurrent-photovoltage of DSSCs were measured using I-V meter. The dyes mixture has an increased absorption at visible spectrum range as compared to single dye. The adsorption of the dyes mixture onto the TiO2 electrode has higher absorbance than single dye. The DSSC with single dye from moss chlorophyll and mangosteen peels anthocyanin resulted the conversion efficiency of 0.049% and 0.042% respectively. The dyes mixture of chlorophyll and anthocyanin improved the conversion efficiency of 0.154%.

  14. Nanostructured Semiconductor Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cavallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since O’Regan and Grätzel’s first report in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs appeared immediately as a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology. In fact, though being far less efficient than conventional silicon-based photovoltaics (being the maximum, lab scale prototype reported efficiency around 13%, the simple design of the device and the absence of the strict and expensive manufacturing processes needed for conventional photovoltaics make them attractive in small-power applications especially in low-light conditions, where they outperform their silicon counterparts. Nanomaterials are at the very heart of DSSC, as the success of its design is due to the use of nanostructures at both the anode and the cathode. In this review, we present the state of the art for both n-type and p-type semiconductors used in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs, showing the evolution of the materials during the 25 years of history of this kind of devices. In the case of p-type semiconductors, also some other energy conversion applications are touched upon.

  15. Study of Natural Dyes for Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torchani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and used several natural dyes such as extracted from: Spinach, Beet, Henna, Strawberry, Red cabbage, and Mloukhia. The absorption of the extracted dyes diluted in ethanol or distilled water were measured using UV–Vis spectrophotometer. We have studied the topology of these films by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and x-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of synthesized TiO2. The contents of Ti and O of synthesized TiO2 are 30 % and 50 % corresponding to closely Ti4+ state. The absorption of the TiO2 thin films immersed in these dyes was also measured in order to tune the change. The absorption in Beet and Red cabbage is more significant compared to other natural dyes.

  16. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays in Rose Bengal-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Solid State Physics, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-05-23

    We fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using vertically oriented, high density, and crystalline array of ZnO nanowires, which can be a suitable alternative to titanium dioxide nanoparticle films. The vertical nanowires provide fast routes or channels for electron transport to the substrate electrode. As an alternative to conventional ruthenium complex, we introduce Rose Bengal dye, which acts as a photosensitizer in the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye energetically matches the ZnO with usual KI-I{sub 2} redox couple for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. (author)

  17. Characterization of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth of Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung Suk

    2016-09-23

    The dye decolorization rate in a cell-free culture broth of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor CBR43 was studied, including the effects of inhibitors of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization activity. The maximum rates of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth were 1410, 44.7, 41.2, and 0.19 μmol L-1 min-1 for Acid Blue 62, Acid Black 175, Reactive Blue 4, and Acid Red 114, respectively. The inhibition effects of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization were quantitatively compared using the half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50), which indicates the concentration of an inhibitor required for 50% inhibition. Based on IC50 values, dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of CBR43 was most potently inhibited by Cd(II), whereas the inhibitory effect of NaCl was relatively low. The dye decolorization rates and IC50 data can be used in the design and development of a dye-wastewater treatment process using T. versicolor CBR43 and its operating factors.

  18. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A difunctional squarylium indocyanine dye distinguishes dead cells through diverse staining of the cell nuclei/membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Guo, Kunru; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2014-04-09

    Functionalized fluorescent dyes have attracted great interest for the specific staining of subcellular organelles in multicellular organisms. A novel nanometer-sized water-soluble multi-functional squarylium indocyanine dye (D1) that contains four primary amines is synthesized. The dye exhibits good photostability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that an affinity between D1 and DNA is higher than that between D1 and analogue of phospholipids. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra indicates that D1 targets to the DNA minor groove and aggregates to a helix. Because of the distinct affinity between the dye and subcellular organelles, the dye exhibits difunctional abilities to label the cell nuclei in fixed cells/tissue and the cell membranes in live cells/tissue. By combination of the two staining capabilities, the dye is further explored as a specific marker to distinguish apoptotic cells in live cells/tissue. The research opens a new way to design novel multifunctional dyes for life science applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dynamics of dye release from nanocarriers of different types in model cell membranes and living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the dynamics of lipophilic content release from nanocarriers of different types, organic molecular ensembles and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs in vitro experiments. Methods. Two-channel ratiometric fluorescence detection method based on Forster Resonance Energy Transfer, fluorescent spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy have been used. Results. It has been found that the profiles of lipophilic dyes release from organic nanocarriers (PC liposomes and SDS micelles and inorganic ones (GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs are well fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics in both model cell membranes and living cells (rat hepatocytes. The dye release constants (K and half-lives (t1/2 were analyzed. Conclusions. GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs have been shown to provide faster lipophilic content release in model cell membranes as compared to PC liposomes. Negatively charged or lipophilic compounds added into nanocarriers can decrease the rate of lipophilic dyes release. Specific interaction of GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs with rat hepatocytes has been observed.

  1. Impact of the molecular structure and adsorption mode of D-π-A dye sensitizers with a pyridyl group in dye-sensitized solar cells on the adsorption equilibrium constant for dye-adsorption on TiO2 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ohshita, Joji; Harima, Yutaka

    2016-12-07

    D-π-A dyes NI-4 bearing a pyridyl group, YNI-1 bearing two pyridyl groups and YNI-2 bearing two thienylpyridyl groups as the anchoring group on the TiO2 surface have been developed as dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where NI-4 and YNI-2 can adsorb onto the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the coordinate bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Lewis acid site (exposed Tin+ cations) on the TiO2 surface, but YNI-1 is predominantly adsorbed on the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the hydrogen bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Brønsted acid sites (surface-bound hydroxyl groups, Ti-OH) on the TiO2 surface. The difference in the dye-adsorption mode among the three dyes on the TiO2 surface has been investigated from the adsorption equilibrium constant (Kad) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. It was found that the Kad values of YNI-1 and YNI-2 are higher than that of NI-4, and more interestingly, the Kad value of YNI-2 is higher than that of YNI-1. This work demonstrates that that for the D-π-A dye sensitizers with the pyridyl group as the anchoring group to the TiO2 surface the number of pyridyl groups and the dye-adsorption mode on the TiO2 electrode as well as the molecular structure of the dye sensitizer affect the Kad value for the adsorption of the dye to the TiO2 electrode, that is, resulting in a difference in the Kad value among the D-π-A dye sensitizers NI-4, YNI-1 and YNI-2.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Yang, Dingyu; Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Li, Jitao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on natural dyes extracting from carrot, mulberry, purple cabbage, potato, and grapes. The ultraviolet-visible spectra suggested purple cabbage and mulberry possess better absorption at 300-550 nm. The solar cells using purple cabbage as dye achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.162% with short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 0.621 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.541 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.484. The Infrared spectra revealed the bond of Osbnd H, Csbnd C, Csbnd O, Csbnd H were existed in purple cabbage. Finally, the optimal extraction time of dyes is also presented.

  3. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  4. Effect of Donor Strength and Bulk on Thieno[3,4-b]-pyrazine-Based Panchromatic Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Nalaka P; Cheema, Hammad; Baumann, Alexandra R; Zylstra, Alexa R; Delcamp, Jared H

    2017-06-22

    Near-infrared-absorbing organic dyes are critically needed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TPz) based dyes can access the NIR spectral region and show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 8.1 % with sunlight being converted at wavelengths up to 800 nm for 17.6 mA cm-2 of photocurrent in a co-sensitized DSC device. Precisely controlling dye excited-state energies is critical for good performances in NIR DSCs. Strategies to control TPz dye energetics with stronger donor groups and TPz substituent choice are evaluated here. Additionally, donor size influence versus dye loading on TPz dyes is analyzed with respect to the TiO2 surface protection designed to prevent recombination of electrons in TiO2 with the redox shuttle. Importantly, the dyes evaluated were demonstrated to work well with low Li+ concentration electrolytes, with iodine and cobalt redox shuttle systems, and efficiently as part of co-sensitized devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Novel hydrophobic ionic liquids electrolyte based on cyclic sulfonium used in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei; Pan, Xu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Chen, Shuanghong; Dai, Songyuan [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids based on six cyclic sulfonium cations were first time synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells as pure solvents for electrolyte system. The chronoamperograms result showed that the length of substituent on sulfonium cations could inhibit the I{sub 3}{sup -} diffusion and the five-ring structure of sulfonium was benefit for fast triiodide ion diffusion. The electrochemical impendence spectra measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells with these ionic liquid electrolytes was carried out and the result indicated that the cations' structure had indeed influence on the cells' performance especially for the fill factor, which was further proved by the measurement result of I-V curves of these dye-sensitized solar cells. The conclusion was obtained that the electron exchange reaction on Pt counter electrode/electrolyte interface dominated the cells' performance for these ionic liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. (author)

  7. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  8. Identification and use of fluorescent dyes for plant cell wall imaging using high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Carroll, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell walls define cell shape during development and are composed of interlaced carbohydrate and protein networks. Fluorescent dyes have long been used to label plant cell walls, enabling optical microscopy-based interrogation of cell wall structure and composition. However, the specific cell wall components to which these dyes bind are often poorly defined. The availability of fluorescent compound libraries provides the potential to screen for and identify new fluorescent compounds that interact with specific plant cell wall components, enabling the study of cell wall architecture in intact, living tissues. Here, we describe a technique for screening fluorescent compound libraries for enhanced fluorescence upon interaction with plant cell walls, a secondary screening method to identify which cell wall components interact with a given dye, and a protocol for staining and observing Arabidopsis seedlings using a fluorescent cell wall-labeling dye. These methods have the potential to be applied to screening for differences in cell wall structure and composition among genetically diverse plant varieties or species.

  9. Interrelationship between TiO2 nanoparticle size and kind/size of dyes in the mechanism and conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahay, Pooya; Babapour Gol Afshani, Meisam; Alavi, Ali; Parsa, Zahra; Safari, Nasser

    2017-05-10

    In order to provide a comprehensive investigation of TiO2 nanoparticle size in relation with different dye types in DSSCs, three sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles and two different dye types including a porphyrin dye (T2) and a ruthenium dye (N3) were synthesized. Steady state current-voltage (J-V) characteristics were investigated for the fabricated DSSCs and the results demonstrated that the optimum TiO2 nanoparticle size changed with the dye type. The obtained J-V data were interpreted by cyclic voltammetry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, BET measurement, DFT calculation, IPCE measurement and impedance spectroscopy. The results for the N3 dye show that the surface area of the TiO2 nanoparticles is a key factor for the N3 cells, which is restricted by TiO2 pore diameter and surface state traps. In contrast, the density of localized states of the TiO2 film under the LUMO state of the porphyrin dyes is the dominating factor for the performance of the solar cells, which is restricted by the surface area of the TiO2 nanoparticles. These obtained results represent a significant advance in the development of porphyrin, ruthenium and even solid electrolyte DSSCs.

  10. Multicolour single molecule imaging in cells with near infra-red dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Tynan

    Full Text Available The autofluorescence background of biological samples impedes the detection of single molecules when imaging. The most common method of reducing the background is to use evanescent field excitation, which is incompatible with imaging beyond the surface of biological samples. An alternative would be to use probes that can be excited in the near infra-red region of the spectrum, where autofluorescence is low. Such probes could also increase the number of labels that can be imaged in multicolour single molecule microscopes. Despite being widely used in ensemble imaging, there is a currently a shortage of information available for selecting appropriate commercial near infra-red dyes for single molecule work. It is therefore important to characterise available near infra-red dyes relevant to multicolour single molecule imaging.A range of commercially available near infra-red dyes compatible with multi-colour imaging was screened to find the brightest and most photostable candidates. Image series of immobilised samples of the brightest dyes (Alexa 700, IRDye 700DX, Alexa 790 and IRDye 800CW were analysed to obtain the mean intensity of single dye molecules, their photobleaching rates and long period blinking kinetics. Using the optimum dye pair, we have demonstrated for the first time widefield, multi-colour, near infra-red single molecule imaging using a supercontinuum light source in MCF-7 cells.We have demonstrated that near infra-red dyes can be used to avoid autofluorescence background in samples where restricting the illumination volume of visible light fails or is inappropriate. We have also shown that supercontinuum sources are suited to single molecule multicolour imaging throughout the 470-1000 nm range. Our measurements of near infra-red dye properties will enable others to select optimal dyes for single molecule imaging.

  11. Role of Dyestuff in Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Selim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs have attracted great attention for their simple fabrication process, low production costs, relatively high conversion efficiency, and being environmental friendly.DSSC are a combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a electrode.DSSCs use organic dye assist to produce electricity in a wide range of light conditions, indoors and outdoors.The dye in the solar cell is the key element since it is responsible for light harvesting ability, photoelectron generation (the creation of free charges after injection of electrons into the nanostructured semi-conducting oxide and electron transfer.For this reason, this paper gives a background of dyestuff, types and limitations. The motivation of this work is to design a simple, easy and prepare an efficient organic dye sensitizer.Also, this paper investigates the important criteria which are considered for selecting dye to enhance DSSC efficiency. 

  12. Rose Bengal sensitized niobium pentaoxide photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedri, Niyamat I.; Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Jadkar, Sandesh R.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2017-05-01

    The present work deals with the study of Nb2O5 photoanode with low cost rose Bengal dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Chemical route was used for preparation of nano-crystalline niobium pentaoxide (Nb2O5) and doctor blade method was employed for deposition of Nb2O5 films. The morphological and structural analysis of Nb2O5 photoanodes were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The SEM micrograph shows spherical granular grains with porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The XRD analysis shows the formation of pure orthorhombic phase of Nb2O5. The band gap value for Nb2O5 photoanode was calculated as 3.2 eV using diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). As an alternative to conventional ruthenium dye, we used rose Bengal (4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachloro- 20, 40, 50, 70 tetra-iodo-fluorescein) dye, which acts as a photo-sensitizer for DSSCs. The absorbance spectra of the rose Bengal dye was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The cell shows open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and fill factor around 0.53V, 0.13mA /cm2 and 22% respectively.

  13. Liquid Redox Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ze

    2012-07-01

    This thesis focuses on liquid redox electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A liquid redox electrolyte, as one of the key constituents in DSCs, typically consists of a redox mediator, additives and a solvent. This thesis work concerns all these three aspects of liquid electrolytes, aiming through fundamental insights to enhance the photovoltaic performances of liquid DSCs. Initial attention has been paid to the iodine concentration effects in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes. It has been revealed that the higher iodine concentration required in IL-based electrolytes can be attributed to both triiodide mobility associated with the high viscosity of the IL, and chemical availability of triiodide. The concept of incompletely solvated ionic liquids (ISILs) has been introduced as a new type of electrolyte solvent for DSCs. It has been found that the photovoltaic performance of ISIL-based electrolytes can even rival that of organic solvent-based electrolytes. And most strikingly, ISIL-based electrolytes provide highly stable DSC devices under light-soaking conditions, as a result of the substantially lower vapor pressure of the ISIL system. A significant synergistic effect has been observed when both guanidinium thiocyanate and N-methylbenzimidazole are employed together in an IL-based electrolyte, exhibiting an optimal overall conversion efficiency. Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) has been investigated as an organic iodine-free redox couple in electrolytes for DSCs. An unexpected worse performance has been observed for the TTF system, albeit it possesses a particularly attractive positive redox potential. An organic, iodine-free thiolate/disulfide system has also been adopted as a redox couple in electrolytes for organic DSCs. An impressive efficiency of 6.0 % has successfully been achieved by using this thiolate/disulfide redox couple in combination with a poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) counter electrode material under full sunlight illumination (AM

  14. Intertwined aligned carbon nanotube fiber based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Qiu, Longbin; Cai, Zhenbo; Gong, Feng; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Zhongsheng; Peng, Huisheng

    2012-05-09

    Metal wires suffer from corrosion in fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report herein that stable, ultrastrong, and highly flexible aligned carbon nanotube fibers can be used not only as catalytic counter electrodes but also as conductive materials to support dye-loaded TiO(2) nanoparticles in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of this fiber solar cell can achieve 2.94%. These solar power fibers, exhibiting power conversion efficiency independent of incident light angle and cell length, can be woven into textiles via a convenient weaving technology.

  15. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    In the last decade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have extensively been studied. From an economical point of view DSCs are of high interest because the manufacturing costs of DSCs devices are significantly lower in contrast to the costs of other solar devices such as silicon cells. One...... on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In order to be able to predict the life time of the dye during solar cell operation it is essential to map all the possible side reactions and their rates initiated from the excited (S*), oxidized (S+) and ground state of the sensitizer (S). In my lecture I...

  16. ENHANCING THE EFFICIENCY OF AZO-BASED DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BY SURFACE TREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    JEANINA LUNGU; ADRIAN GEORGESCU; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2015-01-01

    We studied the conductive glass and/or the semiconductor surface treatments with aluminum ions as a technique to enhance the characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Al-doped ZnO. The aluminum ions were deposited on the surfaces using aluminum isopropoxide as precursor, by an easy and efficient method. We measured the characteristics of the dye sensitized solar cells based on pre- and/or post-treated electrodes. Our study showed a clear enhancement of cells efficiencies ...

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Isah Kimpa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes of anthocyanin extract from flame tree flower (Delonix regia and chlorophyll extract from pawpaw leaf (Carica papaya were used as sensitizer to fabricate dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The photoelectrode were subjected to UV/Vis spectrophotometer to view their absorbability. The photo electrochemical performances of DSSCs obtained from I.V characteristics showed conversion efficiency, (ɳ of 0.80 % for the dye extracts from flame tree flower (anthocyanine, with open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.5249 mV, short-circuit current density (Isc of 44.6191 mA/m2 and Fill factor (FF of 0.5837. Chlorophyll dyes extract from pawpaw leaf has VOC, Isc, FF and conversion efficiency, (ɳ of 0.5249 mV, 16.5283 mA/m2, 0.5585 and 0.27 % respectively. The conversion efficiency for the mixed dyes (anthocyanin and chlorophyll at ratio 1:2 is 0.23 % with VOC, Isc and FF of 0.5500 mV, 14.2750 mA/m2 and 0.5451 respectively, while the dye mixture at ratio 1:4 achieved VOC of 0.5249 mV, Isc of 18.4941 mA/m2, FF of 0.5206 and conversion efficiency (ɳ of 0.26 %. Anthocyanine from flame tree flower dye extract had the higher conversion efficiency of 0.8 % which could be better in term of application in dye solar cell.

  18. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  19. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  20. Spectroscopic and impedance studies of reverse biased degraded dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The work that is presented here is focused on the results that were obtained during studies of the performance of Dye Solar Cells under certain reverse bias conditions. This reverse voltage could permanently modify or damage a cell...

  1. A Study of Mixed Vegetable Dyes with Different Extraction Concentrations for Use as a Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two vegetable dyes are used for the study: chlorophyll dye from sweet potato leaf extract and anthocyanin dye from extracts of blueberry, purple cabbage, and grape. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes are blended in a cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to make the electrode for the experiments, P25 TiO2 powder was coated on the ITO conducting surface, using a medical blade, to form a thin film with a thickness of around 35 μm. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of sweet potato leaf and blueberries, in the volumetric proportion 1 : 1, at a weight concentration of 40%, using an extraction temperature of 50°C and an extraction heating time of 10 min produces the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of up to 1.57%, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.61 V, and a short-circuit current density (JSC of 4.75 mA/cm2.

  2. Application of dyes extracted from Alternanthera dentata leaves and Musa acuminata bracts as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A M; Ludin, Norasikin A; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd Amir H; Mukhlus, Abduljabbar

    2017-11-07

    The natural dyes anthocyanin and chlorophyll were extracted from Musa acuminata bracts and Alternanthera dentata leaves, respectively. The dyes were then applied as sensitizers in TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ethanol extracts of the dyes had maximum absorbance. High dye yields were obtained under extraction temperatures of 70 to 80°C, and the optimal extraction temperature was approximately 80°C. Moreover, dye concentration sharply decreased under extraction temperatures that exceeded 80°C. High dye concentrations were obtained using acidic extraction solutions, particularly those with a pH value of 4. The DSSC fabricated with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a conversion efficiency of 0.31%, short-circuit current (Isc) of 0.9mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58V, and fill factor (FF) of 62.22%. The DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves had a conversion efficiency of 0.13%, Isc of 0.4mA/cm-2,Voc of 0.54V, and FF of 67.5%. The DSSC sensitized with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 42%, which was higher than that of the DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves (23%). Anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts exhibited the best photosensitization effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Revealing the influence of Cyano in Anchoring Groups of Organic Dyes on Adsorption Stability and Photovoltaic Properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chieh; Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2017-07-10

    Determining an ideal adsorption configuration for a dye on the semiconductor surface is an important task in improving the overall efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we present a detailed investigation of different adsorption configurations of designed model dyes on TiO2 anatase (101) surface using first principles methods. Particularly, we aimed to investigate the influence of cyano group in the anchoring part of dye on its adsorption stability and the overall photovoltaic properties such as open circuit voltage, electron injection ability to the surface. Our results indicate that the inclusion of cyano group increases the stability of adsorption only when it adsorbs via CN with the surface and it decreases the photovoltaic properties when it does not involve in binding. In addition, we also considered full dyes based on the results of model dyes and investigated the different strength of acceptor abilities on stability and electron injection ability. Among the various adsorption configurations considered here, the bidentate bridging mode (A3) is more appropriate one which has higher electron injection ability, larger VOC value and more importantly it has higher dye loading on the surface.

  4. From Cell to Module: Fabrication and Long-term Stability of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursam, N. M.; Hidayat, J.; Muliani, L.; Anggraeni, P. N.; Retnaningsih, L.; Idayanti, N.

    2017-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which has been firstly developed by Graetzel et al back in 1991, has attracted a considerable interest since its discovery. However, two of the main challenges that the DSSC technology will have to overcome towards commercialization involve device scale-up and long-term stability. In our group, the fabrication technology of DSSC has been developed from laboratory to module scale over the past few years, nevertheless, the long-term stability has still became a major concern. In this contribution, the long-term DSSC performance in relation to their scale-up from cell to module is investigated. The photoelectrode of the DSSCs were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials that were subsequently sensitized using ruthenium-based dye. Additionally, TiCl4 pre- and post-treatment were carried out to enhance the overall device efficiency. When fabricated as cells, the DSSC prototypes showed relatively stable performance during repeated tests over three months. In order to increase the output power of the solar cells, the DSSCs were then connected in a Z-type series connection to obtain sub-module panels. The DSSC sub-modules exhibit poor stability, particularly as indicated by the significant decrease in the short circuit current (ISC ). Herein, the effect of photoelectrode and sealant materials as well as module design are investigated, highlighting their profound influence upon the DSSC efficiency and long-term stability.

  5. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, U. E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Emetere, M. E., E-mail: uno-essang@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Fadipe, L. A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Oluranti, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.oluranti@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO{sub 2} conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm{sup 2} active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10{sup −2}, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10{sup −2}, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  6. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, U. E.; Emetere, M. E.; Fadipe, L. A.; Oluranti, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO2 conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm2 active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10-2, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10-2, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  7. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2018-01-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density ( I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage ( V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies ( η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  8. Effect of Out-of-Plane Alkyl Group's Position in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Efficiency: A Structure-Property Relationship Utilizing Indoline-Based Unsymmetrical Squaraine Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagumalai, Ananthan; M K, Munavvar Fairoos; Vellimalai, Punitharasu; Sil, Manik Chandra; Nithyanandhan, Jayaraj

    2016-12-28

    Squaraine dyes are promising chromophores to harvest visible and near-infrared (NIR) photons. A series of indoline-based unsymmetrical squaraine (SQ) dyes that contain alkyl chains at sp3 C- and N- atoms of indoline moieties with a carboxylic acid anchoring group were synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of the SQ dyes in solution were nearly identical as there was no change in the D-A-D SQ framework; however, remarkable changes with respect to the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) were observed depending upon the position of alkyl groups in the dye. Introduction of alkyl groups to the indoline unit that was away from anchoring unit were helped in more dye loading with controlled organization of dyes on surface, increased charge transfer resistance, long electron lifetime, and hence higher PCE than that of the corresponding isomer in which the alkyl groups funtionalized indoline unit contains the carboxylic acid anchoring group. Careful analysis of incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) profiles indicated the presence of aggregated structure on the TiO2 surface that contributes to the charge injection in the presence of a coadsorbent. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device made out of SQ5 was achieved an efficiency of 9.0%, with an open-circuit potential (Voc) of 660 mV and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 19.82 mA/cm2, under simulated AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2). The IPCE profile of SQ5 shows an onset near to 750 nm with a good quantum efficiency (>80%) in the range of 550-700 nm, indicating the importance of self-organization of dyes on the TiO2 surface for an efficient charge injection. This present investigation revealed the importance of position of alkyl groups in the squaraine-based dyes for the better PCE.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2017-09-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density (I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage (V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies (η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  10. Dye sensitization of antimony-doped CdS photoelectrochemical solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zayat, M.Y.; Saed, A.O.; El-Dessouki, M.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2002-01-31

    Sb-doped CdS single crystal was used as a photoanode to fabricate a photoelectrochemical solar (PECS) cell. The three organic dyes; eosin, thymol blue and rhodamin 6G were used as sensitizers in (PECS) cell. In the absence of the dye, the results showed that with Sb-doped CdS single crystal electrode, a higher power conversion efficiency 9.27% has been achieved compared to 5.7-7.4% for pure crystal. Application of the dye in PECS cell increases the efficiency to about 13%. The efficiency reaches its maximum value when the dye concentration is (2.5x10{sup -5})M, sufficient to cover the surface of the semiconductor electrode with a continuous monolayer of the dye. Exceeding this value resulted in a gradual decrease of the efficiency from its maximum value. Mott-Schottky plots gave a doping density of 3.14x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} and a space charge width of 4.95x10{sup -6}cm for the sample used. A flat-band potential equal to -0.84V, independent of both frequency and pH, was also predicted. Cyclic voltammetry (c.v.) measurements showed an anodic current peak at 0.4V vs. SCE. The disappearance of this peak after excess addition of the reducing agent Na{sub 2}S, indicates that this peak is due to the PEC corrosion of the semiconductor electrode.

  11. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h

  12. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  13. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Hong; Yang, Xiaomeng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Lin

    2012-06-11

    Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu(2+)- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h cell culturing

  14. Potential development in dye-sensitized solar cells for renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy

    2013-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic technology is expected to solve problems related to energy shortages and environmental pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels. Dye-sensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs) are promising next-generation alternatives to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices owing to their low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. This special topic volume addresses recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. The focus of this special topic volume is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte),

  15. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  16. Dye bonding to TiO2: in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy study, simulations, and correlation with dye-sensitized solar cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Barbara; Wölzl, Florian; Bürgi, Thomas; Lingenfelser, Dominic

    2012-08-07

    Processing dye-sensitized solar cells gains more and more importance as interest in industrial applications grows daily. For large-scale processing and optimizing manufacturing in terms of environmental acceptability as well as time and material saving, a detailed knowledge of certain process steps is crucial. In this paper we concentrate on the sensitizing step of production, i.e., the anchoring of the dye molecules onto the TiO(2) semiconductor. A vacuum-tight attentuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) flow-through cell was developed, thus allowing measurements using a vacuum spectrometer to monitor infiltration of dye molecules into the porous TiO(2) film in situ at high sensitivity. In particular, the influence of the anchor and backbone of perylene dye molecules as well as the influence of solvents on the adsorption process was investigated. The experiments clearly show that an anhydride group reacts much slower than an acid group. A significantly lower amount of anhydride dye can be adsorbed on the films. Ex situ transmission experiments furthermore indicate that the availability of OH groups on the TiO(2) surface may limit dye adsorption. Also the backbone and base frame of the dye can influence the adsorption time drastically. Electrical cell characteristics correlate with the amount of adsorbed dye molecules determined by in situ ATR-IR measurements. The latter is also sensitive toward the diffusion of the dye through the porous layer. To gain a deeper understanding of the interplay between diffusion and adsorption, simulations were performed that allowed us to extract diffusion and adsorption constants. Again it was demonstrated that the anchoring group has a strong effect on the adsorption rate. The influence of the solvent was also studied, and it was found that both adsorption and desorption are affected by the solvent. Protic polar solvents are able to remove bound dye molecules, which is a possible pathway of cell degradation. Most importantly

  17. Effect of Hydroquinone Dderivatives in Electrolytes on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazloum Ardakani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New kinds of hydroquinone derivatives were synthesized and along with a azo dye applied as additives in the iodide/iodine redox electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells and their effect on the short-circuit photocurrent of dye sensitized solar cells was investigated. Addition of 0.05 M a hydroquinone derivative in the electrolyte comprising 0.5 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII and 0.05 M I2 in a mixture of acetonitrile and valeronitrile (volume ratio, 85:15 enhanced significantly photocurrent density from 11.1 to 12.8 mA/cm2, and voltage increased from 0.66 to 0.68 V. As a result, overall conversion efficiency increased from 4.4% to 4.8%, corresponding to increment of 10.9%.

  18. Hybrid TiO2-Gigantochloa Albociliata Charcoal in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, L. F. A.; Ramli, M. M.; Isa, S. S. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Mazlan, N. S.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Danial, N. A.; Muda, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    The Dye Sensitized Solar cell (DSSC) is an alternative to the silicon solar cell because it is low cost and easy to fabricate. In previous work, Remazol Orange (RO) was used as a dye sensitizer in DSSC but the efficiency is still low, 0.13%. In order to increase the device performance, TiO2 thin film as the working electrode is hybridized with high conducting and absorption material which is bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). It is founded that the nanoparticle size of TiO2-BCP composite was smaller compared to pristine TiO2. The ratio of TiO2 and BCP did not give any significant effect towards the particle size. The efficiency of RO DSSC was highly improved by 84.6% at higher carbonization temperature, 1100 °C compared to 500 °C during pyrolysis process due to its capability in absorbing more dye as it has larger specific area.

  19. Investigation on the Tunable-Length Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yi Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We had successfully fabricated ZnO-based nanowires by vapor transport method in the furnace tube. ZnO nanowire arrays grown in 600°C for 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes had applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye loading is proportional to the total equivalent surface area of ZnO nanowire arrays in the cells and plays an important role in improving power conversion efficiency. The highest efficiency was observed in DSSC sample with ZnO nanowires grown for 90 minutes, which had the largest equivalent surface area and also the highest dye loading. According to our experimental results, the enhancement in power conversion efficiency is attributed to the higher light harvesting and reduction of carrier recombination. In addition, ZnO nanowires also contribute to the photocurrent in the UV region.

  20. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  1. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Bi4Ti3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 particles were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and nanoporous thin films were prepared on conducting glass substrates. The structures and morphologies of the samples were examined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Significant absorbance spectra emerged in visible region which indicated the efficient sensitization of Bi4Ti3O12 with N3 dye. Surface photovoltaic properties of the samples were investigated by surface photovoltage. The results further indicate that N3 can extend the photovoltaic response range of Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles to the visible region, which shows potential application in dye-sensitized solar cell. As a working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, the overall efficiency reached 0.48% after TiO2 modification.

  2. Shiso leaf pigments for dye-sensitized solid-state solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumara, G.R.A.; Kaneko, S.; Okuya, M.; Konno, A. [Department of Material Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Onwona-Agyeman, B.; Tennakone, K. [Innovative Joint Research Center, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-05-23

    A dye-sensitized solar cell made by coating pigments in an extract from shiso leaves on a nanocrystalline film of TiO{sub 2} and subsequent deposition of p-CuI is found to have an energy conversion efficiency of {approx}1.3%. Both shisonin and chlorophyll contribute to light energy harvesting as seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. This is the first successful example of synergistic sensitization by dye cocktail extracted from a single natural resource. The usefulness of studies of this nature in understanding the role of multiple pigments in photosynthesis and broadening of the spectral response of dye-sensitized devices is commented, indicating also the pedagogic value of the experiment. (author)

  3. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szura Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  4. The Effects of Phosphonic Acids in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith Edward

    Novel methods for the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were developed. A thin dense underlayer of TiO2 was applied on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using as a precursor Tyzor AA-105. Subsequently a mesoporous film of P-25 TiO2 was applied by spreading a suspension uniformly over the surface of the underlayer and allowing the plate to slowly dry while resting on a level surface. After sintering at 500° C slides were treated with TCPP as a sensitizing dye and assembled into DSSCs. A novel method was used to seal the cells; strips of ParafilmRTM were used as spacers between the electrodes and to secure the electrodes together. The cells were filled with a redox electrolyte and sealed by dipping into molten paraffin. A series of phosphonic acids and one arsonic acid were employed as coadsorbates in DSSCs. The coadsorbates were found to compete for binding sites, resulting in lower levels of dye adsorption. The resulting loss of photocurrent was not linear with the reduction of dye loading, and in some cases photocurrent and efficiency were higher for cells with lower levels of dye loading. Electrodes were treated with coadsorbates by procedures including pre-adsorption, simultaneous (sim-adsorption), and post-adsorption, using a range of concentrations and treatment times and a variety of solvents. Most cells were tested using an iodide-triiodide based electrolyte (I3I-1) but some cells were tested using electrolytes based on a Co(II)/Co(III) redox couple (CoBpy electrolytes). Phosphonic acid post-adsorbates increased the Voc of cells using CoBpy electrolytes but caused a decrease in the Voc of cells using I3I-1 electrolyte. Phosphonic acids as sim-adsorbates resulted in a significant increase in efficiency and Jsc, and they show promise as a treatment for TCPP DSSCs.

  5. Effect of sintering time on the performance of turmeric dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Hidajat, R. Lullus Lambang G.; Suyitno, Kristiawan, Budi; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the effect of sintering time on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells with turmeric dyes as sensitizers. Sintering TiO2 semiconductors were conducted at a temperature of 450°C for 30, 50, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. The natural dye was extracted from dried turmeric powders with ethanol solvent. The results show that size of grains and the opening area of TiO2 semiconductor depended on the sintering time. The improvement of the properties of TiO2 semiconductor allowed more turmeric dyes were adsorbed by the semiconductors and then improved the performance of solar cells. The sintering time of 150 minutes produced large grains with an average diameter of 68.87 nm, and a porosity area of 26.51% caused the performance of DSSCs was the highest among other sintering time. The Voc, Jsc, and efficiency of DSSCs with turmeric-based natural dyes 0.64 V, 0.47 mA/cm2, and 0.2%, respectively.

  6. Imaging membrane intercalating near infrared dyes to track multiple cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Edward J; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn; Gray, Brian D; Kranz, David M

    2009-08-31

    Given the increasing interest in understanding in vivo migration of different cell types, it would be useful to have a simple method for tracking multiple cell populations in animals. Here we evaluated near infrared (NIR) dyes that intercalate into cell membranes as cell tracking labels, using both high-throughput and high-resolution methods. We tracked cells in tissues containing significant autofluorescence. CellVue Burgundy (ex 683/em 707) and CellVue NIR815 (ex 786/em 814) are especially useful because their spectral properties match the laser and detectors of the LI-COR laser scanner. After labeling cells ex vivo and injecting them into tumor-bearing mice, the distribution of cells in tumor and organs could be quantified in tissue sections with high throughput by scanning many slides at once. For example, we compared brain tumor infiltration and organ distribution of naïve and activated lymphocytes in single animals. High-resolution microscopic examination of the same tissues could be done by a relatively inexpensive modification of an epifluorescence microscope using a custom designed diode laser light source. Light emitting diodes that emit 685 nm and 780 nm light allowed microscopic visualization of the NIR labeled cells in tissues. The NIR dye-labeled cells were visualized with a greater signal/noise ratio compared to visible wavelength dyes such as CFSE, because of the low levels of autofluorescence in the NIR range. We also describe a simple modification of immunohistochemical procedures that allows combined visualization of the hydrophobic NIR dyes and antibody probes of cell markers in unfixed tissue. In combination these techniques will facilitate cell tracking in vivo.

  7. Characteristics of the iodide/triiodide redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2009-11-17

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have gained widespread interest because of their potential for low-cost solar energy conversion. Currently, the certified record efficiency of these solar cells is 11.1%, and measurements of their durability and stability suggest lifetimes exceeding 10 years under operational conditions. The DSC is a photoelectrochemical system: a monolayer of sensitizing dye is adsorbed onto a mesoporous TiO(2) electrode, and the electrode is sandwiched together with a counter electrode. An electrolyte containing a redox couple fills the gap between the electrodes. The redox couple is a key component of the DSC. The reduced part of the couple regenerates the photo-oxidized dye. The formed oxidized species diffuses to the counter electrode, where it is reduced. The photovoltage of the device depends on the redox couple because it sets the electrochemical potential at the counter electrode. The redox couple also affects the electrochemical potential of the TiO(2) electrode through the recombination kinetics between electrons in TiO(2) and oxidized redox species. This Account focuses on the special properties of the iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I(3)(-)) redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells. It has been the preferred redox couple since the beginning of DSC development and still yields the most stable and efficient DSCs. Overall, the iodide/triiodide couple has good solubility, does not absorb too much light, has a suitable redox potential, and provides rapid dye regeneration. But what distinguishes I(-)/I(3)(-) from most redox mediators is the very slow recombination kinetics between electrons in TiO(2) and the oxidized part of the redox couple, triiodide. Certain dyes adsorbed at TiO(2) catalyze this recombination reaction, presumably by binding iodine or triiodide. The standard potential of the iodide/triiodide redox couple is 0.35 V (versus the normal hydrogen electrode, NHE), and the oxidation potential of the standard DSC-sensitizer (Ru(dcbpy)(2

  8. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  9. J-Aggregates of Amphiphilic Cyanine Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Combination between Computational Chemistry and Experimental Device Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and structure principles of 5,5′-6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′-dioctyl-3,3′-bis-(3-carboxypropyl-benzimidacarbocyanine (Dye 1. Such metal-free amphiphilic cyanine dyes have many applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. AFM surface topographic investigation of amphiphilic molecules of Dye 1 adsorbed on TiO2 anode reveals the ability of spontaneous self-organization into highly ordered aggregates of fiber-like structure. These aggregates are known to exhibit outstanding optical properties of J-aggregates, namely, efficient exciton coupling and fast exciton energy migration, which are essential for building up artificial light harvesting to the photovoltaic device. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the metal free amphiphilic Dye 1 is η=3.75, which is about 50% of that based on metal-based N719 Ru-dye (Di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanatobis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylatoruthenium(II. DFT and TD-DFT studies show that large intramolecular charge transfer takes place from the HOMO to LUMO. HOMO is localized on a part of the molecule with almost no contribution from the carboxylic moiety. This clearly indicates that the anchoring carboxylic group plays a minor role.

  10. Efficiency-limiting processes in cyclopentadithiophene-bridged donor-acceptor-type dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkel, Felix

    2018-01-26

    The charge generation and recombination processes in three novel push-pull photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are studied by ps–μs transient absorption (TA) and quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The three cyclopentadithiophene-based photosensitizer dye molecules exhibit comparably low power conversion efficiencies ranging from 0.8% to 1.7% in solid-state DSSCs. We find that the photocurrents increase in the presence of Li-salt additives. Both TA and PIA measurements observe long-lived dye cations created by electron injection from the dyes’ excited state for two dyes from the series. However, the third dye shows significantly lower performance as a consequence of the less efficient electron injection even after the addition of Li-salts and faster electron-hole recombination on the ns-μs time scale. In essence, the prerequisites for this class of donor-π bridge-acceptor photosensitizers to reach higher charge generation efficiencies are a combination of strong dipole moments and fine tuning of the electronic landscape at the titania-dye interface by Li-salt addition.

  11. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  12. Enhancing the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells via molecular plasmon-like excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hao; Gryn'ova, Ganna; Prlj, Antonio; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2017-02-21

    We introduce a tactic for employing molecular plasmon-like excitations to enhance solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. We offer general design principles of dimeric dyes, in which a strong plasmonic interaction between two π-conjugated moieties is promoted. The π-stacked conformations of these dimeric dyes result in a desirable broadened absorption and a longer absorption onset wavelength.

  13. First-Principle Characterization of the Adsorption Configurations of Cyanoacrylic Dyes on TiO2 Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Hsu Gavin; Hu, Jia-Cheng; Tan, Chun-Jui; Sheng, Yung-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2016-11-10

    The loading of sensitizers on a semiconductor is crucial for determining the light-harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on a TiO2 film, such as adsorption configurations and adsorption energy, can influence the total amount of dye sensitizers that loads and the stability of a DSSC device. Therefore, it is important to characterize the adsorption properties of sensitizers on TiO2 films atomically and electronically to ensure rational structure-based dye design for high-performance DSSCs. Due to the complex properties of interfacial dyes, previous works on the identification of adsorption configurations of dyes on TiO2 have sometimes been controversial, in particular, the essential IR band assignments. In this study, we employed density functional theory to investigate the adsorption energies, geometries, and vibrational frequencies of various adsorption configurations of 2-cyano-3-(thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid adsorbed on TiO2. We performed a comparative assignment of the calculated vibrational peaks of tridentate and bidentate configurations to the experimental FT-IR spectra simultaneously. Our work backs up the coexistence of tridentate and bidentate bridging configurations, first proposed by Meng and co-workers. Moreover, our comparative IR mode assignments provide clues for further studies of the interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2. Study of the transformation mechanisms between tridentate and bidentate modes suggests that the bidentate bridging configuration is a kinetically trapped adsorption mode and the tridentate configuration is thermodynamically the most stable one. Finally, we investigated the photophysical properties of a D-π-A dye in tridentate and bidentate adsorption configurations.

  14. Experimental and Computational Studies on the Design of Dyes for Water-splitting Dye-sensitized Photoelectrochemical Tandem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Hernandez, Dalvin D.

    Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on the development of water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical tandem cells (WSDSPETCs). The design, synthesis, and characterization of high-potential porphyrins and metal-free phthalocyanines with phosphonic anchoring groups are reported. Photocurrents measured for WSDSPETCs made with some of these dyes co-adsorbed with molecular or colloidal catalysts on TiO2 electrodes are reported as well. To guide in the design of new molecules we have used computational quantum chemistry extensively. Linear correlations between calculated frontier molecular orbital energies and redox potentials were built and tested at multiple levels of theory (from semi-empirical methods to density functional theory). Strong correlations (with r2 values > 0.99) with very good predictive abilities (rmsd reaction center of Photosystem II. It was found that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules, hydrogen bonded to specific sites within the molecular triad, was essential to explain the observed thermal relaxation. These results are relevant for both advancing the knowledge about natural photosynthesis and for the future design of new molecules for WSDSPETCs.

  15. Monitoring of cell viability and cell growth in a hollow-fiber bioreactor by use of the dye Alamar Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, H; Jonuleit, T; Lemke, H D

    2001-06-01

    We describe a method for monitoring cell proliferation in a small-scale hollow-fiber bioreactor (culture volume: 1 ml) by use of the Alamar Blue dye. Alamar Blue is a non-fluorescent compound, which yields a fluorescent product after reduction, e.g. by living cells. In contrast to the MTT-assay, the Alamar Blue assay does not lead to cell death. However, when not removed from the cells, the Alamar Blue dye shows a reversible, time- and concentration-dependent growth inhibition as observed for the leukemic cell lines CCRF-CEM, HL-60 and REH. When applied in the medium compartment of a hollow-fiber bioreactor system, the dye is delivered to the cells across the hollow-fiber membrane, reduced by the cells and released from the cell into the medium compartment back again. Thus, fluorescence intensity can be measured in medium samples reflecting growth of the cells in the cell compartment. This procedure offers several advantages. First, exposure of the cells to the dye can be reduced compared to conventional culture in plates. Second, handling steps are minimized since no sample of the cells needs to be taken for readout. Moreover, for the exchange of medium, a centrifugation step can be avoided and the cells can be cultivated further. Third, the method allows discriminating between cell densities of 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) of proliferating HL-60 cells cultivated in the cell compartment of the bioreactor. Measurement of fluorescence in the medium compartment is more sensitive compared to glucose or lactate measurement for cell counts below 10(6) cells/ml, in particular. We conclude that the Alamar Blue-assay combined with a hollow-fiber bioreactor offers distinct advantages for the non-invasive monitoring of cell viability and proliferation in a closed system.

  16. TiO2 nanotube-based dye solar cell research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertically orientated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes hold great potential for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they provide an unscathed, one-dimensional transport route for photo-generated charge carriers, thereby increasing...

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    layer TiO2 nanoparti- ... solar cells [1–4]. In a DSSC, the photo-excited electrons of the dye molecules are transferred to the TiO2 conduc- tion band, which are taken out through an ... ganic materials [27–29] and organic–inorganic hybrid com-.

  18. Process optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 7. Process optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO ... TiO 2 –graphene (TGR) nanocomposites with varying concentrations of graphene from 0 to 1 wt% were preparedby direct mix method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the incorporation ...

  19. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  20. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. ZnO Photoanode Effect on the Efficiency Performance of Organic Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, I. S.; Ismail, S. S.; Norizan, M. N.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell has been emerged as one of the most promising candidates for photovoltaics applications in good quality of their low manufacturing cost and impressive conversion energy. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) which is used as photoanode in the market has the advantage of wide bandgap energy but low in electron mobility (∼10 cm2/(V.s)). Ruthenium in the other hand, as the dye sensitizer is a rare noble metal and harmful to human health. Thus, this article reveals the performance of photo-to-electric conversion efficiency with the usage of Zinc Oxide as photoanode with higher electron mobility (155 cm2/(V.s)) compared to TiO2 utilizing three natural fruit dyes of Prunus domestica, Magnifera indica and Citrus limon. ZnO and TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using sol gel and dr blade method respectively. The morphology of the photoanodes were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope and the efficiency of the complete DSSC with all different fruit dyes were characterized using Semiconductor Parametric Analyzer. The different property of electron mobility photoanodes effect in DSSC proved to give better performance with the photoconversion efficiency of 3.082% using ZnO with Prunus domestica dye. This article also reveals that pH indicator does not affect the selection and the performance of DSSC.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  3. Microbial fuel cells for azo dye treatment with electricity generation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Komal; Subramanian, Sindhu; Basu, Suddhasatwa

    2013-03-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) has great potential for treating wastewater containing azo dyes for decolourization, and simultaneous production of electricity with the help of microorganisms as biocatalysts. The concept of MFC has been already well established for the production of electricity; however, not much work has been published regarding dye decolourization with simultaneous electricity generation using MFCs. This paper reviews the performance limitations, future prospects, and improvements in technology in terms of commercial viability of azo dye decolourization with electricity generation in MFC. The major limitation identified is the high cost of cathode catalyst. Therefore, there is need of developing inexpensive cathode catalysts. Biocathode is one such option. Moreover, enhanced performance can be obtained by photo-assisted electrochemical process like rutile coated cathode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial fuel cell operation using monoazo and diazo dyes as terminal electron acceptor for simultaneous decolourisation and bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Yoong-Sin; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Thung, Wei-Eng; Nordin, Noradiba

    2017-03-05

    Monoazo and diazo dyes [New coccine (NC), Acid orange 7 (AO7), Reactive red 120 (RR120) and Reactive green 19 (RG19)] were employed as electron acceptors in the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. The electrons and protons generated from microbial organic oxidation at the anode which were utilized for electrochemical azo dye reduction at the cathodic chamber was successfully demonstrated. When NC was employed as the electron acceptor, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and dye decolourisation efficiencies obtained at the anodic and cathodic chamber were 73±3% and 95.1±1.1%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the decolourisation rates of monoazo dyes were ∼50% higher than diazo dyes. The maximum power density in relation to NC decolourisation was 20.64mW/m2, corresponding to current density of 120.24mA/m2. The decolourisation rate and power output of different azo dyes were in the order of NC>AO7>RR120>RG19. The findings revealed that the structure of dye influenced the decolourisation and power performance of MFC. Azo dye with electron-withdrawing group at para substituent to azo bond would draw electrons from azo bond; hence the azo dye became more electrophilic and more favourable for dye reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  6. Temperature effect of natural organic extraction upon light absorbance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Suriati; Mohamed Siddick, Siti Zubaidah; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Abdul Wahid, Mohamad Halim; Ahmad Hambali, Nor Azura Malini; Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer

    2017-02-01

    Natural organic dyes contain pigments which when safely extracted from plants have the potential to be used as a sensitizer while promising a low-cost fabrication, environmental friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ardisia, Bawang Sabrang, Harum Manis mango, Oxalis Triangularis and Rosella showed different absorption peaks when the extraction process were carried out at different temperatures. Hence, these were used as the basis to determine the conversion efficiency against the dyes extracting temperature. In this study, all dyes extracted in water have shown the best performance at a temperature of 100°C except for Harum Manis mango, while in ethanol, the optimum temperature was obtained between the room temperature, 25°C and 50°C. The absorption spectrum in water showed a broader absorption wavelength vis-à-vis ethanol solvent that resulted in the absorption peak for Ardisia, Harum Manis mango and Rosella between 450 nm and 550 nm. The highest conversion efficiency is observed to be achieved by Oxalis Triangularis extracted in water solution at 100°C, which was approximately 0.96% which corresponds to the broader absorbance trends in the literature. Thus, the optimum condition for extracting temperature for dyes in water and ethanol is room temperature and boiling points of water. Hence, Ardisia, Bawang Sabrang, Harum Manis mango, Oxalis Triangularis and Rosella can be an as alternative source for photosensitizer, and the impacts of temperature upon the light absorbance can be further investigated to produce the ultimate natural dye based solar cells.

  7. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-05

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2015-09-14

    The adsorption mechanism for the N719 dye on a TiO2 electrode was examined by the kinetic and diffusion models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion models). Among these methods, the observed adsorption kinetics are well-described using the pseudo-second order model. Moreover, the film diffusion process was the main controlling step of adsorption, which was analysed using a diffusion-based model. The photodynamic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated using time-resolved transient absorption techniques. The photodynamics of the oxidized N719 species were shown to be dependent on the adsorption time, and also the adsorbed concentration of N719. The photovoltaic parameters (Jsc, Voc, FF and η) of this DSSC were determined in terms of the dye adsorption amounts. The solar cell performance correlates significantly with charge recombination and dye regeneration dynamics, which are also affected by the dye adsorption amounts. Therefore, the photovoltaic performance of this DSSC can be interpreted in terms of the adsorption kinetics and the photodynamics of oxidized N719.

  9. [1,10]Phenanthroline based cyanine dyes as fluorescent probes for ribonucleic acids in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalska, Vladyslava; Kuperman, Marina; Varzatskii, Oleg; Kryvorotenko, Dmytro; Kinski, Elisa; Schikora, Margot; Janko, Christina; Alexiou, Christoph; Yarmoluk, Sergiy; Mokhir, Andriy

    2017-12-01

    A series of monomethine, trimethine- and styrylcyanine dyes based on a [1,10]phenanthroline moiety was synthesized, characterized and investigated as potential fluorescent probes for nucleic acids in cell free settings and in cells. The dyes were found to be weakly fluorescent in the unbound state, whereas upon the binding to dsDNA or RNA their emission intensity raised up to 50 times (for monomethine benzothiazole derivative FT1 complexed with RNA). The strongest fluorescence intensity in assemblies with dsDNA and RNA was observed for the trimethine benzothiazole derivative FT4. The quantum yield of FT4 fluorescence in its complex with dsDNA was found to be 1.5% and the binding constant (K b) was estimated to be 7.9 × 104 M‑1 that is a typical value for intercalating molecules. The FT4 dye was found to be cell membrane permeable. It stains RNA rich components—the nucleoli and most probably the cytoplasmic RNA. FT4 bound to RNAs delivers a very strong fluorescence signal, which makes this easily accessible dye a potentially useful alternative to known RNA stains, e.g. expensive SYTO® 83. The advantage of FT4 is its easy synthetic access including no chromatographic purification steps, which will be reflected in its substantially lower price.

  10. Improving Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Multi-Emission Effect of Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Moon; Kim, Chang Seob; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2015-10-01

    Generally, the N-719 dye, used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), only absorbs visible light in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm. Consequently, most of the ultraviolet and infrared rays from the sun are not utilized by this dye. However, ultraviolet and infrared rays can be converted to visible light by upconversion luminescence. Such visible light can then be reabsorbed by the dye, allowing for a larger range of solar irradiation to be utilized in DSSCs. Phosphor (ZnGa2O4, Y2O3:Er(3+)), acting as a luminescence medium, was added to the TiO2 electrode of DSSCs, and owing to the effect of upconversion, it increased their photocurrent density and efficiency. Phosphor (ZnGa2O4, Y2O3:Er(3+)) co-doped TiO2 electrode cells showed better performance than phosphor-free cells. In fact, the highest efficiency observed for a DSSC containing five phosphor layers was 7.03% with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 15.62 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.661 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 68.17%.

  11. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  12. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  13. Differential autophagic effects of vital dyes in retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 and photoreceptor 661W cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Bee, Youn-Shen; Chen, Yi-An; Lin, Shi-Han; Shu, Chih-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant blue G (BBG) are commonly used vital dyes to remove internal limiting membrane (ILM) in vitreoretinal surgery. The vital dyes have shown cytotoxic effects in ocular cells. Autophagy is a stress responsive pathway for either protecting cells or promoting cell death. However, the role of autophagy in ocular cells in response to the vital dyes remains unknown. In this study, we found that ICG and BBG reduced cell viability in both human retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 and mouse photoreceptor 661W cells. ICG and BBG induced lipidated GFP-LC3-II and LC3-II in ARPE-19 and 661W cells. Combination treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine indicated that ICG and BBG reduced autophagic flux in ARPE-19 cells, whereas the vital dyes induced autophagic flux in 661W cells. Moreover, genetic and pharmacological ablation of autophagy enhanced vital dyes-induced cytotoxicity in ocular cells. Dietary supplements, including resveratrol, lutein, and CoQ10, induced autophagy and diminished the cytotoxic effects of ICG and BBG in ocular cells. These results suggest that autophagy may protect ARPE-19 and 661W cells from vital dyes-induced damage.

  14. Surface modifications of photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells: enhanced light harvesting and reduced recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    In a quest to harvest solar power, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have potential for low-cost eco-friendly photovoltaic devices. The major processes which govern the efficiency of a DSSC are photoelectron generation, injection of photo-generated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of the mesoporous nanocrystalline semiconductor (nc-SC); transport of CB electrons through nc-SC and subsequent collection of CB electrons at the counter electrode (CE) through the external circuit; and dye regeneration by redox couple or hole transport layer (HTL). Most of these processes occur at various interfaces of the photoanode. In addition, recombination losses of photo-generated electrons with either dye or redox molecules take place at the interfaces. Therefore, one of the key requirements for high efficiency is to improve light harvesting of the photoanode and to reduce the recombination losses at various interfaces. In this direction, surface modification of the photoanode is the simplest method among the various other approaches available in the literature. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion on surface modification of the photoanode, which has been adopted in the literature for not only enhancing light harvesting but also reducing recombination. Various approaches towards surface modification of the photoanode discussed are (i) fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/nc-SC interface modified via a compact layer of semiconductor material which blocks exposed sites of FTO to electrolyte (or HTL), (ii) nc-SC/dye interface modification either through acid treatment resulting in enhanced dye loading due to a positively charged surface or by depositing insulating/semiconducting blocking layer on the nc-SC surface, which acts as a tunneling barrier for recombination, (iii) nc-SC/dye interface modified by employing co-adsorbents which helps in reducing the dye aggregation and thereby recombination, and (iv) dye/electrolyte (or dye/HTL) interface modification using

  15. Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Intracellular pH Measurements in Glioblastoma Cells Using the pH-Sensitive Dye BCECF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galifianakis, Nataliya V; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Chesler, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    The regulation of pH in glioblastoma (GBM) has received significant attention, because it has been linked to tumor metabolism and the stem cell phenotype. The variability in blood perfusion and oxygen tension within tumors suggests that ambient pH values fluctuate across different tumor territories. This chapter describes a detailed protocol for measuring intracellular pH in patient-derived GBM cells in vitro, using the fluorescent pH sensitive dye BCECF.

  18. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Bismuth-based ternary nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihui; Zhou, Bin; Yang, Chi; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Wen-Hua

    2017-05-11

    Bismuth-based ternary nanowires (NWs), including Bi19S27Br3 and Bi19S27I3, have been exploited as cost-effective and highly efficient Pt-free electrocatalysts in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Devices with them as counter electrodes (CEs) display a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 8.70%, superior to that of a cell with Pt as a CE (7.99% PCE) under the same conditions.

  20. Molecular Design of Efficient Organic D-A-pi-A Dye Featuring Triphenylamine as Donor Fragment for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferdowsi, P.; Saygili, Y.; Zhang, W.; Edvinson, T.; Kavan, Ladislav; Mokhtari, J.; Zakeerudin, S. M.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2018), s. 494-502 ISSN 1864-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells * Electrolytes * Donor-acceptor systems Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.226, year: 2016

  1. The effect of Cu doping into Oriza sativa L. indica dye as photosensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, U. M.; Prasada, A. B.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research to are know the effect of Cu doping into natural dye in increasing the efficiency of DSCC, to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of natural dye Cu doping. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode Platina (Pt). Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two- point probe El Kahfi/I-V Meter, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The Cu doping into dye was increasing the efficiency of 71%.

  2. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  3. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  4. Incorporation of graphene into SnO{sub 2} photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J. [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Biggs, Mark J. [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shapter, Joseph G., E-mail: joe.shapter@flinders.edu.au [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Incorporation of a graphene structure into SnO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode films has been demonstrated for the first time. The use of graphene in the SnO{sub 2} has been found to be a promising strategy to address many problems of photovoltaic cells based on SnO{sub 2} photoanodes. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid is prepared using a microwave technique. • The first SnO{sub 2}-RGO photoanode based DSSC is fabricated. • Use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode. • RGO significantly improved the electron transport rate within the DSSC devices. • Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the DSSC efficiency by 91.5%. - Abstract: In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO{sub 2}), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO{sub 2} and reduced graphene oxide (SnO{sub 2}-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  5. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Polyaniline/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the successful fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell using polyaniline base (EB, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, organic dye (rhodamine B or riboflavin, zinc oxide (ZnO, and indium tin oxide (ITO. The electrical properties of the resultant devices were investigated by measuring the current density voltage (-, capacitance voltage (-, and impedance measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. The photovoltaic cell characteristics, that is, open circuit voltage (, short circuit current density (, and energy conversion efficiency (, were evaluated under illumination and were found to be 0.48 mA/cm2, 400 mV, and 0.224%, respectively, for ITO/EB-MWCNTs/ZnO-rhodamine B/ITO heterostructure. Using impedance spectra, it was found that the series resistances of this type of solar cell are 62 and 60 Ω under darkness and illumination, respectively.

  7. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Te; Hsiao, Ching-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the use of single-crystalline and well-aligned ZnO nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. The ZnO nanowires are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates without catalysts by thermal evaporation. In spite of low roughness factors of around 25 for the nanowire photoanodes, the fabricated solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies of around 1.3% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination. Moreover, fill factors of around 0.5 have been achieved and are relatively high when compared with reported values from ZnO nanowire photoanodes. The results reveal the advantage of using single-crystalline nanowires as photoanode material and provide clues for the advancement of nanowire based dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. ENHANCING THE EFFICIENCY OF AZO-BASED DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BY SURFACE TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANINA LUNGU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the conductive glass and/or the semiconductor surface treatments with aluminum ions as a technique to enhance the characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on Al-doped ZnO. The aluminum ions were deposited on the surfaces using aluminum isopropoxide as precursor, by an easy and efficient method. We measured the characteristics of the dye sensitized solar cells based on pre- and/or post-treated electrodes. Our study showed a clear enhancement of cells efficiencies for the DSSCs based on Al(III pre-treated electrodes (i.e. a percentage increase of almost 18 % and also a smaller improvement in the efficiencies of DSSCs based on Al(III post-treated photoelectrodes (i.e. a percentage increase of almost 10 %, giving a overall enhance of about 21 % reported to the untreated photoelectrode based DSSC.

  10. Control of interfacial charge-transfer interaction of dye and p-CuI in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Shinya; Kato, Naohiko; Higuchi, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Toyoda, Tatsuo

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the photovoltaic and absorption characteristics of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with CuI to elucidate the impact of the interaction between the dye and CuI. For the ruthenium complex N719, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) on the longer-wavelength side decreased owing to the change of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (CT) of N719 due to the interaction between the thiocyanate groups of N719 and CuI. In contrast, when D149 — which included rhodanine groups — was used, the interaction with CuI and the resultant CT increased the IPCE. The results provide a new strategy for improving the photovoltaic performance by controlling the interfacial CT between the dye and CuI.

  11. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (pdyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (pdye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  12. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  13. Density Functional Theory Study on the Electronic Structures of Oxadiazole Based Dyes as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structures and UV-visible absorption spectra of complex photosensitizers comprising oxadiazole isomers as the π-bridges were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT. The ground state and excited state oxidation potentials, HOMOs and LUMOs energy levels, and electron injection from the dyes to semiconductor TiO2 have been computed in vacuum here. The results show that all of the dyes may potentially be good photosensitizers in DSSC. To justify the simulation basis, N3 dye was also simulated under the similar conditions. Simulated absorption spectrum, HOMO, LUMO, and band gap values of N3 were compared with the experimental values. We also computed the electronic structure properties and absorption spectra of dye/(TiO28 systems to elucidate the electron injection efficiency at the interface. This work is expected to give proper orientation for experimental synthesis.

  14. Microbial fuel cell operation using monoazo and diazo dyes as terminal electron acceptor for simultaneous decolourisation and bioelectricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oon, Yoong-Sin [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ong, Soon-An, E-mail: ongsoonan@yahoo.com [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ho, Li-Ngee [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Wong, Yee-Shian; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Thung, Wei-Eng [Water Research Group (WAREG), School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Nordin, Noradiba [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Monoazo and diazo dyes were used as electron acceptor in the abiotic cathode of MFC. • Simultaneous decolourisation and bioelectricity generation were achieved. • Azo dye structures influenced the decolourisation performance. • Positive relation between decolourisation rate and power performance. - Abstract: Monoazo and diazo dyes [New coccine (NC), Acid orange 7 (AO7), Reactive red 120 (RR120) and Reactive green 19 (RG19)] were employed as electron acceptors in the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. The electrons and protons generated from microbial organic oxidation at the anode which were utilized for electrochemical azo dye reduction at the cathodic chamber was successfully demonstrated. When NC was employed as the electron acceptor, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and dye decolourisation efficiencies obtained at the anodic and cathodic chamber were 73 ± 3% and 95.1 ± 1.1%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the decolourisation rates of monoazo dyes were ∼50% higher than diazo dyes. The maximum power density in relation to NC decolourisation was 20.64 mW/m{sup 2}, corresponding to current density of 120.24 mA/m{sup 2}. The decolourisation rate and power output of different azo dyes were in the order of NC > AO7 > RR120 > RG19. The findings revealed that the structure of dye influenced the decolourisation and power performance of MFC. Azo dye with electron-withdrawing group at para substituent to azo bond would draw electrons from azo bond; hence the azo dye became more electrophilic and more favourable for dye reduction.

  15. Rapid Synthesis of Thiophene-Based, Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) by a One-Pot, Four-Component Coupling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Keisuke; Yoshizaki, Soichi; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Fuse, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-26

    This one-pot, four-component coupling approach (Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/C-H direct arylation/Knoevenagel condensation) was developed for the rapid synthesis of thiophene-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Seven thiophene-based, organic dyes of various donor structures with/without the use of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) moiety were successfully synthesized in good yields based on a readily available thiophene boronic acid pinacol ester scaffold (one-pot, 3-step, 35-61%). Evaluation of the photovoltaic properties of the solar cells that were prepared using the synthesized dyes revealed that the introduction of an EDOT structure beside a cyanoacrylic acid moiety improved the short-circuit current (Jsc) while decreasing the fill factor (FF). The donor structure significantly influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the FF, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The use of a n-hexyloxyphenyl amine donor, and our originally developed, rigid, and nonplanar donor, both promoted good cell performance (η=5.2-5.6%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Copper Bipyridyl Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Photovoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygili, Yasemin; Söderberg, Magnus; Pellet, Norman; Giordano, Fabrizio; Cao, Yiming; Muñoz-García, Ana Belen; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Pavone, Michele; Boschloo, Gerrit; Kavan, Ladislav; Moser, Jacques-E; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders; Freitag, Marina

    2016-11-16

    Redox mediators play a major role determining the photocurrent and the photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). To maintain the photocurrent, the reduction of oxidized dye by the redox mediator should be significantly faster than the electron back transfer between TiO2 and the oxidized dye. The driving force for dye regeneration with the redox mediator should be sufficiently low to provide high photovoltages. With the introduction of our new copper complexes as promising redox mediators in DSCs both criteria are satisfied to enhance power conversion efficiencies. In this study, two copper bipyridyl complexes, Cu((II/I))(dmby)2TFSI2/1 (0.97 V vs SHE, dmby = 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and Cu((II/I))(tmby)2TFSI2/1 (0.87 V vs SHE, tmby = 4,4',6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), are presented as new redox couples for DSCs. They are compared to previously reported Cu((II/I))(dmp)2TFSI2/1 (0.93 V vs SHE, dmp = bis(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline). Due to the small reorganization energy between Cu(I) and Cu(II) species, these copper complexes can sufficiently regenerate the oxidized dye molecules with close to unity yield at driving force potentials as low as 0.1 V. The high photovoltages of over 1.0 V were achieved by the series of copper complex based redox mediators without compromising photocurrent densities. Despite the small driving forces for dye regeneration, fast and efficient dye regeneration (2-3 μs) was observed for both complexes. As another advantage, the electron back transfer (recombination) rates were slower with Cu((II/I))(tmby)2TFSI2/1 as evidenced by longer lifetimes. The solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies for [Cu(tmby)2](2+/1+), [Cu(dmby)2](2+/1+), and [Cu(dmp)2](2+/1+) based electrolytes were 10.3%, 10.0%, and 10.3%, respectively, using the organic Y123 dye under 1000 W m(-2) AM1.5G illumination. The high photovoltaic performance of Cu-based redox mediators underlines the significant potential of the new redox mediators

  17. Photochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S.K.; Ellingson, R.; Ferrere, S.; Frank, A.J.; Gregg, B.A.; Nozik, A.J.; Park, N.; Schlichthoerl, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A photoelectrochemical solar cell that is based on the dye-sensitization of thin nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles in contact with a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is described. The cell, fabricated at NREL, shows a conversion efficiency of {approximately} 9.2% at AM1.5, which approaches the best reported value of 10--11% by Graetzel at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. The femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to time resolve the injection of electrons into the conduction band of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films under ambient conditions following photoexcitation of the adsorbed Ru(II)-complex dye. The measurement indicates an instrument-limited {minus}50 fs upper limit on the electron injection time. The authors also report the sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} by a novel iron-based dye, CIS-[Fe{sup II}(2,2{prime}-bipyridine-4,4,{prime}-dicarboxylic acid){sub 2}(CN){sub 2}], a chromophore with an extremely short-lived, nonemissive excited state. The dye also exhibits a unique band selective sensitization through one of its two absorption bands. The operational principle of the device has been studied through the measurement of electric field distribution within the device structure and studies on the pH dependence of dye-redox potential. The incorporation of WO{sub 3}-based electrochromic layer into this device has led to a novel photoelectrochromic device structure for smart window application.

  18. Molecular and Material Approaches to Overcome Kinetic and Energetic Constraints in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Thomas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a lot of interest as they proffer the possibility of extremely inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. The excellent performance of the most efficient DSSCs relies on two main features: 1) a high surface area nanoparticle semiconductor photoanode to allow for excellent light absorption with moderate extinction molecular dyes and 2) slow recombination rates from the photoanode to I3- allowing good charge collection. The I3-/I- couple, however, has some disadvantages, notably the redox potential limits the maximum open-circuit voltage, and the dye regeneration requires a large driving force which constrains the light harvesting ability. Thus, the design features that allow DSSCs to perform as well as they do also prevent further significant improvements in performance. As a consequence, the most efficient device configuration, and the maximum efficiency, has remained essentially unchanged over the last 16 years. Significant gains in performance are possible; however it will likely require a substantial paradigm shift. The general goal of this project is to understand the fundamental role of dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC, components (sensitizer, redox shuttle, and photoanode) involved in key processes in order to overcome the kinetic and energetic constraints of current generation DSSCs. For example, the key to achieving high energy conversion efficiency DSSCs is the realization of a redox shuttle which fulfills the dual requirements of 1) efficient dye regeneration with a minimal driving force and 2) efficient charge collection. In current generation DSSCs, however, only one or the other of these requirements is met. We are currently primarily interested in understanding the physical underpinnings of the regeneration and recombination reactions. Our approach is to systematically vary the components involved in reactions and interrogate them with a

  19. Efficiency enhancement using voltage biasing for ferroelectric polarization in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmo; Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2018-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one of the most promising third generation solar cells that have been extensively researched over the past decade as alternative to silicon-based solar cells, due to their low production cost and high energy-conversion efficiency. In general, a DSSC consists of a transparent electrode, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte such as dye. To achieve high power-conversion efficiency in cells, many research groups have focused their efforts on developing efficient dyes for liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report on the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs fabricated using a mixture of TiO2 with nanosized Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (nFe-BLT) powder). Firstly, nFe-BLT powders were prepared using a high-energy ball milling process and then, TiO2 and nFe-BLT powders were stoichiometrically blended. Direct current (DC) bias of 20 MV/m was applied to lab-made DSSCs. With the optimal concentration of nFe-BLT doped in the electrode, their light-to-electricity conversion efficiency could be improved by ∼64% compared with DSSCs where no DC bias was applied.

  20. A Comparison of the Performances of Different Mesoporous Titanias in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Latini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at optimizing titanium dioxide morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells applications. Five different anatase phase mesoporous titanias were prepared and tested as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials were prepared by using a template approach. Two materials were synthesized by using monodisperse silica nanospheres and the other three using two different organic templating agents (Pluronic P123 and Brij 58. A complete characterization of the obtained materials was performed by powder XRD, FEG-SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, BET surface area measurements, and TG-DTA. Several cells were assembled using N719 as dye and a nonvolatile electrolyte based on benzonitrile. The cells were tested by means of J-V curves under simulated solar radiation, IPCE, and dark current measurements. The highest efficiencies were achieved with titania prepared by using Pluronic P123 as template (ηmax=6.8%, while the lowest efficiencies were recorded with using titania samples prepared with the silica nanospheres template (ηmin=5.7%. The different performances of the samples are examined and discussed.

  1. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.

  2. Cycloruthenated sensitizers: improving the dye-sensitized solar cell with classical inorganic chemistry principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Bomben, Paolo G; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2012-07-14

    A divergence from the conventional approach to chromophore design has led to the establishment of many exciting new benchmarks for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), including the first documented power conversion efficiency in excess of 12% at 1 sun illumination [Yella et al., Science 2011, 334, 629]. Paramount to these advances is the deviation from polypyridyl ruthenium dyes bearing NCS(-) ligands, such as [Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)] (N3; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine). While metal-free and porphyrin dyes have demonstrated much promise, the discovery that the NCS(-) ligands of N3 can be replaced by anionic, chelating cyclometalating ligands without compromising device efficiencies has ushered in a new era of ruthenium dye development. A particularly appealing feature of this class of dyestuff is that they offer acute control of the frontier molecular orbitals to enable the precise attenuation of both the ground and excited state redox potentials through judicious chemical modification of the aryl ring. This Perspective summarizes very recent developments in the field, and demonstrates how the new and rapidly expanding class of Ru-based sensitizers provides a conduit for enhancing the performance (and potentially the stability) of the DSSC.

  3. Faradaic impedance to analyze charge recombination in photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masayuki, E-mail: itagaki@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Nakano, Yuya; Shitanda, Isao; Watanabe, Kunihiro [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    Charge transfer on the photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) is composed of the various processes as follows: photoexcitation of electron in the dye; electron injection from the excited dye into the conduction band of oxide semiconductor; electron diffusion in the oxide semiconductor, reaction between oxidized dye and iodide ions (I{sup -}); and charge recombination. The charge recombination is one of the main factors that limit the efficiency of photoelectric conversion at photoelectrode. It is well known that 4-tert-butyl pyridine (TBP) is the useful additive in order to suppress the charge recombination. The authors fabricated the DSC with two photoelectrode materials such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO), and analyzed the charge recombination by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Theoretical equation of Faradaic impedance was derived from the reaction model of photoelectorde, and the charge transfer resistance of the photoelectrode was defined from the Faradaic impedance. In addition, the influence of the charge recombination on the impedance spectrum of the photoelectrode was discussed by the comparison between simulated and experimental results.

  4. GREEN SEAWEEDS EXTRACT AS CO-SENSITIZER FOR DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The row extract of ethanol soluble compounds from the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis was used as source for chlorophyll pigments in the sensitization and co-sensitization of TiO2-based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs. We used two techniques for co-sensitization (the successive adsorptions of dyes, respective the cocktails of dyes and the characteristics of DSSCs were studied having in view different pHs of the extracts. The results for DSSCs based on co-sensitized TiO2 photoanodes, obtained in diverse pH conditions, were compared with those for DSSCs based on substrates sensitized by a single source of pigments. The DSSCs fabricated using photoanodes sensitized with a cocktail of green seaweeds and red cabbage extracts, in basic medium, have higher value for efficiency, compared to green seaweeds, respective red cabbage extracts in the same conditions, and the fill factor was remarkable high (0.795. Thus, the co-sensitization by cocktail method may be a proper technique to enhance the light harvesting capability of natural dyes based DSSCs.

  5. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: New Approaches with Organic Solid-state Hole Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Nick; Zhang, Jinbao; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2015-02-25

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) in which a solid organic charge-transfer medium, or hole conductor (HC), is interposed between a dye-coated mesoporous oxide electrode and a conductive counter electrode, have attracted considerable interest as viable alternatives to the more ubiquitous mediator-electrolyte DSC. Of particular importance to efficient operation are, in addition to the useful processes contributing to current generation (light harvesting, electron injection and current collection), the recombinative deleterious processes. The organic HCs are highly reactive toward electrons in the oxide or the conducting glass support, therefore necessitating the inclusion of a carefully prepared thin blocking oxide underlayer support as well as the molecular design of special dark current-suppressing dyes. Initially (mid-1990s) sDSCs with organic small molecular weight hole conductors have undergone systematic investigation. At the same time the first tests of sDSCs with conducting polymer hole conductors were published, with subsequent emphasis on the in situ generation of the HC inside the pores. For both types of devices a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency, in the 5-10% range for several dye-HC combinations, approaches that of the most efficient DSCs with non-volatile liquid electrolytes, thereby encouraging further efforts for obtaining stable, efficient and inexpensive sDSCs.

  6. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-11-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO2) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO2), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO2-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  7. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.

    2016-10-01

    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  8. Elucidating the structure-property relationships of donor-π-acceptor dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through rapid library synthesis by a one-pot procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Sugiyama, Sakae; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Katoh, Ryuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-08-18

    The creation of organic dyes with excellent high power conversion efficiency (PCE) is important for the further improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells. We wish to describe the rapid synthesis of a 112-membered donor-π-acceptor dye library by a one-pot procedure, evaluation of PCEs, and elucidation of structure-property relationships. No obvious correlations between ε, and the η were observed, whereas the HOMO and LUMO levels of the dyes were critical for η. The dyes with a more positive E(HOMO), and with an E(LUMO)dyes; nevertheless, that was not sufficient for identifying the best combination of donor, π, and acceptor blocks. Combinatorial synthesis and evaluation was important for identifying the best dye. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  10. An ion conductive polysiloxane as effective gel electrolyte for long stable dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Maria Pia; De Gregorio, Gian Luca; Grisorio, Roberto; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Manca, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Among various alternatives to liquid electrolytes, ion conductive polymeric gels still offer the greatest potentialities to fill the gap between high energy conversion efficiency and long term stability in several classes of electrochemical and photo-electrochemical devices. We here present the synthesis of an ion conductive polysiloxane, named poly[(3-N-methylimidazoliumpropyl)methylsiloxane-co-dimethylsiloxane]iodide (IP-PDMS), which has been successfully employed to formulate a batch of iodide/triiodide-based gel electrolytes for dye solar cells. They are demonstrated to guarantee a good trade-off among photovoltaic performances and environmental stability. In particular, dyes solar cells embodying a benzothiadiazole-based donor-π-acceptor sensitizer and a 40%wt-IP-PDMS-based gel electrolyte have been revealed to maintain up to 90% of their initial photovoltaic performances over 1000 h of light soaking at 0.4 sun, although sealed with a simple thermoplastic gasket.

  11. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  12. Performance engineering of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using Ag modified titania as photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G.; Mathan Kumar, P.; Samdarshi, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present work reports the fabrication of silver (Ag) modified titania photoanode as an efficient photoanode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Pristine and Ag modified Titania nanomaterials were prepared using sol gel method. The structural analyses confirm the high crystallinity of the samples with crystallite size distribution in nanorange. TEM micrograph confirms that the synthesized nanomaterials are in uniform size. A red shift is observed in the UV DRS spectra compared to pristine Titania and which confirm the incorporation of Ag inside titania. A prototype DSSC was fabricated using the pristine and modified Titania as photoanode, Ruthenium dye as sensitizer, I-/I-3 as redox electrolyte and platinum counter electrode. The cell with Ag modified titania photoanode showed 15 times enhanced photoconversion efficiency (PCE) than the pristine one. This improved performance of the Ag modified DSSC can be ascribed to reduced recombination and improved charge carrier transport of electrons/holes at the interfaces.

  13. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  14. An electro-optical and electron injection study of benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes as efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials: a first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdan, Najat Saeed; Asiri, Abdullah M; Irfan, Ahmad; Basaif, Salem A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2014-12-01

    Squaraine dyes have attracted significant attention in many areas of daily life from biomedical imaging to semiconducting materials. Moreover, these dyes are used as photoactive materials in the field of solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the structural, electronic, photophysical, and charge transport properties of six benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes (Cis-SQ1-Cis-SQ3 and Trans-SQ1-Trans-SQ3). The effect of electron donating (-OCH3) and electron withdrawing (-COOH) groups was investigated intensively. Ground state geometry and frequency calculations were performed by applying density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. Absorption spectra were computed in chloroform at the time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The driving force of electron injection (ΔG (inject)), relative driving force of electron injection (ΔG r (inject)), electronic coupling constants (|VRP|) and light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of all six compounds were calculated and compared with previously studied sensitizers. The ΔG (inject), ΔG r (inject) and |VRP| of all six compounds revealed that these sensitizers would be efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials. Cis/Trans-SQ3 exhibited superior LHE as compared to other derivatives. The Cis/Trans geometric effect was studied and discussed with regard to electro-optical and charge transport properties.

  15. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  16. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  17. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  18. Characterization and Reliability of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: Temperature, Illumination, and Bias Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bari, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) have recently proved to be a low-cost alternative to inorganic photovoltaics and they could attract a remarkable market share in the future. On the other hand, reliability issues must be solved to improve the competitiveness of this new solar energy technology. The present thesis deals with a characterization and reliability study of DSC aiming to have a comprehensive picture of the efficiency, stability, and degradation mechanisms of DSC, with the purpose to ...

  19. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. Michael; Sapp, Shawn A.; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto; Contado, Cristiano; Caramori, Stefano

    2006-03-28

    This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: L.sub.a-M-X.sub.b where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.

  1. Graphene-based Materials for Photoanodes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoru eGuo; Ganhua eLu; Junhong eChen

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the research on the use of graphene and related materials in the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Graphene-based materials, such as pristine graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, have properties attractive for various components of the DSSC photoanode. We first provide a brief introduction to graphene properties and analyze requirements for making a high-performance photoanode. Then, we introduce applications of graphene-based materials in...

  2. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  3. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations.

  4. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    with that of DSCs fabricated with two well-established co-adsorbents i.e., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDA) and octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA). The findings showed that under optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same......With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (

  5. Application of 3A molecular sieve layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan; Wang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jinzhong-wang@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Yu, Qingjiang, E-mail: jinzhong-wang@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Huang, Yuewu; Chang, Quanhong; Hao, Chunlei; Jiao, Shujie; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Dongbo [Department of Opto-Electric Information Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)

    2014-08-25

    3A molecular sieve layer was used as dehydration and electronic-insulation layer on the TiO{sub 2} electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. This layer diminished the effect of water in electrolyte efficiently and enhanced the performance of cells. The conversion efficiency increased from 9.58% to 10.2%. The good moisture resistance of cells was attributed to the three-dimensional interconnecting structure of 3A molecular sieve with strong adsorption of water molecule. While the performance enhancement benefited from the suppression of the charge recombination of electronic-insulation layer and scattering effect of large particles.

  6. Transparent graphene/PEDOT-PSS composite films as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wenjing; Xu, Yuxi; Lu, Gewu; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Composite films of graphene and polystyreneslufonate doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (graphene/PEDOT-PSS) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by spin coating at room temperature and applied as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A 60 nm thick composite film (contained 1 wt% graphene) coated ITO electrode exhibited high transmittance (>80%) at visible wavelengths and high electrocatalytic activity. The energy conversion efficiency of the cell with this film as counter electrode reached 4.5%, which is comparable to 6.3% of the cell with platinum counter electrode under the same experimental condition. (author)

  7. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  8. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Optimal Gel Electrolyte Using the Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was adopted to determine the optimal gel electrolyte used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Since electrolyte is a very important factor in fabrication of high performance and long-term stability DSSCs, to find the optimal composition of gel electrolyte is desired. In this paper, the common ingredients used in the liquid electrolyte were chosen. The ingredients then mixed with cheap ionic liquids and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP were added to form colloidal electrolyte (gel. The optimal composition of each materials in the gel electrolyte determined by Taguchi method consists of 0.03 M I2, 0.15 M KI, 0.6 M LiI, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine (TBP, and 10% PVDF-HFP dissolved in the acetonitrile and 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN solution with volume ratio of 2 : 1. The short circuit current density of 14.11 mA/cm2, the conversion efficiency (η of 5.52%, and the lifetime of over 110 days were observed for the dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with optimal gel electrolyte. The lifetime increases 10 times when compared with the conventional dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with liquid electrolyte.

  10. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concina, Isabella; Vomiero, Alberto

    2015-04-17

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the synthesis and application of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors for dye sensitized and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. In these devices, the wide bandgap semiconducting oxide acts as the photoanode, which provides the scaffold for light harvesters (either dye molecules or quantum dots) and electron collection. For this reason, proper tailoring of the optical and electronic properties of the photoanode can significantly boost the functionalities of the operating device. Optimization of the functional properties relies with modulation of the shape and structure of the photoanode, as well as on application of different materials (TiO2, ZnO, SnO2) and/or composite systems, which allow fine tuning of electronic band structure. This aspect is critical because it determines exciton and charge dynamics in the photoelectrochemical system and is strictly connected to the photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The different strategies for increasing light harvesting and charge collection, inhibiting charge losses due to recombination phenomena, are reviewed thoroughly, highlighting the benefits of proper photoanode preparation, and its crucial role in the development of high efficiency dye sensitized and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Triazoloisoquinoline-Based/Ruthenium-Hybrid Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs were synthesized and used in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. After cosensitization with ruthenium complex, the triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs overcame the deficiency of ruthenium dyestuff absorption in the blue part of the visible spectrum. This method also fills the blanks of ruthenium dyestuff sensitized TiO2 film and forms a compact insulating molecular layer due to the nature of small molecular organic dyestuffs. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of N719 at shorter wavelength regions is 49%. After addition of a triazoloisoquinoline-based dyestuff for co-sensitization, the IPCE at 350–500 nm increased significantly. This can be attributed to the increased photocurrent of the cells, which improves the dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion efficiency from 6.23% to 7.84%, and the overall conversion efficiency increased by about 26%. As a consequence, this low molecular weight organic dyestuff is a promising candidate as coadsorbent and cosensitizer for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells with a double layer photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pirhadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated from a double layer photoanode. First, TiO2 nanoparticles  were synthesized by hydrothermal method. These TiO2 NPs were deposited on FTO glasses by electrophoretic deposition  method in applied voltage of 5 V and EPD time of 2.5-10 min. Then TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs were synthesized by sacrificed template method with Carbon Spheres as template and TTIP as precursor. Then these template scarified and the hollow structures found. Since the HSs paste was prepared as same method of prepared TiO2 nano particles and this paste was deposited on last layer by Dr. Blade method. The prepared photoanodes was soaped in N-719 dye after sintering in 500 ÚC. The dye sensitized solar cells  were fabricated with the finalized double layer photoanodes. The best photovoltaic characteristics of the optimized cell were 734 mV, 13.16 mA/cm2, 62% and 5.96% for Voc, Jsc, F.F. and efficiency respectively.

  13. High-efficiency Förster resonance energy transfer in solid-state dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Gopal K; Basham, James; Paulose, Maggie; Kim, Sanghoon; Varghese, Oomman K; Vaish, Amit; Yoriya, Sorachon; Grimes, Craig A

    2010-07-14

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSCs) offer the potential to make low cost solar power a reality, however their photoconversion efficiency must first be increased. The dyes used are commonly narrow band with high absorption coefficients, while conventional photovoltaic operation requires proper band edge alignment significantly limiting the dyes and charge transporting materials that can be used in combination. We demonstrate a significant enhancement in the light harvesting and photocurrent generation of SS-DSCs due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). TiO(2) nanotube array films are sensitized with red/near IR absorbing SQ-1 acceptor dye, subsequently intercalated with Spiro-OMeTAD blended with a visible light absorbing DCM-pyran donor dye. The calculated Förster radius is 6.1 nm. The donor molecules contribute a FRET-based maximum IPCE of 25% with a corresponding excitation transfer efficiency of approximately 67.5%.

  14. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  15. Investigation of effect of anti-aggregation agent on the performance of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Moradian, S.; Gharanjig, K.

    2015-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on indigo dyes exhibit suitable conversion efficiency. These organic dyes have been undergone for aggregation. Electron transfer process is reduced due to an aggregation of molecular dyes. Therefore, anti-aggregation agent is commonly utilized in fabrication of DSSCs. In the present study, two anti-aggregation agents namely as 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (cheno) and 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (cholic acid) were added to indigo dye solution in DSSCs in order to determine the photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of each individual dye in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents. The results show that the conversion efficiencies are improved with reduced aggregation. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the indigo dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate were carried out in the absence and presence of anti-aggregation agents in order to estimate changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. J-type aggregates on the nano TiO2 are reduced in the presence of anti-aggregation agents.

  16. Extraction, preparation and application of pigments from Cordyline fruticosa and Hylocereus polyrhizus as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Ludin, Norasikin A.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2017-05-01

    Current study employs mixture of chlorophyll-anthocyanin dye extracted from leaves of Cordyline fruticosa as new sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs), as well as betalains dye obtained from fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus. Among ten pigments solvents, the ethanol and methanol extracts revealed higher absorption spectra of pigments extracted from C. fruticosa and H. polyrhizus respectively. A major effect of temperature increase was studied to increase the extraction yield. The results indicated that extraction temperature between 70 and 80 °C exhibited a high dye concentration of each plant than other temperatures. The optimal temperature was around 80 °C and there was a sharp decrease of dye concentration at temperatures higher than this temperature. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated by mixture of chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes from C. fruticosa leaves is 0.5% with short-circuit current (Isc) of 1.3 mA/cm- 2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.62 V and fill factor (FF) of 60.16%. The higher photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared from the extract of H. polyrhizus was 0.16%, with Voc of 0.5 V, Isc of 0.4 mA/cm- 2 and FF of 79.16%. The DSSC based betalain dye extracted from fruit of H. polyrhizus shows higher maximum IPCE of 44% than that of the DSSCs sensitized with mixed chlorophyll-anthocyanin dye from C. fruticosa (42%).

  17. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell with a photoanodecomposed of one transparent sub-layer of hydrothermally grown TiO 2 NCs and two over-layers of P25 NPs. Higher energy conversion efficiencies were also attainable using two transparent sub-layers of hydrothermally grown TiO 2 NCs. In this case ...

  18. Photoelectrochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of mesoporous colloidal anatase films in connection with their potential application in liquid junction photovoltaic cells. A respectable light to electric energy conversion efficiency of about 9.5% in 9 mW/cm2 (∼ 1/10 Sun) was obtained. In comparison (a Isc = 2.2 ...

  19. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensitized solar cells) and photocatalysis properties (decomposition of methomyl) was investigated. In all investigated cases, the sample C, which was formed by anodizing in a ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 9 mM K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , exhibited ...

  1. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  2. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  3. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  4. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shahroosvand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  5. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanowire Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Xu, Jia; Liu, Xiu; Zhang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan; Tan, Zhanao; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, TiO2 nanowire arrays were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and then were converted into mesoporous nanowires (MNWs). The TiO2 MNWs are about 5 μm in length and 30-200 nm in diameter, with mesopores size of 5-30 nm randomly distributed on the NW surface. X-ray diffraction pattern reports show that the NWs are single crystallized rutile TiO2 and oriented grown along [001]. Through further characterization of FT-IR and TG-DSC, we proposed a reasonable explanation for pore existence. After dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembly, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of MNWs based DSSC achieved 3.2%. It means tenfold enhancement of photoelectric property compare with the as-grown NWs. Furthermore, dye absorb capacity of MNWs can reach up to 4.11 x 10(-8) mol/cm2. However, such MNWs can not only provide quick and efficient electron transmission channel, but also owns big specific surface area to absorb abundant dyes, thus conducive to fabricate solar cell with a high PCE.

  6. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  7. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  8. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  9. Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zimin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting oxides have attracted great attention for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), but the overall performance is still quite limited as compared to TiO2 nanocrystalline DSCs. Here, we report the synthesis of aggregated TiO2 based nanotubes with controlled morphologies and crystalline structures to obtain an overall power conversion efficiency of 9.9% using conventional dye without any additional chemical treatment steps. The high efficiency is attributed to the unique aggregate structure for light harvesting, optimized high surface area, and good crystallinity of the nanotube aggregates obtained through proper thermal annealing. This study demonstrates that high efficiency DSCs can be obtained with 1D nanomaterials, and provides lessons on the importance of optimizing both the nanocrystalline structure and the overall microscale morphology.

  10. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2 and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm. Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  11. Influence of electrode spacing on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfidharisti, S. R.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.; Iriani, Y.

    2017-11-01

    This study reported the fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with optimization of electrode spacing. Optimization of electrodes in DSSC will affect the amount of electrolyte solution provided. The DSSC fabrication in this study consisted of coating the TiO2 semiconductor as the working electrode, Platinum as the catalyst on the counter electrode, the Dye Ruthenium Complex as a photosensitizer, and the electrolyte solution as the electron transport media. The spacer between the working electrode and the counter electrode was varied by five variations with the thickness of 38 μm, 76 μm, 114 μm, 152 μm, and 190 μm. The DSSC was characterized using Keithley I-V Meter to know the efficiency of DSSC. The characterization showed that the best DSSC efficiency was at 76 μm electrode spacing.

  12. Growth of seaweed-like TiO2 nanoarrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Hari; Jiang, Lei; Fu, Wuyou; Yuan, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zongrui

    2010-10-01

    Seaweed-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoarrays (STNAs) were grown on the surface of a titanium (Ti) sheet by hydrogen peroxide sculpture at low temperature. After calcination, the STNA transformed to highly crystalline anatase phase and exhibited a vertically standing structure, with an average length of 1.35-2.12 μm, leaves breadth of about 30-80 nm, and leaves thickness of about 10-15 nm. STNA-electrode dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) fabricated with dye C106 achieved an efficiency of 3.2% under irradiation of 100 mWcm‒2 air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) sunlight. Further research showed that the STNA-electrode DSC has much lower recombination rate (Kr) and longer electron life time (τn), thus making this STNA a potential candidate of electrode for fabricating high performance DSC.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  14. Exploring the phytoremediation potential of cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm. Dyck.) cell cultures for textile dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adki, Vinayak S; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Bapat, Vishwas A

    2012-07-01

    Cactaceae Nopalea cochenillifera cell cultures and intact plants (cladodes) transform various toxic textile dyes, including Red HE7B into less phytotoxic, non-hazardous metabolites. The [tentative] pathway analysis demonstrates that Red HE7B is transformed into 3-amino-5-imino-5,8-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol, 2-amino-6-(carboxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol, and phenoL The significant induction of the activities of intracellular laccase (687%), tyrosinase (219%), azoreductase (144%), and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (167%) indicated the involvement of these enzymes in the transformation pathways of Red HE7B but these enzymes have not been definitively linked to the phytotransformation of this toxic dye. The present foundation work could add another plant candidate for phytoremediation of undesirable products from industry wastes and harmful chemicals.

  15. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2) and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%. PMID:20162014

  16. Preparation of plasmonic monolayer with Ag and Au nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Da Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Ho-Sub; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Rho, Won-Yeop

    2017-11-01

    We fabricated a plasmonic layer by immobilizing both Au and Ag nanoparticles via P4VP on a photoactive layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to prevent aggregation of metal nanoparticles, to increase absorbance of N719 dye, and to enhance light harvesting and power conversion efficiency (PCE). The optimal conditions for immobilizing these nanoparticles were also examined. With plasmonic Au and Ag nanoparticles, the PCE increased by 8.05% and 5.78%, respectively (plasmonic Au nanoparticles: from 8.82% to 9.53%; plasmonic Ag nanoparticles: from 8.82% to 9.33%). When both Au and Ag nanoparticles were employed in the plasmonic layer, the PCE showed further improvement of 10.17%, corresponding to a 15.31% enhancement. This significant improvement of the PCE could be explained by a broader range of light absorption resulting from the presence of the plasmonic layer.

  17. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Rodriguez; Susana Vargas; Fracisco Quintanilla; Angel Ramon Hernandez-Martinez; Miriam Estevez

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis? bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized....

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals.

  19. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Syu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA+ in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE values in the wavelength range of 400–450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475–600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC.

  20. The Influence of Materials and Fabrication Techniques on Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daniel J.

    The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) as reported in the literature varies even when the materials and/or methods cited are essentially the same. DSC performance even varies significantly within a single lab from researcher to researcher, as has been observed in our lab. To better constrain the sources of the variability and determine which materials and techniques yielded the best DSC performance, various materials and techniques for fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells were evaluated for their effect on DSC performance. Materials investigated included two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide ® P25 and a nanoparticle synthesized in our lab) as well as two different electrolytes (Dyesol's High Performance Electrolyte and an electrolyte synthesized in our lab). Results in the literature suggest that nanoparticle dispersion during screen printing paste fabrication is important for the dye loading and optical properties of DSCs, so dispersion techniques including mortar grinding, sonication, roller milling, and ball milling were investigated. DSC fabrication and assembly techniques were also suspected to be important. Comparisons were made between doctor bladed and screen printed films, dye loading of the TiO2 films under ambient pressures and vacuum, and various sealed and unsealed cell testing configurations. Results from the material and assembly technique comparisons showed varying degrees of impact on DSC film quality and performance. Ball milling was found to be an effective method of disaggregating P25 TiO2 nanoparticles for screen printing pastes, whereas mortar grinding left large TiO2 clusters and yielded variable cluster size distributions from batch to batch. The presence of TiO2 clusters increased film cracking, film peeling, and light scattering and consequently reduced DSC performance. Vacuum-assisted dye loading was not found to improve DSC performance. A comparison of gasket-sealed, epoxy-sealed, and unsealed DSCs did not show

  1. Investigation of the Alamar Blue (resazurin) fluorescent dye for the assessment of mammalian cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Wilson, I; Orton, T; Pognan, F

    2000-09-01

    We show here the identity of Alamar Blue as resazurin. The 'resazurin reduction test' has been used for about 50 years to monitor bacterial and yeast contamination of milk, and also for assessing semen quality. Resazurin (blue and nonfluorescent) is reduced to resorufin (pink and highly fluorescent) which is further reduced to hydroresorufin (uncoloured and nonfluorescent). It is still not known how this reduction occurs, intracellularly via enzyme activity or in the medium as a chemical reaction, although the reduced fluorescent form of Alamar Blue was found in the cytoplasm and of living cells nucleus of dead cells. Recently, the dye has gained popularity as a very simple and versatile way of measuring cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. This dye presents numerous advantages over other cytotoxicity or proliferation tests but we observed several drawbacks to the routine use of Alamar Blue. Tests with several toxicants in different cell lines and rat primary hepatocytes have shown accumulation of the fluorescent product of Alamar Blue in the medium which could lead to an overestimation of cell population. Also, the extensive reduction of Alamar Blue by metabolically active cells led to a final nonfluorescent product, and hence an underestimation of cellular activity.

  2. A new sight towards dye-sensitized solar cells material and theoretical

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology is emerging, against the current background of drastic consumption-rates of irreplaceable natural resources, as the Cinderella solution to many energy-related problems, Almost since its first appearance, it has been regarded as being the most promising alternative to conventional silicon solar cell technology due to the tremendous advantages of low cost and high theoretical energy-conversion efficiency. Review from Book News Inc.: Eight invited and peer-reviewed papers comprise this special-topic volume on a possible alternative to conventional silico

  3. In situ gelation of electrolytes for highly efficient gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ching-Lun; Teng, Hsisheng; Lee, Yuh-Lang [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 7010 (China)

    2011-09-22

    By using poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) as a gelator in an acetonitrile-based liquid electrolyte, an in situ gelation of the liquid electrolyte can be performed inside the mesoporous matrix of TiO{sub 2} films. By introduction of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as fillers of the gel-electrolyte, the energy conversion efficiency of a gel-state dye-sensitized solar cell can achieve a value higher than that of a liquid-state cell. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Efficiency Investigation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Afifi; Mohammad Kazem Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesized ZnO nanowires in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanowires have been fabricated using fast-microwave-hydrothermal process.We verify the effects of different lengths of ZnO nanowires on efficiency and absorptionofdye sensitized solar cells. J–V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cellsindicated that the short-circuit current density wouldincrease with increasing the length of nanowires.We also fabricate more efficient N719-se...

  5. Genetic Damage Induced by a Food Coloring Dye (Sunset Yellow on Meristematic Cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  6. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  7. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  8. π-Conjugated Donor-Acceptor Systems as Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeeruddin S. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High extinction coefficients and easily tunable spectral properties of π- conjugated donor-acceptor dyes are of superior advantage for the design of new metalfree organic sensitizers for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on the femtosecond and nanosecond time scales provided deep insights into the dependence of charge carrier dynamics in fully organic dye/TiO2 systems on i the donor-acceptor distance, ii the π-conjugation length, and iii the coupling to TiO2 by different anchoring groups. Importantly, the observed differences in charge transfer dynamics justify the variations of photovoltaic performances of the dyes as applied in solar cell devices. This leads to the conclusion that the photoconversion efficiencies strongly depend on a delicate interplay between the dyes’ building blocks, i.e. the donor, the π-conjugated spacer and the anchor/acceptor moieties, and may easily be tuned by molecular design.

  9. Insertion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Textiles using a Conventional Weaving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Han Seong; Lee, Dong Y.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing demands for wearable energy sources and highly flexible, lightweight photovoltaic devices have stimulated the development of textile-structured solar cells. However, the former approach of wire-type solar cell fabrication, followed by weaving of these devices, has had limited success, due to device failure caused by high friction forces and tension forces during the weaving process. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach for textile solar cell fabrication, in which dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes are incorporated into the textile during the weaving process, using the textile warp as a spacer to maintain the DSSC structure. Porous, dye-loaded TiO2-coated holed metal ribbon and Pt nanoparticle-loaded carbon yarn were used as the photoanode and counterelectrode, respectively. The highly flexible textile-based solar cell was fabricated using a common weaving process with a loom. The inserted DSSCs in the textile demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 2.63% (at 1 sun, 1.5 A.M.). Our results revealed that additional performance enhancement was possible by considering other electrode materials and textile structures, as well as where and how the DSSC electrodes are inserted. In addition, we demonstrated that the inserted DSSCs could be electrically connected using a parallel configuration.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Various Photoelectrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwan-Woo; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Song, Hye-Jin; Hong, Sungjun; Jun, Yongseok; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Hong, Young-Sik; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2015-11-01

    We prepared nanopastes containing various additives such as acetylene black (AB paste), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (NSA paste) and SiC2 particles (SO paste), and these nanopastes were employed in preparation of photoelectrodes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photoelectrodes of AB, NSA and SO paste have characteristics of large pore size, superior interconnection among particles, and scattering due to spherical particle shape, respectively. Photovoltaic parameters of cells formed from the pastes were compared with cell formed from the paste without additive. Among the pastes, AB paste exhibited the best cell efficiency improvement of 9.647%. NSA paste also exhibited considerable cell efficiency improvement without much deleterious impact on transparency. The advantages and disadvantages of each nanopastes were analysed for the commercialization of DSSCs.

  11. Ionic Liquid-Sulfolane Composite Electrolytes for High-Performance and Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marsalek Magdalena; Duriaux Arendse Francine; Decoppet Jean-David; Babkair Saeed Salem; Ansari Azhar Ahmad; Habib Sami S.; Wang Mingkui; Zakeeruddin Shaik M.; Graätzel Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes are prepared using sulfolane as a plasticizer for eutectic melts to realize highly stable and effi ciently performing dye sensi tized solar cells (DSCs) in hot climate conditions. Variations in the viscosity of the formulations with sulfolane content are measured and performance in DSCs is investigated using the ruthenium dye C106 as a sensitizer. A power conversion effi ciency (PCE) of 8.2 is achieved under standard reporting con ditions. Apart from lowering the vis...

  12. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  13. Characterization of the Pore Filling of Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Olson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Near steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine9,9′-spirobifluorene into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode of a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSC. The volumetric ratio of filled to unfilled pore volumes, as well as the optical signature of interacting chemical species, that is, the hole-transfer yield (HTY, are investigated. PIA spectroscopy is used to measure the HTY, relative to the amount of spiro-MeOTAD present, without needing to determine the extinction coefficients of the dye and spiro-MeOTAD cation species. The Beer-Lambert law is used to relate the relative PIA signal to the penetration length of the hole-conductor in the TiO2 film. For the sample thickness range of 1.4–5 μm investigated here, the optimum characteristic penetration length is determined to be 3.1+0.46 μm, which is compared to 1.4 μm for the 200 mg mL−1 concentration of spiro-MeOTAD conventionally used. Therefore, doubling the effective penetration of spiro-MeOTAD is necessary to functionalize all the dye molecules in a ssDSC.

  14. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  15. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  16. Energy relay from an unconventional yellow dye to CdS/CdSe quantum dots for enhanced solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya; Das, Amrita; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2013-12-02

    A new design for a quasi-solid-state Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) enabled solar cell with unattached Lucifer yellow (LY) dye molecules as donors and CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) tethered to titania (TiO2 ) as acceptors is presented. The Forster radius is experimentally determined to be 5.29 nm. Sequential energy transfer from the LY dye to the QDs and electron transfer from the QDs to TiO2 is followed by fluorescence quenching and electron lifetime studies. Cells with a donor-acceptor architecture (TiO2 /CdS/CdSe/ZnS-LY/S(2-)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes) show a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 53 % at 530 nm. This is the highest efficiency among Ru-dye free FRET-enabled quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs), and is much higher than the donor or acceptor-only cells. The FRET-enhanced solar cell performance over the majority of the visible spectrum paves the way to harnessing the untapped potential of the LY dye as an energy relay fluorophore for the entire gamut of dye sensitized, organic, or hybrid solar cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 2,3-Dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline-Based Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Bridges and Electron Donors on Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-Sheng; Zang, Xu-Feng; Hua, Tao; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2015-09-16

    Five novel metal-free organic dyes DQ1-5 containing a dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (DPQ) unit were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where DPQ was employed as a π-spacer for the first time. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical calculations and photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated. All the five dyes show broad photoresponse. Especially the absorption edges of DQ3-5 extend to 800 nm on the TiO2 films. The inserted electron-rich unit 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or electron-withdrawing group benzothiadiazole (BTD) in DPQ-based dyes can greatly influence the optoelectronic properties of the dyes. In addition, the different electron donors also significantly affect the performance of the DSSCs. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar light conditions, the DQ5 sensitized solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 7.12%. The result indicates that the rigid DPQ-based organic dye is a promising candidate for efficient DSSCs.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  19. Photocurrent enhanced by singlet fission in a dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Joel N; Zhao, Yixin; Mercado, Candy; Dron, Paul I; Ryerson, Joseph L; Michl, Josef; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C

    2015-02-04

    Investigations of singlet fission have accelerated recently because of its potential utility in solar photoconversion, although only a few reports definitively identify the role of singlet fission in a complete solar cell. Evidence of the influence of singlet fission in a dye-sensitized solar cell using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPIBF, 1) as the sensitizer is reported here. Self-assembly of the blue-absorbing 1 with co-adsorbed oxidation products on mesoporous TiO2 yields a cell with a peak internal quantum efficiency of ∼70% and a power conversion efficiency of ∼1.1%. Introducing a ZrO2 spacer layer of thickness varying from 2 to 20 Å modulates the short-circuit photocurrent such that it is initially reduced as thickness increases but 1 with 10-15 Å of added ZrO2. This rise can be explained as being due to a reduced rate of injection of electrons from the S1 state of 1 such that singlet fission, known to occur with a 30 ps time constant in polycrystalline films, has the opportunity to proceed efficiently and produce two T1 states per absorbed photon that can subsequently inject electrons into TiO2. Transient spectroscopy and kinetic simulations confirm this novel mode of dye-sensitized solar cell operation and its potential utility for enhanced solar photoconversion.

  20. One pot synthesis of multi-functional tin oxide nanostructures for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Yasin, Amina; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Ismail, Jamil; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my

    2015-10-15

    Photoanode plays a key role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a scaffold for dye molecules, transport medium for photogenerated electrons, and scatters light for improved absorption. Herein, tin oxide nanostructures unifying the above three characteristics were optimized by a hydrothermal process and used as photoanode in DSSCs. The optimized morphology is a combination of hollow porous nanoparticles of size ∼50 nm and micron sized spheres with BET surface area (up to 29 m{sup 2}/g) to allow large dye-loading and light scattering as well as high crystallinity to support efficient charge transport. The optimized morphology gave the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (∼7.5%), so far achieved in DSSCs with high open circuit voltage (∼700 mV) and short circuit current density (∼21 mA/cm{sup 2}) employing conventional N3 dye and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The best performing device achieved an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of ∼90%. The performance of the optimized tin oxide nanostructures was comparable to that of conventional titanium based DSSCs fabricated at similar conditions. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide hollow nanostructure simultaneously supporting improved light scattering, dye-loading, and charge transport yielded high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • Uniformly and bimodelly distributed tin oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) are synthesized. • Uniform HNS are of size ∼10 nm; bimodel HNS has additional size up to ∼800 nm. • They are evaluated as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The uniform HNS increase dye-loading and the larger increase light scattering in DSSCs. • Photo conversion efficiency ∼7.5% is achieved using bimodel HNS.

  1. Photocurrent generation by dye-sensitized solar cells using natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz-Mireles, Eddie Nahúm; Rocha-Rangel, Enrique; Caballero-Rico, Frida; Ramírez-de-León, José Alberto; Vázquez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic panels has improved the conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy. This paper deals with the electrical and thermal characteristics (voltage, current, and temperature) of photovoltaic solar cells sensitized with natural pigments (dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC) based on a titanium dioxide semiconductor. Several natural pigments (blackberry, beets, eggplant skin, spinach, flame tree flower, papaya leaf, and grass extracts) were evaluated to determine their sensitizing effect on titanium dioxide. The results showed the great potential of natural pigments for use in solar cells. The best results were obtained with the blackberry pigment, reaching a value of 7.1 mA current, open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.72 V in 2 cm2 , and fill factor (ff) of 0.51 in the DSSC. This performance is well above than that currently offers by actual cells. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. High cell density cultivation of six fungal strains efficient in azo dye bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahim, Wafaa M; Mostafa, Enas M; Moawad, Hassan

    2016-12-01

    This work aims at optimizing the high cell density fungal cultivation for producing large quantities of fungal biomass to be used in azo dye residues bioremediation. In our previous studies the efficacy of using certain fungal strains to decolorize a range of commercial textile dyes of different structures (azo, disazo) were investigated. Several promising fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus tubigenesis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus fumigates demonstrated high capacity in decolorizing various azo dyes. This study focuses on the high cell density cultivation of the fungal strains identified as potential bioremediation agents. The study includes the optimization of all parameters involved in bioprocess development for high cell density cultivation of six promising fungal strains. The growth of the fungal strains was tested on the sucrose medium in 7 l-fermenter. The growth of these fungal strains having the capacity to accumulate large quantities of biomass was also tested in medium containing molasses as a cheap substrate. The residual molasses, biomass dry weight and protein content of the six fungal strains showed that the strains 20 and 2 were marked by the highest protein content. In this study a comparative analysis between the results of dry weight, residual molasses and protein content of geowth of the strains 20, 5 and 2 under uncontrolled and controlled pH of media in batch fermentation was studied to follow the accumulation of biomass and protein production in the growth media. The results indicate that the dry weight accumulated by strains No. 20, 5 and 2 grown on molasses was better than those of strains grown on sucrose. Fungal strain No. 5 had the highest biomass dry weight accumulation. The study shows that the molasses as cheaper sugar sources were better than sucrose for growing fungal biomass.

  3. High cell density cultivation of six fungal strains efficient in azo dye bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa M. Abd El-Rahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at optimizing the high cell density fungal cultivation for producing large quantities of fungal biomass to be used in azo dye residues bioremediation. In our previous studies the efficacy of using certain fungal strains to decolorize a range of commercial textile dyes of different structures (azo, disazo were investigated. Several promising fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus tubigenesis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus fumigates demonstrated high capacity in decolorizing various azo dyes. This study focuses on the high cell density cultivation of the fungal strains identified as potential bioremediation agents. The study includes the optimization of all parameters involved in bioprocess development for high cell density cultivation of six promising fungal strains. The growth of the fungal strains was tested on the sucrose medium in 7 l-fermenter. The growth of these fungal strains having the capacity to accumulate large quantities of biomass was also tested in medium containing molasses as a cheap substrate. The residual molasses, biomass dry weight and protein content of the six fungal strains showed that the strains 20 and 2 were marked by the highest protein content. In this study a comparative analysis between the results of dry weight, residual molasses and protein content of geowth of the strains 20, 5 and 2 under uncontrolled and controlled pH of media in batch fermentation was studied to follow the accumulation of biomass and protein production in the growth media. The results indicate that the dry weight accumulated by strains No. 20, 5 and 2 grown on molasses was better than those of strains grown on sucrose. Fungal strain No. 5 had the highest biomass dry weight accumulation. The study shows that the molasses as cheaper sugar sources were better than sucrose for growing fungal biomass.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells with ionic gel electrolytes prepared from imidazolium salts and agarose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazuharu, Suzuki; Makoto, Yamaguchi; Mikio, Kumagai [Institute of Research and Innovation, Photonics and Materials Research Dept., Takada, Kashiwa (Japan); Nobuo, Tanabe [Fujikura Ltd, Electronics Material Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Shozo, Yanagida [Osaka Univ. Center for Advanced Science and Innovation (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    New ionic gel electrolytes, semi-solid state electrolytes comprised of ionic liquid and gelator were investigated in order to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The ionic gels were prepared from agarose, natural polysaccharide, and 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium salts. The gels showed sufficient mechanical strength even though a very small amount of agarose was added (1.0-1.5 wt%). The photon to electron conversion efficiency of the DSCs containing ionic gel electrolyte was 2.93% under simulated sunlight (air mass 1.5) with a light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup -2}. (authors)

  5. Fabrication of Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, monolithic DSCs with ionic liquid electrolyte were studied. Deposited by screen printing, a carbon layer was successfully fabricated that did not crack or peel when annealing was employed beforehand. Optimized electrodes exhibited photovoltaic characteristics of 0.608 V open-circuit voltage, 6.90 cm−2 mA short-circuit current, and 0.491 fill factor, yielding 2.06% power conversion efficiency. The monolithic DSC using ionic liquid electrolyte was thermally durable and operated stably for 1000 h at 80°C.

  6. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  7. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. (Invited) Atomic Layer Deposition for Novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Herein we present the latest fabrication and characterization techniques for atomic layer deposition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, Nb 2O 5, HfO 2, Ga 2O 3 and TiO 2 for research on dye-sensitized solar cell. In particular, we review the fabrication of state-of-the-art 3D host-passivation-guest photoanodes and ZnO nanowires as well as characterize the deposited thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect, J-V curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  9. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  10. Freestanding polypyrrole films as counter electrode for low cost dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, P.; Veerender, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Sridevi, C.; Chabbi, Pradnya; Samanta, S.; Chauhan, A. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    Free standing polypyrrole films were synthesized using aqueous-organic interfacial polymerization. The electrical conductivity of these films was found to be higher when hexane(or benzene)-aqueous biphasic system is used. These high conductivity films were utilized as cost effective counter electrode to replace expansive Platinum in the fabrication of quasi-solid dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of DSSC was found to be 1.1%, which is close to that of 1.8% prepared using Pt as counter electrode.

  11. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet, E-mail: ntphuong@hcmus.edu.vn [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Vinh Son; Phan, Thu Anh Pham; Le, Tan Nhut Van; Le, Duyen My; Le, Duy Dang; Tran, Vy Anh [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Huynh, Tuan Van [Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University DK-4000 (Denmark)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Adsorption of Nicotinic acid on TiO{sub 2} surface is characterized by IR and XPS analysis. • The blocking effect of Nicotinic acid toward electron transfer on TiO{sub 2} electrode is indicated by recent developed method of cyclic voltammetry. • Low concentration of Nicotinic acid (<10 mM) helps to increase the amount of dye loading on TiO{sub 2} surface. • The use of Nicotinic acid at optimum concentration improves the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%. • Nicotinic acid enhances the cell performance by the same extend as other standard co-adsorbents at optimum concentrations. - Abstract: With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (<10 mM) increased the N719 ruthenium dye loading on the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface by 10–12%, whereas higher concentrations of NTA lowered the dye loading. The adsorption of NTA onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface was studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the blocking effect of NTA toward electron transfer between the electrode and 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene (redox couple electrolyte probe) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Subsequently, the performance of NTA in functional DSCs was evaluated by current–voltage (J–V) DSC characterization and compared with that of DSCs fabricated with two well-established co-adsorbents i.e., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDA) and octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA). The findings showed that under optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same extent. Specifically, the use of NTA at optimum concentration improved the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%.

  12. Molecular Level Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Organic Chromophores for p-Type Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Karamshuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of mono- and di-branched donor-π-acceptor charge-separated dyes incorporating triphenylamine as a donor and either Dalton’s or benzothiadiazole group as strong acceptors was synthesized and its fundamental properties relevant to the sensitization of nanocrystalline NiO investigated. The dyes exhibited an intense visible absorption band with a strong charge transfer character favorable to NiO sensitization, shifting the electron density from the donor to the acceptor branches. Nevertheless, the computed exciton binding energy is circa twice that of a common literature standard (P1, suggesting a more difficult charge separation. When tested in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells the dyes successfully sensitized NiO electrodes, with photocurrent densities about half than that of the reference compound. Being recombination kinetics comparable, the larger photocurrent generated by P1 agrees with the superior charge separation capability originating by its smaller exciton binding energy.

  13. Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2013-12-11

    Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and π-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  14. O2 plasma sintering study of TiO2 photoelectrodes in dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. D.; Stegemann, C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Miyakawa, W.; Massi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of more efficient photoelectrochemical solar cells has been, over the years, the subject of many scientific researches. In this paper a methodology was established to carry out the sintering process of nanoporous TiO2 layer by using plasma, which was compared with sintered layers made by the conventional sintering process in a furnace. The TiO2 commercial paste was spread by doctor-blading technique and subjected to different sintering processes. Porous layer samples were subjected to structural and morphological analyses. Then photoelectrodes dye-loading was measured by optical spectrophotometry. The quality of the layers under plasma sintering process in terms of weight loss and removal of organic compounds was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The results showed that the plasma sintering process favors the adsorption of dye on the layer surface due to the creation of active states caused by O2 reactive plasma. Furthermore the O2 plasma process provides enough energy for removing organic compounds arising from the TiO2 paste and for providing nanoparticle sintering. Solar cells assembled with the plasma-sintered layers had a power conversion efficiency 20.1% higher than the obtained in solar cells sintered in a conventional furnace, proving the efficiency of the plasma sintering process.

  15. Stainless steel electrode characterizations by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanta, A.-F., E-mail: abdoul.kanta@umons.ac.be [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Decroly, A. [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2011-11-30

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the electrochemical mechanisms which appear in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This qualitative and quantitative technique permits identification of the phenomena proceeding within the different elements composing the cell and at their interfaces. In this study, the classical conducting glass substrate was replaced by a protected stainless steel (304 type) substrate as the counter-electrode (cathode) in dye-sensitized solar cells. Platinum was deposited at the substrate surface to optimize the charge transfer resistance of the electrode. After a few days of immersion in the electrolytic solution, stainless steel substrates coated with low thickness of Pt show pitting corrosion due to iodine. Defects in the Pt layer such as discontinuity of the film and micro-cracks may explain the corrosion of the stainless steel substrate. However the Pt layer degradation is retarded for thicker films. On the other hand, polished substrates show a better behaviour probably due to the elimination of the defects on the stainless steel surface. Electrolytic solution was optimized. For this, components such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII), guanidine thiocyanate (GT) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) were added. No corrosion phenomena on stainless steel 304 appeared within 3 days when TBP was added. This means that TBP acts as a corrosion inhibitor. A schematic equivalent circuit is also proposed.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Greenhouse Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum-Jong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed dye-sensitized solar cells using novel sensitizers with enhanced transmittance of red (625–675 nm and blue (425–475 nm wavebands to control the illumination condition in the greenhouse. Novel ruthenium bipyridyl sensitizers with general formulas (Me3PhN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-7 and (Me3BnN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-9 have been synthesized and demonstrated as efficient sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells for greenhouse application. Under standard AM 1.5 sunlight, the solar cell of JJ-7 using a liquid-based electrolyte exhibits a short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.49 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, and a fill factor of 0.71, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 4.96% on 5 μm TiO2 film. The transmittance of JJ-7 and JJ-9 shows 62.0% and 61.0% at 660 nm and 18.0% and 15.0% at 440 nm for cultivation on 5 μm TiO2 film, respectively.

  17. Multiple electron injection dynamics in linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized nanocrystalline metal oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Park, Byung-wook; Inoue, Takafumi; Pandey, Shyam S; Miyamoto, Akari; Fujita, Shinsuke; Katayama, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi

    2012-04-07

    Understanding the electron transfer dynamics at the interface between dye sensitizer and semiconductor nanoparticle is very important for both a fundamental study and development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are a potential candidate for next generation solar cells. In this study, we have characterized the ultrafast photoexcited electron dynamics in a newly produced linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized solar cell using both a transient absorption (TA) and an improved transient grating (TG) technique, in which tin(IV) 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (NcSn) and cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) bis(tetrabutylammonium) (N719) are molecularly and linearly linked and are bonded to the surface of a nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO(2)) electrode by a metal-O-metal linkage (i.e. SnO(2)-NcSn-N719). By comparing the TA and TG kinetics of NcSn, N719, and hybrid NcSn-N719 molecules adsorbed onto both of the SnO(2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanocrystalline films, the forward and backward electron transfer dynamics in SnO(2)-NcSn-N719 were clarified. We found that there are two pathways for electron injection from the linearly-linked two dye molecules (NcSn-N719) to SnO(2). The first is a stepwise electron injection, in which photoexcited electrons first transfer from N719 to NcSn with a transfer time of 0.95 ps and then transfer from NcSn to the conduction band (CB) of SnO(2) with two timescales of 1.6 ps and 4.2 ps. The second is direct photoexcited electron transfer from N719 to the CB of SnO(2) with a timescale of 20-30 ps. On the other hand, back electron transfer from SnO(2) to NcSn is on a timescale of about 2 ns, which is about three orders of magnitude slower compared to the forward electron transfer from NcSn to SnO(2). The back electron transfer from NcSn to N719 is on a timescale of about 40 ps, which is about one order slower compared to the forward electron transfer from N719 to Nc

  18. Overcoming kinetic limitations of electron injection in the dye solar cell via coadsorption and FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegers, Conrad; Würfel, Uli; Zistler, Markus; Gores, Heiner; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Hinsch, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2008-04-04

    A new, extremely simple concept for the use of energy transfer as a means to the enhancement of light absorption and current generation in the dye solar cell (DSC) is presented. This model study is based upon a carboxy-functionalized 4-aminonaphthalimide dye (carboxy-fluorol) as donor, and (NBu4)2[Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2] (N719) as acceptor chromophores. A set of three different devices is assembled containing either exclusively carboxy-fluorol or N719, or a mixture of both. This set of transparent devices is characterized via IV-measurements under AM1.5G and monochromatic illumination and their light-harvesting and external quantum efficiencies (LHE and EQE, respectively) are determined as well. It is shown that the device containing only the donor chromophore has a marginal power conversion efficiency, thus indicating that carboxy-fluorol is a poor sensitizer for the DSC. Cyclovoltametric measurements show that the poor sensitization ability arises from the kinetic inhibition of electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band. Comparing the spectral properties of the DSCs assembled presently, however, demonstrates that light absorbed by carboxy-fluorol is almost quantitatively contributing to the photocurrent if N719 is present as an additional sensitizer. In this case, N719 acts as a catalyst for the sensitization of TiO2 by carboxy-fluorol in addition to being a photosensitizer. Evaluation of the maximum output power under blue illumination shows that the introduction of an energy-donor moiety via coadsorption, leads to a significant increase in the monochromatic maximum output power. This result demonstrates that energy transfer between coadsorbed chromophores could be useful for the generation of current in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Photosensitizer Effects of Artificial Red Cells on Dye Laser Irradiation in an Animal Model Assuming Port-Wine Stain Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikihisa, Naoaki; Watanabe, Shoji; Satoh, Kaneshige; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hiromi

    2017-03-01

    The complete removal of port-wine stains has remained challenging. Based on the principle of treating port-wine stains with a dye laser, intravenous injection of artificial red cells (hemoglobin vesicles) immediately before laser treatment might improve the clinical outcome of the therapy. The hemoglobin vesicle injection increases the hemoglobin concentration in microvessels. Photons of dye laser are absorbed by the mixture of red blood cells and this newly added hemoglobin, potentially producing more heat and photocoagulation and, ultimately, necrosis of the endothelial cells effectively. To confirm the performance of hemoglobin vesicles as a photosensitizer, the authors compared the absorbance of hemoglobin vesicles and human blood against 595-nm wavelength and the temperature increases that occur following dye laser irradiation. Furthermore, the authors investigated the microvessel transformation induced by the hemoglobin vesicle intravenous injection. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of the hemoglobin vesicle on the vascular destruction of dye laser irradiation with chicken wattle. Results show that hemoglobin vesicles have the same absorbance as that of human blood. They produce the same level of heat as human blood after laser irradiation. The hemoglobin vesicle intravenous injection caused dilatation of microvessels in animal models. The dye laser with hemoglobin vesicle can destroy the vessel wall effectively in animal models. Hemoglobin vesicles can function as photosensitizers to destroy the vessel wall. A possible mechanism of pulsed dye laser-resistant port-wine stains is that overly small vessels do not contain sufficient red blood cells. They are therefore poor absorbers/heaters for these lasers. Hemoglobin vesicle combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment against such lesions only.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells and complexes between pyridines and iodines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Krake, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between triiodide (I3–) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4TBP) as postulated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are investigated by means of 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations. The charge transfer (CT) complex 4TBP∙I2 and potential salts such as (4TBP)2I+, I3– were...... synthesized and characterized by IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. However, mixing (butyl)4N+, I3– and 4TBP at concentrations comparable to those of the DSC solar cell did not lead to any reaction. Neither CT complexes nor cationic species like (4TBP)2I+ were observed, judging from the 13C NMR spectroscopic...... evidence. This questions the previously proposed formation of (4TBP)2I+ in DSC cells....

  1. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... efficiency similar to 1%, and long lifetime allow solar cells application in building elements like windows, facades and semi-transparent roofs. The use in DSSCs of gel polymer electrolytes prepared by liquid electrolyte incorporation into a polymer matrix such as poly-methyl-methacrylate presents...... encouraging results. A short circuit current (I-sc) of 4.45 mA cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.5 V were recorded in standard solar cells sensitized by cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2, 2'-bipyridine-4, 4'-dicarboxylate. Up-scaling tests demonstrate the easy realization of a 625 cm(2...

  2. Performance Maintenance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Latent Heat Storage Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Naoto; Horibe, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in various renewable energies. Among them, solar cell production has increased markedly because the photovoltaic is a clean and safe power generation method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has attracted much attention as an alternative to silicon solar cells due to lower manufacturing costs and plentiful resources for DSSC production. However, the performance of DSSCs has been limited by their durability and low photoelectric conversion efficiency. Temperature control of DSSCs via phase-change materials (PCMs) is expected to improve performance. In this study, DSSCs were heated or cooled with a heat exchanger copper block that was in contact with a PCM (heptadecane), while being irradiated by a solar simulator light source. The durability and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC improved under PCM temperature control.

  3. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  4. Counter electrodes from conducting polymer intercalated graphene for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-03-01

    Creation of cost-effective and platinum-free counter electrodes (CEs) is persistent for developing advanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We present here the fabrication of conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PANi), polypyrole (PPy), or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) intercalated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) CEs on flexible Ti foil or polyethylene-terephthalate substrate for liquid-junction DSSC applications. The ration architecture integrates the high electron-conducting ability of graphene and good electrocatalytic activity of a conducting polymer into a single CE material. The preliminary results demonstrate that the resultant CEs follow an order of rGO/PPy > rGO/PANi > rGO/PEDOT > rGO. A maximal cell efficiency of 6.23% is determined on the optimized solar cell device, yielding 104.9% enhancement in comparison to rGO based device.

  5. Self-Assembled ZnO Nanosheet-Based Spherical Structure as Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mohsen; Raoufi, Meysam; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Samavat, Feridoun; Fathollahi, M.-R.; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2017-12-01

    High surface area and enhanced light scattering of ZnO nanosheet aggregates have made them a promising active layer candidate material for fabrication of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we propose a facile preparation method of such ZnO nanosheet structures, and in order to verify their applicability as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, we employ morphological, optical, structural and electrical measurements. The results reveal the high surface area available for dye molecules for enhancing adsorption, high light scattering and competitive power conversion efficiencies compared to the works in literature. Finally, the device is optimized with respect to the photoanode thickness. The favorable features shown here can extend the application of the structure to other types of sensitization-based perovskite and quantum dot solar cells.

  6. Hepatotoxicity assessment of the azo dyes disperse orange 1 (DO1), disperse red 1 (DR1) and disperse red 13 (DR13) in HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Elisa R A; Li, Zhaohui; Boubriak, Olga; de Oliveira, Danielle P

    2012-01-01

    During the dyeing process in baths approximately 10 to 15% of the dyes used are lost and reach industrial effluents, thus polluting the environment. Studies showed that some classes of dyes, mainly azo dyes and their by-products, exert adverse effects on humans and local biota, since the wastewater treatment systems and water treatment plants were found to be ineffective in removing the color and reducing toxicity of some dyes. In the present study, the toxicity of the azo dyes disperse orange 1 (DO1), disperse red 1 (DR1), and disperse red 13 (DR13) was evaluated in HepG2 cells grown in monolayers or in three dimensional (3D) culture. Hepatotoxicity of the dyes was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) and cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assays after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation of cells with 3 different concentrations of the azo dyes. The dye DO1 only reduced the mitochondrial activity in HepG2 cells grown in a monolayer after 72 h incubation, while the dye DR1 showed this deleterious effect in both monolayer and 3D culture. In contrast, dye DR13 decreased the mitochondrial activity after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure in both monolayer and 3D culture. With respect to dehydrogenase activity, only the dye DR13 diminished the activity of this enzyme after 72 h of exposure in both monolayer and 3D culture. Our results clearly demonstrated that exposure to the studied dyes induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

  7. One electron changes everything: a multispecies copper redox shuttle for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffeditz, William L.; Katz, Michael J.; Deria, Pravas; Cutsail, George E.; Pellin, Michael J.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2016-02-25

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are an established alternative photovoltaic technology that offers numerous potential advantages in solar energy applications. However, this technology has been limited by the availability of molecular redox couples that are both noncorrosive/nontoxic and do not diminish the performance of the device. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, a copper-containing redox shuttle derived from 1,8-bis(2'-pyridyl)-3,6-dithiaoctane (PDTO) ligand and the common DSC additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies reveal that, upon removal of one metal-centered electron, PDTO-enshrouded copper ions completely shed the tetradentate PDTO ligand and replace it with four or more TBP ligands. Thus, the Cu(I) and Cu(II) forms of the electron shuttle have completely different coordination spheres and are characterized by widely differing Cu(II/I) formal potentials and reactivities for forward versus reverse electron transfer. Notably, the coordination-sphere replacement process is fully reversed upon converting Cu(II) back to Cu(I). In cells featuring an adsorbed organic dye and a nano- and mesoparticulate, TiO2-based, photoelectrode, the dual species redox shuttle system engenders performance superior to that obtained with shuttles based on the (II/I) forms of either of the coordination complexes in isolation.

  8. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-an Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-electricity conversion of 1.1% is preliminarily reached on the DSSC made of the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles. Large current density of hole injection into the HOMO level of N719 dye from the valence band of BaSnO3 and reduced photogenerated charge recombination in BaSnO3 could be responsible for the observed solar cell performance of the DSSC fabricated from the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles.

  9. Amplifying charge-transfer characteristics of graphene for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Santanu; Verma, Ved [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 33174 (United States); Sudhagar, P.; Song, Donghoon; Kang, Yong Soo [WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133791 (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Eisuke; Lee, Sang Yun [Flucto-Order Functions Research Team, RIKEN-ASI, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Choi, WonBong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 33174 (United States); WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-07

    The fabrication and functionalization of large-area graphene and its electrocatalytic properties for iodine reduction in a dye-sensitized solar cell are reported. The graphene film, grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition, contains three to five layers of monolayer graphene, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the graphene film is treated with CF{sub 4} reactive-ion plasma and fluorine ions are successfully doped into graphene as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-photoemission spectroscopy. The fluorinated graphene shows no structural deformations compared to the pristine graphene except an increase in surface roughness. Electrochemical characterization reveals that the catalytic activity of graphene for iodine reduction increases with increasing plasma treatment time, which is attributed to an increase in catalytic sites. Further, the fluorinated graphene is characterized in use as a counter-electrode in a full dye-sensitized solar cell and shows ca. 2.56% photon to electron conversion efficiency with ca. 11 mA cm{sup -2} current density. The shift in work function in F{sup -} doped graphene is attributed to the shift in graphene redox potential which results in graphene's electrocatalytic-activity enhancement. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Investigating the role of graphene in the photovoltaic performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Brijesh, E-mail: brijesh.tripathi@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Yadav, Pankaj; Pandey, Kavita; Kanade, Pooja [School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune 411025 (India); Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: manoj.kumar@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene catalytic activity in dye-sensitized solar cell is evaluated. • Two-diode model is used for performance evaluation. • Optical performance of graphene is analyzed. • 36% increase in efficiency has been reported using graphene-coupled counter electrode. - Abstract: This article compares and describes the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) consisting of platinum (Pt) and graphene-coupled-platinum based counter electrodes (CE). The power conversion efficiency of DSSC could be enhanced by 36% with multi-layer graphene flakes (MGF)/Pt CE as compared to Pt CE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analysis show that DSSC with an MGF/Pt CE exhibits a higher electro-catalytic activity with lower series resistance. Two-diode model has been used to extract the recombination governing and the performance indicating parameters of a DSSC. An enhancement of ≈76% in short-circuit current of MGF/CE based DSSC, as compared to Pt CE, could be attributed to optical and catalytic properties of graphene. This study provides an insight into electronic transport mechanism of DSSC, which changes under the influence of highly catalytic materials such as graphene.

  11. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  12. Electrospun polymethylacrylate nanofibers membranes for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymethylacrylate (PMA nanofibers membranes are fabricated by electrospinning technique and applied to the polymer matrix in quasi-solid-state electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. There is no previous studies reporting the production of PMA nanofibers. The electrospinning parameters such as polymer concentration, applied voltage, feed rate, tip to collector distance and solvent were optimized. Electrospun PMA fibrous membrane with average fiber diameter of 350 nm was prepared from a 10 wt% solution of PMA in a mixture of acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (6:4 v/v at an applied voltage of 20 kV. It was then activated by immersing it in 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 3-methoxyproponitrile to obtain the corresponding membrane electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs employing the quasi solid-state electrolyte have an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.65 V and a short circuit current (Jsc of 6.5 mA cm−2 and photoelectric energy conversion efficiency (η of 1.4% at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm−2.

  13. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  14. Development of stable current collectors for large area dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Martins, Jorge; Tavares, Carlos José; Andrade, Luísa; Mendes, Adélio

    2017-11-01

    The substrate sheet resistance effect in a large area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) device is still the main factor responsible for low energy conversion efficiencies. In this work, current collectors made of metal lines were applied by magnetron sputtering on a transparent conducting glass substrate. The introduction of these metal lines enabled a decrease in the sheet resistance from 7.26 Ω·□-1 to 2.52 Ω·□-1, by depositing an optimized 1.0 μm tungsten thick layer on the top of 1.5 μm thick molybdenum lines. These Mo/W lines withstanded long-term stability when in contact with iodide/triiodide redox couple. Large area dye-sensitized solar cells with 36 cm2 of active area were assembled and the power conversion efficiency increased from 0.54% to 1.62% when ten metal lines were applied in both electrodes. As a final design, Mo/W lines were only applied onto the counter-electrode and protected with an indium-tin oxide layer; the resulting device showed a power conversion efficiency of 3.43%, compared with the reference efficiency of 2.38%.

  15. Performances of spin coated silver doped ZnO photoanode based dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrik Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using silver doped ZnO films deposited on ITO glass by spin coating method. The crystalline nature of ZnO films was analysed with XRD and SEM technique was used for morphological studies. The XRD pattern confirmed the presence of single phase hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure, without the presence of secondary phase. The crystallite size of ZnO decreased from 31 nm to 25 nm with increase in doping to 1.5 mol% of silver. The UV-visible transmission of the prepared ZnO film was found to be 70–90% and it decreased with increase in doping to 0.5 mol% Ag and increased in the film doped with 1.5 mol% Ag. The band gap values of the ZnO films with 0, 0.5 and 1.5 mol% of silver, determined from Tauc plot, were 3.269, 3.235 and 3.257 eV, respectively. The absorbance peaks of the N719 dye loaded ZnO films were obtained at the wavelengths 310, 350 and 538 nm. The N719 dye loaded ZnO film doped with 0.5 mol% Ag has the highest absorbance in the visible region as compared to other two samples. The fill factor values of the pure and ZnO doped with 0.5 and 1.5 mol% Ag were 0.47, 0.48 and 0.42, respectively. The short circuit density values for ZnO, ZnO:Ag0.5% and ZnO:Ag1.5% were found to be 1.50, 1.55 and 1.15 A·m/cm2, respectively. The calculated photon to electron efficiencies for the ZnO films with 0, 0.5 and 1.5 mol% of silver were 0.42%, 0.44% and 0.27%, respectively. Consequently future prospective of such type of dopants in ZnO film based dye sensitized solar cells seems to be bright.

  16. Efficient triarylamine-perylene dye-sensitized solar cells: influence of triple-bond insertion on charge recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cancan; Ma, Wentao; Ren, Yameng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-14

    We synthesize two new metal-free donor-acceptor organic dyes (C266 and C267) featuring a N-annulated perylene block. Owing to the improved coplanarity of conjugated units as well as the prolonged conjugation upon inserting a triple bond between the triarylamine and perylene segments, the C267 dye exhibits a slightly red-shifted absorption peak and an enhanced maximum molar absorption coefficient with respect to its reference dye C266, leading to an improved photocurrent output in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the triple-bond introduction also brings forth an over 100 mV reduced open-circuit photovoltage owing to faster interfacial charge recombination, which presents a clear correlation with a reduced mean thickness of self-assembled dye layer on titania as revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurements. The C266 dye, albeit with a relatively weaker light-harvesting capacity, displays a higher power conversion efficiency of 9.0% under the 100 mW cm(-2), simulated AM1.5G sunlight.

  17. Dynamical Orientation of Large Molecules on Oxide Surfaces and its Implications for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-12

    A dual experimental-computational approach utilizing near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) is presented for determining the orientation of a large adsorbate on an oxide substrate. A system of interest in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells is studied: an organic cyanoacrylic acid-based donor-π-acceptor dye (WN1) bound to anatase TiO2. Assessment of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra is supported by calculations of the electronic structure that indicate energetically discrete transitions associated with the two π systems of the C-N triple bond in the cyanoacrylic acid portion of the dye. Angle-resolved NEXAFS spectra are fitted to determine the orientation of these two orbital systems, and the results indicate an upright orientation of the adsorbed dye, 63 from the TiO2 surface plane. These experimental results are then compared to computational studies of the WN1 dye on an anatase (101) TiO2 slab. The ground state structure obtained from standard DFT optimization is less upright (45 from the surface) than the NEXAFS results. However, DFT-MD simulations, which provide a more realistic depiction of the dye at room temperature, exhibit excellent agreement - within 2 on average - with the angles determined via NEXAFS, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the dynamic nature of adsorbate-substrate interactions and DFT-MD\\'s powerful predictive abilities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructured Photoanodes: From Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells to Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ho Yun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructured photoanodes for next generation solar cells such as dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs and perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Due to the unique morphological properties, 1D TiO2 nanostructures can act as express electron channels as well as light scattering layer, leading to improved charge transport properties, such as charge separation, electron injection, and electron lifetime, and light harvesting efficiency. As 1D TiO2 nanostructures are applied to solar cells, 1D TiO2 nanostructures should be further modified to overcome some drawbacks. In this review, we have described some solutions by introducing various 1D TiO2 synthetic methods and device fabrication processes for solar cell applications, where we have described some important surface engineering and hierarchical device design strategies that facilitate charge transport and light utilisation in 1D TiO2 nanostructured photoanode system.

  19. Application of TiO2 nanotubes in dye-sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available their operation • 20 years onwards and big strides have been made, however head2right Efficiency of best manufactured DSCs ~ 11% mark and 7% for DSC panels Dye-sensitised Solar Cells • Relatively inexpensive – Made in non-vacuum setting – Simple... in dye- sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing © CSIR 2010 Slide 1 Rhodes Workshop 7 – 8 September 2010 circle6 Background circle6 Problem Statement...

  20. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanomica in gel electrolytes☆

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-04-01

    Gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated with 5.0 wt% polyvinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene (PVDF-HFP) in methoxy propionitrile (MPN) as gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII)/iodine (I2) as redox couple, 4-tertiary butyl pyridine (TBP) and guanidine thiocyanate as additives. The incorporation of alkyl-modified nanomica (AMNM) in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolytes caused the reduction of crystallization of PVDF-HFP, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The short-circuit current density (JSC) of the cell increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, as judged by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) analysis, while the open-circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of AMNM in the PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte was increased to 3.0 wt%, the JSC and power conversion efficiency (η) of the cells increased from 8.3 to 13.6 mA/cm2 and 3.5% to 5.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of AMNM exceeded 3.0 wt%. At higher AMNM loadings, nanomica acted as a barrier interface between the electrolyte and the dye molecules to hinder electron transfer, and thus reducing the cell\\'s photocurrent density. Furthermore, the DSSCs fabricated by dispersing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres in the TiO2 electrode with the GPE containing 3.0 wt% AMNM improved the η to 6.70%. The TiO2 films would exhibit larger porosity by blending with PMMA, leading the penetration of GPEs into the porous TiO2 easier, thus improving the contact between the dye-adsorbed TiO2 surfaces and the GPEs, as characterized by EIS. Moreover, the η of gel-type DSSCs with a 25 μm thickness of surlyn reached 7.96% as compared with 6.70% for the DSSCs with a 60 μm surlyn. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-22

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO(2) with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the

  2. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J.; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO2 with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ~2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the process of

  3. Minimizing structural deformation of gold nanorods in plasmon-enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törngren, Björn; Sandén, Simon; Nyman, Johan O.; Tiihonen, Armi; Jiang, Hua; Ruokolainen, Janne; Halme, Janne; Österbacka, Ronald; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2017-11-01

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles have shown great promise in enhancing the light absorption of organic dyes and thus improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, as the plasmon resonance of spherical nanoparticles is limited to a single wavelength maximum (e.g., 520 nm for Au nanoparticles), we have here utilized silica-coated gold nanorods (Au@SiO2 NRs) to improve the performance at higher wavelengths as well. By adjusting the aspect ratio of the Au@SiO2 NRs, we can shift their absorption maxima to better match the absorption spectrum of the utilized dye (here we targeted the 600-800 nm range). The main challenge in utilizing anisotropic nanoparticles in DSSCs is their deformation during the heating step required to sinter the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode and we show that the Au@SiO2 NRs start to deform already at temperatures as low as 200 °C. In order to circumvent this problem, we incorporated the Au@SiO2 NRs in a TiO2 nanoparticle suspension that does not need high sintering temperatures to produce a functional photoanode. With various characterization methods, we observed that adding the plasmonic particles also affected the structure of the produced films. Nonetheless, utilizing this low-temperature processing protocol, we were able to minimize the structural deformation of the gold nanorods and preserve their characteristic plasmon peaks. This allowed us to see a clear redshift of the maximum in the incident photon-to-current efficiency spectra of the plasmonic devices (Δλ 14 nm), which further proves the great potential of utilizing Au@SiO2 NRs in DSSCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Effect of The Addition of PEG and PVA Polymer for Gel Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with Chlorophyll as Dye Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seni, Ramadhanti S.; Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a third-generation solar cell that consists of a working electrode, electrolyte and counter electrode. One of the most important parts of DSSC is an electrolyte that roles as a medium and regenerates the electron transport of electrons in the dye. However, the liquid electrolyte has a lack of stability in long-term use and easily evaporate or leak in DSSC. Therefore, this study aims to investigate an effect of the addition of polymer material such as PEG 1000, 4000 and PVA 60000 for fabricating a gel electrolyte to solve the problems of liquid electrolyte. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles used in this study was prepared using co-precipitation (CPT) method which produces TiO2 anatase phase with a crystal size of 11.1 nm. DSSC has been successfully conducted and analyzed to evaluate its performance. The results showed that the efficiency of DSSC cells using gel electrolyte prepared with PVA 60000 was better than a liquid electrolyte, PEG 1000, 4000, with the efficiency could be obtained at 0.083, 0.018, 0.033, and 0.054%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the addition PEG and/or PVA could be enhanced the performance of DSSC due to gel electrolyte produced current and voltage more stable compared to the liquid electrolyte.

  5. Minimizing energy losses in dye-sensitized solar cells using coordination compounds as alternative redox mediators coupled with appropriate organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Falaras, Polycarpos [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10, Aghia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2012-06-15

    To further boost the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, a correct evaluation of the real limitations of this type of solar cell should be conducted. From a simple analysis of the photovoltaic data found in the literature, it is evident that the V{sub oc} decrease, through energy losses, seems to be the most crucial factor diminishing the overall system efficiency. In particular, losses arising from the regeneration of the dye by the iodide/triiodide redox mediator are huge. The most convenient manner to recuperate these losses is the use of alternative redox mediators with more positive redox potentials than that of the iodide-based shuttle. Among various types of redox active compounds, ferrocene/ferrocenium, Cu{sup +/2+}, and Co{sup 2+/3+} complexes are found to be the most effective in solar cells and the obtained efficiencies of more than 12% clearly show that a breakthrough is close, paving revolutionary roads towards making new records. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Series-Interconnected Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared by Low- Temperature Binder-Free Titania Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. This was implemented on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a mixture of transparent and scattered mesoporous anatase-titania as the electron transport layer for the photoelectrode. This mixture of anatase titania performed a dual function of light scattering and efficient dye absorption. In this study, a porous nano-TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET by using a binder-free titania paste; on it, a DSSC was fabricated. The paste which contained a mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles, acid chloride, and ethanol was printed on two patterns of 1x6 cm2 active areas followed by sintered at 120 ºC to form TiO2 films. A commercial dye, N719, was adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 films and assembled to two platinized conductive plastic patterns to form a counter electrode and thus a sandwich-type dye cell. Finally, a solution of KI/I2 electrolytes was injected into the cell in which a couple of sandwich-type dye cells with an active area of 6 cm2 for each cell were series interconnected with a z-type interconnection between the photoelectrode of one cell and the counter electrode of another cell. The cell performance was characterized by employing simulated solar light at an intensity of 50 mW/cm2. The results showed interconnected cells generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 2.34 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.10 volt, and overall 0.172% power conversion efficiency.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ionic liquids as redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizalti, Serpil; Ali, Abdulrahman Khalaf; Ela, Çağatay; Ekmekci, Mesut; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the influence of ionic liquid on the conversion efficiency, incident photons to converted electrons (IPCE) and performance of fabricated solar cell was investigated using various ionic liquids. Ionic liquids with different substituents and ions were prepared and used as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ionic liquids were characterized 1H and 13C NMR spectra. We practically investigated the performance of ionic liquid salts were used as the mobile ions and found that the efficiencies of DSSCs were increased up to 40% comparing commercial electrolyte system. The ionic liquid compounds were incorporated in DSSCs to obtain an efficient charge transfer, solving the corrosion problem of platinum layer in counter electrode compared to commercial electrolyte.

  8. Curcuma longa extract as a histological dye for collagen fibres and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avwioro, O G; Onwuka, S K; Moody, J O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Oduola, T; Ekpo, O E; Oladele, A A

    2007-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract and column chromatographic fractions of the Allepey cultivar of Curcuma longa Roxb, commonly called turmeric (tumeric) in commerce, were used as a stain for tissue sections. Staining was carried out under basic, acidic and neutral media conditions. Inorganic and organic dissolution solvents were used. The stain was used as a counterstain after alum and iron haematoxylins. C. longa stained collagen fibres, cytoplasm, red blood cells and muscle cells yellow. It also stained in a fashion similar to eosin, except for its intense yellow colour. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the active column fraction revealed that it contained flavonoids, free anthraquinone and deoxy sugar. A cheap, natural dye can thus be obtained from C. longa. PMID:17451535

  9. Polymer electrolytes from PEO and novel quaternary ammonium iodides for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J.; Li, W.; Wang, X.; Lin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Fang, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Chemistry

    2003-07-15

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by blending high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and a series of novel quaternary ammonium iodides, the polysiloxanes with oligo (oxyethylene) side chains and quaternary ammonium groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements ensured relatively low crystallinity when the quaternary ammonium iodides were incorporated into the PEO host. The ionic conductivity of these complexes was improved with the addition of plasticizers. The improvement in the ionic conductivity was determined by the polarity, viscosity and amounts of plasticizers. A plasticized electrolyte containing the novel quaternary ammonium iodide was successfully used in fabricating a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell for first time. The fill factor and energy conversion efficiency of the cell were calculated to be 0.68 and 1.39%, respectively. (author)

  10. A catalytic graphene oxide film for a dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Ho; Ju, Hae-Mi; Huh, Seung-Hun [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Min [Solarceramic Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We have demonstrated that a partially-reduced graphene oxide (GO) film exhibits good catalytic effects in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We obtained a solar power conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 1.6%, a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 10.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open current density (V{sub oc}) of 0.68 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.22. The {eta} was higher than the {eta} of a DSSC without catalysis (0.74%) and the reported {eta} of other DSSCs (0.84%) and organic solar cells (1.1%) with conductive graphene electrodes. The catalytic effect is explained by using the ion conductivity of the GO film.

  11. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading.

  12. Cobalt-Based Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent Advances towards Stable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Redox mediators based on cobalt complexes allowed dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs to achieve efficiencies exceeding 14%, thus challenging the emerging class of perovskite solar cells. Unfortunately, cobalt-based electrolytes demonstrate much lower long-term stability trends if compared to the traditional iodide/triiodide redox couple. In view of the large-scale commercialization of cobalt-based DSCs, the scientific community has recently proposed various approaches and materials to increase the stability of these devices, which comprise gelling agents, crosslinked polymeric matrices and mixtures of solvents (including water. This review summarizes the most significant advances recently focused towards this direction, also suggesting some intriguing way to fabricate third-generation cobalt-based photoelectrochemical devices stable over time.

  13. Molten phosphonium iodides as electrolytes in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Rosa E.; Sanchez, Eduardo M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion del Vidrio, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    We have synthesized new room temperature ionic liquids and test them as new potential electrolytes for dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DNSCs) of Gratzel type based on asymmetric tetraalkylphosphonium iodides. A systematic study on the conductivity behavior of BH{sub 3}PI, iBH{sub 3}PI, OH{sub 3}PI and iBO{sub 3}PI molten salts and the effect of the addition of low concentrations of iodine with and without 3-methoxypropionitrile is presented. Solar cells using iBH{sub 3}PI-based electrolyte reached an overall light-to-electricity efficiency of 5.7% under moderate light intensity (27000lx) conditions and those results are compared to similar systems using alternative ionic liquids as electrolytes. (author)

  14. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  16. Trypan blue dye enters viable cells incubated with the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seav-Ly Tran

    Full Text Available Trypan blue is a dye that has been widely used for selective staining of dead tissues or cells. Here, we show that the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus allows trypan blue staining of macrophage cells, despite the cells remaining viable and metabolically active. These findings suggest that the dye enters viable cells through the pores. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that trypan blue may enter viable cells. Consequently, the use of trypan blue staining as a marker of vital status should be interpreted with caution. The blue coloration does not necessarily indicate cell lysis, but may rather indicate pore formation in the cell membranes and more generally increased membrane permeability.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Nanostructured Electrodes for Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiawei

    Among various photovoltaic technologies available in the emerging market, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are deemed as an effective, competitive solution to the increasing demand for high-efficiency PV devices. To move towards full commercialization, challenges remain in further improvement of device stability as well as reduction of material and manufacturing costs. This study aims at rational synthesis and photovoltaic characterization of two nanostructured electrode materials (i.e. SnO2 nanofibers and activated graphene nanoplatelets) for use as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The main objective is to explore the favorable charge transport features of SnO2 nanofiber network and simultaneously replace the high-priced conventional electrocatalytic nanomaterials (e.g. Pt nanoparticles) used in existing counter electrode of DSSCs. To achieve this objective, a multiphysics model of electrode kinetics was developed to optimize various design parameters and cell configurations. The porous hollow SnO2 nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a facile route consisting of electrospinning precursor polymer nanofibers, followed by controlled carbonization. The novel SnO2/TiO2 composite photoanode materials carry advantages of SnO2 nanofiber network (e.g. nanostructural continuity, high electron mobility) and TiO2 nanoparticles (e.g. high specific area), and therefore show excellent photovoltaic properties including improved short-circuit current and fill factors. In addition, hydrothermally activated graphene nanoplatelets (aGNP) were used as a catalytic counter electrode material to substitute for conventionally used platinum nanoparticles. Improved catalytic performance of aGNP electrode was achieved through increased surface area and better control of morphology. Dye-sensitized solar cells using these aGNP electrodes had power conversion efficiencies comparable to those using platinum nanoparticles with I-/I3- redox mediators

  18. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/Platinum Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chinan

    2014-12-17

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NGR) was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells for energy harvesting. NGR on a Pt-sputtered fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate (NGR/Pt/FTO) as counter electrodes (CEs) achieves the high efficiency of 9.38% via the nitrogen doping into graphene. This is due to (i) the hole-cascading transport at the interface of electrolyte/CEs via controlling the valence band maximum of NGR located between the redox potential of the I-/I- redox couple and the Fermi level of Pt by nitrogen doping, (ii) the extended electron transfer surface effect provided by large-surface-area NGR, (iii) the high charge transfer efficiency due to superior catalytic characteristics of NGR via nitrogen doping, and (iv) the superior light-reflection effect of NGR/Pt/FTO CEs, facilitating the electron transfer from CEs to I3 - ions of the electrolyte and light absorption of dye. The result demonstrated that the NGR/Pt hybrid structure is promising in the catalysis field. (Chemical Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  20. Use Of Cu-C-Tio2 In Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Trivedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel and simple strategy has been used for the preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with carbon non-metal and copper transition metal by sol-gel method. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated with Cu-C-TiO2 nanocrystalline layer on FTO conductive glass sensitized with rhodamine B dye. Iamp8722 I3 amp8722 redox couple was used as liquid electrolyte and carbon graphite as counter electrode. The experimental results of rhodamine B sensitized Cu-C-doped TiO2 showed Voc 101.2 mV isc 0.0545 mA Vpp 55.9 mV andipp 0.0496 mA and FF 0.50. The photo-to-electric power conversion efficiency was 0.004 under 66.0 mWcm-2 light intensity. The undoped andCu-C-TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction XRD scanning electron microscopySEM and Fourier transform infrared FT-IR techniques.

  1. Tungsten doped titanium dioxide nanowires for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, P S; Gupta, Arunava; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Jose, Rajan

    2014-04-28

    Metal oxide semiconductors offering simultaneously high specific surface area and high electron mobility are actively sought for fabricating high performance nanoelectronic devices. The present study deals with synthesis of tungsten doped TiO2 (W:TiO2) nanowires (diameter ∼50 nm) by electrospinning and evaluation of their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Similarity in the ionic radii between W(6+) and Ti(4+) and availability of two free electrons per dopant are the rationale for the present study. Materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence measurements, and absorption spectroscopy. Nanowires containing 2 at% W:TiO2 gave 90% higher short circuit current density (JSC) (∼15.39 mA cm(-2)) in DSCs with a nominal increase in the open circuit voltage compared with that of the undoped analogue (JSC ∼8.1 mA cm(-2)). The results are validated by multiple techniques employing absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay. The above studies show that the observed increments resulted from increased dye-loading, electron density, and electron lifetime in tungsten doped samples.

  2. Impedance Spectroscopic Investigation of the Degraded Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell due to Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of ageing on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The electrical characterization of fresh and degraded DSCs is done under AM1.5G spectrum and the current density-voltage (J-V characteristics are analyzed. Short circuit current density (JSC decreases significantly whereas a noticeable increase in open circuit voltage is observed. These results have been further investigated electroanalytically using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. An increase in net resistance results in a lower JSC for the degraded DSC. This decrease in current is mainly due to degradation of TiO2-dye interface, which is observed from light and dark J-V characteristics and is further confirmed by EIS measurements. A reduction in the chemical capacitance of the degraded DSC is observed, which is responsible for the shifting of Fermi level with respect to conduction band edge that further results in an increase of open circuit voltage for the degraded DSC. It is also confirmed from EIS that the degradation leads to a better contact formation between the electrolyte and Pt electrode, which improves the fill factor of the DSC. But the recombination throughout the DSC is found to increase along with degradation. This study suggests that the DSC should be used under low illumination conditions and around room temperature for a longer life.

  3. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using gallium nitride-titanium dioxide composite photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Rou; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Wang, Tzu-Hui; Tsai, Yu-Chen

    2014-08-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with gallium nitride-titanium dioxide (GaN-TiO2) composite photoelectrodes to enhance the power conversion efficiency. The value of power conversion efficiency increases with the incorporation of GaN in TiO2 matrix and reaches a maximum at 0.05 wt% GaN. Internal resistance in the DSSC is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the EIS of electrolyte/dye/GaN-TiO2 interface resistances under illumination and in the dark, a decrease in the charge transfer resistance and an increase in the charge recombination resistance of the DSSCs are obtained after the inclusion of GaN (0.01-0.05 wt%) in the TiO2 matrix. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on the GaN (0.05 wt%)-TiO2 composite photoelectrode is enhanced by ∼61% in comparison with a pristine TiO2 photoelectrode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D Nanostructured Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC scheme for better solar conversion efficiency is proposed. The distinctive characteristic of this novel scheme is that the conventional thin film electrode is replaced by a 3D nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO electrode, which was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The template was prepared by immersing the barrier-layer side of an AAO film into a 30 wt% phosphoric acid solution to produce a contrasting surface. RF magnetron sputtering was then used to deposit a 3D nanostructured ITO thin film on the template. The crystallinity and conductivity of the 3D ITO films were further enhanced by annealing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the 3D ITO film after which the proposed DSSC was formed by filling vacant spaces in the 3D nanostructured ITO electrode with dye. The measured solar conversion efficiency of the device was 0.125%. It presents a 5-fold improvement over that of conventional spin-coated TiO2 film electrode DSSCs.

  5. Ultra-high aspect ratio titania nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Yao; El-Shall, Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Micron sized titania flakes with thickness about 40 nm were used in the titania pastes to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Using the same deposition method, better particle dispersion of titania flakes resulted in well bonded and integral films comparing to cracking of Degussa P25 nanoparticle films during the evaporation and sintering processes. There are two features of titania flakes which leads to improved conversion efficiency of DSSC: (1) Higher and stronger adsorption of N-719 dyes due to high specific surface area (2) Stronger light scattering of visible light spectrum because of micron scale wide in two dimensions of the flakes. The thickness of the conducting TiO2 was critical to the IV characteristics of DSSC such as the short-circuit current density (Isc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc). Under the same thickness basis, calcined titania flakes provided 5 times higher efficiency than the photoelectrodes consisted of Degussa P25 nanoparticles (7.4% vs. 1.2%).

  6. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  7. Effects of Ethyl Cellulose on Performance of Titania Photoanode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was added to a titania (TiO2) paste from 2 wt.% to 18 wt.% as a binder/dispersant, and its effects on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The TiO2 mesoporous film constructed on the photoanode exhibited a dense and network structure composed of well-interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles when using a proper amount of EC (10 wt.%). Excessive and deficient addition of EC resulted in aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles and formation of pores, respectively, in the TiO2 film. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC showed a strong dependence on the EC content and the highest PCE of 7.53% with the highest short-circuit current density ( J SC) of 12.7 mA/cm2 was achieved when the content of EC was 10 wt.%. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results indicated that the TiO2 mesoporous film fabricated using a proper EC addition was beneficial for electron generation (also confirmed by dye desorption experiments) and electron transport, and, therefore, improved the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  8. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  9. Pulsed microwave heating method for preparation of dye-sensitized solar cells for greener, faster, cheaper production of photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Clifford B.; Cotta, Robert; Blais, Timothy; Hall, Charles B.

    2015-05-01

    Microwave heating methods are very popular for developing chemical syntheses that are achieved much more rapidly or with less solvent than via conventional heating methods. Their application to solar cell development has been primarily in developing improvements in the synthesis of dyes and curing of polymer substrates, but not in assisting the photoanode construction of dye-sensitized solar cells. Microwave heating of conducting substrates can lead to arcing of electricity in the reactor, which in turn, can lead to extensive degradation or complete destruction of the photoanode. Here we present our work in applying a pulsed microwave heating method that affords quicker dye deposition times in comparison to conventional heating (μw 40 min, conventional 60 min) with similar dye concentrations as characterized by UV-Vis absorbance, contact angle measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. Our photoanodes are constructed with anatase TiO2 cured onto FTO glass, and deposition of the N719 ruthenium dye either directly to the TiO2 layer or through amide bond formation to a silane layer that has been deposited on the TiO2 layer. Modest improvements in the solar energy conversion efficiency are shown through the microwave method in comparison to conventional heating (μw 0.78% vs. conventional 0.25% reported by K. Szpakolski, et. Al. Polyhedron, 2013, 52, 719-732.)

  10. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimization of TiO2 thin film thickness for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bat’hi, S. A. M.; Ahmed, N.; Othman, R.; Othman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) rely on the absorption of photons by the dye molecules which are transported to the conduction band of the TiO2 electrode. The microstructure, energy gap and the absorption spectra of the TiO2 electrodes highly affects the efficiency of the cell. In this paper, the absorption spectra and energy gap has been studied by varying the thickness of the TiO2 paste. Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were deposited on ITO glass substrate with three different thickness (4.54μm, 7.12μm and 12.3μm) by using doctor blade method. After deposition all the samples were sintered at 450°C after deposition to enhance the particle bonding and for achieving better adhesion. The samples were characterized by UV-VIS spectra for determining the absorption spectra and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for investigating the thickness and the surface morphology. Fabricating the electrodes with different thickness showed significant changes in the energy gap and from the results it can be concluded that the energy gap increases with the increased thickness. The highest energy gap of 2.25ev and absorption 3.791 was achieved by 12.3μm thick sample. The absorption spectra also shows better absorption throughout the whole visible light range but the SEM images suggests that 12.3μm thick sample shows cracks all over the deposited region which will cause current leakage when the cell is assembled. Therefore, the optimum result was achieved by 7.12μm thick sample providing 1.9 ev energy gap and 3.91 absorption peak.

  12. An efficient photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells using naturally derived S/TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunmetha, S.; Rajendran, V.; Vinoth, M.; Karthik, A.; Srither, S. R.; Srither Panday, M.; Nithyavathy, N.; Manivasakan, P.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    Natural mineral rutile sand is used for preparing titania (TiO2) nanoparticles employing a cost-effective simple chemical method and mass production technology. Further the sulfur doped (S/TiO2) and pure TiO2 are produced from chemical precursor also. Different techniques are used to analyse the effect of sulfur dopant like x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, photoluminescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyser, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Under visible light, a useful procedure is followed on the sulfur-doped samples preparation, enhancing the charge carrier recombination, and reducing crystallite size. In the improvement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, this dopant could open up vast opportunities; consequently, our work is extended to apply these prepared samples in standard dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells are made up of these prepared materials (S-doped TiO2 and pure TiO2) and compared with both commercial TiO2 (P-25) powder, as well as commercially available paste (Dyesol). The S/TiO2 nanoparticles on dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit enhanced ultra-violet visible light absorbance with increased photogenerated electrons and holes meanwhile reduce the recombination rate of charge carriers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, the overall power-conversion efficiency (η) and external quantum efficiency of the S/TiO2 cells (η  =  4.32% and EQE  =  32%) is two times higher than that of pure TiO2 cells (η  =  2.75% and EQE  =  16%).

  13. Benzothiadiazole containing D-pi-A conjugated compounds for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, properties, and photovoltaic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Ming; Lei, Ting; Jiang, Ke-Jian; Song, Yan-Lin; Pei, Jian

    2010-08-02

    Two D-pi-A conjugated molecules, BzTCA and BzTMCA, were developed through facile synthetic approaches for dye-sensitized solar cells. The investigation of the photophysical properties of BzTCA and BzTMCA both in dilute solutions and in thin films indicates that their absorption exhibits a wide coverage of the solar spectrum. The absorption features for BzTCA and BzTMCA commence at about 710 nm in solution, and at about 800 nm in the solid state. The absorption maxima (lambda(max)) for both BzTCA and BzTMCA on TiO(2) film are almost the same as those in dilute solution. Their HOMOs and LUMOs were found to partly overlap at the center of these dyes, which guarantees appreciable interactions between the donors and acceptors. The investigation of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated from BzTCA and BzTMCA indicated that the power-conversion efficiencies are 6.04 % and 4.68 %, respectively, which could be comparable with the normal sensitizer N3. BzTMCA showed lower incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and J(sc) values relative to BzTCA, which is probably because of the weaker driving force of dye regeneration and electron injection process of BzTMCA. The IPCE responsive area reached nearly 800 nm, which provides great potential for further improvement of the photocurrent density and power-conversion efficiency. Our investigations demonstrate that both dyes BzTCA and BzTMCA could be promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Distance and driving force dependencies of electron injection and recombination dynamics in organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Joanna; Marinado, Tannia; Hagberg, Daniel P; Sun, Licheng; Hagfeldt, Anders; Albinsson, Bo

    2010-11-18

    A series of dyes based on a triphenylamine donor and a rhodanine acetic acid anchor/acceptor for solar cell application has been studied with regards to electron injection and recombination kinetics using femtosecond transient absorption. The series contains three dyes, with estimated electron transfer distances ranging from 17.2 to 11.0 Å, and which have shown significant differences in energy conversion efficiencies. The injection and recombination kinetics were studied in the NIR region where electrons in the conduction band of the TiO(2) are suggested to absorb. For all dyes, the injection rate is larger than (200 fs)(-1) which implicates a quantitative injection efficiency. Surprisingly, the subsequent recombination reaction has a rate that increases with increasing linker length. On the other hand, this behavior is consistent with the concomitant decrease in driving force for this series of dyes. Moreover, the lifetimes show exponential distance dependence when corrected for driving force and reorganization energy, which indicates a superexchange interaction between the electrons in TiO(2) and the radical cations of the dyes. A dependence on probe wavelength of the attenuation factor was found, giving a β value of 0.38 Å(-1) at 940 nm and 0.49 Å(-1) at 1040 nm. The difference is suggested to be due to the difference in electronic coupling between fully separated dye cations and injected electrons versus geminate electron-hole pairs. Addition of tert-butylpyridine, which from previous work is known to give a substantial drop in the IPCE values for the studied dyes, was found to decrease the amount of long-lived electrons in the TiO(2) without affecting the injection rate.

  15. Broadband dye-sensitized upconverting nanocrystals enabled near-infrared planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuesen; Li, Xitao; Lv, Xinding; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Meng, Fanli; Tao, Xia

    2017-12-01

    Extending the spectral absorption of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) from visible into near-infrared (NIR) range is a promising strategy to minimize non-absorption loss of solar photons and enhance the cell photovoltaic performance. Herein, we report on for the first time a viable strategy of incorporating IR806 dye-sensitized upconversion nanocrystals (IR806-UCNCs) into planar PSC for broadband upconversion of NIR light (800-1000 nm) into perovskite absorber-responsive visible emissions. A smart trick is firstly adopted to prepare hydrophilic IR806-UCNCs via a NOBF4 assisted two-step ligand-exchange that allows incorporating with perovskite precursor for in-situ growth of upconverting planar perovskite film. Unlike typically reported upconverting nanoparticles with narrow NIR absorption, the as-prepared IR806-UCNCs are able to harvest NIR light broadly and then transfer the captured energy to the UCNCs for an efficient visible upconversion. The IR806-UCNCs-incorporated cell exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 17.49%, corresponding to 29% increment from that of the pristine cell (13.52%). This strategy provides a feasible way to enable the most efficient harvesting of NIR sunlight for solar cells and other optoelectric devices.

  16. Simple, highly efficient vacuum-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells based on merocyanine dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Vera; Kronenberg, Nils M.; Lenze, Martin R.; Graf, Steven M.; Hertel, Dirk; Meerholz, Klaus [Department fuer Chemie, Universitaet Koeln, Luxemburger Strasse 116, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Buerckstuemmer, Hannah; Tulyakova, Elena V.; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to be competitive on the energy market, organic solar cells with higher efficiency are needed. To date, polymer solar cells have retained the lead with efficiencies of up to 8%. However, research on small molecule solar cells has been catching up throughout recent years and is showing similar efficiencies, however, only for more sophisticated multilayer device configurations. In this work, a simple, highly efficient, vacuum-processed small molecule solar cell based on merocyanine dyes - traditional colorants that can easily be mass-produced and purified - is presented. In the past, merocyanines have been successfully introduced in solution-processed as well as vacuum-processed devices, demonstrating efficiencies up to 4.9%. Here, further optimization of devices is achieved while keeping the same simple layer stack, ultimately leading to efficiencies beyond the 6% mark. In addition, physical properties such as the charge carrier transport and the cell performance under various light intensities are addressed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Impact of isoelectric points of nanopowders in electrolytes on electrochemical characteristics of dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Shyama Prasad; Bhargava, Parag

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticle loaded quasi solid electrolytes are important from the view point of developing electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) having long term stability. The present work shows the influence of isoelectric point of nanopowders in electrolyte on the photoelectrochemical characteristics of DSSCs. Electrolytes with nanopowders of silica, alumina and magnesia which have widely differing isoelectric points are used in the study. Adsorption of ions from the electrolyte on the nanopowder surface, characterized by zeta potential measurement, show that cations get adsorbed on silica, alumina surface while anions get adsorbed on magnesia surface. The electrochemical characteristics of nanoparticulate loaded electrolytes are examined through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). DSSCs fabricated using liquid, silica or alumina loaded electrolytes exhibit almost similar performance. But interestingly, the magnesia loaded electrolyte-based cell show lower short circuit current density (JSC) and much higher open circuit voltage (VOC), which is attributed to adsorption of anions. Such anionic adsorption prevents the dark reaction in magnesia loaded electrolyte-based cell and thus, enhances the VOC by almost 100 mV as compared to liquid electrolyte based cell. Also, higher electron life time at the titania/electrolyte interface is observed in magnesia loaded electrolyte-based cell as compared to others.

  18. Effect of orientation and density of hydroxide precursor films on performance of dye-sensitized ZnO solar cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAJIHARA, Hisasuke; HAGIWARA, Manabu; FUJIHARA, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    .... The increase in the film density resulted in the improvement of the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of dye-sensitized solar cells using N719-loaded ZnO films as photoanodes. The light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 3.49% was obtained in the DSSC using the present ZnO film.

  19. Direct comparison of highly efficient solution- and vacuum-processed organic solar cells based on merocyanine dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Nils M.; Steinmann, Vera; Hertel, Dirk; Meerholz, Klaus [Department fuer Chemie, Universitaet Koeln, Luxemburger Strasse 116, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Buerckstuemmer, Hannah; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hwang, Jaehyung [BASF SE, Carl-Bosch-Strasse 38, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Identically configured bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine dye donor and fullerene acceptor compounds are manufactured either from solution or by vacuum deposition, to enable a direct comparison. Whereas the former approach is more suitable for screening purposes, the latter approach affords higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Hydrogen-treated commercial WO3 as an efficient electrocatalyst for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling; Hou, Yu; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Shuang; Guo, Jian Wei; Wu, Long; Yang, Hua Gui

    2013-07-07

    The electrocatalytically inactive commercial WO3 can be transformed into an efficient counter electrode (CE) material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) via facile hydrogen treatment. The energy conversion efficiency of the DSCs with the hydrogen-treated WO3 CE was 5.43%, while the corresponding value for commercial WO3 with the stoichiometric surface was only 0.63%.

  1. Interface Modification of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Pivalic Acid to Enhance the Open-circuit Voltage

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Pivalic acid (PVA) was used as a new coadsorbent to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to modify the interface between the TiO2 films and electrolyte. The addition of PVA improved the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of devices by 8% by enhancing the open-circuit voltage. Copyright © 2009 The Chemical Society of Japan.

  2. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  3. Highly efficient betanin dye based ZnO and ZnO/Au Schottky barrier solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.subhash@gmail.com [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Divya, S.; Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallaban, C.P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)

    2015-05-29

    Performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on betanin natural dye from red beets with various nanostructured photoanodes on transparent conducting glass has been investigated. In four different electrolyte systems cell efficiency of 2.99% and overall photon to current conversion efficiency of 20% were achieved using ZnO nanosheet electrode with iodide based electrolyte in acetonitrile solution. To enhance solar harvesting in organic solar cells, uniform sized metal nanoparticles (gold (Au) of ~ 8 nm) synthesized via microwave irradiation method were incorporated into the device consisting of ZnO. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 1.71% was achieved with ZnO/Au nanocomposite compared to the 0.868% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanosheet cell with ferrocene based electrolyte. - Highlights: • The influence of electrolytes has been studied. • Cell efficiency of 2.99% was achieved by ZnO. • Enhancement of efficiency with incorporation of Au nano.

  4. Material Selection for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a potential alternative to conventional p-n junction photovoltaic devices. The semiconductor thin film plays a crucial role in the working of DSC. This paper aims at formulating a process for the selection of optimum semiconductor material for nanostructured thin film using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. Various possible available semiconducting materials and their properties like band gap, cost, mobility, rate of electron injection, and static dielectric constant are considered and MADM technique is applied to select the best suited material. It was found that, out of all possible candidates, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is the best semiconductor material for application in DSC. It was observed that the proposed results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. Growth of Comb-like ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by using well-crystallized ZnO nanocombs directly grown onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO via noncatalytic thermal evaporation process. The thin films of as-grown ZnO nanocombs were used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs, which exhibited an overall light to electricity conversion efficiency of 0.68% with a fill factor of 34%, short-circuit current of 3.14 mA/cm2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.671 V. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report in which thin film of ZnO nanocombs was used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs.

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Spectra of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fundamentals and Spreadsheet Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Sarker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is one of the most important tools to elucidate the charge transfer and transport processes in various electrochemical systems including dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Even though there are many books and reports on EIS, it is often very difficult to explain the EIS spectra of DSSCs. Understanding EIS through calculating EIS spectra on spreadsheet can be a powerful approach as the user, without having any programming knowledge, can go through each step of calculation on a spreadsheet and get instant feedback by visualizing the calculated results or plot on the same spreadsheet. Here, a brief account of the EIS of DSSCs is given with fundamental aspects and their spreadsheet calculation. The review should help one to develop a basic understanding about EIS of DSSCs through interacting with spreadsheet.

  7. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Graphene/ZnO Nanoparticles Bilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle bilayer structure. The enhancement of the performance of DSSCs achieved using graphene/ZnO nanoparticle films is attributable to the introduction of an electron-extraction layer and absorption of light in the visible range and especially in the range 300–420 nm. DSSC that was fabricated with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle film composite photoanodes exhibited a Voc of 0.5 V, a Jsc of 17.5 mA/cm2, an FF of 0.456, and a calculated η of 3.98%.

  8. An organic redox electrolyte to rival triiodide/iodide in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingkui; Chamberland, Nathalie; Breau, Livain; Moser, Jacques-E; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Marsan, Benoît; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have achieved impressive conversion efficiencies for solar energy of over 11% with an electrolyte that contains triiodide/iodide as a redox couple. Although triiodide/iodide redox couples work efficiently in DSCs, they suffer from two major disadvantages: electrolytes that contain triiodide/iodide corrode electrical contacts made of silver (which reduces the options for the scale up of DSCs to module size) and triiodide partially absorbs visible light. Here, we present a new disulfide/thiolate redox couple that has negligible absorption in the visible spectral range, a very attractive feature for flexible DSCs that use transparent conductors as current collectors. Using this novel, iodide-free redox electrolyte in conjunction with a sensitized heterojunction, we achieved an unprecedented efficiency of 6.4% under standard illumination test conditions. This novel redox couple offers a viable pathway to develop efficient DSCs with attractive properties for scale up and practical applications.

  9. Development of High Efficiency, Low-Cost Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-30

    3.01% Jsc 8.87mA Uoc 539.59mV Figure 21: IV curve of the B1 dye adsorbed on a 8µ TiO2 photoelectrode containing a 4µ...0.46 Module Uoc 778.20 mV Cell Uoc 778.20 mV Isc -2.035 mA Jsc norm -13.75 mA/cm 2 Upmax 622.70 mV Ipmax -12.9 mA/cm 2 Powerout 8.01...Step : 0.1 s, 10 mV 99.2% Sun Thermopileref 7.107 Sun Currentref -3.830 mA Powerin 99.225 mW/cm 2 Norm. Std. Dev. 0.33 Module Uoc 741.51

  10. Investigating the performance of nitrogen-doped graphene photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Easter; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Kait, Chong Fai; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Khatani, Mehboob

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) is used to synthesize graphene on a copper substrate by utilizing methane as a precursor and N-doped graphene (NDG) in the presence of ammonia. The performance of pure titanium dioxide (TiO2), TiO2/graphene, and TiO2/NDG as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were compared. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed flakes of few layers with an interrupted layer in both graphene and NDG. DSSC consist of TiO2/NDG photoanode exhibits a better enhancement due to the high conductivity of donor N in graphene which enhances the electron transportation across nanoporous TiO2.

  11. Fabrication of carbon-coated silicon nanowires and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; Lim, Jeongmin; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hae-Seok; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-11-12

    We report the fabrication of silicon/carbon core/shell nanowire arrays using a two-step process, involving electroless metal deposition and chemical vapor deposition. In general, foreign shell materials that sheath core materials change the inherent characteristics of the core materials. The carbon coating functionalized the silicon nanowire arrays, which subsequently showed electrocatalytic activities for the reduction of iodide/triiodide. This was verified by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We employed the carbon-coated silicon nanowire arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells as counter electrodes. We optimized the carbon shells to maximize the photovoltaic performance of the resulting devices, and subsequently, a peak power conversion efficiency of 9.22% was achieved.

  12. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-03-26

    In this work we describe a novel bifacial design concept for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Bifacial DSCs are fabricated with ruthenium complex chemisorbed double-sided TiO(2) nanotube arrays on a Ti metal substrate, in combination with two electron-collecting counter electrodes. Our investigation shows that the present bifacial DSCs have similar conversion efficiencies when illuminated from either their front or rear side, and a summated output power when illuminated on both sides. Furthermore, this type of bifacial DSC is also able to summate the output power of each side when working at an 'unsymmetrical' mode, in which much different output powers are generated by the front and rear sides. Therefore, this bifacial design concept exhibits a promising potential to reduce the cost of solar electricity when DSCs are operated at a location where a high albedo radiation is available.

  13. Study on Carbon Nanocomposite Counterelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanocomposite electrodes were prepared by adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs into carbon black as counterelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs. The morphology and structure of carbon nanocomposite electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of CNTs on the electrochemical performance of carbon nanocomposite electrodes is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nano composite electrodes with CNTs exhibit a highly interconnected network structure with high electrical conductivity and good catalytic activity. The influence of different CNTs content in carbon nanocomposite electrodes on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and filling factor of DSSCs is also investigated. DSSCs with 10% CNTs content exhibit the best photovoltaic performance in our experiments.

  14. Graphene-based large area dye-sensitized solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaluci, Simone; Gemmi, Mauro; Pellegrini, Vittorio; di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate spray coating of graphene ink as a viable method for large-area fabrication of graphene-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) modules. A graphene-based ink produced by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite is spray coated onto a transparent conductive oxide substrate to realize a large area (>90 cm2) semi-transparent (transmittance 44%) counter-electrode (CE) replacing platinum, the standard CE material. The graphene-based CE is successfully integrated in a large-area (43.2 cm2 active area) DSSC module achieving a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The approach demonstrated here paves the way to all-printed, flexible, and transparent graphene-based large-area and cost-effective photovoltaic devices on arbitrary substrates.

  15. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Diethyldithiocarbamate-Modified Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. B. P. Ariyasinghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of a TiO2 electrode with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicate that over half of the sulfur atoms become positively charged after the DEDTC treatment of the TiO2 surface. DSSCs were fabricated with TiO2 electrodes modified by adsorbing DEDTC using a simple dip-coating process. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs has been optimized to 6.6% through the enhancement of the short-circuit current density ( mA/cm2. This is substantially higher compared to the efficiency of 5.9% ( mA/cm2 for the DSSCs made with untreated TiO2 electrodes.

  16. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  17. Photodynamic therapy by tetraphenyl-porfinesulphonate topical application and dye-laser in basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchini, Virgilio; Melloni, E.; Santoro, O.; Marchesini, Renato; Cascinelli, Natale; Bandieramonte, Gaetano

    1989-09-01

    Since February 1987 to March 1988, 118 biopsy proven basal cell carcinoma were treated in 22 patients at the National Cancer Institute in Milan. The treatment consisted in the tumor photosensitization by topical administration of Tetraphenyl-porfinesulphonate (TPPS) onto the tumor surface, and red light exposure. The irradiation was performed by an Argon-pumped dye laser at 650 nm. The persistence of the lesions was noted in 4% of the cases. 13% of the cases recurred after 4 months. 35% of these recurrences were at the periphery of the irradiated area, and a second, treatment gave complete tumor regression. Important complications did not occurred; only in 3 cases a moderate skin distrophy resulted.

  18. Growth mechanism of titanium dioxide nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boercker, J E; Enache-Pommer, E; Aydil, E S

    2008-03-05

    Mesoporous films made of titanium dioxide nanowires are desirable for dye-sensitized solar cells because nanowires provide direct conduction pathways for photogenerated electrons. Anatase titanium dioxide nanowires with polycrystalline microstructure were synthesized on titanium foil using a three-step process. First, the top surface of the titanium foil was transformed to Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes through hydrothermal oxidation in NaOH. Next, the Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes were converted to H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes by ion exchange. Finally, the H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes were converted to polycrystalline anatase nanowires through a topotactic transformation. The film morphology evolution, crystal structure transformations and growth mechanism are described in detail. Titanium foil reacts with NaOH to form Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) sheets, which exfoliate and spiral into nanotubes. The Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes are immersed in HCl solution to replace the Na(+) ions with H(+) ions. During the topotactic transformation of H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes to anatase TiO(2) nanowires, the sheets made of edge bonded TiO(6) octahedra in the H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes dehydrate and move towards each other to form anatase crystals oriented along the nanotube axis which creates a polycrystalline nanowire. These mesoporous TiO(2) nanowire films were suitable for use as dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes.

  19. Characterization of Nephelium Lappaceum Peel Extract as a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Poernomo, Joko; Hidayati Mukaromah, Ana; Widiyandari, Hendri; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    The world now is searching for a new renewable alternative energy. Nephelium lappaceum is a popular fruit in Indonesia that contains anthocyanin. Anthocyanin can absorb light on the range of visible light due to its conjugated double bonds. This finding makes Nephelium lappaceum as a potential Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The Nephelium lappaceum extract can be taken through extraction technique, called maserasi. The process of developing DSSC material was initiated by preparing TiO2 photoanode using a conventional sintering procedure. It was, then, followed by doping TiO2 on the Fluoride doped tin oxcide (FTO) with resistance value of 10-20 ohm/q. Finally, the electrode counter made of platinum paste was developed by implementing conventional sintering procedure. All of the above process were then continued by the DSSC assembly. In this process, the TiO2 photoanode which has passed the absorption process for 24 hours, was doped on the counter electrode. After doping, the process was stopped by doing electrolyte solution filling into prepared electrode counter holes. In order to characterize the DSSC, a solar simulator connected to a computer was employed. Based on this characterization process, it was found that the maximum value of Voc was 0.29 V, the maximum value of current density was 0.56 mA / cm2, the maximum power was 0.062 mW / cm2 and efficiency of 0.063. Characteristics of Nephelium lappaceum peel extract is one of the DSSC cells using TiO2 as a semiconductor material as a dye sensitizer that can convert light energy into electrical energy.

  20. Biotransformation and Detoxification of Xylidine Orange Dye Using Immobilized Cells of Marine-Derived Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Prabha; Wahidullah, Solimabi; Sheikh, Farhan; Pereira, Rochelle; Narkhede, Niteen; Amonkar, Divya; Tilvi, Supriya; Meena, Ram Murthy

    2017-02-08

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3 cell-immobilized beads in natural gel sodium alginate decolorized the xylidine orange dye 1-(dimethylphenylazo)-2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid sodium salt in the laboratory. Optimal conditions were selected for decolorization and the products formed were evaluated for toxicity by disc diffusion assay against common marine bacteria which revealed the non-toxic nature of the dye-degraded products. Decolorization of the brightly colored dye to colorless products was measured on an Ultra Violet-Vis spectrophotometer and its biodegradation products monitored on Thin Layer Chromatographic plate and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Finally, the metabolites formed in the decolorized medium were characterized by mass spectrometry. This analysis confirms the conversion of the parent molecule into lower molecular weight aromatic phenols and sulfonic acids as the final products of biotransformation. Based on the results, the probable degradation products of xylidine orange were naphthol, naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid, 2-6-dihydroxynaphthalene, and bis-dinaphthylether. Thus, it may be concluded that the degradation pathway of the dye involved (a) reduction of its azo group by azoreductase enzyme (b) dimerization of the hydrazo compound followed by (c) degradation of monohydrazo as well as dimeric metabolites into low molecular weight aromatics. Finally, it may be worth exploring the possibility of commercially utilizing L. sphaericus D3 for industrial applications for treating large-scale dye waste water.

  1. Biotransformation and Detoxification of Xylidine Orange Dye Using Immobilized Cells of Marine-Derived Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Devi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3 cell-immobilized beads in natural gel sodium alginate decolorized the xylidine orange dye 1-(dimethylphenylazo-2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid sodium salt in the laboratory. Optimal conditions were selected for decolorization and the products formed were evaluated for toxicity by disc diffusion assay against common marine bacteria which revealed the non-toxic nature of the dye-degraded products. Decolorization of the brightly colored dye to colorless products was measured on an Ultra Violet-Vis spectrophotometer and its biodegradation products monitored on Thin Layer Chromatographic plate and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Finally, the metabolites formed in the decolorized medium were characterized by mass spectrometry. This analysis confirms the conversion of the parent molecule into lower molecular weight aromatic phenols and sulfonic acids as the final products of biotransformation. Based on the results, the probable degradation products of xylidine orange were naphthol, naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid, 2-6-dihydroxynaphthalene, and bis-dinaphthylether. Thus, it may be concluded that the degradation pathway of the dye involved (a reduction of its azo group by azoreductase enzyme (b dimerization of the hydrazo compound followed by (c degradation of monohydrazo as well as dimeric metabolites into low molecular weight aromatics. Finally, it may be worth exploring the possibility of commercially utilizing L. sphaericus D3 for industrial applications for treating large-scale dye waste water.

  2. Insight into the effects of modifying chromophores on the performance of quinoline-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Wang, Jian-Bo; Liu, Xiu-Lin; Wu, Guo-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin; Song, Qin-Hua

    2018-02-01

    A series of organic dyes based on quinoline as an electron-deficient π-linker, were designed and synthesized for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) application. These push-pull conjugated dyes, sharing same anchoring group with distinctive electron-rich donating groups such as N,N-diethyl (DEA-Q), 3,6-dimethoxy carbazole (CBZ-Q), bis(4-butoxyphenyl)amine (BPA-Q), were synthesized by Riley oxidation of sbnd CH3 followed by Knoevenagel condensation of the corresponding aldehyde precursors 2a-c with cyanoacrylic acid. The optical, electrochemical, theoretical calculation and photovoltaic properties with these three dyes were systematically investigated. Compared to DEA-Q and CBZ-Q, BPA-Q possesses better light harvesting properties with regard to extended conjugate length, red-shifted intramolecular charge transfer band absorption and broaden light-responsive IPCE spectrum, resulting in a greater short circuit photocurrent density output. BPA-Q also has improved open-circuit voltage due to the apparent large charge recombination resistance. Consequently, assembled with iodine redox electrolytes, the device with BPA-Q achieved the best overall conversion efficiency value of 3.07% among three dyes under AM 1.5G standard conditions. This present investigation demonstrates the importance of various N-substituent chromophores in the prevalent D-π-A type organic sensitizers for tuning the photovoltaic performance of their DSSCs.

  3. The Role of the Conjugate Bridge in Electronic Structures and Related Properties of Tetrahydroquinoline for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Zhi Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role of the conjugate bridge in modifying the properties of organic dye sensitizers in solar cells, the computations of the geometries and electronic structures for 10 kinds of tetrahydroquinoline dyes were performed using density functional theory (DFT, and the electronic absorption and fluorescence properties were investigated via time dependent DFT. The population analysis, molecular orbital energies, radiative lifetimes, exciton binding energies (EBE, and light harvesting efficiencies (LHE, as well as the free energy changes of electron injection ( and dye regeneration ( were also addressed. The correlation of charge populations and experimental open-circuit voltage (Voc indicates that more charges populated in acceptor groups correspond to larger Voc. The elongating of conjugate bridge by thiophene units generates the larger oscillator strength, higher LHE, larger absolute value of , and longer relative radiative lifetime, but it induces the decreasing of EBE and . So the extending of conjugate bridge with thiopene units in organic dye is an effective way to increase the harvest of solar light, and it is also favorable for electron injection due to their larger . While the inversely correlated relationship between EBE and LHE implies that the dyes with lower EBE produce more efficient light harvesting.

  4. Joint electrical, photophysical, and photovoltaic studies on truxene dye-sensitized solar cells: impact of arylamine electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Mao; Wang, He; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Fangyi; Sun, Zhe; Song, Xue

    2014-03-01

    The judicious design of electron donors is one of the viable tactics to improve the efficiency of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) employing outer-sphere redox couples. Herein, a hexahexyltruxene-substituted 4-(hexyloxy)-N-phenylaniline (HT-HPA) segment is constructed and employed as the electron donor in two organic push-pull dyes (M28 and M29) with high molar absorption coefficient values. Relative to its congener (C241) possessing the dihexyloxy-substituted triphenylamine electron donor, M29 exhibits red-shifted absorption as well as enhanced maximum molar absorption coefficient values. A thorough comparison with M29 and C241 demonstrates that the HT-HPA segment adequately insulates the TiO2 surface from the electrolyte, which prevents back-recombination and prolongs electron lifetime in the semiconductor. The diminishment of charge recombination not only enables attainment of strikingly high photovoltages (approaching 1 V), but also overcompensates the disadvantageous impact of lower dye-load amounts. As a result, the dye transformation from C241 to M29 brings forth an efficiency improvement from 7.3 % to 8.5 % at the 100 mW cm(-2) simulated AM1.5 conditions. Our work should shed light on the future design of more powerful push-pull organic photosensitizers for iodine-free DSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle and nanorod array hybrid photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ZnO photoanode morphology on the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. Four different structures of dye-loaded ZnO layers have been fabricated in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene). A significant improvement in device efficiency with ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increases from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers. PMID:21884596

  6. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle and nanorod array hybrid photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hung-Jue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of ZnO photoanode morphology on the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is reported. Four different structures of dye-loaded ZnO layers have been fabricated in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene. A significant improvement in device efficiency with ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increases from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers.

  7. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  8. Dye sensitised solar cells from laboratory scale to pre-pilot stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeth, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M.; Sommeling, P.M.; Van der Burg, N.P.G.; Smit, H.; Mahieu, D.R.; Bakker, N.J.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-05-01

    At ECN Solar Energy, the dye sensitised solar cell (nc-DSC) is developed from laboratory scale to the pre-pilot module stage. The process line with mechanised equipment for 10x10 and 7.5x10 cm{sup 2} devices is presented. Power conversion efficiencies of 6% obtained for cell-areas of 2.5 cm{sup 2} are successfully translated to 100 cm{sup 2} devices (active-area 68 cm{sup 2}) by application of identical cell components. Reproducible efficiencies of 6.0{+-}0.3% are achieved at high yields of over 85%. These results prove that complete device manufacturing of nc-DSC using a baseline process, starting with colloid synthesis is reproducible for surfaces up to 10x10 cm{sup 2}. Four-cell 30x30 cm{sup 2} modules are constructed to verify the feasibility of translating critical process steps carried out on 10x10 cm{sup 2} to 30x30 cm{sup 2}. Cost calculations based on the present processing schemes (semi-automated) indicate a cost level of 2.5 Euro/Wp at 1 MWp/year capacity, of which labour amounts to 40%.

  9. Reproducible Manufacturing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells on a Semi-automated Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, M.; Sommeling, P.M.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M.; Smit, H.J.P.; Van der Burg, N.P.G.; Mahieu, D.R.; Bakker, N.J.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2003-03-01

    A fully operational baseline consisting of dedicated equipment to process nanocrystal-line dye-sensitized solar cell devices has been installed at ECN. This baseline focuses on the production of glass/glass devices with dimensions up to 10x10 cm{sup 2}. Present power conversion efficiencies of 6% obtained for cell areas of 2.5 cm{sup 2} are successfully translated to 100 cm{sup 2} devices with an active area of 68 cm{sup 2} by application of identical cell components. The power conversion efficiency with respect to total area was 4%. Processing of a large number of devices in the baseline shows good results in terms of process reliability and yield. The overall yield for a series of 27 devices (10x10 cm{sup 2})was 96%, while 84% (22 of the remaining 26 devices) generated a cell efficiency within 7% deviation from the average value (4.3%). The reproducibility of the titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2} ) colloid synthesis has been investigated. The deviation from the average efficiency (4.9%) of three batches of colloid was at most 3.2%. These results prove that complete device manufacturing of nc-DSC by a baseline process, starting with colloid synthesis is reproducible for surfaces up to 10x10 cm{sup 2}.

  10. Reproducible manufacturing of dye-sensitized solar cells on a semi-automated baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, M.; Sommeling, P.M.; Roosmalen, J.A.M. van; Smit, H.J.P.; Burg, N.P.G. van der; Mahieu, D.R.; Bakker, N.J.; Kroon, J.M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands). Solar Energy

    2003-05-01

    A fully operational baseline consisting of dedicated equipment to process nanocrystalline dye- sensitized solar cell devices has been installed at ECN. This baseline focuses on the production of glass/glass devices with dimensions up to 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. Present power conversion efficiencies of 6% obtained for cell areas of 2.5 cm{sup 2} are successfully translated to 100 cm{sup 2} devices with an active area of 68 cm{sup 2} by application of identical cell components. The power conversion efficiency with respect to total area was 4%. Processing of a large number of devices in the baseline shows good results in terms of process reliability and yield. The overall yield for a series of 27 devices (10 x 10 cm{sup 2}) was 96%, while 84% (22 of the remaining 26 devices) generated a cell efficiency within 7% deviation from the average value (4.3%). The reproducibility of the titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) colloid synthesis has been investigated. The deviation from the average efficiency (4.9%) of three batches of colloid was at most 3.2%. These results prove that complete device manufacturing of nc-DSC by a baseline process, starting with colloid synthesis is reproducible for surfaces up to 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. (author)

  11. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells from Dye Molecules: An Investigation of Diketopyrrolopyrrole:Vinazene Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Walker, Bright

    2012-01-25

    Although one of the most attractive aspects of organic solar cells is their low cost and ease of fabrication, the active materials incorporated into the vast majority of reported bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells include a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, classes of materials which are both typically difficult and expensive to prepare. In this study, we demonstrate that effective BHJs can be fabricated from two easily synthesized dye molecules. Solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based molecule as a donor and a dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) acceptor function as an active layer in BHJ solar cells, producing relatively high open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.1%. Atomic force microscope images of the films show that active layers are rough and apparently have large donor and acceptor domains on the surface, whereas photoluminescence of the blends is incompletely quenched, suggesting that higher PCEs might be obtained if the morphology could be improved to yield smaller domain sizes and a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor phases. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cell based on AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer transparent conductive oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jin-He; Li, Ying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Duong, Thanh-Tung; Choi, Hyung-Jin [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► AZO/Ag/AZO (AAA) multilayer was used for working electrode of DSSC cell. ► The 100 nm-thick Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layer showed a good blocking effect. ► The DSSC cell by AAA TCO material showed the highest efficiency of about 3.25%. -- Abstract: Niobium-doped TiO{sub 2} blocking layer and Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO (AAA) TCO layers were grown onto glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and direct current (dc)/radio-frequency (rf) sputtering at room temperature, respectively for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The 100 nm-thick NTO layer showed a blocking effect for the oxygen diffusion into AAA layer and for the recombination of the electrons. The DSSC cell composed of the NTO (100 nm)/AAA (400 nm) showed the highest photo-electrical efficiency of about 3.25%. An insertion of aluminum foil between serrated clip and AAA (100 nm) TCO improved a photo-conversion efficiency of the DSSC.

  13. The increased of photovoltaic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) efficiency using nanocomposite ZnO/TiO2 with natural dye leaves of grass jelly (Cyclea barbata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiawan, T. Y.; Sumardiasih, S.; Obina, W. M.; Supriyanto, A.; Khairuddin, Cari, C.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a semiconductor material that is used in addition to Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) used in the manufacture of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). ZnO synthesized by using sol-gel mixture of zinc nitrate tetrahydrate (Zn (NO3)2.4H2O), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this study, the dye was extracted from the leaves of grass jelly (Cyclea barbata). Nanocomposite ZnO/TiO2 (mixture between ZnO and TiO2) was obtained by adding the results of the synthesis of ZnO and TiO2. From fabrication deposited one layer on the FTO glass with a spacious work area 1cm × 1cm obtained increase in conversion efficiency (η) on nanocomposite ZnO/TiO2 compared with ZnO and TiO2, with efficiency (η) TiO2 0.0130%, ZnO 0.0011% and nanocomposite ZnO/TiO2 0.0696%.

  14. Studies on the optical and photoelectric properties of anthocyanin and chlorophyll as natural co-sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hui; Shen, He-Ping; Wang, Gang; Xie, Shou-Dong; Yang, Gui-Jun; Lin, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanin and Chlorophyll extracted from Troll flower and Cypress leaf respectively are used as natural sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with their optical and electrochemical properties investigated. UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that the mixture of two dyes enabled an enhanced and wider absorption in the wavelength range of 300 nm-700 nm compared to each single dye. FTIR results proved that anthocyanin is chemically adsorbed onto the TiO2 film, while it is physical adsorption for chlorophyll. The energy level offsets on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface for each dye and the dye mixture with different ratios were calculated from the electrochemical analysis, which affect the electron injection and dye regeneration efficiencies. The optimized ratio of the two dyes in the mixture was found to be ∼2:5, inducing both sufficient charge transfer driving force and minimal energy loss. By incorporating this mixture into the solar cell as co-adsorbing sensitizer, the photovoltaic performance was prominently improved compared with the single dye sensitization system.

  15. Investigation of Annealing and Blend Concentration Effects of Organic Solar Cells Composed of Small Organic Dye and Fullerene Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser A. M. Ismail; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using coumarin 6 (C6) as a small organic dye, for light harvesting and electron donation, with fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), acting as an electron acceptor, by spin-coating technique. We have investigated thermal annealing and blend concentration effects on light harvesting, photocurrent, and performance parameters of the solar cells. In this work, we introduced an experimental method by which...

  16. Photoelectrochemical and photophysical characterization of new molecular photosensitizers and electron transfer mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzanti, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most promising future energy resources. The direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by solar cells is of particular interest because has relevant advantages over most of the presently used electrical power generation methods: indeed, electricity is produced without the exhaust of greenhouse gases and without nuclear waste byproducts. Due to their high efficiencies and their potentially low production costs, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) ...

  17. The growth mechanism of ordered mesoporous electrodes in view of their response in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devendra; Jyoti, Divya; Dhar, Rakesh; Singh, Amrik

    2013-06-01

    The effect of morphology of photoelectrode films on photoelectrochemical properties of solar cells has been studied. Crack free mesoporous anatase and rutile films of thickness˜16μm have been synthesized and characterized in concern with their use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Surface morphologies have been studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The open-circuit photovoltage for mesoporous anatase and rutile based cells is approximately same but short-circuit photocurrent of mesoporous rutile based cell is lower than that of the mesoporous anatase based cell.

  18. Hierarchical porous photoanode based on acid boric catalyzed sol for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Khatereh; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Adelfar, Razieh

    2017-02-01

    The hierarchical porous photoanode of the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is synthesized through non-aqueous sol-gel method based on H3BO3 as an acid catalyst and the efficiencies of the fabricated DSSC based on these photoanodes are compared. The sol parameters of 0.17 M, water mole ratio of 4.5, acid mole ratio of 0.45, and solvent type of ethanol are introduced as optimum parameters for photoanode formation without any detectable cracks. The optimized hierarchical photoanode mainly contains anatase phase with slight shift toward higher angles, confirming the doping of boron into titania structure. Moreover, the porous structure involves two ranges of average pore sizes of 20 and 635 nm. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) shows the proper scattering and blueshift in band gap. The paste parameters of solid:liquid, TiO2:ethyl cellulose, and terpineol:ethanol equal to 11:89, 3.5:7.5, and 25:64, respectively, are assigned as optimized parameters for this novel paste. The photovoltaic properties of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of 5.89 mA/cm2, 703 mV, 0.7, and 2.91% are obtained for the optimized sample, respectively. The relatively higher short circuit current of the main sample compared to other samples is mainly due to higher dye adsorption in this sample corresponding to its higher surface area and presumably higher charge transfer confirmed by low RS and Rct in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data. Boric acid as a catalyst in titania sol not only forms hierarchical porous structure, but also dopes the titania lattice, which results in appreciated performance in this device.

  19. Application of solution processable squaraine dyes as electron donors for organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Ananda; Yesudas, K; Kumar, G Siva; Bhanuprakash, K; Rao, V Jayathirtha; Sharma, G D; Singh, S P

    2013-09-01

    New low bandgap small molecules based on a squaraine (SQ) chromophore, bis[4-(2,6-di-tert-butyl)vinylpyrylium]squaraine (TBU-SQ), bis[2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)pyrylium]squaraine (MeTBU-SQ) and bis[4-(but-1-en-2-yl)-2,6-di-tert-butylpyrylium]squaraine (EtTBU-SQ), were synthesized and used as electron donors along with PC70BM for their application in solution processed organic bulk-heterojunction (OBHJ) solar cell (SC). The long wavelength of these SQ dyes are located in between 650-750 nm in thin films and the optical bandgaps are about 1.64, 1.52 and 1.48 eV, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these SQ dyes indicate that they are well suited for the fabrication of OBHJSCs as electron donors along with fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors. The OBHJ photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated with the blend of TBU-SQ:PC70BM, MeTBU-SQ:PC70BM and EtTBU-SQ:PC70BM cast from chloroform (CF) solvent exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.71%, 2.15%, and 1.89%, respectively. The PCE of the OBHJSCs based on MeTBU-SQ:PC70BM blends cast from DIO-THF (DIO = 1,8-diiodooctane) additive solvent and cast from DIO-THF with subsequent thermal annealing have been further improved up to 2.73% and 3.14%, respectively. This enhancement in the PCE is attributed to the improvement in the crystalline nature of the blend and more balanced charge transport resulting from the higher hole mobility. All these results have been supported by the quantum chemical calculations.

  20. Preparation of a Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Opwis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy conversion is an object of continuous research, focusing on improving the energy efficiency as well as the structure of photovoltaic cells. With efficiencies continuously increasing, state-of-the-art PV cells offer a good solution to harvest solar energy. However, they are still lacking the flexibility and conformability to be integrated into common objects or clothing. Moreover, many sun-exposed surface areas are textile-based such as garments, tents, truck coverings, boat sails, and home or outdoor textiles. Here, we present a new textile-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC which takes advantage from the properties inherent to fabrics: flexibility, low weight, and mechanical robustness. Due to the necessary thermostability during manufacturing, our DSC design is based on heat-resistant glass-fiber fabrics. After applying all needed layers, the overall structure was covered by a transparent and simultaneously conductive protective film. The light and still flexible large-area devices (up to 6 cm2 per individual unit are working with efficiencies up to 1.8% at 1/5 of the sun. Stability tests assure no loss of photovoltaic activity over a period of at least seven weeks. Therefore, our technology has paved the way for a new generation of flexible photovoltaic devices, which can be used for the generation of power in the mentioned applications as well as in modern textile architecture.

  1. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Triiodide in UVA-Exposed Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UVA irradiation of glass mounted dye-sensitized solar cells without UV filtration causes failure within 400 hours of light exposure. The failure mode is shown to relate to consumption of I3−, which is directly related to TiO2 photo-catalysis. The onset of failure is easily determined from electrochemical impedance data where the recombination resistance of the TiO2/electrolyte back reaction drops markedly prior to the onset of degradation. At the point of complete cell failure this impedance value then dramatically increases as there is no longer an interfacial reaction possible between the TiO2 and the I3− depleted electrolyte. Device failure is most rapid for cells under electrical load indicating that the degradation of the electrolyte is related to photogenerated hole production by excitation of the TiO2. Once depleted by UV exposure, the I3− can be regenerated by simple application of a reverse bias which can restore severely UV degraded devices to near original working conditions.

  2. Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sining; Hagfeldt, Anders; Ma, Tingli

    2014-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted widespread attention in recent years as potential cost-effective alternatives to silicon-based and thin-film solar cells. Within typical DSSCs, the counter electrode (CE) is vital to collect electrons from the external circuit and catalyze the I3- reduction in the electrolyte. Careful design of the CEs can improve the catalytic activity and chemical stability associated with the liquid redox electrolyte used in most cells. In this Progress Report, advances made by our groups in the development of CEs for DSSCs are reviewed, highlighting important contributions that promise low-cost, efficient, and robust DSSC systems. Specifically, we focus on the design of novel Pt-free CE catalytic materials, including design ideas, fabrication approaches, characterization techniques, first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ab-initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations, and stability evaluations, that serve as practical alternatives to conventional noble metal Pt electrodes. We stress the merits and demerits of well-designed Pt-free CEs, such as carbon materials, conductive polymers, transition metal compounds (TMCs) and their corresponding hybrids. Also, the prospects and challenges of alternative Pt catalysts for their applications in new-type DSSCs and other catalytic fields are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Influence of 4-guanidinobutyric acid as coadsorbent in reducing recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; O'Regan, Brian C; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-11-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline TiO(2) have been fabricated with an amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer [Ru (4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine) (4,4'-bis(p-hexyloxystyryl)-2,2'-bipyridine)(NCS)(2)], coded as K-19, and 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) as coadsorbent. The cells showed a approximately 50 mV increase in open-circuit voltage and a similar current in comparison with cells without GBA cografting. The performance of both types of devices was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent-voltage characteristics, dark current measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and phototransient decay methods. The results indicate that GBA shifted the conduction band of TiO(2) toward a more negative potential and reduced the interfacial charge-transfer reaction from conduction band electrons to triiodide in the electrolyte (also known as the back reaction). In addition, the devices with GBA cografting showed an excellent stability with a power conversion efficiency of approximately 8% under simulated full sunlight (air mass 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)) during visible light soaking at 60 degrees C.

  4. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as

  5. Status of dye solar cell technology as a guideline for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Andreas; Veurman, Welmoed; Brandt, Henning; Jensen, Katrine Flarup; Mastroianni, Simone

    2014-04-14

    Recently, the first commercial dye solar cell (DSC) products based on the mesoscopic principle were successfully launched. Introduction to the market has been accompanied by a strong increase in patent applications in the field during the last four years, which is a good indication of further commercialization activity. Materials and cell concepts have been developed to such extent that easy uptake by industrial manufacturers is possible. The critical phase for broad market acceptance has therefore been reached, which implies focusing on standardization-related research topics. In parallel the number of scientific publications on DSC is growing further (>3500 since 2012), and the range of new or renewed fundamental topics is broadening. A recent example is the introduction of the perovskite mesoscopic cell, for which an efficiency of 14.1% has been certified. Thus, a growing divergence between market introduction and research could be the consequence. Herein, an attempt is made to show that such an unwanted divergence can be prevented, for example, by developing suitable reference-type cell and module concepts as well as manufacturing routes. An in situ cell manufacturing concept that can be applied to mesoscopic-based solar cells in a broader sense is proposed. As a guideline for future module concepts, recent results for large-area, glass-frit-sealed DSC modules from efficiency studies (6.6% active-area efficiency) and outdoor analysis are discussed. Electroluminescence measurements are introduced as a quality tool. Another important point that is addressed is sustainability, which affects both market introduction and the direction of fundamental research. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ytterbium oxide nanodots via block copolymer self-assembly and their efficacy to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang-Won; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jin, Ming Hao; Song, Jeemin; Yun, Seung-Young [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Mo; Kim, Gi Jeong [Sooyang Chemtec Co., Ltd., Digital-ro 32-gil, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-777 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Kang Min [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongin, E-mail: hongj@cau.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel phosphor, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was developed as a UV-absorbing spectral converter for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The ordered Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots trap more light and prevent charge recombination at the interfaces. • Their multifunctionality improves DSSC performance for both Ru-based and organic dyes. - Abstract: In this study, we develop a novel phosphor, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to be used as the spectral converter in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the efficient capture of ultraviolet light via down-conversion. These zero-dimensional nanodots with a high refractive index also allow more light to be trapped and can prevent charge recombination at the interfaces in the DSSCs. Compared to DSSCs without the nanodots, the DSSCs fabricated with the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots exhibits higher power-conversion efficiencies for both the N719 (10.5%) and CSD-01 (20.5%) dyes. The multifunctionality of the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanodots provides a new route for improving the performance of DSSCs.

  7. Dual Functional Polymer Interlayer for Facilitating Ion Transport and Reducing Charge Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chiao; Li, Shao-Sian; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Liang-Yih; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2016-12-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) present low-cost alternatives to conventional wafer-based inorganic solar cells and have remarkable power conversion efficiency. To further enhance performance, we propose a new DSSC architecture with a novel dual-functional polymer interlayer that prevents charge recombination and facilitates ionic conduction, as well as maintaining dye loading and regeneration. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (p(VDF-TrFE)) was coated on the outside of a dye-sensitized TiO2 photoanode by a simple solution process that did not sacrifice the amount of adsorbed dye molecules in the DSSC device. Light-intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy revealed that the proposed p(VDF-TrFE)-coated anode yielded longer electron lifetime and improved the injection of photogenerated electrons into TiO2, thereby reducing the electron transport time. Comparative cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy based on a ferrocene-ferrocenium external standard material demonstrated that p(VDF-TrFE) enhanced the power conversion efficiency from 7.67% to 9.11%. This dual functional p(VDF-TrFE) interlayer is a promising candidate for improving the performance of DSSCs and can also be employed in other electrochemical devices.

  8. Simple metal-free organic D-pi-A dyes with alkoxy- or fluorine substitutions: application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharam, M; Chiranjeevi, B; Gupta, K S V; Singh, Surya Prakash; Islam, A; Han, L; Kantam, M Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Two new metal-free organic sensitizers with simplest structural variations have been synthesized for application in nanocrystalline TiO2 sensitized solar cells. The donor-pi-bridge-acceptor (D-pi-A) structure dyes, Y2 and Y3 each designed with three parts, an electron donor unit (substituted phenyl), a linker unit (thiophene), and an anchor unit (cyanoacrylic acid) showed maximal monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) in a device reaching upto 67% and 82% respectively. The organic sensitizers with 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl (Y3) as donor moieties obtained better solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 3.30% where as the organic sensitizer with 2,4-difluoro phenyl as donor (Y2) showed comparatively lower efficiency of 1.02%. The efficiency obtained with the reference sensitizer N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions was 5.84%.

  9. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Coated with Conducting Polyaniline Nanocomposites for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT coated with conducting polyaniline (PAni nanocomposites has been enforced as for quasi-solid-state electrolyte layer in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, and the incorporation of MWNT-PAni nanoparticles on the cell performance has been examined. The MWNT-PAni nanoparticles exploited as the extended electron transfer materials, which can reduce charge diffusion length and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I3-. An ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium iodide (PMII together with the hybrid MWNT-PAni nanocomposites was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and achieved a moderately higher cell efficiency (3.15%, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.26%.

  10. "Sticky electrons" transport and interfacial transfer of electrons in the dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Laurence

    2009-11-17

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, also known as Gratzel cells) mimic the photosynthetic process by using a sensitizer dye to harvest light energy to generate electrical power. Several functional features of these photochemical devices are unusual, and DSC research offers a rewarding arena in which to test new ideas, new materials, and new methodologies. Indeed, one of the most attractive chemical features of the DSC is that the basic concept can be used to construct a range of devices, replacing individual components with alternative materials. Despite two decades of increasing research activity, however, many aspects of the behavior of electrons in the DSC remain puzzling. In this Account, we highlight current understanding of the processes involved in the functioning of the DSC, with particular emphasis on what happens to the electrons in the mesoporous film following the injection step. The collection of photoinjected electrons appears to involve a random walk process in which electrons move through the network of interconnected titanium dioxide nanoparticles while undergoing frequent trapping and detrapping. During their passage to the cell contact, electrons may be lost by transfer to tri-iodide species in the redox electrolyte that permeates the mesoporous film. Competition between electron collection and back electron transfer determines the performance of a DSC: ideally, all injected electrons should be collected without loss. This Account then goes on to survey recent experimental and theoretical progress in the field, placing particular emphasis on issues that need to be resolved before we can gain a clear picture of how the DSC works. Several important questions about the behavior of "sticky" electrons, those that undergo multiple trapping and detrapping, in the DSC remain unanswered. The most fundamental of these concerns is the nature of the electron traps that appear to dominate the time-dependent photocurrent and photovoltage response of DSCs. The

  11. Repeated exposure to hair dye induces regulatory T cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, I M C; Dabelsteen, S; Nielsen, M M

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that commercial p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dyes are potent immune activators that lead to severe contact hypersensitivity in an animal model. However, only a minority of people exposed to permanent hair dyes develops symptomatic contact hypersensitivity. This ...

  12. Thermo photo-electrochemical effect in n-InP/aqueous solution of orange dye/C cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Taimoor; Karimov, Khasan S.; Akhmedov, Khakim M.; Kabutov, K.; Farooq, Amjad

    2015-03-01

    The effect of light and heat is studied on the electrical properties of an electrochemical n-InP/aqueous solution of orange dye/C cell. The cell is investigated under the light and heat of filament bulb. The n-type indium phosphide and carbon plates are used as electrodes. The aqueous solution of organic material orange dye (C17H17N5O2) in distilled water is served as electrolyte at 1, 3 and 5 wt. % concentration. The cell is assembled in sealed organic glass box with dimensions 35 × 13 × 14 mm. The open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and short circuit current ( I sc ) of the cell are observed by illuminating and heating the samples. The temperature is raised up to 60°C from 25°C when light intensity is increased from dark condition to 425 W/m2. It is observed that the relationship between light intensity and temperature is approximately linear for all cases. The V oc and I sc increase 100% and 300% respectively by increasing the light. The reported n-InP/aqueous solution of orange dye/C cell can be considered as small converter of light and heat into electric power. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Micro-meso hierarchical porous carbon as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guiqiang, E-mail: wgqiang123@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo 255049 (China); Huang Congcong; Xing Wei; Zhuo Shuping [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Micro-meso hierarchical porous carbon is used as a low-cost counter electrode. > Hierarchical porous carbon counter electrode shows a high electrocatalytic activity. > The conversion efficiency similar to that of Pt electrode cell is achieved. - Abstract: A micro-meso hierarchical porous carbon with low crystallinity was prepared by a combination of self-assembly and post activation and explored as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Pore structure analysis showed that the pristine mesopores were basically preserved during activation and the micropores were mainly generated within the mesopore wall. Due to its low crystallinity and unique pore-structure including both mesopores and micropores, hierarchical porous carbon exhibited a relatively higher electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, as compared with the pristine mesoporous carbon electrode. This enhanced electrocatalytic activity is beneficial for improving the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Under irradiation of 100 mW cm{sup -2}, the dye-sensitized solar cell with hierarchical porous carbon counter electrode showed an overall conversion efficiency of 6.48%, which was 11.5% higher than that of the cell with pristine mesoporous carbon counter electrode.

  14. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4...

  15. Pyran-Squaraine as Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: DFT/TDDFT Study of the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to provide, assess, and evaluate a theoretical approach which enables designing efficient donor-acceptor dye systems, the electronic structure and optical properties of pyran-squaraine as donor-acceptor dyes used in dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Ground state properties have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The long-range corrected density functionals CAM-B3LYP, PBEPBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and TPSSH with 6-311++G** were employed to examine absorption properties of the studied dyes. In an extensive comparison between experimental results and ab initio benchmark calculations, the TPSSH functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic properties for the studied pyran and squaraine dyes. Natural transition orbitals (NTO, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO, LUMO, HOMO, and energy gaps, of these dyes, have been analyzed to show their effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. Interaction between HOMO and LUMO of pyran and squaraine dyes was investigated to understand the recombination process and charge-transfer process involving these dyes. Additionally, we performed natural bond orbital (NBO analysis to investigate the role of charge delocalization and hyperconjugative interactions in the stability of the molecule.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells for efficient power generation under ambient lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Marina; Teuscher, Joël; Saygili, Yasemin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Giordano, Fabrizio; Liska, Paul; Hua, Jianli; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2017-06-01

    Solar cells that operate efficiently under indoor lighting are of great practical interest as they can serve as electric power sources for portable electronics and devices for wireless sensor networks or the Internet of Things. Here, we demonstrate a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) that achieves very high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) under ambient light conditions. Our photosystem combines two judiciously designed sensitizers, coded D35 and XY1, with the copper complex Cu(II/I)(tmby) as a redox shuttle (tmby, 4,4‧,6,6‧-tetramethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine), and features a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.1 V. The DSC achieves an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent generation that exceeds 90% across the whole visible domain from 400 to 650 nm, and achieves power outputs of 15.6 and 88.5 μW cm-2 at 200 and 1,000 lux, respectively, under illumination from a model Osram 930 warm-white fluorescent light tube. This translates into a PCE of 28.9%.

  17. Graphene-based Materials for Photoanodes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru eGuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the research on the use of graphene and related materials in the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Graphene-based materials, such as pristine graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, have properties attractive for various components of the DSSC photoanode. We first provide a brief introduction to graphene properties and analyze requirements for making a high-performance photoanode. Then we introduce applications of graphene-based materials in each part of the DSSC photoanode, i.e., the transparent conducting electrode, the sensitizing material, and the semiconducting layer. Particularly, we discuss how the incorporation of graphene-based materials in those components can enhance the photoanode performance. It is clear that the outstanding properties of graphene, such as the fast electron transfer ability, high Young’s modulus, and good transparency, benefit DSSC photoanode research, and doping or surface modifications of graphene nanosheets with other materials can also improve the photoanode and thus the resulting cell performance. Finally, we present an outlook for current issues and further trends for using graphene materials in DSSC photoanodes.

  18. A complete carbon counter electrode for high performance quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    The proposed research describes the design and fabrication of a quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells (Q-DSSCs) with a complete carbon based counter electrode (CC-CE) and gel infused membrane electrolyte. For CE, the platinized fluorinated tin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) was replaced by the soft cationic functioned multiwall carbon nanotubes (SCF-MWCNT) catalytic layer coated on woven carbon fiber fabric (CFF) prepared on handloom by interlacing of carbon filament tapes. SCF-MWCNT were synthesized by functionalization of cationised lipase from Candida Ragusa. Cationised enzyme solution was prepared at pH ∼3 by using acetic acid. The cationic enzyme functionalization of MWCNT causes the minimum damage to the tubular morphology and assist in fast anchoring of negative iodide ions present in membrane electrolyte. The high electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance (RCT = 2.12 Ω) of our proposed system of CC-CE shows that the woven CFF coated with cationised lipase treated carbon nanotubes enriched with positive surface ions. The Q-DSSCs fabricated with CC-CE and 5 wt% PEO gel infused PVDF-HFP membrane electrolyte exhibit power conversion efficiency of 8.90% under masking. Our suggested low cost and highly efficient system of CC-CE helps the proposed quasi-solid state DSSCs structure to stand out as sustainable next generation solar cells.

  19. Preparation of mesoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K. Stanly; Abraham, P. A.; Panicker, N. Rani; Pramanik, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) introduced by Prof.M.Gratzel is a low cost alternative to the existing silicon based solar cells. Solar light conversion efficiency of the current DSSC can be further improved by replacing the conventional anatase TiO2 having lesser surface area with mesoporous high surface area anatase TiO2. This paper describes the sol-gel synthesis of mesoporous high surface area nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 by the controlled hydrolysis and condensation of titanium isopropoxide followed by heat treatment. XRD reveals that xerogel heat treated at 500°C is phase pure anatase. Crystallite size of prepared anatase TiO2 calculated using Scherrer equation was found to be 15 nm. BET analysis of prepared anatase TiO2 exhibited relatively high specific surface area of 97 m2/g, which is found to be almost double to that of the anatase TiO2 generally used for DSSC photo anode fabrication. The pore size distribution (BJH plot) also revealed the mesoporous nature of prepared anatase TiO2 having an average pore size of 7.4 nm.

  20. The influence of magnesium oxide interfacial layer on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, M.; Ghanaatshoar, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs, we introduce MgO insulating layers at the interface between TiO2 and electrolyte to decrease charge recombination rate by suppressing the electron transfer from TiO2 to the electrolyte. The thickness of the MgO layer plays a vital role in the kinetics of dye-sensitized solar cells and affects their overall efficiency. The cell with optimized thickness of MgO layer exhibits the highest conversion efficiency ( η = 5.12 %) with a high short-circuit current density (18.15 mA/cm2) and open-circuit voltage (0.571 V). Open-circuit voltage decay measurement results verify the improvement of the electrons lifetime in the DSSCs fabricated with surface-modified photoanodes due to the retarding the charge recombination. In order to explore the reasons for the J SC improvement, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurement was taken. Our results show that the enhancement in the photoinjected electron lifetime can contribute to an increase in the electron collection efficiency, leading to the improved J SC value. Furthermore, the enhancement in the photoinjected electron recombination rate is also demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.