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Sample records for cell disorder perspectives

  1. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Aimone

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.

  2. Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use.

  3. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  4. Panic disorder: a different perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, A; Beitman, B D

    1998-02-01

    Panic disorder is a chronic and debilitating illness. In this article, we present an algorithm of the diagnosis and treatment of the illness. We place much importance upon the patient variables associated with the treatment decisions. We emphasize strong patient involvement in treatment as a way to become panic free and improve level of functioning. Panic disorder is defined in DSM-IV1 as "The presence of recurrent panic attacks followed by at least one month of persistent concern about having another panic attack, worry about the possible implications or consequences of the panic attack, or a significant behavioral change related to the attacks." A panic attack is defined as "a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four or more of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes." 1) Palpitations, pounding heart or accelerated heart rate; 2) sweating; 3) trembling or shaking; 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; 5) feeling of choking; 6) chest pain or discomfort; 7) nausea or abdominal distress; 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint; 9) derealization or depersonalization; 10) fear of losing control or going crazy; 11) fear of dying; 12) paresthesias; 13) chills or hot flashes. The following hypotheses have been used to conceptualize panic disorder from a psychiatrist's perspective.

  5. Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation for Central Nervous System Disorders – Recent Progress and Perspective for Clinical Application

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    Kuroda S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the transplanted BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with CNS disorders. In this review, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy as the scientifically proven entity in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. The BMSC can be expanded in vitro using the animal serum-free medium. Pharmacological modulation may accelerate the in vitro proliferation of the BMSC. Using in vivo optical imaging technique, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future.

  6. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  7. Vocational perspectives and neuromuscular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F.; Wevers, C. W.; Wintzen, A. R.; Busch, H. F.; Höweler, C. J.; de Jager, A. E.; Padberg, G. W.; de Visser, M.; Wokke, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    The present study analyses the actual occupational situation, vocational handicaps and past labour career of a group of about 1000 Dutch patients suffering from a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). On the basis of the likelihood of a substantial employment history and sufficient numbers of patients, four

  8. Vocational perspectives and neuromuscular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F; Wevers, CWJ; Wintzen, AR; Busch, HFM; Howeler, CJ; deJager, AEJ; Padberg, GW; deVisser, M; Wokke, JHJ

    The present study analyses the actual occupational situation, vocational handicaps and past labour career of a group of about 1000 Dutch patients suffering from a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). On the basis of the likelihood of a substantial employment history and sufficient numbers of patients, four

  9. Fuel cells - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, T.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, fuel cell publicity conveys expectations and hopes that are often based on uncritical interpretations of the underlying science. The aim here is to use that science to analyse how the technology has developed and what can realistically be delivered by fuel cells. There have been great achievements in fuel cell technology over the past decade, with most types reaching an advanced stage of engineering development. But there has been some muddled thinking about one critical aspect, fuel cell energy efficiency. The 'Carnot cycle' argument, that fuel cells must be much more efficient than heat engines, is a red herring, of no help in predicting real efficiencies. In practice, fuel cells are not always particularly efficient and there are good scientific reasons for this. Cost reduction is a big issue for fuel cells. They are not in principle especially simple devices. Better engineering and mass production will presumably bring costs down, but because of their inherent complexity there is no reason to expect them to be cheap. It is fair to conclude that predictions of fuel cells as commonplace components of energy systems (including a hydrogen economy) need to be treated with caution, at least until major improvements eventuate. However, one type, the direct methanol fuel cell, is aimed at a clear existing market in consumer electronics

  10. An Evolutionary Genetic Perspective of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Pigeyre, Marie; Couturier, Jennifer; Meyre, David

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) affect up to 5% of the population in Western countries. Risk factors for developing an ED include personality traits, family environment, gender, age, ethnicity, and culture. Despite being moderately to highly heritable with estimates ranging from 28 to 83%, no genetic risk factors have been conclusively identified. Our objective was to explore evolutionary theories of EDs to provide a new perspective on research into novel biological mechanisms and genetic causes of EDs. We developed a framework that explains the possible interactions between genetic risk and cultural influences in the development of ED. The framework includes three genetic predisposition categories (people with mainly AN restrictive gene variants, people with mainly BED variants, and people with gene variants predisposing to both diseases) and a binary variable of either the presence or absence of pressure to be thin. We propose novel theories to explain the overlapping characteristics of the subtypes of AN (binge/purge and restrictive), BN, and BED. For instance, mutations/structural gene variants in the same gene causing opposite effects or mutations in nearby genes resulting in partial disequilibrium for the genes causing AN (restrictive) and BED may explain the overlap of phenotypes seen in AN (binge/purge). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Neurophysiology of conversion disorders: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short historical perspective on the neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders. The body of this paper will be constituted of three main parts. In the first part, we will present the significant progress due to some pioneers of neurology/psychiatry during the XIXth century. As we shall see, this period was particularly rich in personalities whose work gradually laid the foundations to a true medical approach to hysteria. In the first half of the XXth century, different factors have led to a long eclipse of the neurological approach to hysteria. In the second part, we will show how, by the 1960's-1970's, the conceptual and methodological advances in neurophysiology, as well as the turning point of cognitive sciences (and cognitive psychology in particular) allowed a gradual reinstatement of hysteria within the fields of neurology and clinical neurophysiology. Finally, and this is the third part of this paper, we will show how over the past three decades, an entirely new neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders has emerged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339

  13. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective.

  14. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.

  15. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  16. Plasma Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  17. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A developmental-evolutionary perspective is used to synthesize basic research from the neurosciences, ethology, genetics, and developmental psychology into a unified framework for understanding the nature and origins of social anxiety and avoidant personality disorder. Evidence is presented that social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and avoidant personality disorder may be alternate conceptualizations of the same disorder because they have virtually the same symptoms and genetic basis, and respond to the same pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. A functionalist perspective on social anxiety is formulated to (a) explain the origins of normative states of anxiety, (b) outline developmental pathways in the transition from normative anxiety to social anxiety and avoidant personality disorders, and (c) account for the processes leading to gender-differentiated patterns of anxiety-related disorders after puberty.

  18. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  19. Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Miyake

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stress can alter the epigenetic status in neuronal cells, environmental factors may alter brain function through epigenetic changes. However, one advantage of epigenetic changes is their reversibility. Therefore, diseases due to abnormal epigenetic regulation are theoretically treatable. In fact, several drugs for treating mental diseases are known to have restoring effects on aberrant epigenetic statuses, and a novel therapeutic strategy targeting gene has been developed. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms of congenital and acquired neurodevelopmental disorders, drugs with epigenetic effects, novel therapeutic strategies for epigenetic diseases, and future perspectives in epigenetic medicine.

  20. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    TYRER, PETER; MULDER, ROGER; CRAWFORD, MIKE; NEWTON-HOWES, GILES; SIMONSEN, ERIK; NDETEI, DAVID; KOLDOBSKY, NESTOR; FOSSATI, ANDREA; MBATIA, JOSEPH; BARRETT, BARBARA

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task. PMID:20148162

  1. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  2. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  3. Transcendental meditation for autism spectrum disorders? A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Black

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest that Transcendental Meditation (TM may be helpful for some children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. In this perspective piece, we present six carefully evaluated individuals with diagnosed ASDs, who appear to have benefitted from TM, and offer some thoughts as to how this technique might help such individuals.

  4. Pediatricians' Perspectives on Identification and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Erinn H.; Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Ash, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative interview methodology was used to investigate the perspectives and experiences of five general pediatricians who had diagnosed children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: a) training; b) signs/symptoms of ASD; c) causes of ASD; d) well-child exams; e) first…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  6. Narcissistic personality disorder: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    Narcissistic traits and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) present specific diagnostic challenges. While they are often readily and straightforwardly identified, their presentation in some patients and the reasons for which such patients seek treatment may conceal significant narcissistic pathology. Recently, several empirical studies have confirmed that the phenotypic range of people with NPD includes individuals with insecure, shy, and hypersensitive traits with prominent internalized narcissistic features and functioning. Other studies have confirmed that internal emotional distress, interpersonal vulnerability, fear, pain, anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and depressivity can also co-occur with narcissistic personality functioning. This paper focuses on integrating these findings into the diagnostic evaluation and initial negotiation of treatment for NPD. In patients with narcissistic traits or NPD, it is important to give attention to the two sides of character functioning, which include both self-serving and self-enhancing manifestations as well as hypersensitivity, fluctuations in self-esteem, and internal pain and fragility. This article highlights some of these seemingly incompatible clinical presentations of narcissistic traits and NPD, especially as they co-occur with depressivity and perfectionism, and it discusses implications for building a treatment alliance with a patient with such a predominant disorder of character functioning. The article also discusses the importance of retaining the NPD diagnosis as a separate type of personality disorder, with this range of features, in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-5).

  7. Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology of five common thyroid diseases in India: (1 hypothyroidism, (2 hyperthyroidism, (3 goiter and iodine deficiency disorders, (4 Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, and (5 thyroid cancer. This review will also briefly cover the exciting work that is in progress to ascertain the normal reference range of thyroid hormones in India, especially in pregnancy and children.

  8. [Embryonic stem cells. Future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, M; David, R; Franz, W M

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are able to differentiate into any cell type, and therefore represent an excellent source for cellular replacement therapies in the case of widespread diseases, for example heart failure, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. A major prerequisite for their efficient and safe clinical application is the availability of pure populations for direct cell transplantation or tissue engineering as well as the immunological compatibility of the transplanted cells. The expression of human surface markers under the control of cell type specific promoters represents a promising approach for the selection of cardiomyocytes and other cell types for therapeutic applications. The first human clinical trial using ES cells will start in the United States this year.

  9. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  10. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  11. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  12. Cell therapy for pediatric disorders of glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albuquerque Osório, Maria Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    The childhood disorders of glia comprise a group of diseases that include the pediatric leukodystrophies and lysosomal storage disorders, cerebral palsies and perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies, and selected neurodevelopmental disorders of glial origin. Essentially, all of these disorders...... (GPCs) and their derivatives, the glial disorders may be uniquely attractive targets for cell-based therapeutic strategies, and the pediatric disorders especially so. As a result, GPCs, which can distribute throughout the neuraxis and give rise to new astrocytes and myelinogenic oligodendrocytes, have...... become of great interest as candidates for the therapeutic restoration of normal glial architecture and function, as well as new myelin, to the pediatric brain....

  13. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pisignano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  14. Binge-Eating Disorder: Between Eating Disorders and Obesity? A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gempeler Rueda, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...

  15. A Review of Visual Perspective taking in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy ePearson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT. Flavell (1977 defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to ourselves, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from different points in space may see different things. So far, literature on whether either level of VPT is impaired or intact in autism is inconsistent. Here we review studies which have examined VPT levels 1 and 2 in people with autism with a focus on the methods that have been used to measure perspective taking. We conclude the review with an evaluation of the findings into VPT in autism and give recommendations for future research which may give a clearer insight into whether perspective taking is truly impaired in autism.

  16. Specific Cell (Re-)Programming: Approaches and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausburg, Frauke; Jung, Julia Jeannine; David, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Moreover, ethical concerns and legal restrictions regarding the generation and use of ESCs still exist. The establishment of direct reprogramming protocols for various therapeutically valuable somatic cell types has overcome some of these limitations. Meanwhile, new perspectives for safe and efficient generation of different specified somatic cell types have emerged from numerous approaches relying on exogenous expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, coding and noncoding RNAs, and chemical compounds.It should be of highest priority to develop protocols for the production of mature and physiologically functional cells with properties ideally matching those of their endogenous counterparts. Their availability can bring together basic research, drug screening, safety testing, and ultimately clinical trials. Here, we highlight the remarkable successes in cellular (re-)programming, which have greatly advanced the field of regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, we review recent progress on the generation of cardiomyocyte subtypes, with a focus on cardiac pacemaker cells. Graphical Abstract.

  17. Parenting Interventions for Children with Tic Disorders: Professionals' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gemma A L; Wittkowski, Anja; Butler, Hannah; Hedderly, Tammy; Bunton, Penny

    Tic disorders can have an emotional and social impact on children and families, which can in turn have a reciprocal impact on tics. Research into parenting interventions within this population is limited. Twenty-five professionals' views on the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility and utility of parenting interventions were explored using Q-methodology. Three highly correlated factors emerged, indicating three viewpoints with discrete elements that were underpinned by similar general perspectives. All factors endorsed a psychological approach, the importance of parenting practices, and theoretical and clinical justifications for parenting interventions. Discrete elements of the viewpoints debated the advocated focus, barriers and audience of interventions. Multidisciplinary professionals endorsed parenting interventions as a therapeutic tool within tic disorders. Results provide suggestions to further develop and implement interventions.

  18. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S P; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, T(reg) cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance T(reg) cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human T(reg) cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 at different levels, hampered such an approach. Recent identification of the orphan receptor glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) as T(reg) cell-specific key molecule that dominantly controls FOXP3 via a positive feedback loop opens up new perspectives for molecular and cellular therapies. This brief review focuses on the role of GARP as a safeguard of a complex regulatory network of human T(reg) cells and its implications for regulatory T cell therapies in autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease.

  19. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Consensus-based perspectives of pediatric inpatient eating disorder services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amy; McCormack, Julie; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Watson, Hunna J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hay, Phillipa; Egan, Sarah J

    2018-03-14

    There are few evidence-based guidelines for inpatient pediatric eating disorders. The aim was to gain perspectives from those providing and receiving inpatient pediatric eating disorder care on the essential components treatment. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus-based opinions. Participants (N = 74) were recruited for three panels: clinicians (n = 24), carers (n = 31), and patients (n = 19), who endorsed three rounds of statements online. A total of 167 statements were rated, 79 were accepted and reached a consensus level of at least 75% across all panels, and 87 were rejected. All agreed that families should be involved in treatment, and thatpsychological therapy be offered in specialist inpatient units. Areas of disagreement included that patients expressed a desire for autonomy in sessions being available without carers, and that weight gain should be gradual and admissions longer, in contrast to carers and clinicians. Carers endorsed that legal frameworks should be used to retain patients if required, and that inpatients are supervised at all times, in contrast to patients and clinicians. Clinicians endorsed that food access should be restricted outside meal times, in contrast to patients and carers. The findings indicate areas of consensus in admission criteria, and that families should be involved in treatment, family involvement in treatment, while there was disagreement across groups on topics including weight goals and nutrition management. Perspectives from patients, carers, and clinicians may be useful to consider during future revisions of best practice guidelines. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  2. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual's quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  3. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. PMID:26999199

  4. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and Future Perspectives on Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youn Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD, present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity. The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.

  5. Limbal stem cell transplantation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah MR

    2016-04-01

    the severity of the disease. In summary, limbal stem cell transplantation improves both vision and quality-of-life in patients with ocular surface disorders associated with LSCD, and overall, the use of autologous tissue offers the best results. Future studies aim at improving cellular expansion and finding different sources of stem cells. Keywords: limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD, simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET, cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET, keratolimbal allograft (KLAL

  6. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of ammonia. The resulting hyperammonemia causes severe brain injury unless aggressive steps are taken to reduce the accumulation of ammonia, which is thought to be the most toxic metabolite. This review describes the current state of chronic management of urea cycle disorders, focusing on new and emerging therapies. Management strategies include the mainstay of treatment, namely dietary protein restriction and supplementation with l-arginine or l-citrulline. Several currently approved medications utilize and enhance alternative pathways of waste nitrogen excretion (sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, sodium phenylbutyrate in several formulations, and glycerol phenylbutyrate, working through conjugation of the drug to either glycine (in the case of benzoate or glutamine, the products of which are excreted in the urine. Carglumic acid activates the first committed step of conversion of ammonia to urea, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, and thus effectively treats defective synthesis of the endogenous activator, N-acetylglutamate, whether due to genetic defects or biochemical inhibition of the N-acetylglutamate synthase enzyme. Approaches to neuroprotection during episodes of hyperammonemia are discussed, including the use of controlled hypothermia (brain cooling, as well as proposed, but as yet untested, pharmacologic therapies. Finally, cell-based therapies, including liver transplantation, infusion of fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes, use of stem cells, and new approaches to gene

  7. Parent Perspectives on Community Mental Health Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stadnick, Nicole; Taylor, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured…

  8. Nanoparticle-Cell Interaction: A Cell Mechanics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiadi, Dedy; Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas Lee; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the field of nanoparticles has enabled the rapid development of multiple products and technologies; however, some nanoparticles can pose both a threat to the environment and human health. To enable their safe implementation, a comprehensive knowledge of nanoparticles and their biological interactions is needed. In vitro and in vivo toxicity tests have been considered the gold standard to evaluate nanoparticle safety, but it is becoming necessary to understand the impact of nanosystems on cell mechanics. Here, the interaction between particles and cells, from the point of view of cell mechanics (i.e., bionanomechanics), is highlighted and put in perspective. Specifically, the ability of intracellular and extracellular nanoparticles to impair cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organization, stiffness, and migration are discussed. Furthermore, the development of cutting-edge, nanotechnology-driven tools based on the use of particles allowing the determination of cell mechanics is emphasized. These include traction force microscopy, colloidal probe atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, magnetic manipulation, and particle tracking microrheology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview from the Glia Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Clare J; Guizzetti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain

  10. Problems attract problems: a network perspective on mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this

  11. Lived Experiences from the Perspective of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePape, Anne-Marie; Lindsay, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes deficits in social communication and repetitive behavior. Secondhand accounts from parents suggest that ASD affects many aspects of life. However, little is known about this disorder from first-person perspective. This meta-synthesis examines children, adolescents, and adults with ASD to understand their…

  12. Pivotal response treatment for autism spectrum disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jiedi Lei, Pamela Ventola Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Pivotal response treatment (PRT is an evidence-based behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis principles aimed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. PRT adopts a more naturalistic approach and focuses on using a number of strategies to help increase children’s motivation during intervention. Since its conceptualization, PRT has received much empirical support for eliciting therapeutic gains in greater use of functional social communication skills in individuals with ASD. Building upon the empirical evidence supporting PRT, recent advancements have increasingly turned to using interdisciplinary research integrating neuroimaging techniques and behavioral measures to help identify objective biomarkers of treatment, which have two primary purposes. First, neuroimaging results can help characterize how PRT may elicit change, and facilitate partitioning of the heterogeneous profiles of neural mechanisms underlying similar profile of behavioral changes observed over PRT. Second, neuroimaging provides an objective means to both map and track how biomarkers may serve as reliable and sensitive predictors of responder profiles to PRT, assisting clinicians to identify who will most likely benefit from PRT. Together, a better understanding of both mechanisms of change and predictors of responder profile will help PRT to serve as a more precise and targeted intervention for individuals with ASD, thus moving towards the goal of precision medicine and improving quality of care. This review focuses on the recent emerging neuroimaging evidences supporting PRT, offering current perspectives on the importance of interdisciplinary research to help clinicians better understand how PRT works and predict who will respond to PRT. Keywords: PRT, ASD, biomarkers, neuroimaging

  13. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  14. Visual perspective taking impairment in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Brindley, Rachel; Frith, Uta

    2009-10-01

    Evidence from typical development and neuroimaging studies suggests that level 2 visual perspective taking - the knowledge that different people may see the same thing differently at the same time - is a mentalising task. Thus, we would expect children with autism, who fail typical mentalising tasks like false belief, to perform poorly on level 2 visual perspective taking as well. However, prior data on this issue are inconclusive. We re-examined this question, testing a group of 23 young autistic children, aged around 8years with a verbal mental age of around 4years and three groups of typical children (n=60) ranging in age from 4 to 8years on a level 2 visual perspective task and a closely matched mental rotation task. The results demonstrate that autistic children have difficulty with visual perspective taking compared to a task requiring mental rotation, relative to typical children. Furthermore, performance on the level 2 visual perspective taking task correlated with theory of mind performance. These findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies of visual perspective taking in autism, and demonstrate that level 2 visual perspective taking is a mentalising task.

  15. The treatment of conduct disorder: Perspectives from across Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M. M.; Emmrys, C.; Grizenko, N.; Holland, R.; Moore, K.; Shamsie, J.; Hamilton, H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a synopsis of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children in Canada. Five groups of authors from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick describe their approaches to the treatment of children with conduct disorder. All programs emphasize the need to use multimodal treatment schemes, including day and short-term residential care, as well as the need to base programs on identified factors associated with the development of conduct disorder.

  16. Sleep Disorders Associated With Alzheimer's Disease: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzecka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation. Among sleep disorders occurring in patients with AD, the most frequent disorders are sleep breathing disorders and restless legs syndrome. Sleep disorders may influence circadian fluctuations of the concentrations of amyloid-β in the interstitial brain fluid and in the cerebrovascular fluid related to the glymphatic brain system and production of the amyloid-β. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that disordered sleep contributes to cognitive decline and the development of AD pathology. In this mini-review, we highlight and discuss the association between sleep disorders and AD.

  17. Eating disorders in people with Type 1 diabetes: experiential perspectives of both clients and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, P; Kan, C; Stadler, M; De Bernier, G L; Hadjimichalis, A; Le Coguic, A-S; Allan, J; Ismail, K; Treasure, J

    2018-02-01

    To explore the experiential perspective of people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and eating disorders and that of the healthcare professionals treating them, and to understand the experience of both sides to inform future development of healthcare services. Participants were recruited from Diabetics with Eating Disorders (a national UK charity), and through professional networks. Nine partially/fully recovered individuals with Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and eight healthcare professionals participated in semi-structured interviews carried out by medically trained researchers. Data were transcribed and coded using a six-stage framework of thematic analysis. Four superordinate themes and several subordinate themes emerged from the Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders dataset: (1) perceptions surrounding service provision; (2) reflections on the recovery process; (3) the experiential perspective of living with Type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder; and (4) support mechanisms. Healthcare professional data elicited three superordinate themes and several subordinate themes: (1) service provision; (2) personal insight and reflection of professional role; and (3) challenges of working with dual diagnoses. People with Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their healthcare professionals provided insight into healthcare services from the patient and care delivery perspectives. There was general agreement from both groups that a multidisciplinary, collaborative (family inclusive), clinical approach to treatment is important, as well as adequate training opportunities for service providers. These findings may help to inform development strategies for multidisciplinary care approaches to Type 1 diabetes complicated by eating disorders. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  18. Comorbidity in "DSM" Childhood Mental Disorders: A Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…

  19. Clinical Perspective The challenge of treating conduct disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conduct disorder is one of the most frequent serious childhood problems that present for treatment in community clinic settings. Evidence-based treatments for conduct disorder are intensive and require considerable resources to implement. In low-resourced contexts it is often not feasible to implement evidence-based ...

  20. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  1. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who......-psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia...... developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred...

  2. The World is Random: A Cognitive Perspective on Perceived Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki P. Kotabe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the consequences of perceiving disorder is largely sociological and concerns broken windows theory, which states that signs of social disorder cause further social disorder. The predominant psychological explanations for this phenomena are primarily social. In contrast, I propose a parsimonious cognitive model (world-is-random model; WIR, which basically proposes that disorder primes randomness-related concepts, which results in a reduction in and threat to the sense of personal control, which has diverse affective, judgmental, and behavioral consequences. I review recent developments on the psychological consequences of perceiving disorder and argue that WIR can explain all of these findings. I also cover select correlational studies from the sociological literature and explain how WIR can at least partly explain for their diverse findings. In a general discussion, I consider possible alternative psychological models and argue that they do not adequately explain the most recent psychological research on disorder. I then propose future directions which include determining whether perceiving disorder causes a unique psychology and delimiting boundary conditions.

  3. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S.P.; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, Treg cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance Treg cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human Treg cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 ...

  4. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Major Channels Involved In Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.

  6. Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Umlauf, Silvia; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Anczewska, Marta; Tourunen, Jouni; Leonardi, Matilde; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses. Emotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity. Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders. The effects of medication and social environment on patient's daily life should be considered in all the

  7. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina; Ekstrom, Morten; Sorensen, Holger; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2004-11-01

    This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred and forty-two of these children were evaluated in 1992 during follow-up examinations. Sixteen developed schizophrenia, 10 developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 70 had outcomes of other psychopathology, and 146 did not develop a mental illness. Children who later developed schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder had lower RTT scores, controlling for verbal IQ and age, compared to those who did not develop any mental illness. Although in the expected direction, RTT scores for those with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were not significantly different from those who developed a non-psychotic disorder. Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia are trait markers of the disorder.

  8. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  9. Plasma cell morphology in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribourtout, B; Zandecki, M

    2015-06-01

    Normal and reactive plasma cells (PC) are easy to ascertain on human bone marrow films, due to their small mature-appearing nucleus and large cytoplasm, the latter usually deep blue after Giemsa staining. Cytoplasm is filled with long strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and one large Golgi apparatus (paranuclear hof), demonstrating that PC are dedicated mainly to protein synthesis and excretion (immunoglobulin). Deregulation of the genome may induce clonal expansion of one PC that will lead to immunoglobulin overproduction and eventually to one among the so-called PC neoplasms. In multiple myeloma (MM), the number of PC is over 10% in most patients studied. Changes in the morphology of myeloma PC may be inconspicuous as compared to normal PC (30-50% patients). In other instances PC show one or several morphological changes. One is related to low amount of cytoplasm, defining lymphoplasmacytoid myeloma (10-15% patients). In other cases (40-50% patients), named immature myeloma cases, nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony is observed: presence of one nucleolus, finely dispersed chromatin and/or irregular nuclear contour contrast with a still large and blue (mature) cytoplasm. A peculiar morphological change, corresponding to the presence of very immature PC named plasmablasts, is observed in 10-15% cases. Several prognostic morphological classifications have been published, as mature myeloma is related to favorable outcome and immature myeloma, peculiarly plasmablastic myeloma, is related to dismal prognosis. However, such classifications are no longer included in current prognostic schemes. Changes related to the nucleus are very rare in monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). In contrast, anomalies related to the cytoplasm of PC, including color (flaming cells), round inclusions (Mott cells, Russell bodies), Auer rod-like or crystalline inclusions, are reported in myeloma cases as well as in MGUS and at times in reactive disorders. They do not correspond

  10. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a

  11. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a…

  12. Integrating Recovery and the Narrative Attachment Systems Perspective to Working through Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardon, Stephanie; Pernice-Duca, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) presents a number of symptoms and adjustment issues for individuals, but it is also associated with a myriad of risks for the larger family system. A systemic perspective is crucial to comprehending the development of BPD. Promoting healthy relationships with one or more supportive adult enables the child to…

  13. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  14. Self-presentation and the role of perspective taking and social motivation in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, A.M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a

  15. Hypnosis and movement disorders: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, C; Célestin-Lhopiteau, I; Roze, E

    Hypnosis might represent an interesting complementary therapeutic approach to movement disorders, as it takes into account not only symptoms, but also well-being, and empowers patients to take a more active role in their treatment. Our review of the literature on the use of hypnosis to treat movement disorders was done by systematically searching the PubMed database for reports published between 1984 and November 2015. The following variables were extracted from each selected paper: study design; sample size; type of movement disorder; hypnotic procedure; treatment duration; and efficacy. Thirteen papers were selected for detailed analysis. Most concerned tremor in Parkinson's disease and tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Although promising, the data were insufficient to allow conclusions to be drawn on the efficacy of hypnosis in movement disorders or to recommend its use in this setting. Well-designed studies taking into account some specific methodological challenges are needed to determine the possible therapeutic utility of hypnosis in movement disorders. In addition to the potential benefits for such patients, hypnosis might also be useful for studying the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of normal and abnormal movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality disorders and criminal law: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F

    2009-01-01

    At the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), a detention camp guard, charged with acts of murder and torture, advanced a plea of diminished responsibility. Defense psychiatrists testified that he had a personality disorder that influenced his ability to control his behavior, but a prosecution expert testified that the guard did not meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Thus, the unresolved question of how the law defines a mental disease or defect for purposes of mitigation or excuse was transposed to an international setting. It has been argued in a variety of jurisdictions and national legal systems that exculpatory mental disorders must be serious, and personality disorders should not qualify. In fact, it has been proposed that the volitional aspect of excuse defenses be eliminated, and definitions of mental disease or defect narrowed. Others have argued that such exclusions are too restrictive and arbitrary. This article examines the criminal defense at ICTY and traces its origin in national jurisdictions. Mental incapacity defenses based on personality disorders are more often used in The Netherlands, England, Germany and Belgium, but seldom in Canada and rarely in the United States and Sweden.

  17. Parenting interventions in tic disorders: an exploration of parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G; Wittkowski, A; Butler, H; Hedderly, T; Bunton, P

    2015-05-01

    Parents of children with tic disorders (e.g. Tourette syndrome) experience multiple challenges and stresses, which can impact on family functioning, children's well-being and could indirectly affect tic severity. Parenting interventions have been recommended for tic disorder populations; however, little is known about parents' views. The views of parents of children with tic disorders were sought. Using Q-methodology, 23 parents provided their opinions regarding the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility and utility of parenting interventions. Four factors emerged, representing four groups of parents with similar opinions. Although all factors evidenced support for parenting interventions, subtle differences emerged between factors regarding the endorsed content, barriers and delivery of interventions. Results indicate a perceived clinical need for parenting interventions and provide guidance to further develop and implement such interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Animal models of tic disorders: a translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Mosher, Laura J; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-12-30

    Tics are repetitive, sudden movements and/or vocalizations, typically enacted as maladaptive responses to intrusive premonitory urges. The most severe tic disorder, Tourette syndrome (TS), is a childhood-onset condition featuring multiple motor and at least one phonic tic for a duration longer than 1 year. The pharmacological treatment of TS is mainly based on antipsychotic agents; while these drugs are often effective in reducing tic severity and frequency, their therapeutic compliance is limited by serious motor and cognitive side effects. The identification of novel therapeutic targets and development of better treatments for tic disorders is conditional on the development of animal models with high translational validity. In addition, these experimental tools can prove extremely useful to test hypotheses on the etiology and neurobiological bases of TS and related conditions. In recent years, the translational value of these animal models has been enhanced, thanks to a significant re-organization of our conceptual framework of neuropsychiatric disorders, with a greater focus on endophenotypes and quantitative indices, rather than qualitative descriptors. Given the complex and multifactorial nature of TS and other tic disorders, the selection of animal models that can appropriately capture specific symptomatic aspects of these conditions can pose significant theoretical and methodological challenges. In this article, we will review the state of the art on the available animal models of tic disorders, based on genetic mutations, environmental interventions as well as pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we will outline emerging lines of translational research showing how some of these experimental preparations have led to significant progress in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for tic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal models of tic disorders: A translational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C.; Mosher, Laura J.; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Tics are repetitive, sudden movements and/or vocalizations, typically enacted as maladaptive responses to intrusive premonitory urges. The most severe tic disorder, Tourette syndrome (TS), is a childhood-onset condition featuring multiple motor and at least one phonic tic for a duration longer than 1 year. The pharmacological treatment of TS is mainly based on antipsychotic agents; while these drugs are often effective in reducing tic severity and frequency, their therapeutic compliance is limited by serious motor and cognitive side effects. The identification of novel therapeutic targets and development of better treatments for tic disorders is conditional on the development of animal models with high translational validity. In addition, these experimental tools can prove extremely useful to test hypotheses on the etiology and neurobiological bases of TS and related conditions. In recent years, the translational value of these animal models has been enhanced, thanks to a significant re-organization of our conceptual framework of neuropsychiatric disorders, with a greater focus on endophenotypes and quantitative indices, rather than qualitative descriptors. Given the complex and multifactorial nature of TS and other tic disorders, the selection of animal models that can appropriately capture specific symptomatic aspects of these conditions can pose significant theoretical and methodological challenges. In this article, we will review the state of the art on the available animal models of tic disorders, based on genetic mutations, environmental interventions as well as pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we will outline emerging lines of translational research showing how some of these experimental preparations have led to significant progress in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for tic disorders. PMID:25244952

  20. Clinical Perspective The challenge of treating conduct disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... The challenge of treating conduct disorder in low-resourced settings: rap music to the rescue ... as a powerful tool to facilitate an empathic connection in therapy and as a projective technique to ...

  1. The Clinician Perspective on Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Rene; Bishop, Somer L.; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.

    2017-01-01

    Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited,…

  2. Anger in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…

  3. Perspectives of University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anastasia H.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at heightened risk of post-secondary educational failure and account for approximately 1% of students in post-secondary education. Findings from an on-line survey of students with ASD attending university in Australian are reported in this study. Respondents indicated high rates of academic and…

  4. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  5. A Comparative Study of Affective Bipolar Disorder with Schizoaffective Disorder from a Longitudinal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna Milin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years there is a great interest for the theory of the “psychotic continuum”, which accepts that there is a transition between schizophrenia and affective pathology, including bipolar disorder with psychotic interferences and the recently introduced diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. There are few studies that analyze bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychosis. The purpose of this study was to observe the way in which the interference of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms can influence the long term evolution of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and the similarities that exists between this type of pathology and schizoaffective disorder. Material and methods: Sixty subjects were selected, who are now diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. All cases have at least 15 years of evolution since the first episode of psychosis and were analyzed in term of their age of onset and longitudinal evolution. Results: The results showed that bipolar patients who had mood incongruent psychotic symptoms had an earlier age of onset and a higher rate of hospitalizations in their long term evolution compared to bipolar patients without psychotic features, which brings them closer to patients with schizoaffective disorder in term of their pattern of evolution. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the interference of mood-incongruent psychosis with bipolar disorder determines a worse prognosis of this disease, very similar with the evolution of patients with schizoaffective disorder

  6. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  7. New perspectives in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kevin; Nezgovorova, Vera; Hollander, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a disabling illness with a high worldwide prevalence. Patients demonstrate a debilitating preoccupation with one or more perceived defects, often marked by poor insight or delusional convictions. Multiple studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and various cognitive behavioral therapy modalities are effective first-line treatments in decreasing BDD severity, relieving depressive symptoms, restoring insight, and increasing quality of life. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also recently been shown to be effective for relapse prevention. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current understanding of BDD, including its clinical features, epidemiology, genetics, and current treatment modalities. Additional research is needed to fully elucidate the relationship between BDD and comorbid illnesses such as obsessive–compulsive-related disorders and depression and to develop therapies for refractory patients and those who have contraindications for pharmacological intervention. PMID:29636904

  8. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Häberle, Johannes; McCandless,Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of am...

  9. Gender identity disorder: a literature review from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender variant behaviors. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Seven domains are reviewed in relation to gender variant behavior in general, and to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in particular: theories of normative gender development, phenomenology, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, comorbidity and treatment.

  10. Parenting Interventions for Children with Tic Disorders: Professionals? Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Gemma A. L.; Wittkowski, Anja; Butler, Hannah; Hedderly, Tammy; Bunton, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Tic disorders can have an emotional and social impact on children and families, which can in turn have a reciprocal impact on tics. Research into parenting interventions within this population is limited. Twenty-five professionals? views on the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility and utility of parenting interventions were explored using Q-methodology. Three highly correlated factors emerged, indicating three viewpoints with discrete elements that were underpinned by similar general per...

  11. Women and major depressive disorder: clinical perspectives on causal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accortt, Eynav Elgavish; Freeman, Marlene P; Allen, John J B

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological data on the prevalence of mood disorders demonstrate that major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in women as in men and that its first onset peaks during the reproductive years. We aimed to review key social, psychological, and biological factors that seem strongly implicated in the etiology of major depression and to focus on sex-specific aspects of depression, such as the role of a woman's reproductive life cycle in depressive symptomatology. A review of the literature, from 1965 to present, was conducted. An integrated etiological model best explains gender and sex differences in depression. Social, psychological, and biological variables must be simultaneously taken into account. These vulnerabilities include (but are not limited to) gender-specific roles in society, life stress such as trauma, a tendency toward ruminative coping strategies, and the effects of sex hormones and genetic factors. To effectively treat MDD in women and to prevent the recurrence of illness in vulnerable women, clinicians must understand the sex-specific aspects of mood disorders over the longitudinal course of women's reproductive lives. A biopsychosocial approach should, therefore, be the main focus of future research and practice, to eventually result in an integrated etiological model of depression in women. Based on the prevalence of MDD in women, timely screening, diagnosis, and intervention should be public health priorities.

  12. Thyroid disorders and radio iodine therapy: dental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Arika; Krishnan, Manu; Tiwari, Brijesh; Singh, Sanjana; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid disorders; hyper/hypothyroidism/thyroiditis/neoplasms are widely prevalent endocrine disorders. Oral manifestations of hyperthyroidism are increased susceptibility to caries, periodontal disease, maxillary/mandibular osteoporosis, premature shedding of deciduous teeth and early eruption of permanent teeth, sjogren and burning mouth syndromes. Undiagnosed/untreated hyperthyroidism often precipitates as 'Thyroid storm' during a stressful episode of surgical intervention/trauma. Hypothyroidism shows macroglossia, micrognathia, dysgeusia, thick lips, delayed eruption of teeth, poor periodontal health, enamel hypoplasia, anterior open bite, delayed wound healing and subnormal growth of jaws. Its congenital variant has underdeveloped mandible/overdeveloped maxilla, shortening of skull base and flaring of nostrils. Stomatodynia predominates in subacute thyroiditis. Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) is a common mode of therapy for thyrotoxicosis and carcinomas; where its beta radiations cause destruction of thyroid follicles. Since all forms of iodine are actively taken up by the salivary glands, salivary dysfunction is a consequent of 131 I therapy. It usually presents as xerostomia, mucositis, stomatitis, glossitis and dysguesia. Though reversible and dose-dependent to some extent, damage to bone marrow and gonads are also reported. It follows that thyroid disorders and its therapy with radio iodine show wide ranging side effects: both dental and general. In this context, this paper explains a novel method to evaluate these changes through salivary biochemistry, dental indices and periodontal markers. (author)

  13. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  14. Perspectives on the prevalence and treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, G; Hardy, S

    2007-04-01

    Personality disorder (PD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder. A methodical literature search identified that PD is under researched compared with other mental health problems such as depression or schizophrenia. Social and psychotherapeutic approaches emerge as dominant treatment approaches with PD where there is good evidence of efficacy. Collaborative group-based therapeutic approaches appear to offer a therapeutic counterpoise to the anti-social traits often prevalent in PD. A retrospective analysis of formal group therapy on acute inpatient units (treating PD patients among other mental health disorders) reveals only one violent incident in over 40,000 treatment hours of formal group therapy. It is argued that group-based and social therapy should be the recommended treatment approach because these approaches have been shown to create a safe and contained milieu, establishing a good base for therapeutic gain with PD patients. The case for widening the scope of collaborative group and community-based therapies is considered and the merits and shortcomings of a key worker system with PD patients are critiqued.

  15. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  16. Functional neurosurgery for movement disorders: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, Alim Louis; Chabardes, Stephan; Torres, Napoleon; Piallat, Brigitte; Krack, Paul; Fraix, Valerie; Pollak, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, deep brain stimulation and spinal cord stimulation at low frequency (30 Hz) have been used to treat intractable pain of various origins. For this purpose, specific hardware have been designed, including deep brain electrodes, extensions, and implantable programmable generators (IPGs). In the meantime, movement disorders, and particularly parkinsonian and essential tremors, were treated by electrolytic or mechanic lesions in various targets of the basal ganglia, particularly in the thalamus and in the internal pallidum. The advent in the 1960s of levodopa, as well as the side effects and complications of ablative surgery (e.g., thalamotomy and pallidotomy), has sent functional neurosurgery of movement disorders to oblivion. In 1987, the serendipitous discovery of the effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS), mimicking lesions, allowed the revival of the surgery of movement disorders by stimulation of the thalamus, which treated tremors with limited morbidity, and adaptable and reversible results. The stability along time of these effects allowed extending it to new targets suggested by basic research in monkeys. The HFS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has profoundly challenged the practice of functional surgery as the effect on the triad of dopaminergic symptoms was very significant, allowing to decrease the drug dosage and therefore a decrease of their complications, the levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In the meantime, based on the results of previous basic research in various fields, HFS has been progressively extended to potentially treat epilepsy and, more recently, psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorders, Gilles de la Tourette tics, and severe depression. Similarly, suggested by the observation of changes in PET scan, applications have been extended to cluster headaches by stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus and even more recently, to obesity and drug addiction. In the field of movement disorders, it has become

  17. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder from a network analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II. The psychopathological network was analyzed using the network approach. PTSD and Complex PTSD symptoms were strongly connected within disorders and to a lesser degree between disorders. Symptoms of BPD were weakly connected to others. Re-experiencing and dissociation were the most central symptoms. Mental disorders are no discrete entities, clear boundaries are unlikely to be found. The psychopathological network revealed central symptoms that might be important targets for specific first interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  19. Differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: a triarchic model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, N C; Hall, J R; Patrick, C J

    2014-04-01

    The triarchic model of psychopathy characterizes the disorder in terms of three distinguishable phenotypic facets: disinhibition, meanness and boldness. The present study sought to (1) inform current debates regarding the role of boldness in the definition of psychopathy and (2) clarify boundaries between psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study evaluated the degree to which facets of the triarchic model are represented in the most widely used clinical inventory for psychopathy, the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), in comparison with ASPD as defined by DSM-IV criteria. Adult male offenders from two distinct correctional settings (n = 157 and 169) were investigated to ensure replicability of findings across samples exhibiting high base rates of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. We found evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the three triarchic facets in predicting symptomatic components of psychopathy as assessed by the PCL-R. Additionally, and crucially vis-à-vis current debates in the field, we found that boldness contributed incrementally (over and above disinhibition and meanness) to prediction of PCL-R psychopathy, in particular its interpersonal style component, but not ASPD. The three distinct facets of the triarchic model of psychopathy are represented clearly and distinctly in the PCL-R, with boldness through its interpersonal facet, but not in DSM-defined ASPD. Our findings suggest that boldness is central to diagnostic conceptions of psychopathy and distinguishes psychopathy from the more prevalent diagnosis of ASPD.

  20. Empathy in narcissistic personality disorder: from clinical and empirical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-07-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others' mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients' behavior and motivational structure. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Psychological disorders and ecological factors affect the development of executive functions: Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafika ZEBDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The links between deficits in executive functions (EF (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities..., and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders has been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults’ population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic of these EF/psychological disorders relations. We suggest two axis on which to focus in future research: (i relations between EF and anxiety traits through development; and (ii the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  2. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  3. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  5. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie M.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS. PMID:24860829

  6. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert U

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, A.O.U. San Luigi Gonzaga, University of Turin, Turino, Italy Abstract: The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder are associated with a higher degree of family

  7. HLA-D: The T Cell Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    offspring of consanguineous marriage, in which case the cells are almost always homosygous for all HLA-region products; in other cases, HTCs are...story. Certain relationships exist between the class II serologically defined (I&) and T lymphocyte defined (Dw/LD) specificities. One speaks of one...DRwI4 specificities; in addition, certain of the DRI-DRwl4 specificities are supertypic to the various Dw specificities. The relationships of these

  8. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Mary; Leroi, Iracema; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterised by motor symptoms. However, another feature of PD which is receiving increasing attention is the phenomenon of impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling. To date, research into ICDs in PD has centred on a biomedical model of cause, related to the effects of dopamine replacement therapy. However, there are several areas of discrepancy in the current biomedical account of ICDs in PD. In addition, we argue that social and psychological factors also need to be considered to achieve a more complete understanding of the phenomenon. We present a novel conceptual model which combines biomedical and psychosocial factors in the genesis of ICDs in PD and use the model to identify a number of potential treatment intervention points and to highlight important outstanding questions concerning the inter-relationship between psychosocial and biomedical factors in the genesis of ICDs in PD.

  9. A statistical perspective on association studies of psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Gene-gene (GxG) and gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases like psychiatric disorders. Thus, we aim at investigating methodological aspects of and apply methods from statistical genetics taking interactions into account. In addition we...... genes and maternal infection by virus. Paper 3 presents the initial steps (mainly data construction) of an ongoing simulation study aiming at guiding decisions by comparing methods for GxE interaction analysis including both traditional two-step logistic regression, exhaustive searches using efficient...... these markers. However, the validity of the identified haplotypes is also checked by inferring phased haplotypes from genotypes. Haplotype analysis is also used in paper 5 which is otherwise an example of a focused approach to narrow down a previously found signal to search for more precise positions of disease...

  10. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  11. Physician Perspectives on Decision Making for Treatment of Pediatric Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Emily F; Links, Anne R; Saxton, Ron; Cheng, Tina L; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent in children and most commonly treated by surgery with adenotonsillectomy. We aimed to learn physician perspectives of social and communication factors that influence decision making for treatment of pediatric SDB. Purposive sampling identified 10 physician key informants across disciplines and practice settings, who participated in semistructured interviews regarding SDB care experiences and communication with parents. Interviews were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis. Physicians provided a variety of perspectives on decision making for treatment that fell into 3 overarching themes: approach to surgery and alternatives, communication and decision making with families, and sociocultural factors/barriers to care. Perspectives were moderately heterogeneous, suggesting that individual social and relational elements may significantly influence how physicians refer patients and recommend treatment, and how parents choose surgery for this prevalent condition. These findings will inform development of culturally competent communication strategies and support tools to enhance shared decision making for physicians treating children with SDB.

  12. Policy and prevention approaches for disordered and hazardous gaming and internet use: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Doh, YY; Wu, AMS; Kuss, DJ; Pallesen, S; Mentzoni, R; Carragher, N; Sakuma, H

    2017-01-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, poli...

  13. Integrating the participants' perspective in the study of language and communcation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    This book presents a new analytical approach that will advance the establishment of a new discourse within the study of language and communication disorders. Instances of recurring aphasia and acquired brain injury are discussed in an empirical observation study through a theoretical lens that co...... that combines Integrational linguistics, Ethnomethodology and Conversation analysis and Practice theory. In doing so, this interdisciplinary analysis adds a person-centered perspective to existing ethnographic approaches. It addresses a significant gap in our understanding of the social...

  14. Tremor cells in the human thalamus: differences among neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodkey, Jason A; Tasker, Ronald R; Hamani, Clement; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O; Lozano, Andres M

    2004-07-01

    Thalamic neurons firing at frequencies synchronous with tremor are thought to play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of tremor. The authors studied the incidence and locations of neurons with tremor-related activity (TRA) in the thalamus of patients with varied pathological conditions-including Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), multiple sclerosis (MS), and cerebellar disorders--to determine whether known differences in the effectiveness of thalamic stereotactic procedures for these tremors could be correlated to differences in the incidence or locations of TRA cells. Seventy-five operations were performed in 61 patients during which 686 TRA cells were recorded from 440 microelectrode trajectories in the thalamus. The locations of the TRA cells in relation to electrophysiologically defined thalamic nuclei and the commissural coordinates were compared among patient groups. The authors found that TRA cells are present in patients with each of these disorders and that these cells populate several nuclei in the ventral lateral tier of the thalamus. There were no large differences in the locations of TRA cells among the different diagnostic classes, although there was a difference in the incidence of TRA cells in patients with PD, who had greater than 3.8 times more cells per thalamic trajectory than patients with ET and approximately five times more cells than patients with MS or cerebellar disorders. There was an increased incidence of TRA in the thalamus of patients with PD. The location of thalamic TRA cells in patients with basal ganglia and other tremor disorders was similar.

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Mental Disorders in a Holistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic perspective, psychiatric diseases are caused by the patient’s unwillingness to assume responsibility for his life, existence, and personal relations. The loss of responsibility arises from the repression of the fundamental existential dimensions of the patients. Repression of love and purpose causes depersonalization (i.e., a lack of responsibility for being yourself and for the contact with others, loss of direction and purpose in life. Repression of strength in mind and emotions leads to derealization (the breakdown of the reality testing, often with mental delusions and hallucinations. The repression of joy and gender leads to devitalization (emotional emptiness, loss of joy, personal energy, sexuality, and pleasure in life.The losses of existential dimensions are invariably connected to traumas with life-denying decisions. Healing the wounds of the soul by holding and processing will lead to the recovery of the person's character, purpose of life, and existential responsibility. It can be very difficult to help a psychotic patient. The physician must first love his patient unconditionally and then fully understand the patient in order to meet and support the patient to initiate the holistic process of healing. It takes motivation and willingness to suffer on behalf of the patients in order to heal, as the existential and emotional pain of the traumas resulting in insanity is often overwhelming. We believe that most psychiatric diseases can be alleviated or cured by the loving and caring physician who masters the holistic toolbox. Further research is needed to document the effect of holistic medicine in psychiatry.

  16. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  17. Are There Subtypes of Panic Disorder? An Interpersonal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. Method The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Results Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with versus without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were two empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients which were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: While the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the non-assertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Conclusions Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and non-redundant information about individuals with PD. PMID:26030762

  18. Ketogenic dietary therapy for epilepsy and other disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal EG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth G Neal 1Matthew's Friends Clinics, Lingfield, UK, 2UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK Abstract: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regime, originally designed to mimic metabolic responses to fasting and has been used since the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy. Modified variants of the KD include the addition of medium-chain triglyceride and less-restrictive modified Atkins and low glycemic index protocols. Scientifically proven as treatment for intractable seizures in children, these ketone-generating diets are increasingly also being used in adults. They are the treatment of choice in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Evidence for the potential of KD therapy to be included within the treatment options for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders is more limited, albeit an exciting area of research with future clinical potential. This review discusses the key aspects of KD therapy, including the efficacy of treatments and clinical implementation. The importance of appropriate initiation, adequate clinical supervision, regular monitoring, and assessment of nutritional needs is highlighted. Keywords: diet, seizures, ketosis

  19. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion.

  20. Are there subtypes of panic disorder? An interpersonal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-10-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with vs. without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were 2 empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients that were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: Although the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the nonassertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and nonredundant information about individuals with PD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Mammary Stem Cells: Premise, Properties, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Harris, Olivia B; Watson, Christine J; Davis, Felicity M

    2017-08-01

    Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors. We review here recent advances - discussing fundamental unresolved properties of MaSC potency, dynamics, and plasticity - and point to evolving technologies that promise to shed new light on this intractable debate. Elucidation of the physiological mammary differentiation hierarchy is paramount to understanding the complex heterogeneous breast cancer landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thad E; Blevins, Amy; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature. The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1) determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2) identify targeted areas for further research. A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1) the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2) the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology. A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD measures (such as a physician exam) generally failed to find a relationship. Among studies that examined the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes, there was more consistent evidence that PTSD affects the perception of respiratory symptom burden and management. In addition, methods for measuring an important confounder (smoking) were generally lacking. There is inconclusive evidence to

  3. A perspective on NETosis in diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, G P; Menegazzo, L; Scattolini, V; Gintoli, M; Albiero, M; Avogaro, A

    2016-01-01

    To review the significance of a new type of neutrophil cell death (NETosis) in diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by activation of the innate immune system. In this framework, neutrophils are front line defences against infections, but can also turn deleterious if abnormally stimulated. NETosis refers to a type of cell death whereby neutrophils release nuclear material and granule enzymes that together form the NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). As NETs entrap bacteria, NETosis is instrumental to the clearance of microorganisms, but an exaggerated NETosis response can also lead to tissue damage in several pathological conditions. In diabetes, the finely tuned balance of NETosis required to protect the human body from microorganisms yet avoiding self-damage seems to be lost. In fact, in vitro induction of NETosis and circulating concentrations of NET-associated proteins appear to be enhanced in diabetic patients. Furthermore, NETs contribute to endothelial damage, thrombosis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, making it a novel player in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease. Though the cellular events taking place during NETosis have been described and directly visualized, its molecular machinery is still incompletely understood. Protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two important targets to counter NETosis in the setting of diabetes. NETosis appears to be part of an abnormal response to damage in diabetes that, in turn, can promote or aggravate end-organ complications. We suggest that this will be a hot topic of investigation in diabetology in the near future. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proprioceptive rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction in movement disorders: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eAbbruzzese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with movement disorders and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using task intrinsic or augmented feedback. This perspective article reviews the available evidences on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with movement disorders and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception.

  5. What is a mental disorder? A perspective from cognitive-affective science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2013-12-01

    Defining disease and disorder remains a key conceptual question in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry, and is currently a very practical matter for psychiatric nosology, given the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the upcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. There have been advances in the cognitive-affective science of human categorization, and it is timely to consider implications for our understanding of the category of psychiatric disorder. The category of mental disorder has graded boundaries, and conditions within this category can be conceptualized using MEDICAL or MORAL metaphors. One key set of constructs used in MEDICAL metaphors relates to the notion of dysfunction, and it may, in turn, be useful to conceptualize such dysfunction in evolutionary terms. For typical disorders, it is relatively easy to agree that dysfunction is present. However, for atypical disorders, there may be considerable debate about the presence and extent of dysfunction. Rational arguments can be brought to bear to help decide whether particular entities should be included in our nosologies, and, if so, what their boundaries should be. However, it is appropriate that there should be ongoing debate on diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and other relevant facts and values, for cases that are difficult to decide. The perspective here can be illustrated using many nosological debates within the anxiety disorders and the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, including the question of delineating normal from abnormal anxiety, of deciding whether anxiety is psychiatric or medical, and the debate about the optimal meta-structure for anxiety disorders.

  6. Mast cells in neuroinflammation and brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841900; van Bergeijk, Doris; Oosting, Ronald S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087179695; Redegeld, Frank A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074752464

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells

  7. Language cannot be reduced to biology: perspectives from neuro-developmental disorders affecting language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanta, D

    2005-02-01

    The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion--the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion pertains

  8. Th17 cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Li, Xiang; Xia, Junhui

    2016-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been identified as a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which has been recognized as a B cell-mediated humoral immune disease. However, cases have been reported indicating that some of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have been resistant to B cell-related treatments. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that T cell-mediated immunity may take part in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, especially in the Th17 phenotype. In our PUBMED search, we used the following keywords: Th17 cell, Th17 cell-related cytokines, T cells, B cells, B cell-related productions, NMO, NMOSD, recurrent/bilateral optic neuritis, recurrent transverse myelitis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. We systemically reviewed the role of Th17 cells and Th17 cell-related cytokines in NMOSD. We found that Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and TGF-β, are not only directly involved in the pathogenesis but also collaborated with B cells and B cell-related antibody production to induce CNS lesions. Th17 cell-related therapy has also been reviewed in this article, and the data suggested that Th17 may be a new therapeutic target of NMOSD.

  9. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  10. Stem Cell Therapies in Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Garg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has long been considered a promising mode of treatment for retinal conditions. While human embryonic stem cells (ESCs have provided the precedent for regenerative medicine, the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs revolutionized this field. iPSCs allow for the development of many types of retinal cells, including those of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and ganglion cells, and can model polygenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Cellular programming and reprogramming technology is especially useful in retinal diseases, as it allows for the study of living cells that have genetic variants that are specific to patients’ diseases. Since iPSCs are a self-renewing resource, scientists can experiment with an unlimited number of pluripotent cells to perfect the process of targeted differentiation, transplantation, and more, for personalized medicine. Challenges in the use of stem cells are present from the scientific, ethical, and political realms. These include transplant complications leading to anatomically incorrect placement, concern for tumorigenesis, and incomplete targeting of differentiation leading to contamination by different types of cells. Despite these limitations, human ESCs and iPSCs specific to individual patients can revolutionize the study of retinal disease and may be effective therapies for conditions currently considered incurable.

  11. Bipolar disorder: a neural network perspective on a disorder of emotion and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessa, Michèle; Kanske, Philipp; Linke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, chronic disease with a heritability of 60-80%. BD is frequently misdiagnosed due to phenomenological overlap with other psychopathologies, an important issue that calls for the identification of biological and psychological vulnerability and disease markers. Altered structural and functional connectivity, mainly between limbic and prefrontal brain areas, have been proposed to underlie emotional and motivational dysregulation in BD and might represent relevant vulnerability and disease markers. In the present laboratory review we discuss functional and structural neuroimaging findings on emotional and motivational dysregulation from our research group in BD patients and healthy individuals at risk to develop BD. As a main result of our studies, we observed altered orbitofrontal and limbic activity and reduced connectivity between dorsal prefrontal and limbic brain regions, as well as reduced integrity of fiber tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical brain structures in BD patients and high-risk individuals. Our results provide novel insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder. The current laboratory review provides a specific view of our group on altered brain connectivity and underlying psychological processes in bipolar disorder based on our own work, integrating relevant findings from others. Thereby we attempt to advance neuropsychobiological models of BD.

  12. [Perspective of peer helpers regarding their experience animating a self-treatment program for panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Bouchard, Stéphane; Lapalme, Micheline; Laverdure, Anick; Audet, Denis; Cusson, Jean-Claude; Zacchia, Camillo; Milton, Diana; Sam Tion, Michaël; Chartier-Otis, Mariko; Marchand, André; Bélanger, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Support groups can help to reach individuals with anxiety disorders who are not or are only partly obtaining health services. The present study is based on a program that involves peer helpers as animators of a self-treatment group (Zéro-ATAQ). Their perspective has been documented in order to identify the aspects of the program which can be improved. Eleven peer helpers led the 12 sessions of the program, which was dispensed in four regions of Quebec for 32 persons having panic disorders with agoraphobia. The perspectives of ten peer animators were documented based on a semi-structured interview that took place at the end of the program, and a focus group that was held over six months later with peer animators from each of the groups. Their comments were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was conducted. All of the peer helper animators reported that they enjoyed participating in the program, that they appreciated being able to help others having an anxiety disorder, and that the program helped them in their role as animators of these types of activities. Nearly all of the peer helpers emphasized the importance of being able to count on the supervision of a professional when needed. This study revealed (1) the feasibility of implementing a program of this kind in partnership with peers, (2) the qualifications necessary to lead this type of program, (3) the requirements in terms of training and available material, and (4) the importance of supervision.

  13. Strategies to Fight Stigma toward People with Mental Disorders: Perspectives from Different Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Corbière

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a more complete and exhaustive perspective on the whole range of potential strategies to fight stigma by considering the perspectives of different stakeholders. Delegates to a Canadian conference were invited to participate in a survey that focused on stigma, from which the responses to the following question were analyzed: tell us briefly what you do to reduce prejudice and stigma toward people with a diagnosis of mental disorder? From 253 participants, 15 categories of strategies to fight stigma were identified from the verbatim (e.g., sharing/encouraging disclosure. These categories fell under six main themes: education, contact, protestation, person centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. The occurrence of these themes was different among stakeholders (clinical, organizational, and experiential knowledge. For example, people with mental disorders (experiential knowledge often mentioned contact and person centered strategies, while mental health professionals (clinical knowledge preferred education and working on recovery and social inclusion strategies. The results from this study highlight the need to pay more attention to the concept of disclosure of mental disorders in the process for de-stigmatization. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the emerging strategies to fight stigma in the community.

  14. The early intervention message: perspectives of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A; Brebner, C; McCormack, P; MacDougall, C

    2017-03-01

    There is strong evidence that early intervention (EI) can improve outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and consequently, the importance of EI has been widely promoted to families of children with ASD. However, the perspectives of parents of children with ASD regarding the EI message have not been widely examined. This study used qualitative methods to explore parental perspectives on the EI message. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants from 12 family units to explore the perspectives of parents of children with ASD on the EI message. Thematic analysis was undertaken on the data. Three central themes were constructed following data analysis: (i) parents' initial perceptions of EI following their child's diagnosis with ASD; (ii) the consequences (both positive and negative) of the EI message; and (iii) parents' perspectives on life after EI. The results of this study indicated that parents were acutely aware of the importance of EI, and although this provided parents with hope immediately post-diagnosis, it also placed pressure on parental decision-making regarding which intervention approaches to access for their children with ASD. The results of this study highlight the importance of carefully considering how health messages, specifically the importance of EI, are communicated to families of children with ASD. Furthermore, the findings of this study also highlight the need for allied health professionals to communicate openly with parents about the anticipated outcomes of EI programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stem cell therapy and its potential role in pituitary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Reimer, Ronald; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-08-01

    The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells. Stem cell therapy has been successfully applied to a plethora of other disorders, and is a promising alternative to hormonal supplementation for resumption of normal hormone homeostasis. In this review, we describe the common causes for pituitary deficiencies and the advances in cellular therapy to restore the physiological pituitary function.

  16. Stem Cell Technology for (Epi)genetic Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemens, Renzo J M; Soares, Edilene S; Esteller, Manel; Delgado-Morales, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Despite the enormous efforts of the scientific community over the years, effective therapeutics for many (epi)genetic brain disorders remain unidentified. The common and persistent failures to translate preclinical findings into clinical success are partially attributed to the limited efficiency of current disease models. Although animal and cellular models have substantially improved our knowledge of the pathological processes involved in these disorders, human brain research has generally been hampered by a lack of satisfactory humanized model systems. This, together with our incomplete knowledge of the multifactorial causes in the majority of these disorders, as well as a thorough understanding of associated (epi)genetic alterations, has been impeding progress in gaining more mechanistic insights from translational studies. Over the last years, however, stem cell technology has been offering an alternative approach to study and treat human brain disorders. Owing to this technology, we are now able to obtain a theoretically inexhaustible source of human neural cells and precursors in vitro that offer a platform for disease modeling and the establishment of therapeutic interventions. In addition to the potential to increase our general understanding of how (epi)genetic alterations contribute to the pathology of brain disorders, stem cells and derivatives allow for high-throughput drugs and toxicity testing, and provide a cell source for transplant therapies in regenerative medicine. In the current chapter, we will demonstrate the validity of human stem cell-based models and address the utility of other stem cell-based applications for several human brain disorders with multifactorial and (epi)genetic bases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fragile X syndrome (FXS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Rett syndrome (RTT).

  17. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    2016-02-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a self-promotion condition (with incentive). Children with ASD (6-12 years) were just as likely as or even more likely than TD children to highlight personal characteristics that would increase their chances of obtaining the incentive. Thus, they were strategic in their self-presentation. However, adolescents with ASD (12-19 years) were less strategic than TD adolescents as well as children with ASD. We discuss the role of social motivation and perspective taking in children's self-presentation.

  18. Perspectives on the Use of Stem Cells for Autism Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Siniscalco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. ASDs are clinically defined by deficits in communication, social skills, and repetitive and/or restrictive interests and behaviours. With the prevalence rates for ASDs rapidly increasing, the need for effective therapies for autism is a priority for biomedical research. Currently available medications do not target the core symptoms, can have markedly adverse side-effects, and are mainly palliative for negative behaviours. The development of molecular and regenerative interventions is progressing rapidly, and medicine holds great expectations for stem cell therapies. Cells could be designed to target the observed molecular mechanisms of ASDs, that is, abnormal neurotransmitter regulation, activated microglia, mitochondrial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruptions, and chronic intestinal inflammation. Presently, the paracrine, secretome, and immunomodulatory effects of stem cells would appear to be the likely mechanisms of application for ASD therapeutics. This review will focus on the potential use of the various types of stem cells: embryonic, induced pluripotential, fetal, and adult stem cells as targets for ASD therapeutics.

  19. Chromosome replication, cell growth, division and shape: a personal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieh eZaritsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The origins of Molecular Biology and Bacterial Physiology are reviewed, from our personal standpoints, emphasizing the coupling between bacterial growth, chromosome replication and cell division, dimensions and shape. Current knowledge is discussed with historical perspective, summarizing past and present achievements and enlightening ideas for future studies. An interactive simulation program of the Bacterial Cell Division Cycle (BCD, described as The Central Dogma in Bacteriology, is briefly represented. The coupled process of transcription/translation of genes encoding membrane proteins and insertion into the membrane (so-called transertion is invoked as the functional relationship between the only two unique macromolecules in the cell, DNA and peptidoglycan embodying the nucleoid and the sacculus respectively. We envision that nucleoid complexity, defined as the weighted-mean DNA content associated with the replication terminus, is directly related to cell shape through the transertion process. Accordingly, the primary signal for cell division transmitted by DNA dynamics (replication, transcription and segregation to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is of a physico-chemical nature, eg stress in the plasma membrane, relieving nucleoid occlusion in the cell's center hence enabling the divisome to assemble and function between segregated daughter nucleoids.

  20. Applying a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective to Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Implications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R

    2018-02-12

    A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.

  1. Client-centred practice from the perspective of Danish patients with hand-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2018-01-01

    on domains for item generation. RESULTS: Patients found that information was paramount in understanding their situation and to feel empowered and motivated. They attached importance to participation in decision making so that rehabilitation was considered meaningful. Moreover, they thought rehabilitation...... should be individualized by taking their life situations and personalities into account. Six domains were found to be central to client-centred practice: patient participation in decision making, client-centred education, evaluation of outcomes from patient's perspective, emotional support, cooperation...... to information and require health professionals' support to manage their activities of everyday life. Patients with hand-related disorders ask for participation and shared decision making in rehabilitation planning....

  2. Germ cell cancer and disorders of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    1998-01-01

    , including undescended testis, gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome? Why has there, during the past 50 years, been a quite dramatic increase in testicular cancer in many developed countries? These are just a few of many questions concerning testicular cancer. However, the recent progress...... in research in the early stages of testicular cancer (carcinoma in situ testis (CIS)) allows us to begin to answer some of these questions. There is more and more evidence that the CIS cell is a gonocyte with stem cell potential, which explains why an adult man can develop a non-seminoma, which...

  3. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W

    2015-01-01

    and severity of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mastocytosis in adults is associated with a history of anaphylaxis in 22-49%. Fatal anaphylaxis has been described particularly following hymenoptera stings, but also occasionally after the intake of drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs......, opioids and drugs in the perioperative setting. However, data on the frequency of drug hypersensitivity in mastocytosis and vice versa are scarce and evidence for an association appears to be limited. Nevertheless, clonal MC disorders should be ruled out in cases of severe anaphylaxis: basal serum...... tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in clonal MC...

  4. Modeling human neurological disorders with induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yoichi; Okano, Hideyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells obtained by reprogramming technology are a source of great hope, not only in terms of applications in regenerative medicine, such as cell transplantation therapy, but also for modeling human diseases and new drug development. In particular, the production of iPS cells from the somatic cells of patients with intractable diseases and their subsequent differentiation into cells at affected sites (e.g., neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes) has permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. For example, disease-specific iPS cells have been established from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, as well as from those with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A multi-omics analysis of neural cells originating from patient-derived iPS cells may thus enable investigators to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of neurological diseases that have heretofore been unknown. In addition, large-scale screening of chemical libraries with disease-specific iPS cells is currently underway and is expected to lead to new drug discovery. Accordingly, this review outlines the progress made via the use of patient-derived iPS cells toward the modeling of neurological disorders, the testing of existing drugs, and the discovery of new drugs. The production of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the patients' somatic cells and their subsequent differentiation into specific cells have permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. Furthermore, innovations of gene-editing technologies on iPS cells are enabling new approaches for illuminating the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. In this review article, we outlined the current status of neurological diseases-specific iPS cell research and described recently obtained

  5. Current status of the scientific study of the personality disorders: an overview of epidemiological, longitudinal, experimental psychopathology, and neurobehavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2010-08-01

    Research on the nature and development of personality disorders has grown immensely over the past thirty years. A selective summary overview is given of the current status of the scientific study of the personality disorders from several perspectives, including the epidemiological, longitudinal, experimental psychopathology, and neurobehavioral perspectives. From this research, we now know that approximately 10 percent of the general population suffer from a diagnosable personality disorder. Moreover, contrary to nearly a century of theory and clinical pedagogy, modern longitudinal studies clearly suggest that personality disorders decrease in severity over time. The mechanisms by which this change occurs are not understood at present, though it is not likely that change in underlying normal personality systems drives the change in personality disorder. The methods of the experimental psychopathology laboratory, including neuroimaging approaches, are being brought to bear on the nature of personality disorders in efforts to relate neurobiological and neurocognitive functions to personality disorder symptomatology. A model that links personality disorder feature development to underlying, interacting brain-based neurobehavioral systems is reviewed in brief. Current issues and findings illustrative of these developments are given using borderline personality disorder as an exemplar. Finally, areas of intersection between psychoanalytic treatment approaches and the growing science of personality disorder are highlighted.

  6. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  7. Oxytocin and eating disorders: a narrative review on emerging findings and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin; Zipfel, Stephan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-11-28

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks. Such effects might converge with the poignant social and cognitive impact of oxytocin to also improve dysfunctional eating behavior in the therapeutic context. This assumption has received support in first studies showing that oxytocin might play a role in the disease process of anorexia nervosa. In contrast, respective experiments in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are still scarce. We briefly summarize currently available studies on the involvement of the oxytocin system in the pathophysiology of eating disorders, as well as on the effects of oxytocin administration in patients with these disorders. We propose a framework of oxytocin's role and its therapeutic potential in eating disorders that aims at integrating social and metabolic aspects of its pharmacological profile, and ponder perspectives and limitations of oxytocin use in the clinical setting. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. An ISBD perspective on the sociocultural challenges of managing bipolar disorder: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedegaard, Christine H; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Youngstrom, Eric A; Dilsaver, Steven C; Belmaker, Robert H; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Fasmer, Ole B; Engebretsen, Ingunn M

    2016-11-01

    Clinical management of bipolar disorder patients might be affected by culture and is further dependent on the context of healthcare delivery. There is a need to understand how healthcare best can be delivered in various systems and cultures. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain knowledge about culture-specific values, beliefs and practices in the medical care provided to patients with bipolar disorders from a provider perspective in various areas of the world. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) network provided the framework for this qualitative study. An electronic interview with open-ended questions was administered to 19 international experts on bipolar spectrum disorder representing the International Society for Bipolar Disorders chapter network in 16 countries and six continents. In addition, there were two in-depth interviews with bipolar spectrum disorder experts done prior to the survey. The data were analysed using content analysis, and the information was structured using the software NVivo by QSR International Pty Ltd. All participants described sociocultural factors as important in healthcare delivery to bipolar patients in their part of the world, both in accessing healthcare and in providing culturally appropriate care. Factors that affected the provider's ability to supply good clinical management of patients were access to treatment options and long-term follow-up, as well as general strategies to combat stigma. In some societies, the patients' use of alternative treatments, gender issues and religion were also important factors. Understanding the impact of such culturally specific factors was overall regarded as essential for proper treatment interventions. Sociocultural factors clearly affect the nature and quality of medical services delivered to bipolar patients. Financial, social and cultural factors affect patients' health-seeking behaviour, and this highlights the need for knowledge about such factors in

  9. Priapism in Sickle Cell Disease: A Hematologist’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Priapism is a familiar problem to hematologists, well known for its association with sickle cell disease. It also occurs in a variety of other hematological illnesses, nearly all forms of congenital hemolytic anemia, including other hemoglobinopathies and red blood cell membranopathies and enzymopathies. Aim Provide urologists with a comprehensive review of priapism in sickle cell disease, with an emphasis on the perspective of a practicing hematologist. Methods Medline searches through July 2010 were conducted using the terms priapism, erectile dysfunction, and sickle cell. Main Outcome Measure Expert opinion was based on review of the medical literature related to this subject matter. Results In men with sickle cell disease, large epidemiological studies have linked the risk of priapism to clinical markers of the severity of intravascular hemolysis. Extracellular hemoglobin and arginase released during hemolysis has been implicated in reducing nitric oxide bioavailability, although the relevance of hemolysis to vascular dysfunction has been challenged by some scientists. Consistent with the role of impairment of the nitric oxide axis, mice genetically deficient in nitric oxide production have also been shown to develop priapic activity. Provocative new data indicates that hemolysis-linked dysregulation of adenosine signaling in the penis contributes to priapism in sickle cell mice. Serious questions have arisen regarding the efficacy of mainstays of textbook dogma for treatment of acute severe priapism, including intravenous fluids, alkalinization and exchange transfusion, and there is increasing acceptance for early aspiration and irrigation of the corpus cavernosum. Conclusions For sickle cell patients with recurrent priapism, there is very limited evidence for a medical prophylaxis role for hydroxyurea, etilefrine, pseudoephedrine, leuprolide, sildenafil, and other agents. Recent publications have highlighted nitric oxide and adenosine signal

  10. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neural stem cells or neurons for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Lu, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neurons or neural stem cells is one of the most important frontier fields in current neuroscience research. Without undergoing the pluripotency stage, induced neurons or induced neural stem cells are a safer and timelier manner resource in comparison to those derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. In this prospective, we review the recent advances in generation of induced neurons and induced neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo and their potential treatments of neurological disorders.

  11. Psychological Treatment Trials for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Sexual Medicine Critique and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2015-12-01

    Publications claim efficacy for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in women with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness meditation training (MMT). However, no review has evaluated the evidence for these therapies from the rigorous perspective of sexual medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the published controlled trials of CBT and MMT for disorders of sexual desire from the perspective of sexual medicine standards of control paradigms, risk/benefit ratios, and clinical significance. MEDLINE was reviewed from the last 10 years. Evaluated study quality via 10 metrics and efficacy as mean change, and proportion of responders and remitters. Three controlled trials support CBT and two controlled trials support MMT. The reports of the trials each lacked several scientific requirements: a hierarchy of endpoints with a planned primary endpoint, sufficient information on the intervention to reproduce it, randomization, adequate control, accepted measures of benefits and harms, compliance data, and/or outcomes of clinical relevance. Psychological treatments for HSDD are not yet supported by adequate clinical trials. The current scientific and regulatory standards for drug treatment trials should also be applicable to psychological treatment trials. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. A life-cycle perspective on automotive fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Andrew; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual inventories for each fuel cell system component, current and future. • Environmental and human health burdens from fuel cell production and end-of-life. • Comparison passenger transport in fuel cell and conventional vehicles. • Fuel cell can be more critical to overall burdens than hydrogen production. • Fuel cell developments require radical but possible changes to reduce burdens. - Abstract: The production and end-of-life (EoL) processes for current and future proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems for road passenger vehicle applications were analysed and quantified in the form of life cycle inventories. The current PEMFC technology is characterised by highly sensitive operating conditions and a high system mass. For each core component of PEMFC there are a range of materials under development and the research aimed to identify those considered realistic for a 2020 future scenario and according to commercial goals of achieving higher performance, increased power density, greater stability and a marked reduction of costs. End-of-life scenarios were developed in consideration of the materials at the focus of recovery efforts. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) addressed the production and EoL of the fuel cell systems with inclusion of a sensitivity analysis to assess influences on the results from the key fuel cell parameters. The second part to the LCIA assessed the environmental and human health burdens from passenger transport in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) with comparison between the 2012 and 2020 fuel cell scenarios and referenced to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) of Euro5 emission standard. It was seen that whilst the drivetrain (and therefore the fuel cell system) is a major contributor to the emissions in all the indicators shown, the hydrogen use (and therefore the efficiency of the fuel cell system and the method of hydrogen production) can have a far greater influence on the environmental

  13. Involvement of Programmed Cell Death in Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Jia; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-11-01

    The widespread application of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP-based products has increased the risk of exposure to NPs in humans. The brain is an important organ that is more susceptible to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, any impairment to the brain is irreversible. Recently, several in vivo studies have found that metallic NPs can be absorbed into the animal body and then translocated into the brain, mainly through the blood-brain barrier and olfactory pathway after systemic administration. Furthermore, metallic NPs can cross the placental barrier to accumulate in the fetal brain, causing developmental neurotoxicity on exposure during pregnancy. Therefore, metallic NPs become a big threat to the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs remain unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), which is different from necrosis, is defined as active cell death and is regulated by certain genes. PCD can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. It is involved in brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and brain injury. Given the pivotal role of PCD in neurological functions, we reviewed relevant articles and tried to summarize the recent advances and future perspectives of PCD involvement in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, with the purpose of comprehensively understanding the neurotoxic mechanisms of NPs.

  14. Aripiprazole for relapse prevention and craving in alcohol use disorder: current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Orsolini, Laura; Fornaro, Michele; Vecchiotti, Roberta; De Berardis, Domenico; Iasevoli, Felice; Torrens, Marta; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Among other approaches, the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway has been advocated in the therapeutic management of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). A potential avenue toward the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway across varying substance disorders seems to be provided by aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic characterized by a peculiar pharmacodynamics signature. In this review, the authors provided a qualitative synthesis and a critical perspective on the efficacy of aripiprazole in relapse prevention and craving in AUD. A systematic search was carried out through MEDLINE/Embase/PsycINFO/Cochrane Library from inception until September 2015, combining free terms and MESH headings for the topics of AUD and aripiprazole as following: (((Alcohol use Disorder) OR (Alcohol use)) AND aripiprazole). Based both on a qualitative synthesis and a critical interpretation of the evidence, the authors submit that aripiprazole would promote alcohol abstinence and reduce the alcohol seeking behaviour possibly via dopaminergic and serotoninergic modulations at the fronto-subcortical circuits underpinning alcohol reward and craving, impulsive behaviour as well as reduce alcohol-related anxiety/low mood and anhedonia. However, due to the lack of published studies, a conclusive statement about any direct effect of aripiprazole in the prevention of craving and/or alcohol consumption is not possible.

  15. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  16. Becoming the denigrated other: Group relations perspectives on initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Goldberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being mad, and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one and alcoholism (one. All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of normal people into the group of mad or crazy people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal denigrated other.

  17. The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Choong, Chi-Jing; Yasuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a New Definition of Return-to-Work Outcomes in Common Mental Disorders from a Multi-Stakeholder Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Hiske L.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Bultmann, Ute; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's). Methods: A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods

  19. Meeting the Educational and Social Needs of Children with Language Impairment or Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Ricketts, Jessie; Peacey, Lindy V.; Dockrell, Julie E.; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in examining the perspectives of parents of children with special educational needs (SEN). Exploring the view of parents of a child with language impairment (LI) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is particularly important because of their high prevalence, at over 30% of children with SEN in England, and the…

  20. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  1. Stakeholders' perspectives on social participation in preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, Tamara; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Hodgetts, Sandy; Ball, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    To determine (a) the essential components of social participation for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using stakeholders' perspectives and (b) the facilitators and barriers experienced in promoting social participation. A mixed-methods, web-based survey utilizing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) taxonomy was circulated across Canada through purposeful snowball sampling. Frequency analysis of the combined responses of 74 stakeholders revealed the most essential components of social participation were: (a) behavior management, (b) social interactions, and (c) various types of play. Further, content analysis revealed that stakeholders used intrinsic motivation strategies and contingency management to facilitate social participation. Stakeholders reported that the purpose of social participation was to engage the child in fun, enjoyable social activities that developed relationships between the child and peers and created a sense of belonging in the community.

  2. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Natalie; Bihari, Ofer; Kanner, Sivan; Barzilai, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a "hostile" environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Kaminsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a “hostile” environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit.

  4. The immediate and long-term effects of time perspective on Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina

    2018-03-01

    Backgrounds and aims This study focuses on the role of time perspective (TP) in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). An inventory-based study on 377 massive multiplayer online role playing game players was conducted, followed by a 3-year-follow-up in which 48 active players from the original sample participated. We proposed that TP factors (negative TP and future positive TP) will influence either the current presence of IGD symptoms or the further development of IGD over time. In other words, the effect of TP is stable. Finally, game usage patterns were analyzed in the sense of changes in playing time and IGD symptoms in gamers after 3 years. Methods To access the variables, two scales were administered through online inventory, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory-short, and Charlton and Danforths' Core Addiction Scale, both in 2012 (N = 377) and 2015 (N = 48). The amount of time that gamers usually spent playing were obtained through self-reports. Results The study's primary presumptions were confirmed. Both negative TP and future positive TP were confirmed as significant predictors of the presence of IGD symptoms, either immediately or in the following 3 years. Data on game usage showed a significant decrease in playing time and IGD symptoms between year 0 and year 3 of the study.

  5. An Integrated Neuroscience Perspective on Formulation and Treatment Planning for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Travis, Michael J; Dwyer, Jennifer B; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience. Any contemporary neuroscience formulation of PTSD should include an understanding of fear conditioning, dysregulated circuits, memory reconsolidation, epigenetics, and genetic factors. Fear conditioning and other elements of basic learning theory offer a framework for understanding how traumatic events can lead to a range of behaviors associated with PTSD. A circuit dysregulation framework focuses more broadly on aberrant network connectivity, including between the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures. In the process of memory reconsolidation, it is now clear that every time a memory is reactivated it becomes momentarily labile-with implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. Epigenetic changes secondary to various experiences, especially early in life, can have long-term effects, including on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby affecting an individual's ability to regulate the stress response. Genetic factors are surprisingly relevant: PTSD has been shown to be highly heritable despite being definitionally linked to specific experiences. The relevance of each of these themes to current clinical practice and its potential to transform future care are discussed. Together, these perspectives contribute to an integrative, neuroscience-informed approach to case formulation and treatment planning. This may

  6. From embryonic stem cells to functioning germ cells: science, clinical and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

  7. Fanconi anemia and the cell cycle: new perspectives on aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex heterogenic disorder of genomic instability, bone marrow failure, cancer predisposition, and congenital malformations. The FA signaling network orchestrates the DNA damage recognition and repair in interphase as well as proper execution of mitosis. Loss of FA signaling causes chromosome instability by weakening the spindle assembly checkpoint, disrupting centrosome maintenance, disturbing resolution of ultrafine anaphase bridges, and dysregulating cytokinesis. Thus, the FA genes function as guardians of genome stability throughout the cell cycle. This review discusses recent advances in diagnosis and clinical management of Fanconi anemia and presents the new insights into the origins of genomic instability in FA. These new discoveries may facilitate the development of rational therapeutic strategies for FA and for FA-deficient malignancies in the general population. PMID:24765528

  8. Autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms: Towards new therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eTordjman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rhythms allows tuning and adaptation to the external environment. The role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators suggests that this hormone might be also involved in the synchrony of motor, emotional and relational rhythms. Autism provides a challenging model of physiological and behavioral rhythm disturbances and their possible effects on the development of social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors or interests. This article situates autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms and reviews the recent literature on the role of rhythmicity and synchrony of rhythms in child development. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that an integrated approach focusing on biological, motor, emotional and relational rhythms may open interesting therapeutic perspectives for children with autism. More specifically, promising avenues are discussed for potential therapeutic benefits in autism spectrum disorder of melatonin combined with developmental behavioral interventions that emphasize synchrony such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM.

  9. Autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms: toward new therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Davlantis, Katherine S; Georgieff, Nicolas; Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Speranza, Mario; Anderson, George M; Xavier, Jean; Botbol, Michel; Oriol, Cécile; Bellissant, Eric; Vernay-Leconte, Julie; Fougerou, Claire; Hespel, Anne; Tavenard, Aude; Cohen, David; Kermarrec, Solenn; Coulon, Nathalie; Bonnot, Olivier; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of biological and behavioral rhythms in typical and atypical development. Recent studies in cognitive and developmental psychology have highlighted the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony of motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms in early development of social communication. The synchronization of rhythms allows tuning and adaptation to the external environment. The role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of the circadian clocks network suggests that this hormone might be also involved in the synchrony of motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms. Autism provides a challenging model of physiological and behavioral rhythm disturbances and their possible effects on the development of social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article situates autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms and reviews the recent literature on the role of rhythmicity and synchrony of rhythms in child development. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that an integrated approach focusing on biological, motor, emotional, and interpersonal rhythms may open interesting therapeutic perspectives for children with autism. More specifically, promising avenues are discussed for potential therapeutic benefits in autism spectrum disorder of melatonin combined with developmental behavioral interventions that emphasize synchrony, such as the Early Start Denver Model.

  10. Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Doh, Young Yim; Wu, Anise M S; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, policy and position statements, and health guidelines in the last decade. The regional scope included the USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Prevention studies have mainly involved school-based programs to train healthier Internet use habits in adolescents. The efficacy of selective prevention is promising but warrants further empirical attention. On an international scale, the formal recognition of gaming or Internet use as a disorder or as having quantifiable harms at certain levels of usage has been foundational to developing structured prevention responses. The South Korean model, in particular, is an exemplar of a coordinated response to a public health threat, with extensive government initiatives and long-term strategic plans at all three levels of prevention (i.e., universal, selective, and indicated). Western regions, by comparison, are dominated by prevention approaches led by non-profit organizations and private enterprise. The future of prevention of gaming and Internet problems ultimately relies upon all stakeholders working collaboratively in the public interest, confronting the reality of the evidence base and developing practical, ethical, and sustainable countermeasures.

  11. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  12. Cognitive and affective perspective-taking in conduct-disordered children high and low on callous-unemotional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous Xenia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in cognitive and/or affective perspective-taking have been implicated in Conduct-Disorder (CD, but empirical investigations produced equivocal results. Two factors may be implicated: (a distinct deficits underlying the antisocial conduct of CD subgroups, (b plausible disjunction between cognitive and affective perspective-taking with subgroups presenting either cognitive or affective-specific deficits. Method This study employed a second-order false-belief paradigm in which the cognitive perspective-taking questions tapped the character's thoughts and the affective perspective-taking questions tapped the emotions generated by these thoughts. Affective and cognitive perspective-taking was compared across three groups of children: (a CD elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits (CD-high-CU, n = 30, (b CD low on CU traits (CD-low-CU, n = 42, and (c a 'typically-developing' comparison group (n = 50, matched in age (7.5 – 10.8, gender and socioeconomic background. Results The results revealed deficits in CD-low-CU children for both affective and cognitive perspective-taking. In contrast CD-high-CU children showed relative competency in cognitive, but deficits in affective-perspective taking, a finding that suggests an affective-specific defect and a plausible dissociation of affective and cognitive perspective-taking in CD-high-CU children. Conclusion Present findings indicate that deficits in cognitive perspective-taking that have long been implicated in CD appear to be characteristic of a subset of CD children. In contrast affective perspective-taking deficits characterise both CD subgroups, but these defects seem to be following diverse developmental paths that warrant further investigation.

  13. Modulation of GABAergic Transmission in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Investigating Physiology and Pathology to Gain Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eDeidda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During mammalian ontogenesis, the neurotransmitter GABA is a fundamental regulator of neuronal networks. In neuronal development, GABAergic signaling regulates neural proliferation, migration, differentiation, and neuronal-network wiring. In the adult, GABA orchestrates the activity of different neuronal cell-types largely interconnected, by powerfully modulating synaptic activity. GABA exerts these functions by binding to chloride-permeable ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors. According to its functional importance during development, GABA is implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and neurofibromatosis.The strength and polarity of GABAergic transmission is continuously modulated during physiological, but also pathological conditions. For GABAergic transmission through GABAA receptors, strength regulation is achieved by different mechanisms such as modulation of GABAA receptors themselves, variation of intracellular chloride concentration, and alteration in GABA metabolism. In the never-ending effort to find possible treatments for GABA-related neurological diseases, of great importance would be modulating GABAergic transmission in a safe and possibly physiological way, without the dangers of either silencing network activity or causing epileptic seizures. In this review, we will discuss the different ways to modulate GABAergic transmission normally at work both during physiological and pathological conditions. Our aim is to highlight new research perspectives for therapeutic treatments that reinstate natural and physiological brain functions in neuro-pathological conditions.

  14. A review SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders: neuro biological background, methodology, findings and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Ann; Pagani, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The origin of altered radiotracer uptake and distribution in functional brain imaging studies, often considered to reflect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), in psychiatric disorders is unknown. Interpreting the magnitude of changes as changes in the magnitude of neuronal activity may be reasonable during normal circumstances, but less reliable in pathologic states. Results of published 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT studies in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and major depression are discussed in the light of 99mTc-HMPAO properties, and reported findings of altered cell morphology and biochemistry, with emphasis on energy metabolism. We conclude that the SPECT technique using radiotracers with known biochemical properties will become useful in the understanding of cellular dysfunctions at different phases of neuropsychiatric disorders, and that use of automatic interpretation of three-dimensional volumes will allow for easier identification of regional neural correlates of the different psychiatric symptoms (Au)

  15. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  16. From "ES-like" cells to induced pluripotent stem cells: a historical perspective in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sehwon; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great potential as cell sources for gene editing to generate genetically modified animals, as well as in the field of regenerative medicine. Stable, long-term ESCs have been established in laboratory mouse and rat; however, isolation of true pluripotent ESCs in domesticated animals such as pigs and dogs have been less successful. Initially, domesticated animal pluripotent cell lines were referred to as "embryonic stem-like" cells owing to their similar morphologic characteristics to mouse ESCs, but accompanied by a limited ability to proliferate in vitro in an undifferentiated state. That is, they shared some but not all the characteristics of true ESCs. More recently, advances in reprogramming using exogenous transcription factors, combined with the utilization of small chemical inhibitors of key biochemical pathways, have led to the isolation of iPSCs. In this review, we provide a historical perspective of the isolation of various types of pluripotent stem cells in domesticated animals. In addition, we summarize the latest progress and limitations in the derivation and application of iPSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. T Cell Phenotype and T Cell Receptor Repertoire in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Patas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While a link between inflammation and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD is supported by a growing body of evidence, little is known about the contribution of aberrant adaptive immunity in this context. Here, we conducted in-depth characterization of T cell phenotype and T cell receptor (TCR repertoire in MDD. For this cross-sectional case–control study, we recruited antidepressant-free patients with MDD without any somatic or psychiatric comorbidities (n = 20, who were individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and smoking status to a non-depressed control subject (n = 20. T cell phenotype and repertoire were interrogated using a combination of flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and next generation sequencing. T cells from MDD patients showed significantly lower surface expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, which are known to be central to T cell differentiation and trafficking. In addition, we observed a shift within the CD4+ T cell compartment characterized by a higher frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low/− cells and higher FOXP3 mRNA expression in purified CD4+ T cells obtained from patients with MDD. Finally, flow cytometry-based TCR Vβ repertoire analysis indicated a less diverse CD4+ T cell repertoire in MDD, which was corroborated by next generation sequencing of the TCR β chain CDR3 region. Overall, these results suggest that T cell phenotype and TCR utilization are skewed on several levels in patients with MDD. Our study identifies putative cellular and molecular signatures of dysregulated adaptive immunity and reinforces the notion that T cells are a pathophysiologically relevant cell population in this disorder.

  18. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  19. A different perspective on bipolar disorder? : epidemiology, consequences, concept, and recognition of bipolar spectrum disorder in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeer, Eline Janet

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder in which episodes of mania, hypomania and depression occur in alternation with intervals of normal mood. Bipolar disorder is typically a recurrent illness and may have serious consequences such as poor social and occupational

  20. Eating disorders and body image concerns in Asian American women: assessment and treatment from a multicultural and feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Lehman, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Eating disorders are one of the most lethal psychiatric illnesses and affect millions of individuals worldwide. While they have been more typically attributed to middle class, Caucasian, adolescent females, current research suggests that there is a similar prevalence of eating disorders and their symptoms, especially body dissatisfaction, among Asian American girls and women. Despite this, very little research has investigated how culture and gender may impact the assessment and treatment of eating disorders for Asian American women. This review examines the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders and negative body image in Asian American women and describes current research on the efficacy of a variety of theoretical approaches for treatment, including psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and feminist perspectives. Recommendations for considering culture and gender when working clinically with Asian American women who experience eating concerns as well as suggestions for future research directions are provided.

  1. Clinicians' perspective on an app for patient self-monitoring in eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgreen, Pil; Clausen, Loa; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    The Recovery Record smartphone app is a self-monitoring tool for individuals recovering from eating disorders. Oppositely to traditional pen-and-paper meal diaries, the app allows for in-app patient-clinician linkage enabling clinicians to access patient app data anytime. The aim of our study was to explore the interdisciplinary clinical perspective on Recovery Record and its impact on treatment. Thirty-one clinicians from a Danish eating disorder treatment facility participated in field studies and 23 of these in interviews. Data were generated and analyzed concurrently applying the inductive methodology of Interpretive Description. We found two overarching themes: "Access to app data between treatment sessions", and "The patient-clinician relationship". Sub-themes associated with the former were "Online obligations" in relation to the added workload of continuously monitoring patient app data, and "Prepared or prejudiced" relating to advantages and disadvantages of using patient app data as preparation for treatment sessions. Sub-themes pertaining to the latter were "Expectation discrepancy" in relation to patients' and clinicians' divergent expectations for app usage, and "Pacified patients" regarding the clinicians' experience that the app potentially compromised the patient initiative in treatment sessions. Recovery Record induced new and affected pre-existing treatment and work conditions for clinicians. Clinicians were preoccupied with challenges associated with the app, for example, an added work load and potential harm to the patient-clinician collaboration. Thus, prior to adopting the app, we encourage clinicians and managements to discuss the objectives, advantages and disadvantages of adopting the app, and outline specific guidelines for patient and clinician app usage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  3. Results from an online survey of patient and caregiver perspectives on unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Prakash S; Tracy, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder.

  4. Insights in Anaphylaxis and Clonal Mast Cell Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González-de-Olano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of anaphylaxis among patients with clonal mast cell disorders (MCD is clearly higher comparing to the general population. Due to a lower frequency of symptoms outside of acute episodes, clonal MCD in the absence of skin lesions might sometimes be difficult to identify which may lead to underdiagnosis, and anaphylaxis is commonly the presenting symptom in these patients. Although the release of mast cell (MC mediators upon MC activation might present with a wide variety of symptoms, particular clinical features typically characterize MC mediator release episodes in patients with clonal MCD without skin involvement. Final diagnosis requires a bone marrow study, and it is recommended that this should be done in reference centers. In this article, we address the main triggers for anaphylaxis, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of patients with MC activation syndromes (MCASs, with special emphasis on clonal MCAS [systemic mastocytosis and mono(clonal MC activations syndromes].

  5. Mosaic epigenetic dysregulation of ectodermal cells in autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther R Berko

    Full Text Available DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement

  6. Flushing Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Part 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Mast Cell Disorders and Hyperbasophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Singh, Devina; Mazza, Joseph J; Yang, Dennis; Parajuli, Dipendra; Yale, Steven H

    2018-04-12

    intestinal polypeptide, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid) polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes (POEMS), and conditions involving mast cells and basophils. Part 2 covered is dumping syndrome, mesenteric traction syndrome, rosacea, hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm, anaphylaxis, panic disorders, paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and food, alcohol and medications. © 2018 Marshfield Clinic.

  7. A dynamic course of T cell defects in individuals at risk for mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; De Wit, H.; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Objectives: T cell abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in adult patients with mood disorders, suggesting a role of these cells in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the present study, we explored the dynamics of circulating T cell subsets over time in a population at high familial risk

  8. A dynamic course of T cell defects in individuals at risk for mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; De Wit, H.; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: T cell abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in adult patients with mood disorders, suggesting a role of these cells in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the present study, we explored the dynamics of circulating T cell subsets over time in a population at high familial risk

  9. Patient Perspectives on Gene Transfer Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Heather; Mitchell, Monica J; Goldstein-Leever, Alana; Shook, Lisa; Malik, Punam; Crosby, Lori E

    2017-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic genetic disease with high morbidity and early mortality; it affects nearly 100,000 individuals in the USA. Bone marrow transplantation, the only curative treatment, is available to less than 20% of patients because of a number of access barriers. Gene transfer therapy (GTT) has been shown to be curative in animal models and is approved for use in humans for early-phase studies at a few centers. GTT would offer a more accessible treatment option available to all patients. It is important to understand patient perspectives on GTT to help ensure human clinical trial success. Two focus groups were conducted with younger (18-30 years) and older (31 years and older) adults with SCD to obtain data on patient knowledge and beliefs about GTT. Data from these two focus groups was used to develop a GTT educational brochure. A third focus group was conducted to obtain participant feedback on acceptability and feasibility of education and the brochure. Most adults, especially young adults, had little knowledge about GTT and expressed fear and uncertainty about the side effects of chemotherapy (e.g., hair loss, infertility), use of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived viral vector, and potential for cancer risk. Participants wanted full transparency in educational materials, but advised researchers not to share the vector's relation to HIV because of cultural stigma and no HIV virus is used for the GTT vector. Older adults had more desire to participate in human clinical GTT trials than younger participants. When recruiting for trials, researchers should develop GTT educational materials that address participant lack of trust in the healthcare system, cultural beliefs, fears related to side effects, and include visual illustrations. Use of such materials will provide adults with SCD the information they need to fully evaluate GTT.

  10. The use of medication against attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark: a drug use study from a national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Glintborg, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to characterize the utilization of medication against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Denmark between 1995 and 2011 from a national perspective, by using population-based prescription data. Methods National data on drug use in Denmark between...... and lacking evidence of heavy users. However, the prescriber profile for incident users and the large regional variances raise concerns. It is therefore vital that the use of ADHD drugs is closely monitored....

  11. Neuroscientific and neuroanthropological perspectives in music therapy research and practice with patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses.

  12. Neuroscientific and neuroanthropological perspectives in music therapy research and practice with patients with disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eVogl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results.The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results.This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses.

  13. Neuroscientific and neuroanthropological perspectives in music therapy research and practice with patients with disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M.; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses. PMID:26300720

  14. A Developmental Perspective in Mental Health Services Use Among Adults with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huỳnh, Christophe; Caron, Jean; Pelletier, Marilou; Liu, Aihua; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2018-07-01

    This study examined factors associated with mental health services (MHS) use by individuals with mental disorders within a developmental perspective of adulthood. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each developmental stage on independent variables using the Andersen's behavioral health service model. For 18-29-year-old emerging adults (n = 141), autonomy, daily life/relations, Internet searching, alcohol dependence, cognitive impulsiveness, number of stressful events, and self-harm were associated with MHS use. For 30-49-year olds (n = 292), being female, country of origin, being on welfare, social integration, Internet searching, and number of stressful events were associated with MHS use. For 50-64-year-old middle-aged adults (n = 126), current occupation was associated with MHS use. Developing online resources for emerging adults may increase MHS use. For 30-49-year olds, outreach should target male, immigrants, and individuals less socially integrated and on welfare. For middle-aged adults, workplace programs that reduce stigma and offer psychological help could increase MHS use.

  15. Teachers’ perspectives on handwriting and collaborative intervention for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese McNamee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to investigate teacher perspectives on teaching handwriting to children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD and collaboration with occupational therapists. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive design was applied. Purpose-designed surveys were distributed to teachers of children with ASD (aged 4-12 years in the Republic of Ireland. A response rate of 35 per cent (N = 75 was obtained, with 25 responses analysed using descriptive statistics of closed questions and content analysis of open-ended questions. Findings - Of 139 children with ASD, 80 (58 per cent were reported to have difficulties with handwriting. Teachers reported specific difficulties with pencil grasp, letter formation and task concept among the children with ASD. Fourteen (56 per cent, N = 25 respondents did not give handwriting as homework. Teachers valued occupational therapy advice, individualised programmes and ongoing consultation during implementation. Interest in occupational therapy education regarding handwriting was reported. Practical implications - Occupational therapy collaboration to address handwriting difficulties for children with ASD should include involvement in teacher education, coordination of teacher–parent collaboration and the need for involvement in early intervention provision within an emergent literacy framework. Originality/value - Handwriting development is challenging for children with ASD. There is limited information on teaching or teacher–occupational therapy collaborative practices to address handwriting difficulties of children with ASD.

  16. MELATONIN: PERSPECTIVES IN THERAPY OF DIFFERENT PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Nailevna Hannanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review all the existing evidence base regarding the use of melatonin in therapy of different mental diseases, to formulate conclusions on the quality of existing evidence, on melatonin’s perspectives in this regard and on the feasibility of future research on its usefulness in psychiatry. Methodology. We performed a full text search in several publicly accessible biomedical databases, namely PubMed / MedLine / EmBASE / UpToDate, using keyword “melatonin” in conjunction with keywords “cognition”, “cognitive”, “mood disorders”, “affective disorders”, “insomnia”, “psychosis”, “schizophrenia”, “anxiety disorders”. All results we had found were then analyzed and sorted by the strongness of evidence presented (RCTs, open prospective trials, case series, single cases, untested expert opinions and theoretical hypotheses. Then we made conclusions based on the evidence presented. Results. Results we have obtained in this literature review show that melatonin can be useful as a component of combination therapy in insomnias, depressions, schizophrenia and other psychoses, anxiety disorders, and can be helpful in prophylactics or treatment of some side effects of psychopharmacotherapy, namely metabolic syndrome, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, insomnias. Practical implications. Our results deserve wide clinical application in the field of psychiatry, substance use medicine and neurology.

  17. Hairy-cell leukemia: a rare blood disorder in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephine, F P; Nissapatorn, V

    2006-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old Indian man who was referred to the Hematology Unit for investigation for thrombocytopenia, an incidental finding during a pre-operative screening for prostatectomy. Physical examination was unremarkable. There was no splenomegaly, hepatomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Complete blood counts showed normal hemoglobin and total white cell count with moderate thrombocytopenia. Hairy-cell leukemia was diagnosed based on peripheral blood film, bone-marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy findings, supported by immunophenotyping results by flow cytometry. The purpose of this report is to create awareness of this uncommon presentation and to emphasize that a single-lineage cytopenia or absence of splenomegaly does not exclude the diagnosis of hairy-cell leukemia. Careful attention to morphological detail is important for early diagnosis, especially when low percentages of "hairy" cells are present in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. Early diagnosis is important to ensure that patients obtain maximum benefit from the newer therapeutic agents that have greatly improved the prognosis in this rare disorder.

  18. The Reviews Are in: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Consumer Perspectives on Apps for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Boydell, Katherine; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The delivery of mobile health (mHealth) services is acceptable to mental health consumers. However, despite the benefits of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, anonymity, and ability to tailor content to individual needs, consumer engagement remains a hurdle for uptake and continued use. This may be unsurprising as few studies have examined app content from the consumer perspective or assessed consumer preferences for the content of apps for mental health management. An opportunity to examine consumer perspectives exists in using naturally generated data that is publically available in the Google Play and Apple app stores. Whereas commercial developers routinely use this data, to date there has been no in-depth evaluation within scientific research. Objective The aim of our study was to explore what consumers consider useful content for mental health management apps, identify unmet needs, and understand user expectations of mental health apps within the context of apps for bipolar disorder. Methods Publically available English language consumer reviews of 48 apps for bipolar disorder were used as data, providing a total of 2173 reviews. Review text was coded and analyzed using a team approach to qualitative content analysis. Results were presented in 2 forms: (1) a quantitative summary of the 9 major and minor themes and (2) a qualitative synthesis of key thematic findings. Results The majority of reviews were for symptom monitoring apps (87.94%, 1911/2173). The qualitative content analysis revealed 5 main themes: (1) laudatory talk, comments regarding the app’s benefits including helpfulness and successful design features (74.00% of reviews, 1608/2173); (2) unfavorable feedback, negative reviews largely concerning unmet needs, privacy and technical issues, and potential dangers of app use (25.54%, 555/2173); (3) conceptions of community, referring to both communities of users with mental ill-health accessed via the app and a community created among app

  19. The Reviews Are in: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Consumer Perspectives on Apps for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Fogarty, Andrea S; Boydell, Katherine; Christensen, Helen

    2017-04-07

    The delivery of mobile health (mHealth) services is acceptable to mental health consumers. However, despite the benefits of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, anonymity, and ability to tailor content to individual needs, consumer engagement remains a hurdle for uptake and continued use. This may be unsurprising as few studies have examined app content from the consumer perspective or assessed consumer preferences for the content of apps for mental health management. An opportunity to examine consumer perspectives exists in using naturally generated data that is publically available in the Google Play and Apple app stores. Whereas commercial developers routinely use this data, to date there has been no in-depth evaluation within scientific research. The aim of our study was to explore what consumers consider useful content for mental health management apps, identify unmet needs, and understand user expectations of mental health apps within the context of apps for bipolar disorder. Publically available English language consumer reviews of 48 apps for bipolar disorder were used as data, providing a total of 2173 reviews. Review text was coded and analyzed using a team approach to qualitative content analysis. Results were presented in 2 forms: (1) a quantitative summary of the 9 major and minor themes and (2) a qualitative synthesis of key thematic findings. The majority of reviews were for symptom monitoring apps (87.94%, 1911/2173). The qualitative content analysis revealed 5 main themes: (1) laudatory talk, comments regarding the app's benefits including helpfulness and successful design features (74.00% of reviews, 1608/2173); (2) unfavorable feedback, negative reviews largely concerning unmet needs, privacy and technical issues, and potential dangers of app use (25.54%, 555/2173); (3) conceptions of community, referring to both communities of users with mental ill-health accessed via the app and a community created among app users and developers (24.25%, 527

  20. Motor and verbal perspective taking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Changes in social interaction with people and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenka, Breanna E; Gillam, Sandra L; Hartzheim, Daphne; Gillam, Ronald B

    2017-07-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulty communicating with others nonverbally, via mechanisms such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expression. Individuals with ASD also have marked deficits in planning future actions (Hughes, 1996), which might contribute to impairments in non-verbal communication. Perspective taking is typically assessed using verbal scenarios whereby the participant imagines how an actor would interact in a social situation (e.g., Sally Anne task; Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985). The current project evaluated motor perspective taking in five children with ASD (8-11 years old) as they participated in a narrative intervention program over the course of about 16 weeks. The goal of the motor perspective-taking task was to facilitate the action of an experimenter either hammering with a tool or putting it away. Initially, children with ASD facilitated the experimenter's action less than neurotypical control children. As the narrative intervention progressed, children with ASD exhibited increased motor facilitation that paralleled their increased use of mental state and causal language, indicating a link between verbal and motor perspective taking. Motoric perspective taking provides an additional way to assess understanding and communication in children with ASD and may be a valuable tool for both early assessment and diagnosis of children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Telephone helplines as a source of support for eating disorders: Service user, carer, and health professional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Amie-Louise; Woodward, Debbie; Hoefkens, Toni; Clayton, Debbie; Thirlaway, Katie; Limbert, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Access to care for eating disorders can be problematic for numerous reasons including lack of understanding and delays with treatment referrals. Previous research has highlighted the benefits of telephone helplines as an accessible source of support for those who may not wish to access face-to-face support or to fill a gap for those waiting for treatment. This study aimed to gain an insight into the perspectives of those who may use or refer others to a telephone helpline in order to identify the requirements of such a service. Triangulation of service user, carer and health professionals' perspectives resulted in identification of themes relating to the type of support, delivery and practicalities of a helpline. The findings indicated that telephone helplines may offer numerous benefits for individuals with an eating disorder, whether accessed as a first step, alongside treatment or as an extension of this support when in recovery. Additionally helplines may provide an opportunity for carers to access information and discuss their own experiences, while supporting their loved one. Raising awareness of these services is important to encourage those affected by an eating disorder to access and make the most of this type of support. These findings offer an insight into the key requirements for new and existing service development with regard to both the type of support and the method of communication required by individuals with eating disorders.

  2. iPS cells to model CDKL5-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenduni, Mariangela; De Filippis, Roberta; Cheung, Aaron Y L; Disciglio, Vittoria; Epistolato, Maria Carmela; Ariani, Francesca; Mari, Francesca; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Hayek, Youssef; Renieri, Alessandra; Ellis, James; Meloni, Ilaria

    2011-12-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a progressive neurologic disorder representing one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. To date mutations in three genes have been associated with this condition. Classic RTT is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, whereas variants can be due to mutations in either MECP2 or FOXG1 or CDKL5. Mutations in CDKL5 have been identified both in females with the early onset seizure variant of RTT and in males with X-linked epileptic encephalopathy. CDKL5 is a kinase protein highly expressed in neurons, but its exact function inside the cell is unknown. To address this issue we established a human cellular model for CDKL5-related disease using the recently developed technology of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated in vitro into many different cell types, including neurons. These features make them the ideal tool to study disease mechanisms directly on the primarily affected neuronal cells. We derived iPSCs from fibroblasts of one female with p.Q347X and one male with p.T288I mutation, affected by early onset seizure variant and X-linked epileptic encephalopathy, respectively. We demonstrated that female CDKL5-mutated iPSCs maintain X-chromosome inactivation and clones express either the mutant CDKL5 allele or the wild-type allele that serve as an ideal experimental control. Array CGH indicates normal isogenic molecular karyotypes without detection of de novo CNVs in the CDKL5-mutated iPSCs. Furthermore, the iPS cells can be differentiated into neurons and are thus suitable to model disease pathogenesis in vitro.

  3. State of the Art for Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy in Movement Disorders: A Clinical and Technological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Okun, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is a widely used brain surgery that can be applied for many neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS is American Food and Drug Administration approved for medication refractory Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia. Although DBS has shown consistent success in many clinical trials, the therapy has limitations and there are well-recognized complications. Thus, only carefully selected patients are ideal candidates for this surgery. Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in clinical knowledge on DBS. In addition, the surgical techniques and technology related to DBS has been rapidly evolving. The goal of this review is to describe the current status of DBS in the context of movement disorders, outline the mechanisms of action for DBS in brief, discuss the standard surgical and imaging techniques, discuss the patient selection and clinical outcomes in each of the movement disorders, and finally, introduce the recent advancements from a clinical and technological perspective.

  4. Perspectives and new aspects of metalloproteinases' inhibitors in therapy of CNS disorders: from chemistry to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Budzynska, Barbara; Skalicka-Wozniak, Krystyna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2018-05-13

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, at the same time, influence cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and survival. Their importance in variety of human diseases including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary emphysema and fibrotic disorders has been known for many years but special attention should be paid on the role of MMPs in the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Till now, there are not many well documented physiological MMP target proteins in the brain and only some pathological ones. Numerous neurodegenerative diseases is a consequence or result in disturbed remodeling of brain ECM, therefore proper action of MMPs as well as control of their activity may play crucial roles in the development and the progress of these diseases. In present review we discuss the role of metalloproteinase inhibitors, from the well-known natural endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) through exogenous synthetic ones like (4-phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)methylthiirane (SB-3CT), tetracyclines, batimastat (BB-94) and FN-439. As the MMP-TIMP system has been well described in physiological development as well as in pathological conditions mainly in neoplasctic diseases, the knowledge about the enzymatic system in mammalian brain tissue remain still poorly understood in this context. Therefore, we focus on MMPs inhibition in the context of physiological function of adult brain as well as pathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, brain injuries and others. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.

  6. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy for malignant cancers: Summary and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will summarize the data obtained primarily from the last decade of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell immunotherapy. It will do so in a manner that provides an overview needed to set the foundation for perspective on the state of research associated with CAR T cell therapy. The topics covered will include the construction of engineered CAR T cells from the standpoint of the different generations, the mode in which autologous T cells are transfected, the various biomarkers that have been used in CAR T cell immunotherapy, and setbacks associated with engineered T cells. Perspective on priorities of CAR T cell immunotherapy will also be addressed as they are related to safety and efficacy.

  7. A Perspective on the Müller Cell-Neuron Metabolic Partnership in the Inner Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Kehler, A K; Skytt, D M; Kolko, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    between the vessels and neurons, Müller cells are responsible for the functional and metabolic support of the surrounding neurons. As a consequence of major energy demands in the retina, high levels of glucose are consumed and processed by Müller cells. The present review provides a perspective...

  8. Technology-Facilitated Diagnosis and Treatment of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Engineering Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongyi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of computer and robotic technologies in the last decade is giving hope to perform earlier and more accurate diagnoses of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, and more effective, consistent, and cost-conscious treatment. Besides the reduced cost, the main benefit of using technology to facilitate treatment is that stimuli produced during each session of the treatment can be controlled, which not only guarantees consistency across different sessions, but also makes it possible to focus on a single phenomenon, which is difficult even for a trained professional to perform, and deliver the stimuli according to the treatment plan. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of research on recent technology-facilitated diagnosis and treat of children and adults with ASD. Different from existing reviews on this topic, which predominantly concern clinical issues, we focus on the engineering perspective of autism studies. All technology facilitated systems used for autism studies can be modeled as human machine interactive systems where one or more participants would constitute as the human component, and a computer-based or a robotic-based system would be the machine component. Based on this model, we organize our review with the following questions: (1 What are presented to the participants in the studies and how are the content and delivery methods enabled by technologies? (2 How are the reactions/inputs collected from the participants in response to the stimuli in the studies? (3 Are the experimental procedure and programs presented to participants dynamically adjustable based on the responses from the participants, and if so, how? and (4 How are the programs assessed?

  9. An exploration of the experiences and perspectives of New Zealanders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny V; Buetow, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    The experiences and perspectives of New Zealanders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) need to be heard since no research to date has been performed. FASD, a neuro-developmental disability with life-lasting effects, is irreversible. The condition is caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. This study aimed to explore and understand the daily challenges of New Zealand individuals with FASD. Our sequential mixed methods design used two discrete but compatible qualitative methodologies--transcendental phenomenology in Phase One and classic grounded theory in Phase Two--framed by the meta-theory of pragmatism, which allows the use of 'what works' in research. One methodology alone would not have answered our research question. Using the same sample of 14 individuals, 14 to 37 years, two separate data sets were produced sequentially using face-to-face unstructured interviews. Participants had been diagnosed with either fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or fetal alcohol effects (FAE). Data credibility was checked using triangulation. Six themes common to the participants' experiences emerged: daily challenges in the classroom; daily challenges in the workplace; coping with mental health issues; memory problems; socialization difficulties and involvement with the law and authority. Phase Two's emerging theory revealed that because the participants perceived they had been under-supported by the social/health systems, many engaged in illegal behaviours (secondary disabilities) and experienced employment and social problems. Many disavowed having the disability, but with maturity and knowing the signs and symptoms, accepted it. They suggested ways in which their concerns could be resolved. In order that progress in this field can take place, health and social agencies, educational and criminal justice systems and policy-makers need to have increased awareness of the disability and the complex problems that individuals with the disability and their families face.

  10. Intrinsically disordered proteins aggregate at fungal cell-to-cell channels and regulate intercellular connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian; Koh, Chuan Hock; Tjota, Monika; Pieuchot, Laurent; Raman, Vignesh; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Yang, Daiwen; Wong, Limsoon; Jedd, Gregory

    2012-09-25

    Like animals and plants, multicellular fungi possess cell-to-cell channels (septal pores) that allow intercellular communication and transport. Here, using a combination of MS of Woronin body-associated proteins and a bioinformatics approach that identifies related proteins based on composition and character, we identify 17 septal pore-associated (SPA) proteins that localize to the septal pore in rings and pore-centered foci. SPA proteins are not homologous at the primary sequence level but share overall physical properties with intrinsically disordered proteins. Some SPA proteins form aggregates at the septal pore, and in vitro assembly assays suggest aggregation through a nonamyloidal mechanism involving mainly α-helical and disordered structures. SPA loss-of-function phenotypes include excessive septation, septal pore degeneration, and uncontrolled Woronin body activation. Together, our data identify the septal pore as a complex subcellular compartment and focal point for the assembly of unstructured proteins controlling diverse aspects of intercellular connectivity.

  11. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark L; Spettigue, Wendy J; Katzman, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients.

  12. Application of machine learning classification for structural brain MRI in mood disorders: Critical review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Na, Kyoung-Sae

    2018-01-03

    Mood disorders are a highly prevalent group of mental disorders causing substantial socioeconomic burden. There are various methodological approaches for identifying the underlying mechanisms of the etiology, symptomatology, and therapeutics of mood disorders; however, neuroimaging studies have provided the most direct evidence for mood disorder neural substrates by visualizing the brains of living individuals. The prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, ventral striatum, and corpus callosum are associated with depression and bipolar disorder. Identifying the distinct and common contributions of these anatomical regions to depression and bipolar disorder have broadened and deepened our understanding of mood disorders. However, the extent to which neuroimaging research findings contribute to clinical practice in the real-world setting is unclear. As traditional or non-machine learning MRI studies have analyzed group-level differences, it is not possible to directly translate findings from research to clinical practice; the knowledge gained pertains to the disorder, but not to individuals. On the other hand, a machine learning approach makes it possible to provide individual-level classifications. For the past two decades, many studies have reported on the classification accuracy of machine learning-based neuroimaging studies from the perspective of diagnosis and treatment response. However, for the application of a machine learning-based brain MRI approach in real world clinical settings, several major issues should be considered. Secondary changes due to illness duration and medication, clinical subtypes and heterogeneity, comorbidities, and cost-effectiveness restrict the generalization of the current machine learning findings. Sophisticated classification of clinical and diagnostic subtypes is needed. Additionally, as the approach is inevitably limited by sample size, multi-site participation and data-sharing are needed in the future. Copyright

  13. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris ML

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark L Norris,1 Wendy J Spettigue,2 Debra K Katzman3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. Keywords: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, eating disorder, picky eating, prevalence, treatment

  14. No evidence for the use of stem cell therapy for tendon disorders : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, Haiko I M F L; Moen, Maarten H; Haisma, Hidde J; Winters, Marinus

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stem cells have emerged as a new treatment option for tendon disorders. We systematically reviewed the current evidence for stem cell therapy in tendon disorders. METHODS: Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case series with a minimum of 5 cases were

  15. Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy for Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Lauren P; Bollard, Catherine M; Keller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are a group of inborn errors of immunity with a broad range of clinical severity but often associated with recurrent and serious infections. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for some forms of PID, chronic and/or refractory viral infections remain a cause of morbidity and mortality both before and after HSCT. Although antiviral pharmacologic agents exist for many viral pathogens, these are associated with significant costs and toxicities and may not be effective for increasingly drug-resistant pathogens. Thus, the emergence of adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific T lymphocytes (VSTs) is an attractive option for addressing the underlying impaired T cell immunity in many PID patients. VSTs have been utilized for PID patients following HSCT in many prior phase I trials, and may potentially be beneficial before HSCT in patients with chronic viral infections. We review the various methods of generating VSTs, clinical experience using VSTs for PID patients, and current limitations as well as potential ways to broaden the clinical applicability of adoptive immunotherapy for PID patients.

  16. The Effects of Men's Bipolar Mood Disorder Type II on Marital Relationships from the Spouse's Perspective: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مصطفی عرب ورنوسفادرانی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of males’ bipolar disorder type II on marital relationship from their wives’ perspective. This study was conducted with a qualitative research approach and thematic analysis. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with a purposive sampling of a husband with bipolar disorder and his wife and continued until data saturation (10 couples. Data analysis and comparison was performed continuously and synchronized with data collection and sampling. During the data analysis process, there were four main themes (escape balance, irritability, insecurity and management weakness. These themes show the effects of bipolar disorder on marital relationships. According to the results, the effects of bipolar disorder on marital relationships lead to crisis and serious harm in the family. Therefore, the knowledge of the effects of bipolar disorder with the theories expressed from the experiences of the spouse can be used in the treatment, care, counseling and education programs for the patient and family by specialists in the field of health, treatment, family, nursing, as well as by counselors and psychologists.

  17. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  18. Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1. Simple acid-base disorders. Disorder. pH. pCO2. HCO3. -. Clinical examples. Respiratory acidosis ... Lactic acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis and vomiting. Triple disorder: .... Renal tubular acidosis type 1 and 2. Ureteral diversion to ...

  19. Fear and distress disorders as predictors of heart disease : A temporal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A M; de Jonge, P; Lim, C W W; Stein, D J; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Benjet, C; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Hu, C; Levinson, D; Nakamura, Y; Navarro-Mateu, F; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Torres, Y; Wojtyniak, B; Kessler, R C; Scott, K M

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have been able to contrast associations of anxiety and depression with heart disease. These disorders can be grouped in fear and distress disorders. Aim of this study was to study the association between fear and distress disorders with subsequent heart disease, taking into

  20. Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology Use with Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to examine how caregivers of infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder view their daily activities/routines and in what way, if any, assistive technology (AT) acts as a support. A total of 134 families who reported their child's disability as autism spectrum disorder/pervasive developmental disorder completed a survey…

  1. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) on military leadership. For over twenty years, the United States Army has used the Be...Introduction Multiple deployment cycles to Iraq and Afghanistan combat zones and the increase in Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) have resulted...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An

  2. The Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder Paradigm and Beyond : Theoretical and empirical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)the female sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia have been merged into the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). The major reason behind this merging is that in clinical practice it always

  3. Perspectives of family and veterans on family programs to support reintegration of returning veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ellen P; Sherman, Michelle D; McSweeney, Jean C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Owen, Richard R; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-08-01

    Combat deployment and reintegration are challenging for service members and their families. Although family involvement in mental health care is increasing in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system, little is known about family members' preferences for services. This study elicited the perspectives of returning Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and their families regarding family involvement in veterans' mental health care. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 veterans receiving care for posttraumatic stress disorder at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System or Oklahoma City VA Medical Center and 36 veteran-designated family members. Interviews addressed perceived needs related to veterans' readjustment to civilian life, interest in family involvement in joint veteran/family programs, and desired family program content. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Both groups strongly supported inclusion of family members in programs to facilitate veterans' postdeployment readjustment and reintegration into civilian life. Both desired program content focused on information, practical skills, support, and gaining perspective on the other's experience. Although family and veteran perspectives were similar, family members placed greater emphasis on parenting-related issues and the kinds of support they and their children needed during and after deployment. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on preferences regarding VA postdeployment reintegration support that incorporates the perspectives of returning male and female veterans and those of their families. Findings will help VA and community providers working with returning veterans tailor services to the needs and preferences of this important-to-engage population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Parietal cells?new perspectives in glomerular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman?s capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertain...

  5. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the DG, and the so-called “mossy cells.” The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the DG network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease. PMID:23420672

  6. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Scharfman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuitry of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the dentate gyrus, and the so-called ‘mossy cells.’ The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease.

  7. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  8. Historical Perspectives and Current Challenges in Cell Microencapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Opara, Emmanuel C.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of immunoisolation of cells is based on encapsulation of cells in immunoprotective but semipermeable membranes that protect cells from hazardous effects of the host immune system but allows ingress of nutrients and outgress of therapeutic molecules. The technology was introduced in

  9. Caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication satisfaction and symptom control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Fridman,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Vanja Sikirica,3 Javier Quintero,4 M Haim Erder,3 Kristina S Chen5 1AMF Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 4Psychiatry Department, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: The caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD study (CAPPA was a web-based, cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children and adolescents (6–17 years of age with ADHD and was conducted in 10 European countries. CAPPA included caregiver assessments of global medication satisfaction, global symptom control, and satisfaction with ADHD medication attributes. Overall, 2,326 caregiver responses indicated that their child or adolescent was currently receiving ADHD medication and completed the “off medication” assessment required for inclusion in the present analyses. Responses to the single-item global medication satisfaction question indicated that 88% were satisfied (moderately satisfied to very satisfied with current medication and 18% were “very satisfied” on the single-item question. Responses to the single-item global symptom control question indicated that 47% and 19% of caregivers considered their child or adolescent’s symptoms to be “controlled” or “very well controlled”, respectively. Significant variations in response to the questions of medication satisfaction and symptom control were observed between countries. The correlation between the global medication satisfaction and global symptom control questions was 0.677 (P<0.001. Global medication satisfaction was significantly

  10. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  11. Neoplastic stem cells: current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Axel; Brämswig, Kira; Herrmann, Harald; Karlic, Heidrun; Mirkina, Irina; Hubmann, Rainer; Laffer, Sylvia; Marian, Brigitte; Shehata, Medhat; Krepler, Clemens; Pehamberger, Hubert; Grunt, Thomas; Jäger, Ulrich; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Neoplastic stem cells have initially been characterized in myeloid leukemias where NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating progenitors supposedly reside within a CD34+/Lin- subset of the malignant clone. These progenitors are considered to be self-renewing cells responsible for the in vivo long-term growth of neoplastic cells in leukemic patients. Therefore, these cells represent an attractive target of therapy. In some lymphoid leukemias, NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating cells were also reported to reside within the CD34+/Lin- subfraction of the clone. More recently, several attempts have been made to transfer the cancer stem cell concept to solid tumors and other non-hematopoietic neoplasms. In several of these tumors, the cell surface antigens AC133 (CD133) and CD44 are considered to indicate the potential of a cell to initiate permanent tumor formation in vivo. However, several questions concerning the phenotype, self-renewal capacity, stroma-dependence, and other properties of cancer- or leukemia-initiating cells remain to be solved. The current article provides a summary of our current knowledge on neoplastic (cancer) stem cells, with special emphasis on clinical implications and therapeutic options as well as a discussion about conceptual and technical limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmaceuticals and Stem Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Wishful Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesan, Senthilkumar; Tan, Aaron; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Lam, James; Gole, Monica; Hardan, Antonio; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2017-02-01

    We provide a contemporary account of the key pathologic events pertaining to autism: the theory of oxidative stress and inflammatory causes, ideas of immune dysfunction, the probable biomarkers that can be used for diagnostics, and the use of pharmaceuticals and stem cells as possible candidates for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs are a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of attention and impaired social and communication skills. ASDs are also associated with numerous functional challenges and potentially harmful deficits, including restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety, irritability, seizures, and self-harm. Although the exact causes of ASDs are unknown, it is suggested that genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors play critical roles. More recent findings support evidence for synaptic defects and impairments in brain information processing that are linked to social and perceptual skills. Owing to the clinical heterogeneity and lack of precise diagnostic tools, current therapeutic approaches aimed at managing ASD-associated conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives of stem cell use in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Semyonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of stem cells is one of the greatest achievements of molecular and cell biology, and associated research has confirmed the possibility of self-renewal and differentiation into specialized tissue stem cells. The use of cellular technologies is an important trend in modern medicine. The aim of this article is to briefly review current findings on the use of stem cells in cardiology, endocrinology, neurology, traumatology, and maxillofacial surgery. All data were retrieved from experimental and clinical studies using various cell technologies. The material is part of ongoing maxillofacial surgery research to investigate the possible use of stem cells in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery for jaw bone pathologies in children. Present tissue engineering methods provide some opportunities for solving difficult clinical problems in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Despite some international achievements of effective application of IC in various diseases, clinical use in reconstructive surgery requires further investigation.

  15. Current perspectives in Set7 mediated stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Karimnia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Set7 is a key regulatory enzyme involved in the methylation of lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. This lysine methyltransferase is induced during stem cell differentiation and regulates lineage specific gene transcription and cell fate. In this article we discuss recent experimental evidence identifying regulatory targets under the control of Set7 as well as emerging evidence of regulation in stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the function of non-coding RNAs regulated by Set7 implicated in cell plasticity.

  16. The Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder Paradigm and Beyond: Theoretical and empirical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Spoelstra, Symen Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)the female sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia have been merged into the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). The major reason behind this merging is that in clinical practice it always has been difficult to make a categorical distinction between dyspareunia and vaginismus. In this thesis the role of pelvic floor muscles in GPPPD is explored. Does the vaginal canal, in analogy to ...

  17. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  18. Separation anxiety disorder from the perspective of DSM-5: clinical investigation among subjects with panic disorder and associations with mood disorders spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesi, Camilla; Abelli, Marianna; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Di Paolo, Luca; Silove, Derrick; Pini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    High levels of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) and panic disorder (PD) have been found in clinical settings. In addition, there is some evidence for a relationship involving bipolar disorder (BD) and combined PD and SEPAD. We aim to investigate the prevalence and correlates of SEPAD among patients with PD and whether the presence of SEPAD is associated with frank diagnoses of mood disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms. Adult outpatients (235) with PD were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS), and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (MOODS-SR, lifetime version). Of ther 235 subjects, 125 (53.2%) were categorized as having SEPAD and 110 (46.8%) as not. Groups did not differ regarding onset of PD, lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, simple phobia, BD I and II, or major depressive disorder (MDD). SEPAD subjects were more likely to be female and younger; they showed higher rates of childhood SEPAD, higher PDSS scores, and higher MOODS-SR total and manic component scores than subjects without SEPAD. Discussion SEPAD is highly prevalent among PD subjects. Patients with both PD and SEPAD show higher lifetime mood spectrum symptoms than patients with PD alone. Specifically, SEPAD is correlated with the manic/hypomanic spectrum component. Our data confirm the high prevalence of SEPAD in clinical settings. Moreover, our findings corroborate a relationship between mood disorders and SEPAD, highlighting a relationship between lifetime mood spectrum symptoms and SEPAD.

  19. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  20. Towards a new definition of return-to-work outcomes in common mental disorders from a multi-stakeholder perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Hiske L; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Koeter, Maarten W J; Bültmann, Ute; Schene, Aart H

    2012-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's). A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to identify a broad range of criteria important for the definition of successful RTW (N = 57). Criteria were grouped into content-related clusters. Second, we used a quantitative approach (online questionnaire) to identify, among a larger stakeholder sample (N = 178), the clusters and criteria most important for successful RTW. A total of 11 clusters, consisting of 52 unique criteria, were identified. In defining successful RTW, supervisors and occupational physicians regarded "Sustainability" and "At-work functioning" most important, while employees regarded "Sustainability," "Job satisfaction," "Work-home balance," and "Mental Functioning" most important. Despite agreement on the importance of certain criteria, considerable differences among stakeholders were observed. Key stakeholders vary in the aspects and criteria they regard as important when defining successful RTW after CMD-related sickness absence. Current definitions of RTW outcomes used in scientific research may not accurately reflect these key stakeholder perspectives. Future studies should be more aware of the perspective from which they aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a RTW intervention, and define their RTW outcomes accordingly.

  1. “It’s a blessing and a curse”: Perspectives on tablet use in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie M King

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims This qualitative study was conducted to obtain information regarding education professionals’ (i.e., classroom teachers’ and speech-language pathologists’ perspectives about tablet technology use in classrooms of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (CWASD. Methods Seventeen education professionals from a special day school for CWASD participated in one of four focus groups that provided information and insight regarding the context in which tablets are being used, challenges in implementing tablets, and perspectives on how tablets can be used most effectively. Results Four interrelated themes emerged from the data including the participants’ perspectives related to: (a the distinct uses of tablets; (b challenges and challenging behavior associated with tablet use; (c causal factors of the challenges; and (d the value of tablets, and the continued desire and dedication to using the tablets; Conclusions and implications The results from this study suggest that education professionals have unique and insightful opinions related to tablets. There appears to be gaps between the current research base on tablet use in CWASD and “real world” practice, suggesting that further research is needed in the implementation of tablets in classrooms of CWASD.

  2. Towards a new definition of return-to-work outcomes in common mental disorders from a multi-stakeholder perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiske L Hees

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews to identify a broad range of criteria important for the definition of successful RTW (N = 57. Criteria were grouped into content-related clusters. Second, we used a quantitative approach (online questionnaire to identify, among a larger stakeholder sample (N = 178, the clusters and criteria most important for successful RTW. RESULTS: A total of 11 clusters, consisting of 52 unique criteria, were identified. In defining successful RTW, supervisors and occupational physicians regarded "Sustainability" and "At-work functioning" most important, while employees regarded "Sustainability," "Job satisfaction," "Work-home balance," and "Mental Functioning" most important. Despite agreement on the importance of certain criteria, considerable differences among stakeholders were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Key stakeholders vary in the aspects and criteria they regard as important when defining successful RTW after CMD-related sickness absence. Current definitions of RTW outcomes used in scientific research may not accurately reflect these key stakeholder perspectives. Future studies should be more aware of the perspective from which they aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a RTW intervention, and define their RTW outcomes accordingly.

  3. CELL-SELEX: Novel Perspectives of Aptamer-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans P. Wendel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, single stranded DNA or RNA molecules, generated by a method called SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment have been widely used in various biomedical applications. The newly developed Cell-SELEX (cell based-SELEX targeting whole living cells has raised great expectations for cancer biology, -therapy and regenerative medicine. Combining nanobiotechnology with aptamers, this technology opens the way to more sophisticated applications in molecular diagnosis. This paper gives a review of recent developments in SELEX technologies and new applications of aptamers.

  4. Early Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China: A Family Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueyun; Long, Toby; Chen, Lianjun; Fang, Junming

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were first reported in China in 1982. Since then, autism and other related disorders have been recognized by both the public and professionals. The importance of early intervention for children with ASD is becoming more accepted throughout China. A survey was designed to investigate the status of early intervention…

  5. Developing scales measuring disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty (DSIU) : a new perspective on transdiagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring

  6. Disturbing, Disordered or Disturbed? Perspectives on the Definition of Problem Behavior in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…

  7. Do Developmental Communication Disorders Exist in the Signed Modality? Perspectives from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.; Singleton, Jenny L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on whether developmental communication disorders exist in American Sign Language (ASL) and how they might be characterized. ASL studies is an emerging field; educators and clinicians have minimal access to descriptions of communication disorders of the signed modality. Additionally, there are limited resources for…

  8. Transdiagnostic vs. disorder-focused perspective in children and adolescents with eating disorders: Findings from a large multisite exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O; Maestro, S; Rossi, G; Calderoni, S; Giombini, L; Scardigli, S; Ragione, L Dalla; Muratori, F

    2018-03-01

    The transdiagnostic model of eating disorders (ED) proposes common cognitive mechanisms in patients with ED psychopathology. Little is known about their role in the maintenance of ED in children and adolescents. This study aimed to determine whether the relationships between key factors (low self-esteem, weight and shape control, clinical perfectionism, interpersonal problems, distress and mood instability) and core maintaining mechanisms (binge-eating and restraint) would support a transdiagnostic theory in young patients. A total of 419 patients (mean age 14.7 ± 2.14 years; age range: 7-18 years; males 13.8%) diagnosed with an ED were assessed in six Italian clinical centers in 2013. Multiple comparisons between ED diagnosis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed. Of the entire collective, 51.5% of patients were diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 12.3% were diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 36.2% with Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). In PCA, the core ED mechanisms, dietary restraint and binge eating, acted as poles of attraction of the other variables. The AN group was particularly linked to restraint and the BN group was particularly related to "Bulimia". Considering the diagnostic subtypes, there were no significant differences between the anorexic binge-purging group, bulimic purging group and bulimic non-purging group, which constituted a unique cluster related to affective, interpersonal problems and to perfectionism, indicating a very homogeneous subgroup. Restricting anorexic group (AN-R), related to shape concern and anxious-depressed mood, was not linked to the other subtypes. EDNOS appeared to be opposed to the AN-R group; the binge eating disorder group appeared to be independent from others. Our results suggest the presence of both specific and transdiagnostic mechanisms in ED subtypes, whose knowledge is of relevance for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

  9. Challenges and future perspectives of T cell immunotherapy in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Malhotra, Anshu; Mishra, Manoj K; Shanker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the tumour immunosurveillance theory, considerable focus has been on enhancing the effectiveness of host antitumour immunity, particularly with respect to T cells. A cancer evades or alters the host immune response by various ways to ensure its development and survival. These include modifications of the immune cell metabolism and T cell signaling. An inhibitory cytokine milieu in the tumour microenvironment also leads to immune suppression and tumour progression within a host. This review traces the development in the field and attempts to summarize the hurdles that the approach of adoptive T cell immunotherapy against cancer faces, and discusses the conditions that must be improved to allow effective eradication of cancer. PMID:26096822

  10. Grafting of human epidermal cells, presence and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, Karel; Dvořánková, B.; Labský, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří; Holíková, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2001), s. 1-6 ISSN 0036-5327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1310; GA AV ČR IBS4050005; GA MZd ND6340; GA MŠk LN00A065; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cell therapy-keratinocyte-epidermal stem cell * skin defect Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. A drug development perspective on targeting tumor-associated myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majety, Meher; Runza, Valeria; Lehmann, Christian; Hoves, Sabine; Ries, Carola H

    2018-02-01

    Despite decades of research, cancer remains a devastating disease and new treatment options are needed. Today cancer is acknowledged as a multifactorial disease not only comprising of aberrant tumor cells but also the associated stroma including tumor vasculature, fibrotic plaques, and immune cells that interact in a complex heterotypic interplay. Myeloid cells represent one of the most abundant immune cell population within the tumor stroma and are equipped with a broad functional repertoire that promotes tumor growth by suppressing cytotoxic T cell activity, stimulating neoangiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Therefore, myeloid cells have become an attractive target for pharmacological intervention. In this review, we summarize the pharmacological approaches to therapeutically target tumor-associated myeloid cells with a focus on advanced programs that are clinically evaluated. In addition, for each therapeutic strategy, the preclinical rationale as well as advantages and challenges from a drug development perspective are discussed. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Cancer cell metastasis; perspectives from the focal adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefteris C Zacharia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In almost all cancers, most patients die from metastatic disease and not from the actual primary tumor. That is why addressing the problem of metastasis is of utmost importance for the successful treatment and improved survival of cancer patients. Metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to cancer cells spreading from the tumor to distant sites of the body. During this process, cancer cells tend to lose contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM and neighboring cells within the primary tumor, and are thus able to invade surrounding tissues. Hence, ECM, and the ECM-associated adhesion proteins play a critical role in the metastatic process. This review will focus on recent literature regarding interesting and novel molecules at the cell-ECM adhesion sites, namely migfilin, mitogen-inducible gene-2 (Mig-2 and Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1, that are also critically involved in cancer cell metastasis, emphasizing on data from experiments performed in vitro in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as well as human breast cancer tissue samples.

  13. PANCREATIC AND EXTRA-PANCREATIC EFFECTS OF INCRETINS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR STUDYING ENTEROINSULIN HORMONAL SYSTEM DURING GESTATIONAL DISORDER OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.

  14. Combining Patient-Reprogrammed Neural Cells and Proteomics as a Model to Study Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccoli, Giuliana S; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Guest, Paul C; Rehen, Stevens K; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders are still poorly known. Most of the studies about these disorders have been conducted on postmortem tissue or in limited preclinical models. The development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has helped to increase the translational capacity of molecular profiling studies of psychiatric disorders through provision of human neuronal-like tissue. This approach consists of generation of pluripotent cells by genetically reprogramming somatic cells to produce the multiple neural cell types as observed within the nervous tissue. The finding that iPSCs can recapitulate the phenotype of the donor also affords the possibility of using this approach to study both the disease and control states in a given medical area. Here, we present a protocol for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to neural progenitor cells followed by subcellular fractionation which allows the study of specific cellular organelles and proteomic analysis.

  15. Expression weighted cell type enrichments reveal genetic and cellular nature of major brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Gerald Skene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesised that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models.

  16. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  17. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-02-19

    The development of new devices for the use and storage of solar energy is a key step to enable a new sustainable energy scenario. The route for direct solar-to-chemical energy transformation, especially to produce liquid fuels, represents a necessary element to realize transition from the actual energy infrastructure. Photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) devices for the production of solar fuels are a key element to enable this sustainable scenario. The development of PECa devices and related materials is of increasing scientific and applied interest. This concept paper introduces the need to turn the viewpoint of research in terms of PECa cell design and related materials with respect to mainstream activities in the field of artificial photosynthesis and leaves. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. The fundamental and applied development of new materials and electrodes for these cells should proceed fully integrated with PECa cell design and systematic analysis. A new possible approach to develop semiconductors with improved performances by using visible light is also shortly presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Help across the spectrum: a developmental pediatrician's perspective on diagnosing and treating autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by marked deficits in social interaction and communication with unusually restricted interests, have a tremendous impact on society and are increasingly being diagnosed. Increased developmental screening, use of standardized diagnostic tests, and a broadening of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria might account for the increased incidence. Evidence-based treatments for children with ASD, reviewed by the National Standards Project, are primarily behavioral interventions with foundations in the sciences of applied behavior analysis and developmental psychology and emphasize improved functional communication and social reciprocity.

  19. "… Trial and error …": Speech-language pathologists' perspectives of working with Indigenous Australian adults with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Frances Clare; Brown, Louise; Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Plant, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    This study explored speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives about factors that influence clinical management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with acquired communication disorders (e.g. aphasia, motor speech disorders). Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, seven SLPs working in North Queensland, Australia with experience working with this population participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify categories and overarching themes within the data. Four categories, in relation to barriers and facilitators, were identified from participants' responses: (1) The Practice Context; (2) Working Together; (3) Client Factors; and (4) Speech-Language Pathologist Factors. Three overarching themes were also found to influence effective speech pathology services: (1) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Practices; (2) Information and Communication; and (3) Time. This study identified many complex and inter-related factors which influenced SLPs' effective clinical management of this caseload. The findings suggest that SLPs should employ a flexible, holistic and collaborative approach in order to facilitate effective clinical management with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with acquired communication disorders.

  20. Concise review: carbon nanotechnology: perspectives in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzhkova, Marina V

    2013-05-01

    Carbon nanotechnology has developed rapidly during the last decade, and carbon allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes, have already found a wide variety of applications in industry, high-tech fields, biomedicine, and basic science. Electroconductive nanomaterials have attracted great attention from tissue engineers in the design of remotely controlled cell-substrate interfaces. Carbon nanoconstructs are also under extensive investigation by clinical scientists as potential agents in anticancer therapies. Despite the recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. However, acquired experience with and knowledge of carbon nanomaterials may be efficiently used in the development of future personalized medicine and in tissue engineering.

  1. Building the hydrogen/fuel cell industry: an EDC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canada has world-leading expertise in a number of hydrogen and fuel cell research segments. However, there are no guarantees that a strong research position necessarily translates into a large industry sector. The challenge facing Canada is to remain a leader in the coming years and decades as this hub of research activity evolves into an actual business sector. Many other countries are actively investing in hydrogen and fuel cell research. If these countries and their national governments are more committed than Canada to this commercial pursuit, then we will be left behind. Mr. Stothart's presentation will highlight a number of observations and recommendations regarding what is needed to build a successful hydrogen and fuel cell sector in Canada. (author)

  2. Systems biology perspectives on minimal and simpler cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  4. A disorder of anger and aggression: children's perspectives on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ilina

    2011-09-01

    This article investigates the social and moral dimensions of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, asking what ADHD means in UK children's everyday lives, and what children do with this diagnosis. Drawing on interviews with over 150 children, the analysis examines the influence of a UK state school-based culture of aggression on the form and intensity of diagnosed children's difficulties with behavioral self-control. Diagnosed children's mobilization of ADHD behaviors and their exploitation of the diagnosis shows how children's active moral agency can support and compromise cognitive, behavioral and social resilience. The findings support a proposal for a complex sociological model of ADHD diagnosis and demonstrate the relevance of this model for national policy initiatives related to mental health and wellbeing in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Heart muscle was a favorite source of this reagent. ... was a freezing microtome, the gadget used for making the frozen ... covered the linear relationship between the growth rate ..... dency on medium and temperature of cell size and chemical.

  6. Thin film solar cells: research in an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoff, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight is a technology in strong growth. The thin film technology is taking market share from the dominant silicon wafer technology. In this article, the market for photovoltaics is reviewed, the concept of photovoltaic solar energy conversion is discussed and more details are given about the present technological limitations of thin film solar cell technology. Special emphasis is given for solar cells which employ Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) and Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) as the sunlight-absorbing layer.

  7. Histaminergic system in brain disorders: lessons from the translational approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Diego; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Castro, Kamila; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2014-01-01

    Histamine and its receptors were first described as part of immune and gastrointestinal systems, but their presence in the central nervous system and importance in behavior are gaining more attention. The histaminergic system modulates different processes including wakefulness, feeding, and learning and memory consolidation. Histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R) belong to the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors, present constitutive activity, and are subjected to inverse agonist action. The involvement of the histaminergic system in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, drug dependence, and Parkinson's disease, is largely studied. Data obtained from preclinical studies point antagonists of histamine receptors as promising alternatives to treat brain disorders. Thus, clinical trials are currently ongoing to assess the effects of these drugs on humans. This review summarizes the role of histaminergic system in brain disorders, as well as the effects of different histamine antagonists on animal models and humans.

  8. Progress, challenges and perspectives in flexible perovskite solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, F.; Fakharuddin, A.; Jose, R.; Brown, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous interest since their discovery only a few years ago because they are able to combine the benefits of high efficiency and remarkable ease of processing over large areas. Whereas most of research has been carried out on glass, perovskite deposition and

  9. Spectral perspective on the electromagnetic activity of cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Ondřej; Červinková, Kateřina; Nerudová, Michaela; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 513-522 ISSN 1568-0266 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29294S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic activity of cells * Bioelectromagnetism * Molecular vibrations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.900, year: 2015

  10. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  11. Diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosing neurological disorders in children: a pediatric neurologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has provided a way to measure early changes in cellular function in the central nervous system. It has permitted rapid, less invasive diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders that were once thought to be untreatable. DWI has also created new avenues of research and alternative ways to measure study outcomes. Seven clinical cases illustrate how DWI enhances the ability of the pediatric neurologist to rapidly diagnose acute neurological disorders in infants and children. (orig.)

  12. Evolutionary Perspectives on Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C

    2018-05-07

    Evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary theory to help elucidate why humans are vulnerable to disease and disorders. I discuss two different types of evolutionary explanations that have been used to help understand human psychiatric disorders. First, a consistent finding is that psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable, and many, such as schizophrenia, are also highly disabling and appear to decrease Darwinian fitness. Models used in evolutionary genetics to understand why genetic variation exists in fitness-related traits can be used to understand why risk alleles for psychiatric disorders persist in the population. The usual explanation for species-typical adaptations-natural selection-is less useful for understanding individual differences in genetic risk to disorders. Rather, two other types of models, mutation-selection-drift and balancing selection, offer frameworks for understanding why genetic variation in risk to psychiatric (and other) disorders exists, and each makes predictions that are now testable using whole-genome data. Second, species-typical capacities to mount reactions to negative events are likely to have been crafted by natural selection to minimize fitness loss. The pain reaction to tissue damage is almost certainly such an example, but it has been argued that the capacity to experience depressive symptoms such as sadness, anhedonia, crying, and fatigue in the face of adverse life situations may have been crafted by natural selection as well. I review the rationale and strength of evidence for this hypothesis. Evolutionary hypotheses of psychiatric disorders are important not only for offering explanations for why psychiatric disorders exist, but also for generating new, testable hypotheses and understanding how best to design studies and analyze data.

  13. A Perspective on the Role of microRNA-128 Regulation in Mental and Behavioral Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Ai-Sze; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Over the past decade, misregulated miRNA pathways have been associated with various diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we aim to discuss the role played by miR-128 in neuropsychiatric disorders, and highlight potential target genes from an in silico analysis of predicted miR-128 targets. We also discuss the differences of target ...

  14. [Perspectives of cell therapy in sequelae from cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Laura; Zurita, Mercedes; Bonilla, Celia; Aguayo, Concepción; Rico, Miguel Angel; Vaquero, Jesús

    2012-09-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with mortality between 40 and 50% of cases. Among the survivors, only 10% are independent after one month, there is no effective treatment of sequelae, except for the limited possibilities providing for rehabilitation. We review the current experience with intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow as a potential treatment of neurological sequelae occurring after experimental ICH. We describe the model of ICH by intracerebral administration of collagenaseIV at basal ganglia level in Wistar rats. Neurological deficits caused by ICH can be quantified through a variety of functional assessment test (NMSS, Rota-rod, VTB-test). 5×10allogeneic MSCs in 10μl of saline were administered intracerebrally in 10 animals, 2 months after ICH. In another 10 animals (controls) the same volume of saline was administered. Changes in the functional deficits were assessed during the next 6 months in both experimental groups. The results suggested therapeutic efficacy of MSCs transplantation and showed that transplanted stem cells can survive in the injured brain, transforming into neurons and glial cells. This form of cell therapy induces reactivation of endogenous neurogenesis at the subventricular zone (SVZ) and achieves antiapoptotic protective effect in the injured brain. Cell therapy represents an important field of research with potential clinical application to treatment of neurological sequels, currently considered irreversible. Neurosurgeons should become involved in the development of these new techniques that are likely to shape the future of this specialty. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating Disorder Public Service Announcements: Analyzing Effects from an Intergroup Affect and Stereotype Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A.; Seate, Anita Atwell; Waks, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have documented that exposure to stereotypical information about certain social groups leads to unfavorable perceptions and feelings toward that group. Integrating insights from the mental illness stigma and the social identity perspective literatures, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of eating disorder…

  16. Revisiting the etiological aspects of dissociative identity disorder: a biopsychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şar, Vedat; Dorahy, Martin J; Krüger, Christa

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology. Enduring decoupling of psychological modes may create separate senses of self, and metamemory processes may be involved in interidentity amnesia. Neurobiological differences have been demonstrated between dissociative identities within patients with DID and between patients with DID and controls. Given the current evidence, DID as a diagnostic entity cannot be explained as a phenomenon created by iatrogenic influences, suggestibility, malingering, or social role-taking. On the contrary, DID is an empirically robust chronic psychiatric disorder based on neurobiological, cognitive, and interpersonal non-integration as a response to unbearable stress. While current evidence is sufficient to firmly establish this etiological stance, given the wide opportunities for innovative research, the disorder is still understudied. Comparison of well-selected samples of DID patients with non-dissociative subjects who have other psychiatric disorders would further delineate the neurobiological and cognitive features of the disorder, whereas genetic research on DID would further illuminate the interaction of the individual with environmental stress. As such, DID may be seen as an exemplary disease model of the biopsychosocial paradigm in psychiatry.

  17. New diagnostic perspectives on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and its links with other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), its epidemiology and efforts to better understand the relationships between OCPD and other conditions. The alternative Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders conceptualization of OCPD is radically different in that it combines categorical and dimensional diagnostic approaches and introduces a hierarchy of diagnostic criteria. OCPD is one of the most common personality disorders in the general population. The relationship between OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is important, but to a large extent obfuscated by the overlap between their diagnostic criteria. Frequent changes in the OCPD diagnostic criteria make it difficult to ascertain the 'true' relationship between OCPD and OCD. It is not uncommon for OCPD to occur with anorexia nervosa, depression, hypochondriasis, certain other personality disorders and Parkinson's disease, but further research is necessary to understand the implications of these links. OCPD is yet to be conceptualized consistently and in the manner that would make a clear and well supported distinction between its core and peripheral features. Future studies need to separate a genuine from overlap-driven co-occurrence of OCPD and other conditions, as that would give a better insight into the way in which OCPD relates to other disorders.

  18. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  19. Non-Small Cell Carcinoma Biomarker Testing: The Pathologist's Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eBrega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker testing has become standard of care for patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. Although it can be successfully performed in circulating tu-mor cells, at present, the vast majority of investigations are carried out using di-rect tumor sampling, either through aspiration methods, which render most often isolated cells, or tissue sampling, that could range from minute biopsies to large resections. Consequently, pathologists play a central role in this process. Recent evidence suggests that refining NSCLC diagnosis might be clinically signifi-cant, particularly in cases of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC, which in turn, has prompted a new proposal for the histologic classification of such pulmonary neo-plasms. These changes, in conjunction with the mandatory incorporation of biomarker testing in routine NSCLC tissue processing, have directly affected the pathologist’s role in lung cancer work-up. This new role pathologists must play is complex and demanding, and requires a close interaction with surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and molecular pathologists. Pathologists often find themselves as the central figure in the coordination of a process, that involves assuring that the tumor samples are properly fixed, but without disruption of the DNA structure, obtaining the proper diagnosis with a minimum of tissue waste, providing pre-analytical evaluation of tumor samples selected for biomarker testing, which includes assessment of the proportion of tumor to normal tissues, as well as cell viability, and assuring that this entire pro-cess happens in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is part of the pathologist’s respon-sibilities to assure that the samples received in their laboratories, be processed in a manner that allows for optimal biomarker testing. This article goal is to discuss the essential role pathologists must play NSCLC bi-omarker testing, as well as to provide a summarized review of the main NSCLC bi-omarkers of

  20. Perspective role of stem cells application in neuropsychiatric research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2003), s. 148 ISSN 0924-977X. [Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology /16./. Prague, 20.09.2003-24.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA ČR GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.842, year: 2003

  1. Mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells: general insights and clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomer HD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Helena D Zomer,1 Atanásio S Vidane,1 Natalia N Gonçalves,1 Carlos E Ambrósio2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells have awakened a great deal of interest in regenerative medicine due to their plasticity, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. They are high-yield and can be acquired through noninvasive methods from adult tissues. Moreover, they are nontumorigenic and are the most widely studied. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be derived directly from adult cells through gene reprogramming. The new iPS technology avoids the embryo destruction or manipulation to generate pluripotent cells, therefore, are exempt from ethical implication surrounding embryonic stem cell use. The pre-differentiation of iPS cells ensures the safety of future approaches. Both mesenchymal stem cells and iPS cells can be used for autologous cell transplantations without the risk of immune rejection and represent a great opportunity for future alternative therapies. In this review we discussed the therapeutic perspectives using mesenchymal and iPS cells. Keywords: cell transplantation, cell therapy, iPS, MSC

  2. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  3. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  4. Revisiting the etiological aspects of dissociative identity disorder: a biopsychosocial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vedat Şar,1 Martin J Dorahy,2 Christa Krüger3 1Department of Psychiatry, Koç University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Dissociative identity disorder (DID is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology. Enduring decoupling of psychological modes may create separate senses of self, and metamemory processes may be involved in interidentity amnesia. Neurobiological differences have been demonstrated between dissociative identities within patients with DID and between patients with DID and controls. Given the current evidence, DID as a diagnostic entity cannot be explained as a phenomenon created by iatrogenic influences, suggestibility, malingering, or social role-taking. On the contrary, DID is an empirically robust chronic psychiatric disorder based on neurobiological, cognitive, and interpersonal non-integration as a response to unbearable stress. While current evidence is sufficient to firmly establish this etiological stance, given the wide opportunities for innovative research, the disorder is still understudied. Comparison of well-selected samples of DID patients with non-dissociative subjects who have other psychiatric disorders would further delineate the neurobiological and cognitive features of the disorder, whereas genetic research on DID would further illuminate the interaction of the individual with environmental stress. As such

  5. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    kinetics, and on the other of electrophysiology in cell membranes, seldom ... Consider the effects that would arise from spatially coupling such ... electrical potential to make it a partial differential equa- tion. ... tended to two dimensions, then to three dimensions after ..... Some of these other conjectures stem from observation.

  7. Oncogenic Notch signaling in T-cell and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mark Y; Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    This article highlights recent discoveries about Notch activation and its oncogenic functions in lymphoid malignancies, and discusses the therapeutic potential of Notch inhibition. NOTCH mutations arise in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies and are increasingly scrutinized as putative therapeutic targets. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), NOTCH1 mutations affect the extracellular negative regulatory region and lead to constitutive Notch activation, although mutated receptors remain sensitive to Notch ligands. Other NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL and NOTCH1/2 mutations in multiple B-cell malignancies truncate the C-terminal proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), threonine (T)-rich (PEST) domain, leading to decreased Notch degradation after ligand-mediated activation. Thus, targeting Notch ligand-receptor interactions could provide therapeutic benefits. In addition, we discuss recent reports on clinical testing of Notch inhibitors in T-ALL that influenced contemporary thinking on the challenges of targeting Notch in cancer. We review advances in the laboratory to address these challenges in regards to drug targets, the Notch-driven metabolome, and the sophisticated protein-protein interactions at Notch-dependent superenhancers that underlie oncogenic Notch functions. Notch signaling is a recurrent oncogenic pathway in multiple T- and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Understanding the complexity and consequences of Notch activation is critical to define optimal therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway.

  8. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  9. Experiences of emergency department care from the perspective of families in which a child has autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Muskat, Barbara; Craig, William R; Newton, Amanda S; Kilmer, Christopher; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Cohen-Silver, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly recognized as difficult. Communication, sensory and behavioral challenges in a high intensity environment pose risks for negative experiences and outcomes. Through semi-structured interviews, parents (n = 31) and their children (n = 4) with ASD shared their perspectives on ED care. Participants identified issues that negatively affected care experiences, including care processes, communication issues, insufficient staff knowledge about ASD, and inadequate partnership with parents. Elements contributing to an improved ED experience were also cited, including staff knowledge about ASD, child- and family-centered care, and clarity of communication. Findings inform an emerging model of ED care. Recommendations for capacity building and practice development are offered.

  10. Moving the field forward: commentary for the special series "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Hadjipavlou, George A; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-10-01

    Comments on the articles by A. E. Skodol et al. (see record 2013-24395-001), E. Ronningstam (see record 2014-42878-005), D. Diamond et al. (see record 2014-42878-004), and A. L. Pincus et al. (see record 2014-01439-001). These articles in this special issue, "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment", provide useful guidance for all clinicians working with patients with narcissistic pathology, particularly those who may not have considered narcissism as an underlying cause of a patient's presenting difficulties or as a contributor to therapeutic impasse. Taken together, they offer a more conceptually sophisticated approach to NPD than the constraining criteria of the DSM, and make a compelling case that it is time for NPD and pathological narcissism to receive greater clinical and research attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Normal personality, personality disorder and psychosis: current views and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran; Janca, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent literature examining the occurrence of psychotic experiences in normal population and those with personality disorders. Up to 15% of individuals in the general population report some type or degree of psychotic experience. Most of these individuals function adequately, do not require psychiatric treatment and do not receive diagnosis of a psychotic illness. A significant number of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (25-50%) also report psychotic symptoms. These are not easily differentiated from the psychotic symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia, nor are they always transient. However, emerging research has confirmed that individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are dimensionally related to those with schizophrenia and are at an increased risk of transition to psychosis. Psychotic symptoms are best considered as 'trans-diagnostic' entities on a continuum from normal to pathological. There is a large body of evidence for a dimensional relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. There is also a significant amount of research showing that psychotic symptoms in borderline personality disorder are frequent, nontransient and represent a marker of illness severity. This review highlights the need to move beyond traditional assumptions and categorical boundaries when evaluating psychotic experiences and psychopathological phenomena.

  12. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  13. Perspectives on the Trypanosoma cruzi–host cell receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Fernando; Scharfstein, Julio; Ashton, Anthony W.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Guan, Fangxia; Mukherjee, Shankar; Lima, Maria F.; Alvarez, Sandra; Weiss, Louis M.; Huang, Huan; Machado, Fabiana S.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The critical initial event is the interaction of the trypomastigote form of the parasite with host receptors. This review highlights recent observations concerning these interactions. Some of the key receptors considered are those for thromboxane, bradykinin, and for the nerve growth factor TrKA. Other important receptors such as galectin-3, thrombospondin, and laminin are also discussed. Investigation into the molecular biology and cell biology of host receptors for T. cruzi may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:19283409

  14. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  15. Delayed sleep phase disorder: clinical perspective with a focus on light therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro MG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal norms. Individuals with DSPD exhibit long sleep latencies when attempting to sleep at conventional bedtimes. Circadian sleep disorders such as DSPD can occur when there is misalignment between sleep timing and societal norms. This review discusses studies using light therapy to advance the timing of sleep in adolescents and college students, in particular on those suffering from DSPD. A discussion on how to increase effectiveness of light therapy in the field will also be provided.Keywords: circadian, melatonin, light, sleep, sleep phase disorder, adolescents

  16. Experience of nervousness and anxiety disorders in Puerto Rican women: psychiatric and ethnopsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of case materials describe variations in the experiences of Puerto Rican women diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder, in treatment with mental health clinicians, physicians, or traditional healers. Their common complaints are examined as core symbolic elements in culturally patterned complexes of meanings focused around personal trauma, stressful life events, personal and social reactions, expectations about treatment, and the course of illness. Many of these women report themselves to be "nervous," to be "sick from nerves," or to have had an "ataque de nervios." "Nervousness" is the base symbolic domain in Puerto Rico of what psychiatry labels "anxiety disorder," although it is also a common complaint of many disorders. What "nervousness" means to patients/clients and their clinicians or healers is examined within the frames of multilayered popular and biomedical interpretations. The special difficulties of women in Puerto Rico are highlighted, and psychiatric and ethnopsychological (Spiritist) models of etiology and treatment are compared.

  17. Eating disorders among adolescents in South African public schools – a biblical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoeman

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Society’s obsession with thinness and body image is part of every school’s hidden curriculum. The ideal to be skinny and thin resulted in an escalation in eating disorders among adolescents in South Africa. Some of the learners are only in the senior phase (Grades 7 to 9 of the general education and training band. It is therefore timely to review the problem of eating disorders, especially among adolescents in South African public schools. The purpose of this article is firstly to provide policy-makers, curriculum developers, educational ad-ministrators and educators with knowledge of the biblical view of health and to illustrate the pedagogical potential of such a view. Secondly the purpose is to assist Christian educators in teaching learners in public schools the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to counteract eating disorders by using, among other things, biblical truths.

  18. Psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media: is there a link? a central European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawka Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A content analysis was used to describe the association between psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods Articles were chosen from the most widely read daily newspapers and magazines in both countries during five one-week periods in 2007. A coding manual was developed and a content analysis was performed. Aggressive behavior was assessed by two separate categories - the role of the mentally ill person in the violent act (perpetrator/victim and the type of aggressive act (homicide, suicide. Results A total of 375 articles were analyzed. Main findings: 1 The proportion of articles depicting psychiatric disorders together with either self- or other-directed aggressive behavior is 31.2%; 2 Homicide was most frequently mentioned in the context of psychotic disorders and schizophrenia, while affective disorders were most frequently associated with both completed suicides and homicides; 3 Eating disorders and anxiety disorders were seldom associated with any kind of aggressive behavior, including self-harm; 4 The vast majority of articles presented mentally ill people as perpetrators, and these articles were more often coded as stigmatizing. 5 Articles with aggressive behavior mentioned on the cover are roughly as frequent as those with aggressive behavior in the later sections of the media (36.7% vs. 30.7%. Conclusions The results are similar to the findings in countries with longer histories of consistent advocacy for improved depiction of mental illness in the media. However, we have shown that persons with mental illness are still over-portrayed as perpetrators of violent crimes, especially homicides.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media: is there a link? a central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A content analysis was used to describe the association between psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods Articles were chosen from the most widely read daily newspapers and magazines in both countries during five one-week periods in 2007. A coding manual was developed and a content analysis was performed. Aggressive behavior was assessed by two separate categories - the role of the mentally ill person in the violent act (perpetrator/victim) and the type of aggressive act (homicide, suicide). Results A total of 375 articles were analyzed. Main findings: 1) The proportion of articles depicting psychiatric disorders together with either self- or other-directed aggressive behavior is 31.2%; 2) Homicide was most frequently mentioned in the context of psychotic disorders and schizophrenia, while affective disorders were most frequently associated with both completed suicides and homicides; 3) Eating disorders and anxiety disorders were seldom associated with any kind of aggressive behavior, including self-harm; 4) The vast majority of articles presented mentally ill people as perpetrators, and these articles were more often coded as stigmatizing. 5) Articles with aggressive behavior mentioned on the cover are roughly as frequent as those with aggressive behavior in the later sections of the media (36.7% vs. 30.7%). Conclusions The results are similar to the findings in countries with longer histories of consistent advocacy for improved depiction of mental illness in the media. However, we have shown that persons with mental illness are still over-portrayed as perpetrators of violent crimes, especially homicides. PMID:22409957

  20. Profile of sodium phenylbutyrate granules for the treatment of urea-cycle disorders: patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Quintana, Luis; Llarena, Marta; Reyes-Suárez, Desiderio; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine. Among the ammonia-scavenging drugs, sodium phenylbutyrate is a well-known long-term treatment of urea-cycle disorders. It has been used since 1987 as an investigational new drug, and was approved for marketing in the US in 1996 and the EU in 1999. However, sodium phenylbutyrate has an aversive odor and taste, which may compromise patients' compliance, and many patients have reported difficulty in taking this drug. Sodium phenylbutyrate granules are a new tasteless and odor-free formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate, which is indicated in the treatment of urea-cycle disorders. This recently developed taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules was designed to overcome the considerable issues that taste has on adherence to therapy. Several studies have reported the clinical experience of patients with urea-cycle disorders treated with this new tasteless formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate. Analysis of the data indicated that this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules improved quality of life for urea-cycle disorder patients. Furthermore, a postmarketing report on the use of the product has confirmed the previous observations of improved compliance, efficacy, and safety with this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate.

  1. Modern Perspectives on Numerical Modeling of Cardiac Pacemaker Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Victor A.; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V.; Stern, Michael D.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent “coupled-clock” theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies, such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age. PMID:24748434

  2. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  4. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV (2014), "7129-1"-"7129-11" ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell death * non-thermal plasma * therapeutic perspectives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; FH - Neurology (UEM-P); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  5. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  6. Multicentric primary extramammary Paget disease: a Toker cell disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Pantea; Kao, Grace F; Konia, Thomas; Kauffman, Lisa C; Tam, Christine C; Sina, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    Toker cells are epithelial clear cells found in the areolar and nipple areas of the breast, vulvar region, and other apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. Toker cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of clear cell papulosis, cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells, and rare cases of primary extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) but not in secondary EMPD with underlying adenocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of primary EMPD is not well defined. We report a case of multicentric primary EMPD with evidence of Toker cell proliferation and nonaggressive biologic behavior in a 63-year-old white man. A detailed description of the morphologic and biologic features of Toker cells and their possible carcinogenetic links also are discussed. Based on the observation and follow-up of our patient, we hypothesize that multicentric primary EMPD starts with Toker cell hyperplasia and can potentially evolve to carcinoma in the genital region.

  7. Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of Ocular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Priya Sivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented.

  8. Advances in Merkel cell carcinoma from a pathologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Sarah Kay

    2017-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rarely made but potentially devastating diagnosis. While local disease might be cured by surgery and radiotherapy, advanced disease is usually rapidly progressive and fatal. Until very recently, the only approach to metastatic MCC was cytotoxic chemotherapy with results so disappointing that current treatment guidelines discourage its use and recommend clinical trial as a more viable treatment option. Fortunately, recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this tumour have produced a wide variety of experimental treatments for MCC, some of which are quite promising. The most current information regarding the diagnosis, staging, management of this tumour is briefly presented as well as new insights into the molecular basis of MCC and therapeutic approaches to MCC. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transitions for Students with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder: Carer and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadova, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Danker, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Schooling transitions are often challenging experiences for students with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder (ID/ASD), their families, and their teachers. Transition processes, particularly planning, can facilitate successful transitions from primary to secondary schools, and to postschool settings. Bronfenbrenner's ecological…

  10. The Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Family: A Qualitative Study of Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Christopher E.; O'Hare, Lindsey; Powers, Joelle D.; Swick, Danielle C.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 730,000 Americans younger than age 21 in the United States have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and current trends predict 36,500 new diagnoses each year. Due to this rapid increase in ASD diagnoses, it is critical to understand the impact having a child with ASD has on a family's daily functioning to better coordinate services and…

  11. The Medical Home for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Pediatrician Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Paul S.; Behl, Diane D.; Azor, Virgina; Murphy, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines differences between perceptions of parents and pediatricians regarding the needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their families within the medical home. Two separate focus groups of parents of children with ASDs and pediatricians were conducted. Parents and pediatricians identify unmet needs…

  12. Crisis on Campus: Eating Disorder Intervention from a Developmental-Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia V.; Gibson, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review a crisis intervention using the developmental-ecological protocol (Collins and Collins, 2005) with a college student presenting with symptomatology of an active eating disorder. Participants: Participants included University Wellness Center employees responding to the crisis. Methods: Methods…

  13. Supporting Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at Secondary School: A Parent and Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale research project undertaken in July 2007, which focused on a group of students with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) currently attending a mainstream secondary school. Three focus groups were held with students in Years 9 and 11 and with their parents in order to explore current practice on…

  14. Improving Treatment Response for Paediatric Anxiety Disorders: An Information-Processing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Sarah; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered the treatment of choice for paediatric anxiety disorders, yet there remains substantial room for improvement in treatment outcomes. This paper examines whether theory and research into the role of information-processing in the underlying psychopathology of paediatric anxiety disorders indicate possibilities for improving treatment response. Using a critical review of recent theoretical, empirical and academic literature, the paper examines the role of information-processing biases in paediatric anxiety disorders, the extent to which CBT targets information-processing biases, and possibilities for improving treatment response. The literature reviewed indicates a role for attentional and interpretational biases in anxious psychopathology. While there is theoretical grounding and limited empirical evidence to indicate that CBT ameliorates interpretational biases, evidence regarding the effects of CBT on attentional biases is mixed. Novel treatment methods including attention bias modification training, attention feedback awareness and control training, and mindfulness-based therapy may hold potential in targeting attentional biases, and thereby in improving treatment response. The integration of novel interventions into an existing evidence-based protocol is a complex issue and faces important challenges with regard to determining the optimal treatment package. Novel interventions targeting information-processing biases may hold potential in improving response to CBT for paediatric anxiety disorders. Many important questions remain to be answered.

  15. Pre-Diagnostic and Diagnostic Stages of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Parent Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Venus; Yu, Yue; Keyes, Melissa L.; McGrew, John H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of parents receiving an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis for their child. Mixed methods were used to give a detailed account of the sequence of events, parents' experiences and actions associated with the ASD diagnosis. Parents waited nearly two and a half years (mean = 28.72 months) before receiving the…

  16. Emerging clinical trends and perspectives on comorbid patterns of mental disorders in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Tossani, Eliana; Bech, Per

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity is a well-established and documented phenomenon in mental disorders and medicine with heuristic value. The concept of comorbidity remains however poorly defined and lacks a comprehensive and coherent theoretical framework. There is a need to develop coherent methodological strategies...

  17. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD)…

  18. Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Comparisons of Young People and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2018-01-01

    This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…

  19. Barriers and facilitators to return to work in mental disorders : Multi-stakeholder perspective study (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Arends, I.; Lugtenberg, M.; van Gestel, J.A.W.M.; Schaapveld, B.C.T.M.; Terluin, B.; van Weeghel, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Brouwers, E.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the leading causes of disability worldwide and are a pressing issue for society. CMDs are the most prevalent causes of sickness absence and different stakeholders are involved in facilitating return to work. In this qualitative study, the

  20. The Developmental Trajectory of Borderline Personality Disorder and Peer Victimisation: Australian Family Carers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Julian; Lawn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Victimisation is a traumatic experience linked to development of Borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there is limited research investigating the developmental journey prior to BPD diagnosis. School environments offer an opportunity for BPD prevention and early intervention. A survey with 19 Australian family carers of people with BPD…

  1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Perspectives of Participants in the Identification and Treatment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Judy C.

    2001-01-01

    Questions the rising incidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) diagnosis in the United States. Suggests that AD/HD is a socially constructed phenomenon rather than biologically based. Urges educators, medical personnel, and parents to take a holistic view of each child, with a serious examination of the wide range of causation…

  2. Current Perspective on MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thal, Sascha B.; Lommen, Miriam J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper discusses the current literature with regard to substance-assisted psychotherapy with Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the development from MDMA’s early application in

  3. Video Modeling and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Survey of Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Guimond, Amy; Smith-Treadwell, Amanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Video modeling (VM) has shown promise as an effective intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about what may promote or prevent caregivers' use of this intervention. While VM is an effective tool to support skill development among a wide range of children in research and clinical settings, VM is…

  4. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  5. Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

  6. Parental Perspectives of Communication about Sexuality in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    To explore the content of communication about sexuality between parents and children with autism spectrum disorders, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children ages 6-13. Content analysis and ethnographic summary were used to interpret the data. Findings suggest that parent's perceptions of a child's behaviors and…

  7. Participation or Exclusion? Perspectives of Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders on Their Participation in Leisure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Stephanie; Coleyshaw, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The importance of active participation in leisure activities for everybody is identified by Carr (2004) but issues around leisure in the lives of children with disabilities have received little recognition. The experience of children/young people (henceforth referred to simply as children, for brevity) with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in…

  8. Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Sister's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen

    2016-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…

  9. Inequalities in healthcare provision for individuals with substance use disorders : Perspectives from healthcare professionals and clients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about inequalities in healthcare provision for individuals with substance use disorders. The main objective of this study was to assess expectations and perceptions of inequalities in healthcare provision among healthcare professionals (HCPs) and clients in treatment for

  10. Profile of sodium phenylbutyrate granules for the treatment of urea-cycle disorders: patient perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Quintana L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Peña-Quintana,1–3 Marta Llarena,2 Desiderio Reyes-Suárez,2 Luis Aldámiz-Echevarria4 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Unit, Universitario Materno-Infantil Hospital de Canarias, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 2Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, 3CIBEROBN, Madrid, 4Unit of Metabolism, Cruces University Hospital, BioCruces Health Research Institute, GCV-CIBER de Enfremedades Raras (CIBERER, Barakaldo, Spain Abstract: Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine. Among the ammonia-scavenging drugs, sodium phenylbutyrate is a well-known long-term treatment of urea-cycle disorders. It has been used since 1987 as an investigational new drug, and was approved for marketing in the US in 1996 and the EU in 1999. However, sodium phenylbutyrate has an aversive odor and taste, which may compromise patients’ compliance, and many patients have reported difficulty in taking this drug. Sodium phenylbutyrate granules are a new tasteless and odor-free formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate, which is indicated in the treatment of urea-cycle disorders. This recently developed taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules was designed to overcome the considerable issues that taste has on adherence to therapy. Several studies have reported the

  11. Perspectives for induced pluripotent stem cell technology: new insights into human physiology involved in somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoki; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-31

    Induced pluripotent stem cell technology makes in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells from individuals with various genetic backgrounds possible. By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. From these induced pluripotent stem cells, target cells and tissues can be generated after certain differentiation processes. These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. Therefore, the number of publications concerning induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been increasing rapidly, demonstrating that this technology has begun to infiltrate many aspects of stem cell biology and medical applications. In this review, we discuss the perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cell technology for modeling human diseases. In particular, we focus on the cloning event occurring through the reprogramming process and its ability to let us analyze the development of complex disease-harboring somatic mosaicism.

  12. Neural stem cell regulation, fibroblast growth factors, and the developmental origins of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna E Stevens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing appreciation for the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of many psychiatric disorders. Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. Neural stem cells (NSCs can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several recent research findings demonstrate that psychiatric illness may begin with abnormal specification, growth, expansion and differentiation of embryonic NSCs. For example, candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, autism and major depression include the signaling molecule Disrupted In Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1, the homeodomain gene engrailed-2 (EN-2, and several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including MET, brain-derived growth factor (BDNF and fibroblast growth factors (FGF, all of which have been shown to play important roles in NSCs or neuronal precursors. We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Hypotheses about how some of these factors relate to psychiatric disorders will be reviewed.

  13. Difficulties in everyday life: young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons' perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15-26) diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC). Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text) produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: "fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability" with the following subthemes: "difficult things," "stress and rest," and "when feelings and thoughts are a concern"; and the theme "struggling to find a life of one's own" with the following subthemes: "decide and carry out," "making life choices," and "taking care of oneself." Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons' everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge these young persons' problems.

  14. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  15. Modeling microenvironmental regulation of glioblastoma stem cells: a biomaterials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, John M.; Sirianni, Rachael W.

    2018-02-01

    Following diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation together yield a median patient survival of only 15 months. Importantly, standard treatments fail to address the dynamic regulation of the brain tumor microenvironment that actively supports tumor progression and treatment resistance. It is becoming increasingly recognized that specialized niches within the tumor microenvironment maintain a population of highly malignant glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs are resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that they may be responsible for the near universal rates of tumor recurrence and associated morbidity in GBM. Thus, disrupting microenvironmental support for GSCs could be critical to developing more effective GBM therapies. Three-dimensional (3D) culture models of the tumor microenvironment are powerful tools for identifying key biochemical and biophysical inputs that impact malignant behaviors. Such systems have been used effectively to identify conditions that regulate GSC proliferation, invasion, stem-specific phenotypes, and treatment resistance. Considering the significant role that GSC microenvironments play in regulating this tumorigenic sub-population, these models may be essential for uncovering mechanisms that limit GSCs malignancy.

  16. Perspective on Cancer Therapeutics Utilizing Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yeong Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for cancer screening, and the methods are performed depending on the origin site of cancer. Among these methods, biopsy followed by medical imaging is the most common. After cancer progression is determined, an optimal treatment—such as surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy—is selected. A new assay has been developed that detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs. Tracking changes in CTCs may reveal important tumoral sensitivity information or resistance patterns to specific regimens and prompt changes in therapy on a personalized basis. Characterization of CTCs at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels is important for gaining insight for clinical applications. A small number of CTCs can be analyzed to obtain genome information such as the progression of cancer including metastasis, even in a single cluster. Although many clinical studies, particularly CTC enumeration and detection of specific oncogene expression, have increased the success rate of diagnosis and predicting prognosis, there is no consensus regarding the technical approaches and various aspects of the methodology, making it difficult to standardize optimal methods for CTC analysis. However, ongoing technological advances are currently being achieved and large-scale clinical studies are being conducted. Applying CTC analysis in the clinic would be very useful for advancing diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and therapeutics.

  17. Stakeholders' perspective on issues and challenges associated with care and treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment disorders in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Monika; Islam, Amina M; Thompson, James P; Matchar, David B

    2011-11-01

    An expanding elderly population poses challenges for the provision of care and treatment for age-related physical and mental disorders. Cognitive impairment (CI)/dementia is one such mental disorder that is on the rise in Singapore and has concomitant implications for social and health systems. The objective of this study is to understand the perspectives of prominent stakeholders about current and future issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia among the elderly in Singapore. Using indepth interviews, this qualitative study obtained the views of multiple stakeholders on issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia in Singapore. The 30 individuals interviewed as part of the study included clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, community workers, administrators, and caregivers. Using a framework approach, interview texts were indexed into domains and issues by utilizing NVivo 9.0 software. The stakeholders expressed concerns related to multiple domains of the CI/dementia care system: attitude and awareness, economics, education, family caregiving, inputs to care system, living arrangements, prevention, screening and diagnosis, and treatment and management of care. Within each domain, multiple issues and challenges were identified by respondents. The study identifies a complex set of inter-related issues and challenges that are associated with the care and treatment of people with CI/dementia. The results suggest that CI and dementia profoundly affect patients, families, and communities and that the issues related to the two disorders are truly system-wide. These findings lay the foundation for utilization of a systems approach to studying CI/dementia and provide an analytic framework for future research on complex health care issues.

  18. Optical Phase Measurements of Disorder Strength Link Microstructure to Cell Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Will J; Steelman, Zachary A; Loomis, Brianna; Wax, Adam

    2017-02-28

    There have been sustained efforts on the part of cell biologists to understand the mechanisms by which cells respond to mechanical stimuli. To this end, many rheological tools have been developed to characterize cellular stiffness. However, measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties has been limited in scope by the nature of most microrheological methods, which require direct mechanical contact, applied at the single-cell level. In this article, we describe, to our knowledge, a new analysis approach for quantitative phase imaging that relates refractive index variance to disorder strength, a parameter that is linked to cell stiffness. Significantly, both disorder strength and cell stiffness are measured with the same phase imaging system, presenting a unique alternative for label-free, noncontact, single-shot imaging of cellular rheologic properties. To demonstrate the potential applicability of the technique, we measure phase disorder strength and shear stiffness across five cellular populations with varying mechanical properties and demonstrate an inverse relationship between these two parameters. The existence of this relationship suggests that predictions of cell mechanical properties can be obtained from examining the disorder strength of cell structure using this, to our knowledge, novel, noncontact technique. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    within these tissues, mast cell activation by antigen may also be amplified by SCF. Thus, KIT inhibitors may have potential application in multiple conditions linked to mast cells including systemic mastocytosis, anaphylaxis, and asthma. In this review, we discuss the role of KIT in the context of mast...... cells in these disease states and how recent advances in the development of inhibitors of KIT activity and function may offer novel therapies for the treatment of these disorders....

  20. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  1. [Social companies and solidary economy: perspectives for the work inclusion of individuals with mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, Isabela Aparecida de Oliveira; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas

    2011-04-01

    The psychiatric reform process requires the implementation of public policies that guarantee the work inclusion of individuals with mental disorders. To do this, work must be understood as a promoter of autonomy, emancipation and citizenship. The objective of this study is to reflect on the theoretical concepts related to social insertion through work, with the purpose of exploring the inclusion of individuals with mental disorders in the work market. The concepts social company and solidary economy where selected as fundamental for the study. In the social company, the subject is considered to be a social being, focusing on the development process towards emancipation. In solidary economy, the objective is to develop an economy that is more just, equal and solidary. Further discussions on these concepts should be developed to support the implementation of projects for social inclusion through work.

  2. New perspectives in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a disabling illness with a high worldwide prevalence. Patients demonstrate a debilitating preoccupation with one or more perceived defects, often marked by poor insight or delusional convictions. Multiple studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and various cognitive behavioral therapy modalities are effective first-line treatments in decreasing BDD severity, relieving depressive symptoms, restoring insight, and increasing quality of life. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also recently been shown to be effective for relapse prevention. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current understanding of BDD, including its clinical features, epidemiology, genetics, and current treatment modalities. Additional research is needed to fully elucidate the relationship between BDD and comorbid illnesses such as obsessive–compulsive-related disorders and depression and to develop therapies for refractory patients and those who have contraindications for pharmacological intervention.

  3. Beyond the Impasse – Reflections on Dissociative Identity Disorder from a Freudian–Lacanian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitske Meganck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative identity disorder (DID is a widely contested diagnosis. The dominant posttraumatic model (PTM considers early life trauma to be the direct cause of the creation of alter identities and assumes that working directly with alter identities should be at the core of the therapeutic work. The socio-cognitive model, on the other hand, questions the validity of the DID diagnosis and proposes an iatrogenic origin of the disorder claiming that reigning therapeutic and socio-cultural discourses create and reify the problem. The author argues that looking at the underlying psychical dynamics can provide a way out of the debate on the veracity of the diagnosis. A structural conception of hysteria is presented to understand clinical and empirical observations on the prevalence, appearance and treatment of DID. On a more fundamental level, the concept of identification and the fundamental division of human psychic functioning are proposed as crucial for understanding the development and treatment of DID.

  4. Beyond the Impasse – Reflections on Dissociative Identity Disorder from a Freudian–Lacanian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a widely contested diagnosis. The dominant posttraumatic model (PTM) considers early life trauma to be the direct cause of the creation of alter identities and assumes that working directly with alter identities should be at the core of the therapeutic work. The socio-cognitive model, on the other hand, questions the validity of the DID diagnosis and proposes an iatrogenic origin of the disorder claiming that reigning therapeutic and socio-cultural discourses create and reify the problem. The author argues that looking at the underlying psychical dynamics can provide a way out of the debate on the veracity of the diagnosis. A structural conception of hysteria is presented to understand clinical and empirical observations on the prevalence, appearance and treatment of DID. On a more fundamental level, the concept of identification and the fundamental division of human psychic functioning are proposed as crucial for understanding the development and treatment of DID. PMID:28559875

  5. Beyond the Impasse - Reflections on Dissociative Identity Disorder from a Freudian-Lacanian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a widely contested diagnosis. The dominant posttraumatic model (PTM) considers early life trauma to be the direct cause of the creation of alter identities and assumes that working directly with alter identities should be at the core of the therapeutic work. The socio-cognitive model, on the other hand, questions the validity of the DID diagnosis and proposes an iatrogenic origin of the disorder claiming that reigning therapeutic and socio-cultural discourses create and reify the problem. The author argues that looking at the underlying psychical dynamics can provide a way out of the debate on the veracity of the diagnosis. A structural conception of hysteria is presented to understand clinical and empirical observations on the prevalence, appearance and treatment of DID. On a more fundamental level, the concept of identification and the fundamental division of human psychic functioning are proposed as crucial for understanding the development and treatment of DID.

  6. Disorders of the pelvic floor and anal sphincters; a gastroenterologist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn M.M. Quigley, MD FRCP FACP FACG FRCPI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration and coordination of the musculature of the pelvic floor and the anal sphincters is critical to two important physiological functions: defecation and continence. Consequently, disorders affecting the pelvic floor muscles, the anal sphincters, their innervation or their precise coordination will, depending on their nature, result either in obstructed defecation or fecal incontinence. Both of these disorders are much more common in females and the latter, in particular, is linked with parity. While the symptomatology, presentation and optimal mode of investigation of fecal incontinence are well standardized, considerable debate and controversy continues to surround the contributions of pelvic floor and anal sphincter dysfunction to chronic constipation and the optimal clinical approach to their investigation remains to be defined. In appropriately chosen cases surgical intervention may provide the best outcome for sufferers from incontinence; biofeedback approaches may be of value in both incontinence and obstructed defecation and surgery has little role to play in the latter.

  7. Delayed sleep phase disorder: clinical perspective with a focus on light therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Mariana G

    2016-01-01

    Mariana G Figueiro Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal no...

  8. A Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from A Perspective of Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of man's life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, and the development in social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults along the autistic spectrum typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.

  9. Current Perspective on MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Thal, Sascha B.; Lommen, Miriam J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper discusses the current literature with regard to substance-assisted psychotherapy with Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the development from MDMA’s early application in psychotherapy to its present and future role in the treatment of PTSD. It is further attempted to increase the attention for MDMA’s therapeutic potential by providing a thorough depiction of the scientific...

  10. Use of drawings in children with pervasive developmental disorder during hospitalization: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatou, Athena

    2008-12-01

    The level and nature of emotional upheaval and relationship to developmental stage was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) hospitalized for head injury. The sample consisted of 25 hospitalized children aged 5-12 years. Children were asked to make the drawing of a ;person in hospital'. The drawings were evaluated by Koppitz's emotional indicators. Punishment and persecution were the main cognitive constructs of children in order to explain hospitalization.

  11. Strategies to reduce the stigma toward people with mental disorders in Iran: stakeholders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghva, Arsia; Farsi, Zahra; Javanmard, Yavar; Atashi, Afsaneh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali

    2017-01-14

    Stigma affects all aspects of mental disorders, and is the most important risk factor for promoting mental health. The aim of this study was to explore strategies effective in reducing the stigma toward people with mental disorders in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. The majority of them were stakeholders of mental health in Iran. Data were collected through eight individual interviews, two focus groups, and six written narratives. The data were collected, coded and analyzed simultaneously. Content analysis was employed to analyze the qualitative interview data. The major themes that emerged were: "Emphasis on education and changing attitudes", "Changing the culture", "Promoting supportive services", "Role of various organizations and institutions", "Integrated reform of structures and policies to improve the performance of custodians", and "Evidence-based actions". This study did not investigate the extent of stigma or its origins, rather it examines strategies appropriate for implementation in Iran. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for reducing the stigma attached to patients with mental disorders.

  12. [Generalized anxiety disorder, now and the future: a perspective to the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tempei

    2012-01-01

    Generalized, persistent, and free-floating anxiety was first described by Freud in 1894. The diagnostic term generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was not in classification systems until the publication of the diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III) in 1980. Initially considered as a residual category to be used when no other diagnosis could be made, it is not accepted that GAD represents a distinct diagnostic category yet. Since 1980, revisions to the diagnostic criteria for GAD in the DSM-III-R, DSM-IV and DSM-5 classifications have slightly redefined this disorder. The classification is fluid. The duration criterion has increased to 6 months in DSM-IV, but decreased to 3 months in DSM-5. This article reviews the development of diagnostic criteria for defining GAD from Freud to DSM-5 and compares the DSM-5 criterion with DSM-IV and the tenth revision of the International Classification of Disease. The impact of the changes in diagnostic criteria on research into GAD, and on diagnosis, differential diagnosis, will be discussed.

  13. Values as determinant of meaning among patients with psychiatric disorders in the perspective of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Vidal, Sonia; Mohr, Sylvia; Courtet, Philippe; Villain, Lucile; Girod, Chloé; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Olié, Emilie; Perroud, Nader

    2016-06-08

    Recovery is a personal process of growth that involves hope, self-identity, meaning in life and responsibility. Determinants of meaning have not been explored among populations of patients with persistent psychiatric conditions. However, an evidence-based approach aiming at assessing such determinants should provide some insight into the psychotherapeutic aspects of recovery. We tested a model hypothesizing that some symptoms and social parameters of patients are related to values, and secondarily to meaning in life, and in turn that meaning is associated with various parameters, such as depressiveness and self-esteem. We assessed 176 patients with schizophrenia, anorexia, borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. Overall, our hypotheses proved correct: firstly, characteristics such as depression, hopelessness, self-esteem and the number of relationships influenced values; secondly, the presence and an enactment of values were associated with meaning, and thirdly, meaning was associated with some symptoms and social characteristics. This model was confirmed in the four psychiatric populations under study. These results support the relevance of addressing values and meaning in the recovery-oriented care of patients with persistent psychiatric disorders, in addition to other psychosocial interventions which are more systematically considered in this area.

  14. A perspective on the role of microRNA-128 regulation in mental and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sze eChing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MiRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Over the past decade, misregulated miRNA pathways have been associated with various diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we aim to discuss the role played by miR-128 in neuropsychiatric disorders, and highlight potential target genes from an in silico analysis of predicted miR-128 targets. We also discuss the differences of target gene determination based on a bioinformatics or empirical approach. Using data from TargetScan and published reports, we narrowed the miR-128 target gene list to those that are known to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, and found that these genes can be classified into 29 gene clusters and are mostly enriched in cancer and MAPK signaling pathways. We also highlight some recent studies on several of the miR-128 targets which should be investigated further as potential candidate genes for therapeutic interventions.

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder and Religion: A perspective from a Muslim country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hafizi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are still many unanswered questions about psychological and social factors that may affect the development and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Religion/spirituality (R/S is a factor that could influence the lives of people with BPD.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between religiosity, religious attendance and borderline personality traits.Four hundred twenty- nine medical students of Tehran University of medical sciences participated in this study, and their information on demographics, responses to the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (the self-administered section on BPD was obtained.The total score of SCID-II questionnaire and the number of positive borderline personality characteristics on the SCID-II were inversely related with the DUREL total score and individual DUREL items. Those with higher levels of borderline personality traits had lower total DUREL score and lower DUREL subscale scores.Religiosity and religious attendance are negatively correlated with borderline personality traits, especially with anger, instability of mood, feeling of emptiness and self-harming behaviors. These findings are important for understanding the causes of BPD and in developing treatments for this disorder.

  16. A perspective on the contribution of animal models to the pharmacological treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaina-Anglade, Valerie; O'Connor, Susan M; Andriambeloson, Emile

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic, disabling disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. This review summarizes currently used animal models of PTSD and their potential role in the development of better therapeutics. Heterogeneity is one of the main characteristics of PTSD with the consequence that many pharmacological approaches are used to relieve symptoms of PTSD. To address the translational properties of the animal models, we discuss the types of stressors used, the rodent correlates of human PTSD (DSM-5) symptoms, and the efficacy of approved, recommended and off-label drugs used to treat PTSD in 'PTSD-animals'. Currently available animal models reproduce most PTSD symptoms and are validated by existing therapeutics. However, novel therapeutics are needed for this disorder as not one drug alleviates all symptoms and many have side effects that lead to non-compliance among PTSD patients. The true translational power of animal models of PTSD will only be demonstrated when new therapeutics acting through novel mechanisms become available for clinical practice.

  17. Neural correlates of somatoform disorders from a meta-analytic perspective on neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Somatoform disorders (SD) are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.

  18. Neural correlates of somatoform disorders from a meta-analytic perspective on neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Boeckle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatoform disorders (SD are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD. Ten out of 686 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Five neuronal areas differ between patients with SD and healthy controls namely the premotor and supplementary motor cortexes, the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the posterior cingulate cortex. These areas seem to have a particular importance for the occurrence of SD. Out of the ten studies two did not contribute to any of the clusters. Our results seem to largely overlap with the circuit network model of somatosensory amplification for SD. It is conceivable that functional disorders, independent of the clinical impression, show similar neurobiological processes. While overlaps do occur it is necessary to understand single functional somatic syndromes and their aetiology for future research, terminology, and treatment guidelines.

  19. Perspectives on research and development of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Martinez, A.; Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; rareli@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC), is an anoxic electrochemical bioreactor where bacteria grow in the absence of oxygen in a chamber containing an anode which it may be covered by a biofilm. Microorganisms anoxically oxidize the organic substrate and electrons generated are released to the anode. Released protons are transferred to the cathode. Natural or forced aeration of the cathode supplies the oxygen for the final reaction 2H{sup +} + 2e{sup -} + (1/2) O{sub 2} = H{sub 2}O. In this work, we present a critical review on MFC focused on subjects that are receiving a growing interest from the research and technological communities: (i) types of MFC, their relative advantages and disadvantages and ranges of application; (ii) development of biocathodes; (iii) enrichment procedures of microbial communities in MFC. Recent research shows that one-chamber fitted with cathode aerated by natural aeration, and other special types of high performance MFC, have displaced the historical two-chamber MFC. Recent studies showed that electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) can be successfully enriched in MFC. The cost and eventual poisoning of the platinum catalyst used at the cathode is a major limitation to MFC application and economic viability. Researchers have started working on the concept of biocathodes that would use bacteria instead of platinum as a biocatalyst. Microbial enrichment of inocula seeded to MFC may provide a way to enrich the consortium with EAB, thus substantially increasing the transfer of electrons to the anode. Bioaugmentation of consortia in MFC with strains EAB, could contribute to the same goal. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible microbianas (CCM) son un biorrector anoxico donde las bacterias crecen en ausencia de oxigeno en una camara que contiene un anodo que puede cubrirse con una biopelicula. Los microorganismos oxidan onoxicamente el sustrato organico y los electrones generados se liberan al anodo. Los protones liberados se transfieren al catodo. La

  20. Cell based-gene delivery approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2010-03-01

    Cell based-gene delivery has provided an important therapeutic strategy for different disorders in the recent years. This strategy is based on the transplantation of genetically modified cells to express specific genes and to target the delivery of therapeutic factors, especially for the treatment of cancers and neurological, immunological, cardiovascular and heamatopoietic disorders. Although, preliminary reports are encouraging, and experimental studies indicate functionally and structurally improvements in the animal models of different disorders, universal application of this strategy for human diseases requires more evidence. There are a number of parameters that need to be evaluated, including the optimal cell source, the most effective gene/genes to be delivered, the optimal vector and method of gene delivery into the cells and the most efficient route for the delivery of genetically modified cells into the patient. Also, some obstacles have to be overcome, including the safety and usefulness of the approaches and the stability of the improvements. Here, recent studies concerning with the cell-based gene delivery for spinal cord injury and some neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease are briefly reviewed, and their exciting consequences are discussed.

  1. Characteristics of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their role in immunological disorders (an update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Reza; Sharifi, Mehri; Shirvan, Aylar Saba; Azizi, Gholamreza; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a novel family of hematopoietic effectors and regulators of innate immunity. Although these cells are morphologically similar to B cells and T cells, however they do not express antigen receptors. ILCs seems to have emerging roles in innate immune responses against infectious or non-infectious microorganisms, protection of the epithelial barrier, lymphoid organogenesis and inflammation, tissue remodeling and regulating homeostasis of tissue stromal cells. In addition, it has recently been reported that ILCs have a crucial role in several disorders such as allergy and autoimmunity. Based on their phenotype and functions, ILCs are classified into three major groups called ILCs1, ILCs2, and ILCs3. Here we reviewed the most recent data concerning diverse ILC phenotypes, subclasses, functions in immune responses as well as in immune mediated disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disorder improves nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, U. W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de; Smeets, M.; Meier, M.; Bittkau, K.; Merdzhanova, T.; Smirnov, V.; Carius, R.; Rau, U. [IEK5—Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Michaelis, D.; Waechter, C. [Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Albert Einstein Str. 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    We present a systematic experimental study on the impact of disorder in advanced nanophotonic light-trapping concepts of thin-film solar cells. Thin-film solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared on imprint-textured glass superstrates. For periodically textured superstrates of periods below 500 nm, the nanophotonic light-trapping effect is already superior to state-of-the-art randomly textured front contacts. The nanophotonic light-trapping effect can be associated to light coupling to leaky waveguide modes causing resonances in the external quantum efficiency of only a few nanometer widths for wavelengths longer than 500 nm. With increasing disorder of the nanotextured front contact, these resonances broaden and their relative altitude decreases. Moreover, overall the external quantum efficiency, i.e., the light-trapping effect, increases incrementally with increasing disorder. Thereby, our study is a systematic experimental proof that disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light-trapping concepts employing grating couplers in thin-film solar cells. The result is relevant for the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping in thin-film solar cells which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasi periodic textures.

  3. The Mastocytosis Society survey on mast cell disorders: patient experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Susan; Russell, Nancy; Jennings, Blair; Slee, Valerie; Sterling, Lisa; Castells, Mariana; Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Mast cell diseases include mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes, some of which have been shown to involve clonal defects in mast cells that result in abnormal cellular proliferation or activation. Numerous clinical studies of mastocytosis have been published, but no population-based comprehensive surveys of patients in the United States have been identified. Few mast cell disease specialty centers exist in the United States, and awareness of these mast cell disorders is limited among nonspecialists. Accordingly, information concerning the experiences of the overall estimated population of these patients has been lacking. To identify the experiences and perceptions of patients with mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes, and related disorders, The Mastocytosis Society (TMS), a US based patient advocacy, research, and education organization, conducted a survey of its members and other people known or suspected to be part of this patient population. A Web-based survey was publicized through clinics that treat these patients and through TMS's newsletter, Web site, and online blogs. Both online and paper copies of the questionnaire were provided, together with required statements of consent. The first results are presented for 420 patients. These results include demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, allergies, provoking factors of mast cell symptoms, and disease impact. Patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes have provided clinical specialists, collaborators, and other patients with information to enable them to explore and deepen their understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people coping with these disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Crisis on campus: Eating disorder intervention from a developmental-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia V; Gibson, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review a crisis intervention using the developmental-ecological protocol (Collins and Collins, 2005) with a college student presenting with symptomatology of an active eating disorder. Participants included University Wellness Center employees responding to the crisis. Methods include an informal review of the crisis intervention response and application of the ABCDE developmental-ecological crisis model. Results reported include insight into crisis intervention when university counseling and health center is not available as resources. ABCDE Developmental-ecological model recommendations for university faculty and staff are included.

  5. Clinicians' perspective on an app for patient self-monitoring in eating disorder treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Pil; Clausen, Loa; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The Recovery Record smartphone app is a self-monitoring tool for individuals recovering from eating disorders. Oppositely to traditional pen-and-paper meal diaries, the app allows for in-app patient–clinician linkage enabling clinicians to access patient app data anytime. The aim of our...... with challenges associated with the app, for example, an added work load and potential harm to the patient–clinician collaboration. Thus, prior to adopting the app, we encourage clinicians and managements to discuss the objectives, advantages and disadvantages of adopting the app, and outline specific guidelines...

  6. [Internet and cell phone addiction: passing fad or disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Carbonell, Xavier; Beranuy, Marta; Castellana, Montserrat; Chamarro, Ander; Oberst, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) generate new styles of meeting people or connecting with friends or strangers. In this context, the internet and the mobile phone deserve special attention. This article deals with the maladaptive use of these technologies. By reviewing the literature published between 1991 and 2005 and indexed in the databases of PsycINFO, Medline, Psicodoc, IME, and ISOC, we aim to determine whether maladaptive use of these technologies can be considered a mental disorder, and if so, of which type. We describe the psychological phenomena of maladaptive use of the internet and mobile phones, we review research on prevalence and possible risk groups, and finally we discuss some of the criticisms made with regard to the existence and classification of this disorder. It is concluded that excessive use of the internet can lead to a mental disorder of the addictive type, which can particularly affect individuals with special emotional needs, as well as adolescents and young adults. Among specific applications of the internet, a major risk is found for the use of communicative and synchronic applications, such as chats and online role games, since they permit hyperpersonal communication, playing with different identities, and projections and dissociation without consequences in real life. Furthermore, the internet can play an important role in the development and maintenance of other addictions, such as pathological gambling and sex addiction. In contrast to the case of the internet, maladaptive use of mobile phones may be considered abuse, but not addiction, since their use does not lead to the rapid emotional changes or the playing with identities that can take place in chats and online role games.

  7. Age-old wisdom concerning cell-based therapies with added knowledge in the stem cell era: our perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethy S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senthilkumar Preethy,1,2 Sudhakar John,1 Jegatheesan Saravana Ganesh,1 Thangavelu Srinivasan,1 Hiroshi Terunuma,3 Masaru Iwasaki,4 Samuel J Abraham1,4 1Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine, 2Hope Foundation Trust, Chennai, India; 3Biotherapy Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 4Yamanashi University School of Medicine, Chuo, Japan Abstract: Among the various strategies providing a cure for illness, cell-based therapies have caught the attention of the world with the advent of the "stem cell" era. Our inherent understanding indicates that stem cells have been in existence since the birth of multicellular organisms. However, the formal discovery of stem cells in the last century, followed by their intricate and extensive analysis, has led to clinical and translational efforts with the aim of using them in the treatment of conditions which don't have a definitive therapeutic strategy, has fueled our interest and expectations. Technological advances in our ability to study their cellular components in depth, along with surface markers and other finer constituents, that were unknown until last century, have improved our understanding, leading to several novel applications. This has created a need to establish guidelines, and in that process, there are expressed understandings and views which describe cell therapy along lines similar to that of biologic products, drugs, and devices. However, the age-old wisdom of using cells as tools for curing illness should not be misled by recent knowledge, to make cell therapy using highly complex stem cells equal to factory-synthesized and reproducible chemical compounds, drugs, or devices. This article analyses the differences between these two entities from various perspectives. Keywords: cell transplantation, drugs, regenerative medicine, stem cells

  8. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S.; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model. PMID:29104555

  9. Assessing behavioural and cognitive domains of autism spectrum disorders in rodents: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan; Ey, Elodie; Biemans, Barbara; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ring, Robert H; Lajonchere, Clara; Esclassan, Frederic; Talpos, John; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Burbach, J Peter H; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. Based on the existing literature, we have generated an inventory of applied rodent behavioural testing paradigms relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This inventory focused on previously used paradigms that assess behavioural domains that are affected in ASD, such as social interaction, social communication, repetitive behaviours and behavioural inflexibility, cognition as well as anxiety behaviour. A wide range of behavioural testing paradigms for rodents were identified. However, the level of face and construct validity is highly variable. The predictive validity of these paradigms is unknown, as etiology-directed treatments for ASD are currently not on the market. To optimise these studies, future efforts should address aspects of reproducibility and take into account data about the neurodevelopmental underpinnings and trajectory of ASD. In addition, with the increasing knowledge of processes underlying ASD, such as sensory information processes and synaptic plasticity, phenotyping efforts should include multi-level automated analysis of, for example, representative task-related behavioural and electrophysiological read-outs.

  10. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lopalco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.

  11. The Inpatient Assessment and Management of Motor Functional Neurological Disorders: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Kathleen; Glass, Sean; Adams, Caitlin; Stephen, Christopher D; King, Franklin; Parlman, Kristin; Perez, David L; Kontos, Nicholas

    2018-01-08

    Motor functional neurologic disorders (FND)-previously termed "hysteria" and later "conversion disorder"-are exceedingly common and frequently encountered in the acute hospital setting. Despite their high prevalence, patients with motor FND can be challenging to diagnose accurately and manage effectively. To date, there is limited guidance on the inpatient approach to the neuropsychiatric evaluation of patients with functional (psychogenic) neurologic symptoms. The authors outline an inpatient multidisciplinary approach, involving neurology, psychiatry, and physical therapy, for the assessment and acute inpatient management of motor FND. A vignette of a patient with motor FND is presented followed by a discussion of general assessment principles. Thereafter, a detailed description of the neurologic and psychiatric assessments is outlined. Delivery of a "rule-in" diagnosis is emphasized and specific guidance for what can be accomplished postdiagnosis in the hospital is suggested. We encourage an interdisciplinary approach beginning at the early stages of the diagnostic assessment once an individual is suspected of having motor FND. Practical suggestions for the inpatient assessment of motor FND are presented. It is also important to individualize the diagnostic assessment. Future research should be conducted to test best practices for motor FND management in the acute inpatient hospital setting. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  13. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S. Young

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013. This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  14. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius –A reconstitution perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHärtel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Synthetic Biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins Vps4 and ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g. budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. CdvA (Cell Division A is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in S. acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like E. coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  15. Perspectives of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Age-Related Retinal Degenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Vladimir; Hermankova, Barbora; Kossl, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases, which include age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, mostly affect the elderly population and are the most common cause of decreased quality of vision or even blindness. So far, there is no satisfactory treatment protocol to prevent, stop, or cure these disorders. A great hope and promise for patients suffering from retinal diseases is represented by stem cell-based therapy that could replace diseased or missing retinal cells and support regeneration. In this respect, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from the particular patient and used as autologous cells have turned out to be a promising stem cell type for treatment. Here we show that MSCs can differentiate into cells expressing markers of retinal cells, inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by retinal tissue, and produce a number of growth and neuroprotective factors for retinal regeneration. All of these properties make MSCs a prospective cell type for cell-based therapy of age-related retinal degenerative diseases.

  16. Difficulties in everyday life: Young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt H. Ahlström

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15–26 diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC. Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: “fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability” with the following subthemes: “difficult things,” “stress and rest,” and “when feelings and thoughts are a concern”; and the theme “struggling to find a life of one's own” with the following subthemes: “decide and carry out,” “making life choices,” and “taking care of oneself.” Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons’ everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge

  17. Plasmoacanthoma of oral cavity and plasma cell cheilitis: two sides of same disorder “oral plasma cell mucositis” ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Khatri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmoacanthoma and plasma cell cheilitis are rare disorders of obscure etiology characterized by a plasma cell infiltrate an 80-year-old woman presented with a verrucous, fleshy, skin colored plaque over lips, gingiva, and the palate and painful swallowing for over a period of 6 months. Histopathology of the lesion showed dense infiltrate of plasma cells. The lesions resolved completely after intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. Another 52-year-old male had progressively enlarging, erosive lesion over vermilion border of lower lip for 6months resembling actinic cheilitis. Histology was diagnostic of plasma cell cheilitis. Treatment with topical clobetasol propionate was effective. Plasma cell cheilitis and plasmoacanthoma perhaps represent a spectrum of oral ”plasma cell mucositis” with plasmoacanthoma being an advanced version of the former.

  18. Whiplash-associated disorders--predicting disability from a process-oriented perspective of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Lindberg, Per

    2003-02-01

    To describe the coping process over time for patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The study was conducted by following patients prospectively for 12 months. The orthopaedic clinic at a university hospital. Fifty-three patients out of 59 had complete data-sets. Two measures were used: the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). The results showed that the proportion of variance in disability shared with coping increased over time. The importance of coping as an explanatory factor for disability increased during the one year follow-up. Thus, coping has a crucial role for disability. The possibility of a positive long-term outcome could therefore be improved by teaching patients to use active and adaptive coping strategies shortly after an accident.

  19. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIiadou, Vasiliki; Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of "hearing impairment," as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other...... of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional......, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order...

  20. Parenting Children with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): A Developmental Perspective Beyond Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, A B; Sandberg, D E

    2015-05-01

    Advances in therapeutics for specific conditions have contributed to a categorical psychological approach to chronic diseases that affect children. Consensus statements and clinical guidelines recognize stress associated with disorders of sex development (DSD) for patients and their caregivers - yet much remains to be learned concerning the social adjustment, mental health, and quality of life of affected children and their families. We present preliminary data on the psychosocial comorbidities of caregivers of children with DSD, including stigma, isolation, stress, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. Evidence is offered in support of individualized psychological approaches for families according to such variables as: 1) gender of the caregiver, 2) gender of the affected child and 3) presence of genital ambiguity at birth. Development of feasible, targeted interventions to ameliorate psychosocial comorbidities among caregivers is needed to optimize social adjustment, mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for children with DSD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Conduction disorders in the setting of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Chiara; Napodano, Massimo; Tarantini, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    The presence of periprocedural conduction disorders (CDs) and the need for permanent pacemaker (PPM) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are frequent findings in clinical practice. Notwithstanding, robust information on the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these complications are lacking. The newly occurrence of CD after TAVI seems related to the trauma of the conduction system during procedure. On the contrary, major predictors for PPM implantation after TAVI seem to be the use of CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) and the presence of CD before TAVI. An accurate pre-TAVI screening, careful valve implantation, as well as post-TAVI monitoring must be pursued to prevent avoidable PPM implantation. The aim of this report is to analyze the available data on this field and to propose some practical clinical tips to prevent or to manage these complications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Introduction to the special series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspectives on diagnosis and treatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-10-01

    The first aim for this Special Series on "Narcissistic personality disorder--new perspecitves on diagnosis and treatment" is to further the dimensional self-regulatory diagnostic approach for identifying NPD by integrating range of functioning, co-occurring grandiosity and vulnerability, compromised empathic ability, self-enhancing interpersonal strategies and relatedness, and overt and covert expressions of pathological narcissism. A second aim is to broaden the conceptualization of pathological narcissism by identifying it in terms of attachment and mentalization/reflective function. The third aim is to apply the combined dimensional and trait diagnostic approach to clinical practice, both diagnostic evaluation and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Supportive Relationships in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of Individuals with ASD and Supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Robledo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored 17 dyads of academically successful people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and individuals who they identified as supportive. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, were used to study these supportive relationships. The purpose of the study was to develop a substantive grounded theory regarding supportive relationships within the lives of individuals with ASD. A dynamic model of supportive relationships emerged, with trust, unity, and support as the three core categories of these relationships. The data suggest that the quality of the relationship between an individual with ASD and the support provider can be a critical factor within effective support. These findings suggest that there is much yet to be learned about the social world of individuals with ASD.

  4. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances.

  5. Supportive Relationships in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of Individuals with ASD and Supporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 17 dyads of academically successful people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and individuals who they identified as supportive. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, were used to study these supportive relationships. The purpose of the study was to develop a substantive grounded theory regarding supportive relationships within the lives of individuals with ASD. A dynamic model of supportive relationships emerged, with trust, unity, and support as the three core categories of these relationships. The data suggest that the quality of the relationship between an individual with ASD and the support provider can be a critical factor within effective support. These findings suggest that there is much yet to be learned about the social world of individuals with ASD. PMID:27827873

  6. Perspective of Value-Based Management of Spinal Disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Alisson R; Righesso, Orlando; Gullo, Maria Carolina R; Ghogawala, Zoher; Falavigna, Asdrubal

    2016-03-01

    The state of value-based management of spinal disorders and ongoing Brazilian strategies toward its implementation are highlighted in this article. The health care system, economic impact of spine surgery, use of patient-reported outcomes, ongoing studies about health economics, and current strategies toward implementation of quality assessment of spine care in Brazil are reviewed. During the past 20 years, there has been an increase of 226% in the number and 540% in the total cost of spine surgeries in the public health system. Examples of economic regulatory mechanisms involve the process of health technology assessment and the auditing processes imposed by health insurance companies. Some barriers to implementing clinical registries were identified from a large Latin American survey. Strategies based on education and technical support have been conducted to improve the quality of comparative-effectiveness research in spine care. Only 1 cost-utility study on spine care has been published until now. The paradigm of value-based management of spinal disorders is still incipient in Brazil. Some issues from our analysis must be emphasized: (1) Brazil presents many regional disparities and scarce resources for health care; it is crucial for the health system to allocate resources based on the value of interventions; (2) because of the high economic and social burden of developing new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, research in health economics of spine care in Brazil should be prioritized; (3) these efforts would help to provide a more accessible and effective health system for patients with spinal problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Is Mesenchymal Stem Cell Personalized Therapy the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Siniscalco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. They are enigmatic conditions that have their origins in the interaction of genes and environmental factors. ASDs are characterized by dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, in addition to repetitive and stereotypic verbal and nonverbal behaviours. Immune dysfunction has been confirmed with autistic children. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis or curative therapy presently available. Indeed, ASDs are still untreatable. Available treatments for autism can be divided into behavioural, nutritional, and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Nowadays, stem cell therapy represents the great promise for the future of molecular medicine. Among the stem cell population, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show probably best potential good results in medical research. Due to the particular immune and neural dysregulation observed in ASDs, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could offer a unique tool to provide better resolution for this disease.

  8. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-09-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of tendon disorders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová-Urdzíková, Lucia; Lesný, Petr; Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, 8A (2013), s. 14-23 ISSN 1937-6871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/0326 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Tendinophaty * Mesenchymal Stem Cells * Tendon Rupture Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  10. Stem cell therapy for white matter disorders: don't forget the microenvironment!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooves, Stephanie; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Heine, Vivi M.

    2016-01-01

    White matter disorders (WMDs) are a major source of handicap at all ages. They often lead to progressive neurological dysfunction and early death. Although causes are highly diverse, WMDs share the property that glia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are among the cells primarily affected, and that

  11. Advances in stem cells and regenerative medicine: single-cell dynamics, new models and translational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Scheel, Christina H

    2017-09-01

    An international cohort of over 300 stem cell biologists came together in Heidelberg, Germany in May 2017 as delegates of the 'Advances in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine' conference run through the European Molecular Biology Organization. This Meeting Review highlights the novel insights into stem cell regulation, new technologies aiding in discovery and exciting breakthroughs in the field of regenerative medicine that emerged from the meeting. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder with spindle-cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Cohen, Brandon E; Cassarino, David S

    2016-11-01

    Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is classified as a CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disease. The phenotypic variability along the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative diseases is highlighted by the distinct histologic subtypes of LyP types A, B, C, and the more recently described types D, E, and F. We report the case of an elderly woman with a clinical presentation and histopathologic findings consistent with LyP, whose atypical CD30+ infiltrate uniquely demonstrated a spindle-cell morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of LyP characterized by CD30+ spindle-shaped cells, and may represent a new and distinct histologic variant of LyP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  14. Action control processes in autism spectrum disorder--insights from a neurobiological and neuroanatomical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encompass a range of syndromes that are characterized by social interaction impairments, verbal and nonverbal communication difficulties, and stereotypic or repetitive behaviours. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the 'social' and 'communicative' aspects of ASD, the neurofunctional architecture of repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, as well as other cognitive domains related to response and action control, remain poorly understood. Based on the findings of neurobiological and neuroanatomical alterations in ASD and the functional neuroanatomy and neurobiology of different action control functions, we emphasize that changes in action control processes, including response inhibition, conflict and response monitoring, task switching, dual-tasking, motor timing, and error monitoring, are important facets of ASD. These processes must be examined further to understand the executive control deficits in ASD that are related to stereotypic or repetitive behaviours as a major facet of ASD. The review shows that not all domains of action control are strongly affected in ASD. Several factors seem to determine the consistency with which alterations in cognitive control are reported. These factors relate to the relevance of neurobiological changes in ASD for the cognitive domains examined and in how far action control relies upon the adjustment of prior experience. Future directions and hypotheses are outlined that may guide basic and clinical research on action control in ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene-environment interaction and behavioral disorders: a developmental perspective based on endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Maziade, Michel; Molteni, Massimo; D'Amato, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that 'No aspect of human behavioral genetics has caused more confusion and generated more obscurantism than the analysis and interpretation of various types of non-additivity and non-independence of gene and environmental action and interaction' (Eaves LJ et al 1977 Br J Math Stat Psychol 30:1-42). On the other hand, a bulk of newly published studies appear to speak in favour of common and frequent interplay--and possibly interaction--between identified genetic polymorphisms and specified environmental variables in shaping behavior and behavioral disorders. Considerable interest has arisen from the introduction of putative functional 'endophenotypes' which would represent a more proximate biological link to genes, as well as an obligatory intermediate of behavior. While explicit criteria to identify valid endophenotypes have been offered, a number of new 'alternative phenotypes' are now being proposed as possible 'endophenotypes' for behavioral and psychiatric genetics research, sometimes with less than optimal stringency. Nonetheless, we suggest that some endophenotypes can be helpful in investigating several instances of gene-environment interactions and be employed as additional tools to reduce the risk for spurious results in this controversial area.

  16. Prescribing Clinicians’ Perspectives on Evidence-Based Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Erin R.; Bernardy, Nancy C.; Jenkyn, Aaron B.; Parker, Louise E.; Lund, Brian C.; Alexander, Bruce; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are not utilized to their full extent within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). VA provides care to many persons with PTSD and has been in the forefront of clinical practice guidelines and EBP training and dissemination. Yet VA continues to find EBP implementation difficult. Veterans with PTSD often initially present to prescribing clinicians, who then help make care decisions. It is therefore critical that these clinicians correctly screen and triage appropriate mental health care. The purpose of this study was to assess VA prescribing clinicians’ knowledge, perceptions, and referral behaviors related to EBPs for PTSD and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing EBPs within VA. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 VA prescribing clinicians. Limited access to EBPs was the most commonly noted barrier. The clinicians we interviewed also held specific beliefs and behaviors that may delay or deter EBPs. Strategies to improve utilization also emerged. Findings suggest the need for increased access to EBPs, training to optimize the role of prescribing clinicians in helping Veterans with PTSD make appropriate care decisions, and specific organizational changes to facilitate access and effective referral systems for EBPs. PMID:25431445

  17. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  18. Recovery in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD: a qualitative study of service users' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Katsakou

    Full Text Available Symptom improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD is more common than previously hypothesised. However, it remains unclear whether it reflects service users' personal goals of recovery. The present study aimed to explore what service users with BPD view as recovery.48 service users were recruited from secondary mental health services and their views on their personal goals and the meaning of recovery were explored in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis.Service users believed that recovery involved developing self-acceptance and self-confidence, gaining control over emotions, improving relationships, employment, and making progress in symptoms like suicidality and self-harming. They felt that psychotherapies for BPD often had an extreme focus on specific areas, like self-harming or relationships, and that some of their goals were neglected. Although full recovery was seen as a distant goal, interviewees felt that they could learn how to deal with their problems in more effective ways and make meaningful progress in their lives.Specialist therapies for BPD explicitly address some of the recovery goals that are important to service users, whereas other goals are only indirectly or poorly addressed. Professionals might need to work with service users towards devising comprehensive individualised case formulations, including all treatment targets that are important to service users, their priorities, and long-term plans on how their targets might be met and which services might be involved.

  19. Self- and informant-reported perspectives on symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Luke D; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Because narcissistic individuals tend to have an inflated view of themselves and their abilities, the reliance on self-reported information in the assessment and diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is problematic. Hence, the use of informants in the assessment of NPD may be necessary. In the current study we examined self- and informant-reported features of NPD using agreement, frequency, and discrepancy analyses. The results indicated that informants tended to report more NPD features than selves, and that there were either low or nonsignificant levels of self-informant agreement among the 9 NPD diagnostic criteria and its categorical diagnosis. Informants were increasingly more likely to report higher raw scores relative to selves, indicating that the discrepancy between self- and informant reports increases with the NPD scale. Informants also reported NPD features that selves often did not, suggesting that current prevalence estimates of NPD, which use only self-reported information, are most likely underestimates. These results highlight the importance of gathering informant-reported data in addition to self-reported data when assessing NPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Progress in bipolar disorder drug design toward the development of novel therapeutic targets: a clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Kardash, Lubna; Novello, Stefano; Fusco, Andrea; Anastasia, Annalisa; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a considerable burden to the affected individual. The need for novel drug targets and improved drug design (DD) in BD is therefore clear. Areas covered: The following article provides a brief, narrative, clinician-oriented overview of the most promising novel pharmacological targets for BD along with a concise overview regarding the general DD process and the unmet needs relevant to BD. Expert opinion: A number of novel potential drug targets have been investigated. With the notable exception of the kynurenine pathway, available evidence is too scarce to highlight a definitive roadmap for forthcoming DD in BD. BD itself may present with different facets, as it is a polymorphic clinical spectrum. Therefore, promoting clinical-case stratification should be based on precision medicine, rather than on novel biological targets. Furthermore, the full release of raw study data to the scientific community and the development of uniform clinical trial standards (including more realistic outcomes) should be promoted to facilitate the DD process in BD.

  1. Motivations, experiences, and perspectives of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Shaw, Peter J; Gottlieb, David J; Ralph, Angelique; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2013-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation using bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells is a lifesaving treatment for patients with leukemia or other blood disorders. However, donors face the risk of physical and psychosocial complications. We aimed to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of HSC donors. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant articles to November 13, 2012. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Thirty studies involving 1552 donors were included. The decision to donate included themes of saving life, family loyalty, building a positive identity, religious conviction, fear of invasive procedures, and social pressure and obligation. Five themes about the donation experience were identified: mental preparedness (pervasive pain, intense disappointment over recipient death, exceeding expectations, and valuing positive recipient gains), burden of responsibility (striving to be a quality donor, unresolved guilt, and exacerbated grief), feeling neglected (medical dismissiveness and family inattention), strengthened relationships (stronger family ties, establishing blood bonds), and personal sense of achievement (satisfaction and pride, personal development, hero status, and social recognition). Although HSC donation was appreciated as an opportunity to save life, some donors felt anxious and unduly compelled to donate. HSC donors became emotionally invested and felt responsible for their recipient's outcomes and were profoundly grieved and disappointed if the transplantation was unsuccessful. To maximize donor satisfaction and mitigate the psychosocial risks for HSC donors, strategies to address the emotional challenges of anxiety, sense of coercion, guilt, and grief in donors are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotinic receptors and functional regulation of GABA cell microcircuitry in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Francine M

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the hippocampus in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have provided evidence for a defect of GABAergic interneurons. Significant decreases in the expression of GAD67, a marker for GABA cell function, have been found repeatedly in several different brain regions that include the hippocampus. In this region, nicotinic receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons by influences of excitatory cholinergic afferents on their activity. In bipolar disorder, this influence appears to be particularly prominent in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1, two sites where these cells constitute the exclusive neuronal cell type. In sector CA3/2, this layer receives a robust excitatory projection from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and this is thought to play a central role in regulating GABA cells at this locus. Using laser microdissection, recent studies have focused selectively on these two layers and their associated GABA cells using microarray technology. The results have provided support for the idea that nicotinic cholinergic receptors play a particularly important role in regulating the activity of GABA neurons at these loci by regulating the progression of cell cycle and the repair of damaged DNA. In bipolar disorder, there is a prominent reduction in the expression of mRNAs for several different nicotinic subunit isoforms. These decreases could reflect a diminished influence of this receptor system on these GABA cells, particularly in sector CA3/2 where a preponderance of abnormalities have been observed in postmortem studies. In patients with bipolar disorder, excitatory nicotinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum may converge with glutamatergic fibers from the BLA on GABAergic interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA3/2 and result in disturbances of their genomic and functional integrity, ones that may induce disruptions of the integration of

  3. Autophagy in Stem Cell Biology: A Perspective on Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that degrades modified, surplus, or harmful cytoplasmic components by sequestering them in autophagosomes which then fuses with the lysosome for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as for remodeling during normal development. Impairment of this process has been implicated in various diseases, in the pathogenic response to bacterial and viral infections, and in aging. Pluripotent stem cells, with their ability to self-replicate and to give rise to any specialized cell type, are very valuable resources for cell-based medical therapies and open a number of promising avenues for studying human development and disease. It has been suggested that autophagy is vital for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in stem cells, and subsequently more in-depth knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in stem cell biology has been acquired recently. In this review, we describe the most significant advances in the understanding of autophagy regulation in hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as in induced pluripotent stem cells. In particular, we highlight the roles of various autophagy activities in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of these stem cells.

  4. New perspectives in cell delivery systems for tissue regeneration: natural-derived injectable hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarin, Fabiola; Petrini, Paola; Bozzini, Sabrina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-09-27

    Natural polymers, because of their biocompatibility, availability, and physico-chemical properties have been the materials of choice for the fabrication of injectable hydrogels for regenerative medicine. In particular, they are appealing materials for delivery systems and provide sustained and controlled release of drugs, proteins, gene, cells, and other active biomolecules immobilized.In this work, the use of hydrogels obtained from natural source polymers as cell delivery systems is discussed. These materials were investigated for the repair of cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, intervertebral disc, neural, and cardiac tissue. Papers from the last ten years were considered, with a particular focus on the advances of the last five years. A critical discussion is centered on new perspectives and challenges in the regeneration of specific tissues, with the aim of highlighting the limits of current systems and possible future advancements.

  5. Compound polycrystalline solar cells. Recent progress and Y2K perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W. [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, DE 19716 Newark (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A historical perspective on the development of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} is presented, and recent progress of these thin-film technologies is discussed. Impressive improvements in the efficiency of laboratory scale devices has not been easy to translate to the manufacturing environment, principally due to our lack of understanding of the basic science and engineering of these materials and devices. 'Next-generation' high-performance thin-film solar cells utilizing multijunction device configurations should achieve efficiencies of more than 25% within ten years. However, our cost-effective manufacturing of these more complex devices will be problematic unless the science and engineering issues associated with processing of thin-film PV devices are addressed.

  6. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel perspectives of neural stem cell differentiation: from neurotransmitters to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Cleber A; Schwindt, Telma T; Martins, Antonio H; Alves, Janaína M; Mello, Luiz Eugênio; Ulrich, Henning

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, many reports have described the existence of neural progenitor and stem cells in the adult central nervous system capable of generating new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This discovery has overturned the central assumption in the neuroscience field, of no new neurons being originated in the brain after birth and provided the fundaments to understand the molecular basis of neural differentiation and to develop new therapies for neural tissue repair. Although the mechanisms underlying cell fate during neural development are not yet understood, the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and of an appropriate microenvironment is well known. In this context, emerging evidence strongly suggests that glial cells play a key role in controlling multiple steps of neurogenesis. Those cells, of particular radial glia, are important for migration, cell specification, and integration of neurons into a functional neural network. This review aims to present an update in the neurogenesis area and highlight the modulation of neural stem cell differentiation by neurotransmitters, growth factors, and their receptors, with possible applications for cell therapy strategies of neurological disorders.

  8. Stem cell transplantation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: therapeutic potential and perspectives on clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravelli, Irene; Riboldi, Giulietta; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Zanetta, Chiara; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. There are currently no clinically impactful treatments for this disorder. Death occurs 3-5 years after diagnosis, usually due to respiratory failure. ALS pathogenesis seems to involve several pathological mechanisms (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation, and loss of the glial neurotrophic support, glutamate toxicity) with different contributions from environmental and genetic factors. This multifaceted combination highlights the concept that an effective therapeutic approach should counteract simultaneously different aspects: stem cell therapies are able to maintain or rescue motor neuron function and modulate toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) at the same time, eventually representing the most comprehensive therapeutic approach for ALS. To achieve an effective cell-mediated therapy suitable for clinical applications, several issues must be addressed, including the identification of the most performing cell source, a feasible administration protocol, and the definition of therapeutic mechanisms. The method of cell delivery represents a major issue in developing cell-mediated approaches since the cells, to be effective, need to be spread across the CNS, targeting both lower and upper motor neurons. On the other hand, there is the need to define a strategy that could provide a whole distribution without being too invasive or burdened by side effects. Here, we review the recent advances regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for ALS with a focus on the minimally invasive strategies that could facilitate an extensive translation to their clinical application.

  9. Bipolar disorder and quality of life: a patient-centered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Erin E; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kolesar, Sharlene; Lam, Raymond W

    2006-02-01

    Several quantitative studies have now examined the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and bipolar disorder (BD) and have generally indicated that QoL is markedly impaired in patients with BD. However, little qualitative research has been conducted to better describe patients' own experiences of how BD impacts upon life quality. We report here on a series of in-depth qualitative interviews we conducted as part of the item generation phase for a disease-specific scale to assess QoL in BD. We conducted 52 interviews with people with BD (n=35), their caregivers (n=5) and health care professionals (n=12) identified by both convenience and purposive sampling. Clinical characteristics of the affected sample ranged widely between individuals who had been clinically stable for several years through to inpatients who were recovering from a severe episode of depression or mania. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Although several interwoven themes emerged from the data, we chose to focus on 6 for the purposes of this paper: routine, independence, stigma and disclosure, identity, social support and spirituality. When asked to prioritize the areas they thought were most important in determining QoL, the majority of participants ranked social support as most important, followed by mental health. Findings indicate that there is a complex, multifaceted relationship between BD and QoL. Most of the affected individuals we interviewed reported that BD had a profoundly negative effect upon their life quality, particularly in the areas of education, vocation, financial functioning, and social and intimate relationships. However, some people also reported that having BD opened up new doors of opportunity.

  10. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-11-01

    STEM CELL THERAPY has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic endeavor for traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and epilepsy in experimental studies. A few preliminary clinical trials have further supported its safety and early efficacy after transplantation into humans. Although not yet clinically available for central nervous system disorders, stem cell technology is expected to evolve into one of the most powerful tools in the biological management of complex central nervous system disorders, many of which currently have limited treatment modalities. The identification of stem cells, discovery of neurogenesis, and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion of the neurosurgeon's capabilities into the neurorestoration and neuroregeneration realms. In Part 3 of a 5-part series on stem cells, we discuss the theory, experimental evidence, and clinical data pertaining to the use of stem cells for the treatment of traumatic, vascular, and epileptic disorders.

  11. Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohlfeld Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM. Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and

  12. Regulatory T cells (Treg and Their Roles in Immune System with Respect to Immunopathological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kondělková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress immune response, thereby maintaining homeostasis and self-tolerance. It has been shown that Tregs are able to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine production and play a critical role in preventing autoimmunity. Different subsets with various functions of Treg cells exist. Tregs can be usually identified by flow cytometry. The most specific marker for these cells is FoxP3, which is localized intracellulary. Selected surface markers such as CD25high (high molecular density and CD127low (low molecular density could serve as surrogate markers to detect Tregs in a routine clinical practice. Dysregulation in Treg cell frequency or functions may lead to the development of autoimmune disease. Therapeutical Treg modulation is considered to be a promising therapeutical approach to treat some selected disorders, such as allergies, and to prevent allograft rejection.

  13. Fanconi Anemia: A DNA repair disorder characterized by accelerated decline of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and other features of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Robert M; Bellani, Marina; Liu, Yie; Seidman, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal genetic disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), endocrine dysfunction, cancer, and other clinical features commonly associated with normal aging. The anemia stems directly from an accelerated decline of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Although FA is a complex heterogeneous disease linked to mutations in 19 currently identified genes, there has been much progress in understanding the molecular pathology involved. FA is broadly considered a DNA repair disorder and the FA gene products, together with other DNA repair factors, have been implicated in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. However, in addition to the defective DNA damage response, altered epigenetic regulation, and telomere defects, FA is also marked by elevated levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation, a hallmark of faster decline in not only other hereditary aging disorders but also normal aging. In this review, we offer a perspective of FA as a monogenic accelerated aging disorder, citing the latest evidence for its multi-factorial deficiencies underlying its unique clinical and cellular features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The potential of induced pluripotent stem cells in models of neurological disorders: implications on future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Jeremy Micah; Wallace, Gordon; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need for new and advanced approaches to modeling the pathological mechanisms of complex human neurological disorders. This is underscored by the decline in pharmaceutical research and development efficiency resulting in a relative decrease in new drug launches in the last several decades. Induced pluripotent stem cells represent a new tool to overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional methods, enabling live human neural cell modeling of complex conditions relating to aberrant neurodevelopment, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy and autism as well as age-associated neurodegeneration. This review considers the current status of induced pluripotent stem cell-based modeling of neurological disorders, canvassing proven and putative advantages, current constraints, and future prospects of next-generation culture systems for biomedical research and translation.

  15. High dose therapy with autologous stem cell support in malignant disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holte, H.; Kvaloey, S.O.; Engan, T.

    1996-01-01

    New biomedical knowledge may improve the diagnostic procedures and treatment provided by the Health Services, but at additional cost. In a social democratic health care system, the hospital budgets have no room for expensive, new procedures or treatments, unless these are funded through extra allocation from the central authorities. High dose therapy with autologous stem cell support in malignant disorders is an example of a new and promising, but rather expensive treatment, but its role in cancer therapy has yet to be established. The indications for testing high dose therapy with autologous stem cell support in various malignancies are discussed, with emphasis on the principles for deciding which categories of disease should have priority. The authors suggest some malignant disorder for which high dose therapy with stem cell support should be explored versus conventional treatment in randomized prospective trials. 8 refs., 1 tab

  16. Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Daniel J; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Katsiotas, Nikki J; Berest, Alison; Jensen, Peter S; Kafantaris, Vivian

    2012-06-01

    Despite substantial evidence supporting the efficacy of stimulant medication for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), adherence to stimulant treatment is often suboptimal. Applying social/cognitive theories to understanding and assessing parent attitudes toward initiating medication may provide insight into factors influencing parent decisions to follow ADHD treatment recommendations. This report describes results from formative research that used focus groups to obtain parent input to guide development of a provider-delivered intervention to improve adherence to stimulants. Participants were caregivers of children with ADHD who were given a stimulant treatment recommendation. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed by inductive, grounded theory methods as well as a deductive analytic strategy using an adapted version of the Unified Theory of Behavior Change to organize and understand parent accounts. Five groups were conducted with 27 parents (mean child age=9.35 years; standard deviation [SD]=2.00), mean time since diagnosis=3.33 years (SD=2.47). Most parents (81.5%) had pursued stimulant treatment. Inductive analysis revealed 17 attitudes facilitating adherence and 25 barriers. Facilitators included parent beliefs that medication treatment resulted in multiple functional gains and that treatment was imperative for their children's safety. Barriers included fears of personality changes and medication side effects. Complex patterns of parent adherence to medication regimens were also identified, as well as preferences for psychiatrists who were diagnostically expert, gave psychoeducation using multiple modalities, and used a chronic illness metaphor to explain ADHD. Theory-based analyses revealed conflicting expectancies about treatment risks and benefits, significant family pressures to avoid medication, guilt and concern that their children required medication, and distorted ideas about treatment risks

  17. Mast cell-mediated and associated disorders in pregnancy: a risky game with an uncertain outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woidacki, Katja; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Siebenhaar, Frank

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal organism is under the influence of tremendous endocrine as well as immunological changes as an adaptation to the implanted and developing fetus. In most cases, the maternal adaptations to pregnancy ensure both, the protection against harmful pathogens and the tolerance toward the growing semi-allogeneic fetus. However, under certain circumstances the unique hormonal milieu during pregnancy is causative of a shift into an unfavorable direction. Of particular importance are cellular disorders previous to pregnancy that involve cell types known for their susceptibility to hormones. One interesting cell type is the mast cell (MC), one of the key figures in allergic disorders. While physiological numbers of MCs were shown to positively influence pregnancy outcome, at least in mouse models, uncontrolled augmentations in quantity, and/or activation can lead to pregnancy complications. Women that have the desire of getting pregnant and been diagnosed with MC mediated disorders such as urticaria and mastocytosis or chronic inflammatory diseases in which MCs are involved, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, or psoriasis, may benefit from specialized medical assistance to ensure a positive pregnancy outcome. In the present review, we address the course of pregnancy in women affected by MC mediated or associated disorders.

  18. Adaptation of red cell enzymes and intermediates in metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, K M; Goebel, F D; Neitzert, A; Hausmann, L; Schneider, J

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic activity of the red cell glycolytic pathway hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) with dependent glutathione system was studied in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 10), hyperlipoproteinemia (n = 16), hypoglycemia (n = 25) and hyperglycemia (n = 23). In uncontrolled diabetics and patients with hyperthyroidism the mean value of glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), glutathione reductase (GR) was increased, whereas these enzyme activities were reduced in patients with hypoglycemia. Apart from a few values of hexokinase (HK) which were lower than normal the results in hyperlipoproteinemia patients remained essentially unchanged, including the intermediates such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced glutathione (GSH). While increased rates of 2,3-DPG and ATP in hypoglycemia patients were obtained, these substrates were markedly reduced in diabetics.

  19. Use of Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells in patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end stage heart failure have very few treatment options. The long waiting times for transplant and the complications associated with immunosuppression has led to the search for alternatives. Subsequent to the isolation and characterization of stem cells, tremendous advances have been made and the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells has been proven in preclinical studies. Clinical studies have also shown mobilized cells repair the infracted heart, improving function and survival. We have started a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of bone marrow derived stem cells. Bone-marrow was aspirated from the right iliac crest and the stem cells were isolated by density gradient method and suspended according to the mode of delivery.From Jan 2007 till date 10 patients (8 adults, 2 children, age with end stage cardiovascular disorder of varied etiology (Ischemic left ventricular dysfunction - 6 patients, Primary pulmonary hypertension - 2 patients, Dilated cardiomyopathy -1 patient, Biventricular non-compaction -1 patient underwent stem cell therapy. All patients were evaluated and cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy. There were no procedure related complications. These patients are being regularly followed-up and one patient who has completed 6-month follow-up has shown improvement in perfusion as well as increase in ejection fraction of 10%. Stem cell therapy in patients with end-stage cardiovascular disorder might be a promising tool by means of angiogenesis and other paracrine mechanisms.

  20. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD4 Small/Medium T cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    12. REPORT TYPE 02/15/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium T- cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder with...cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T- cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) is a generally indolent cutaneous T- cell proliferation. Most cases follow a benign...lmmunohistochemistry showed diffuse CD3+ CD4+ T- cells without CD30, TIA1 or CD10. A subset of medium to large cells expressed BCL-6. Small subsets of B- cells and CDB

  1. The impact of coercion on services from the perspective of mental health care consumers with co-occurring disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Marcus, Steven; Solomon, Phyllis

    2009-02-01

    Disengagement from services by people with serious mental illnesses continues to be a major challenge for the mental health system. Assertive community treatment combined with Housing First services is an intervention targeted toward consumers whom the system has failed to engage. The processes involved in engaging and maintaining consumers in mental health services play an important role but remain an understudied aspect of the intervention. This study examined the social interaction between consumers and case managers from the perspective of consumers. Seventy service contacts between unique consumer-case manager dyads were sampled. Consumers with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders completed interviews after each service contact. They provided information on sociodemographic characteristics, service contact characteristics, consumer-provider relationship, utilization of coercive strategies, perceived coercion, and service contact evaluation. Multivariate regression analyses examined the association of consumer-provider relationship and perceived coercion with service contact evaluation. Consumer-provider relationship was negatively associated with perceived coercion (effect size=.08). Perceived coercion was negatively associated with service contact evaluation (effect size=.34). Perceived coercion was positively associated with time in the program (effect size=.17) and negatively associated with length of the service contact (effect size=.14). Effect sizes ranging from .08 to .34 are typically considered small to medium. Findings demonstrate that for consumers, a positive response to service contacts indicated that they did not feel coerced. With consumers whose connection to services is tenuous, an immediate positive response to service contacts may be vital to maintain engagement. Research is needed to identify supportive case manager strategies that facilitate relationship building.

  2. Keeping in touch. Cell phone use in people with schizophrenia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Smith, Kathlene; Bennett, Chris; Bentley, Katherine; Walters, Amanda B; Hancock, Beverly; Farmer, Shirley Y; Earle, Karen; White, Sheila

    2010-04-01

    There is limited research exploring telephone intervention for psychiatric clients; no studies specific to cell phone use have been conducted. This pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone use in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Ten outpatients with SSDs were provided with previously activated cell phones for 5 months; trained nurses contacted participants weekly. Seven participants completed the 5-month follow-up period. A minority of participants reported difficulty retrieving messages and answering or charging their phone. These preliminary findings indicate the majority of individuals with SSDs are willing to use this method of communication and are able to do so with few problems. Possible barriers to the use of cell phones with this group include lifestyle factors and poor decision making. Future investigations should examine the use of cell phone access to foster personal safety, gain a sense of connectedness to others, and enhance quality of life.

  3. The split personality of NKT cells in malignancy, autoimmune and allergic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subleski, Jeff J; Jiang, Qun; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    NKT cells are a heterogeneous subset of specialized, self-reactive T cells, with innate and adaptive immune properties, which allow them to bridge innate and adaptive immunity and profoundly influence autoimmune and malignant disease outcomes. NKT cells mediate these activities through their ability to rapidly express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that influence the type and magnitude of the immune response. Not only do NKT cells regulate the functions of other cell types, but experimental evidence has found NKT cell subsets can modulate the functions of other NKT subsets. Depending on underlying mechanisms, NKT cells can inhibit or exacerbate autoimmunity and malignancy, making them potential targets for disease intervention. NKT cells can respond to foreign and endogenous antigenic glycolipid signals that are expressed during pathogenic invasion or ongoing inflammation, respectively, allowing them to rapidly react to and influence a broad array of diseases. In this article we review the unique development and activation pathways of NKT cells and focus on how these attributes augment or exacerbate autoimmune disorders and malignancy. We also examine the growing evidence that NKT cells are involved in liver inflammatory conditions that can contribute to the development of malignancy. PMID:21995570

  4. The split personality of NKT cells in malignancy, autoimmune and allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subleski, Jeff J; Jiang, Qun; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H

    2011-10-01

    NKT cells are a heterogeneous subset of specialized, self-reactive T cells, with innate and adaptive immune properties, which allow them to bridge innate and adaptive immunity and profoundly influence autoimmune and malignant disease outcomes. NKT cells mediate these activities through their ability to rapidly express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that influence the type and magnitude of the immune response. Not only do NKT cells regulate the functions of other cell types, but experimental evidence has found NKT cell subsets can modulate the functions of other NKT subsets. Depending on underlying mechanisms, NKT cells can inhibit or exacerbate autoimmunity and malignancy, making them potential targets for disease intervention. NKT cells can respond to foreign and endogenous antigenic glycolipid signals that are expressed during pathogenic invasion or ongoing inflammation, respectively, allowing them to rapidly react to and influence a broad array of diseases. In this article we review the unique development and activation pathways of NKT cells and focus on how these attributes augment or exacerbate autoimmune disorders and malignancy. We also examine the growing evidence that NKT cells are involved in liver inflammatory conditions that can contribute to the development of malignancy.

  5. Open Science Meets Stem Cells: A New Drug Discovery Approach for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chanshuai; Chaineau, Mathilde; Chen, Carol X-Q; Beitel, Lenore K; Durcan, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening. Now that the tools are in place, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic. Using traditional closed-door research systems raises barriers to discovery, by restricting access to cells, data and other research findings. Thus, a new strategy is required, and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and its partners are piloting an "Open Science" model. One signature initiative will be that the MNI biorepository will curate and disseminate patient samples in a more accessible manner through open transfer agreements. This feeds into the MNI open drug discovery platform, focused on developing industry-standard assays with iPSC-derived neurons. All cell lines, reagents and assay findings developed in this open fashion will be made available to academia and industry. By removing the obstacles many universities and companies face in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research and the development of new therapies for devastating neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Open Science Meets Stem Cells: A New Drug Discovery Approach for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanshuai Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop “first-of-their-kind” disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening. Now that the tools are in place, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic. Using traditional closed-door research systems raises barriers to discovery, by restricting access to cells, data and other research findings. Thus, a new strategy is required, and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI and its partners are piloting an “Open Science” model. One signature initiative will be that the MNI biorepository will curate and disseminate patient samples in a more accessible manner through open transfer agreements. This feeds into the MNI open drug discovery platform, focused on developing industry-standard assays with iPSC-derived neurons. All cell lines, reagents and assay findings developed in this open fashion will be made available to academia and industry. By removing the obstacles many universities and companies face in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research and the development of new therapies for devastating neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Pediatric to Adult Care Transition: Perspectives of Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jerlym S; Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi S; Rupff, Rebecca J; Hankins, Jane S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components. Adult provider relationships and negative medical experiences emerged as salient factors. YAs ranked choosing an adult provider, seeking emergency care, understanding medications/medication adherence, knowing SCD complications, and being aware of the impact of health behaviors as the most important topics to include in transition programming. The unique perspectives of YAs can inform the development and evaluation of SCD transition programming by incorporating the identified themes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as well as empirical challenges: What kind of things are mental disorders? And how to deal with situations where subjective reports, clinical decisions, and brain scans contradict each other? The present paper starts out with a discussion of recent efforts to objectify beauty. Such attempts to quantify and localize psychological constructs in the brain are compared to earlier examples from the history of psychology. The paper then discusses personal and social implications of the objectification of subjective mental states, including mental disorders. The construct of Major Depressive Disorder, one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is then analyzed in more detail. It turns out that this is a very complex construct probably associated with highly heterogeneous actual instances of the disorder. It is then shown that it is unlikely to replace these symptoms' descriptions with patterns of brain activations, at least in the near future, given these patterns' empirical lack of specificity. The paper then discusses which of the disorder's core symptoms are more or less amenable to behavioral or neuroscientific investigation and analyses whether the heterophenomenological method can solve the problem. The conclusion is that the disorder construct is neither entirely subjective, nor completely objectifiable, and that clinical experts do well by continuing to take a pragmatical stance.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mörstedt

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  11. Perspective on the prospects of a carrier multiplication nanocrystal solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gautham; Chang, Liang-Yi; Geyer, Scott M; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2011-05-11

    This article presents a perspective on the experimental and theoretical work to date on the efficiency of carrier multiplication (CM) in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Early reports on CM in NCs suggested large CM efficiency enhancements. However, recent experiments have shown that CM in nanocrystalline samples is not significantly stronger, and often is weaker, than in the parent bulk when compared on an absolute photon energy basis. This finding is supported by theoretical consideration of the CM process and the competing intraband relaxation. We discuss the experimental artifacts that may have led to the apparently strong CM estimated in early reports. The finding of bulklike CM in NCs suggests that the main promise of quantum confinement is to boost the photovoltage at which carriers can be extracted. With this in mind, we discuss research directions that may result in effective use of CM in a solar cell.

  12. Podoplanin expression in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A G, Deepa; Janardanan-Nair, Bindu; B R, Varun

    2017-12-01

    Podoplanin is a type I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Studies have shown that assessment of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells can be used to predict the malignant transformation of potentially malignant disorders and the metastatic tendency of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of podoplanin in oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with that in normal buccal mucosa by immunohistochemical methods. Immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin was analyzed in 20 cases each of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal buccal mucosa, with monoclonal antibody D2-40. The expression of podoplanin was graded from grade 0-4. There was a statistically significant upregulation of the grades of podoplanin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma(100%), oral submucous fibrosis (90%) and oral leukoplakia (65%) when compared to that in normal mucosa(35%). Podoplanin expression increased with decrease in grades of differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma . Podoplanin expression in the samples of oral submucous fibrosis was higher than that in oral leukoplakia. Evaluation of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells of oral dysplastic lesions may provide valuable information to predict their risk of malignant transformation. Key words: Immunohistochemistry, Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Podoplanin, Squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Definitions, Criteria and Global Classification of Mast Cell Disorders with Special Reference to Mast Cell Activation Syndromes: A Consensus Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem; Arock, Michel; Brockow, Knut; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Carter, Melody C.; Castells, Mariana; Escribano, Luis; Hartmann, Karin; Lieberman, Philip; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Orfao, Alberto; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Triggiani, Massimo; Valenta, Rudolf; Horny, Hans-Peter; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of tissue mast cells (MCs) and their abnormal growth and accumulation in various organs are typically found in primary MC disorders also referred to as mastocytosis. However, increasing numbers of patients are now being informed that their clinical findings are due to MC activation (MCA) that is neither associated with mastocytosis nor with a defined allergic or inflammatory reaction. In other patients with MCA, MCs appear to be clonal cells, but criteria for diagnosing mastocytosis are not met. A working conference was organized in 2010 with the aim to define criteria for diagnosing MCA and related disorders, and to propose a global unifying classification of all MC disorders and pathologic MC reactions. This classification includes three types of ‘MCA syndromes’ (MCASs), namely primary MCAS, secondary MCAS and idiopathic MCAS. MCA is now defined by robust and generally applicable criteria, including (1) typical clinical symptoms, (2) a substantial transient increase in serum total tryptase level or an increase in other MC-derived mediators, such as histamine or prostaglandin D2, or their urinary metabolites, and (3) a response of clinical symptoms to agents that attenuate the production or activities of MC mediators. These criteria should assist in the identification and diagnosis of patients with MCAS, and in avoiding misdiagnoses or overinterpretation of clinical symptoms in daily practice. Moreover, the MCAS concept should stimulate research in order to identify and exploit new molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. PMID:22041891

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation—50 Years of Evolution and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Henig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a highly specialized and unique medical procedure. Autologous transplantation allows the administration of high-dose chemotherapy without prolonged bone marrow aplasia. In allogeneic transplantation, donor-derived stem cells provide alloimmunity that enables a graft-versus-tumor effect to eradicate residual disease and prevent relapse. The first allogeneic transplantation was performed by E. Donnall Thomas in 1957. Since then the field has evolved and expanded worldwide. New indications beside acute leukemia and aplastic anemia have been constantly explored and now include congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease. The use of matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, and partially matched related donors has dramatically extended the availability of allogeneic transplantation. Transplant-related mortality has decreased due to improved supportive care, including better strategies to prevent severe infections and with the incorporation of reduced-intensity conditioning protocols that lowered the toxicity and allowed for transplantation in older patients. However, disease relapse and graft-versus-host disease remain the two major causes of mortality with unsatisfactory progress. Intense research aiming to improve adoptive immunotherapy and increase graft-versus-leukemia response while decreasing graft-versus-host response might bring the next breakthrough in allogeneic transplantation. Strategies of graft manipulation, tumor-associated antigen vaccinations, monoclonal antibodies, and adoptive cellular immunotherapy have already proved clinically efficient. In the following years, allogeneic transplantation is likely to become more complex, more individualized, and more efficient.

  15. Biomedical and Clinical Promises of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders are characterized by the chronic and progressive loss of neuronal structures and functions. There is a variability of the onsets and causes of clinical manifestations. Cell therapy has brought a new concept to overcome brain diseases, but the advancement of this therapy is limited by the demands of specialized neurons. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been promised as a renewable resource for generating human neurons for both laboratory and clinical purposes. By the modulations of appropriate signalling pathways, desired neuron subtypes can be obtained, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide genetically matched neurons for treating patients. These hPSC-derived neurons can also be used for disease modeling and drug screening. Since the most urgent problem today in transplantation is the lack of suitable donor organs and tissues, the derivation of neural progenitor cells from hPSCs has opened a new avenue for regenerative medicine. In this review, we summarize the recent reports that show how to generate neural derivatives from hPSCs, and discuss the current evidence of using these cells in animal studies. We also highlight the possibilities and concerns of translating these hPSC-derived neurons for biomedical and clinical uses in order to fight against neurological disorders.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic target of biophysical stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Marco; Sansone, Valerio; d'Agostino, Maria Cristina; Romeo, Pietro; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; de Girolamo, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability. Indeed, MSC-based approaches have been proposed for the treatment of almost all orthopedic conditions, starting from different cell sources, alone or in combination with scaffolds and growth factors, and in one-step or two-step procedures. While all these approaches would require cell harvesting and transplantation, the possibility to stimulate the endogenous MSCs to enhance their tissue homeostasis activity represents a less-invasive and cost-effective therapeutic strategy. Nowadays, the role of tissue-specific resident stem cells as possible therapeutic target in degenerative pathologies is underinvestigated. Biophysical stimulations, and in particular extracorporeal shock waves treatment and pulsed electromagnetic fields, are able to induce proliferation and support differentiation of MSCs from different origins and affect their paracrine production of growth factors and cytokines. The present review reports the attempts to exploit the resident stem cell potential in musculoskeletal pathologies, highlighting the role of MSCs as therapeutic target of currently applied biophysical treatments.

  17. The evaluation of interstitial Cajal cells distribution in non-tumoral colon disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheanu, G; Manuc, M; Dumbravă, Mona; Herlea, V; Hortopan, Monica; Costache, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemakers that generate electric waves recorded from the gut and are important for intestinal motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in colon specimens from patients with idiopathic chronic pseudo-obstruction and other non-tumoral colon disorders as compared with samples from normal colon. The distribution pattern of ICC in the normal and pathological human colon was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CD117, CD34, and S-100. In two cases with intestinal chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction we found a diffuse or focal reducing number of Cajal cells, the loss of immunoreactivity for CD117 being correlated with loss of immunoreactivity for CD34 marker. Our study revealed that the number of interstitial cells of Cajal also decrease in colonic diverticular disease and Crohn disease (p<0.05), whereas the number of enteric neurones appears to be normal. These findings might explain some of the large bowel motor abnormalities known to occur in these disorders. Interstitial Cajal cells may play an important role in pathogenesis and staining for CD117 on transmural intestinal surgical biopsies could allow a more extensive diagnosis in evaluation of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  18. Molecular Pathogenesis of B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder: What Do We Know So Far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morscio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a potentially fatal disease that arises in 2%–10% of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplants and is most frequently of B-cell origin. This very heterogeneous disorder ranges from benign lymphoproliferations to malignant lymphomas, and despite the clear association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection, its etiology is still obscure. Although a number of risk factors have been identified (EBV serostatus, graft type, and immunosuppressive regimen, it is currently not possible to predict which transplant patient will eventually develop PTLD. Genetic studies have linked translocations (involving C-MYC, IGH, BCL-2, various copy number variations, DNA mutations (PIM1, PAX5, C-MYC, RhoH/TTF, and polymorphisms in both the host (IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, HLA and the EBV genome to B-cell PTLD development. Furthermore, the tumor microenvironment seems to play an important role in the course of disease representing a local niche that can allow antitumor immune responses even in an immunocompromised host. Taken together, B-cell PTLD pathogenesis is very complex due to the interplay of many different (patient-dependent factors and requires thorough molecular analysis for the development of novel tailored therapies. This review aims at giving a global overview of the currently known parameters that contribute to the development of B-cell PTLD.

  19. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  20. The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Matthew J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Tare, Rahul; Andar, Abhay; Riehle, Mathis O.; Herzyk, Pawel; Wilkinson, Chris D. W.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2007-12-01

    A key tenet of bone tissue engineering is the development of scaffold materials that can stimulate stem cell differentiation in the absence of chemical treatment to become osteoblasts without compromising material properties. At present, conventional implant materials fail owing to encapsulation by soft tissue, rather than direct bone bonding. Here, we demonstrate the use of nanoscale disorder to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce bone mineral in vitro, in the absence of osteogenic supplements. This approach has similar efficiency to that of cells cultured with osteogenic media. In addition, the current studies show that topographically treated MSCs have a distinct differentiation profile compared with those treated with osteogenic media, which has implications for cell therapies.

  1. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as

  2. Actual neurosis as the underlying psychic structure of panic disorder, somatization, and somatoform disorder: an integration of Freudian and attachment perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Paul; Vanheule, Stijn; De Rick, Ann

    2007-10-01

    Starting from a contemporary critique of the DSM-IV, this paper argues that the diagnostic categories of panic disorder somatization, and undifferentiated somatoform disorders can be understood as belonging to a common type of psychopathology--i.e., the Freudian actual neuroses. In addition to their strong clinical similarity, these disorders share an etiological similarity; and the authors propose a combination of Freud's focus on this type of patient's inability to represent an endogenous drive arousal with the post-Freudian focus on separation anxiety. An etiological hypothesis is put forward based on contemporary psychoanalytic attachment theory, highlighting mentalization. Concrete implications for a psychoanalytically based treatment are proposed.

  3. Epigenetics of cell fate reprogramming and its implications for neurological disorders modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybek, Maciej; Golonko, Aleksandra; Walczak, Marta; Lisowski, Pawel

    2017-03-01

    The reprogramming of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proceeds in a stepwise manner with reprogramming factors binding and epigenetic composition changes during transition to maintain the epigenetic landscape, important for pluripotency. There arises a question as to whether the aberrant epigenetic state after reprogramming leads to epigenetic defects in induced stem cells causing unpredictable long term effects in differentiated cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive view of epigenetic alterations accompanying reprogramming, cell maintenance and differentiation as factors that influence applications of hiPSCs in stem cell based technologies. We conclude that sample heterogeneity masks DNA methylation signatures in subpopulations of cells and thus believe that beside a genetic evaluation, extensive epigenomic screening should become a standard procedure to ensure hiPSCs state before they are used for genome editing and differentiation into neurons of interest. In particular, we suggest that exploitation of the single-cell composition of the epigenome will provide important insights into heterogeneity within hiPSCs subpopulations to fast forward development of reliable hiPSC-based analytical platforms in neurological disorders modelling and before completed hiPSC technology will be implemented in clinical approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami eNoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Though hypothyroidism impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity, its effect on glial cells and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported to the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, showing an example of glioendocrine system. It may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders.

  5. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  6. Promise(s of using mesenchymal stem cells in reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, infertility among both man and woman has become a major concern affecting about 20 per cent of the population worldwide and has been attributed in part to several aetiological factors such as changes in lifestyle, which includes sedentary life, dietary habits, sleep anomalies, environmental pollution, etc. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have come to the rescue of many such couples, but presence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes with insulin resistance (IR and its secondary complications (micro- and macro-vascular complications, become confounders to the outcome of ART. Cell therapies are arising as a new hope in the management of reproductive disorders and currently, the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs harvested from the adult sources finds wide application in the management of diseases like stroke, neuropathy, nephropathy, myopathy, wounds in diabetes, etc. Given the capacity of MSCs to preferentially home to damaged tissue and modulate the cellular niche/microenvironment to augment tissue repairs and regeneration, the present review outlines the applications of MSCs in the management of infertility/reproductive disorders.

  7. Human pluripotent stem cells in modeling human disorders: the case of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkov, Dan; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) generated from affected blastocysts or from patient-derived somatic cells are an emerging platform for disease modeling and drug discovery. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, was one of the first disorders modeled in both embryonic stem cells and induced PCSs and can serve as an exemplary case for the utilization of human PSCs in the study of human diseases. Over the past decade, FXS-PSCs have been used to address the fundamental questions regarding the pathophysiology of FXS. In this review we summarize the methodologies for generation of FXS-PSCs, discuss their advantages and disadvantages compared with existing modeling systems and describe their utilization in the study of FXS pathogenesis and in the development of targeted treatment.

  8. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  9. Infrared Harvesting Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cell Based on Multi-scale Disordered Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yi

    2015-06-23

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics (CQDPV) offer a big potential to be a renewable energy source due to low cost and tunable band-gap. Currently, the certified power conversion efficiency of CQDPV has reached 9.2%. Compared to the 31% theoretical efficiency limit of single junction solar cells, device performances have still have a large potential to be improved. For photovoltaic devices, a classical way to enhance absorption is to increase the thickness of the active layers. Although this approach can improve absorption, it reduces the charge carriers extraction efficiency. Photo-generated carriers, in fact, are prone to recombine within the defects inside CQD active layers. In an effort to solve this problem, we proposed to increase light absorption from a given thickness of colloidal quantum dot layers with the assistance of disorder. Our approach is to develop new types of electrodes with multi-scale disordered features, which localize energy into the active layer through plasmonic effects. We fabricated nanostructured gold substrates by electrochemical methods, which allow to control surface disorder as a function of deposition conditions. We demonstrated that the light absorption from 600 nm to 800 nm is impressively enhanced, when the disorder of the nanostructured surface increases. Compared to the planar case, the most disorder case increased 65% light absorption at the wavelength of λ = 700nm in the 100 nm PbS film. The average absorption enhancement across visible and infrared region in 100 nm PbS film is 49.94%. By developing a photovoltaic module, we measured a dramatic 34% improvement in the short-circuit current density of the device. The power conversion efficiency of the tested device in top-illumination configuration showed 25% enhancement.

  10. Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells: implications to mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal neural progenitor cells by focusing on the actions of glucocorticoids. Also addressed is a further discussion on the implications of such interactions to the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnoses From the Perspective of the DSM-5 Personality Traits: A Study on Italian Clinical Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Based on SCID-II, the participants were assigned to the following groups: a) NPD (n = 49), b) BPD (n = 32), c) any other PD (n = 91), and d) no PD (n = 63). Emotional lability, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility were significantly associated with BPD diagnosis. Attention seeking significantly discriminated participants who received an SCID-II categorical NPD diagnosis. Separation insecurity, impulsivity, distractibility, and perceptual dysregulation were the DSM-5 traits that significantly discriminated BPD participants. Domain-level analyses confirmed and extended trait-level findings.

  12. Experiences of parenting and clinical intervention for mothers affected by personality disorder: a pilot qualitative study combining parent and clinician perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ruth; Weaver, Tim; Michelson, Daniel; Day, Crispin

    2018-05-25

    Evidence-based parenting programmes are recommended for the treatment of child mental health difficulties. Families with complex psychosocial needs show poorer retention and outcomes when participating in standard parenting programmes. The Helping Families Programme (HFP) is a 16-week community-based parenting intervention designed to meet the needs of these families, including families with parental personality disorder. This study aimed to explore the help seeking and participatory experiences of parents with a diagnosis of personality disorder. It further aimed to examine the acceptability of referral and intervention processes for the HFP from the perspectives of (i) clinicians referring into the programme; and (ii) referred parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents recruited to receive HFP (n = 5) as part of a research case series and the referring NHS child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinicians (n = 5). Transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Four themes were identified for parents: (i) the experience of parenthood, (ii) being a parent affected by personality disorder, (iii) experience of the intervention, and (iv) qualities of helping. Three themes emerged for clinicians: (i) challenges of addressing parental need, (ii) experience of engaging parents with personality disorders and (iii) limited involvement during HFP. Comparison of parent and clinician themes led to the identification of two key interlinked themes: (i) concerns prior to receiving the intervention, and (ii) the challenges of working together without a mutual understanding. This pilot study identifies potentially significant challenges of working with parents affected by personality disorder and engaging them in HFP and other similar interventions. Results have important wider clinical implications by highlighting potential barriers to engagement and participation and providing insights on how these barriers might be

  13. Germ cell tumors in patients with disorders of sex development: Risk factors, initial developmental stages and targets for early diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.C.M. Cools (Martine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the origin, identification and correct diagnosis of the earliest stages of malignant germ cell tumors, i.e. intra tubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGNU) and gonadoblastoma, in patients with disorders of sex development. Special attention is given to the

  14. Human olfactory bulb neural stem cells mitigate movement disorders in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany E S; Lashen, Samah; Farag, Amany; Althani, Asmaa; Afifi, Nahla; A, Abd-Elmaksoud; Rezk, Shaymaa; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patrizia; Cenciarelli, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different neuronal and glial elements. The production of DA neurons from NSCs could potentially alleviate behavioral deficits in Parkinsonian patients; timely intervention with NSCs might provide a therapeutic strategy for PD. We have isolated and generated highly enriched cultures of neural stem/progenitor cells from the human olfactory bulb (OB). If NSCs can be obtained from OB, it would alleviate ethical concerns associated with the use of embryonic tissue, and provide an easily accessible cell source that would preclude the need for invasive brain surgery. Following isolation and culture, olfactory bulb neural stem cells (OBNSCs) were genetically engineered to express hNGF and GFP. The hNFG-GFP-OBNSCs were transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamin (6-OHDA) Parkinsonian rats. The grafted cells survived in the lesion environment for more than eight weeks after implantation with no tumor formation. The grafted cells differentiated in vivo into oligodendrocyte-like (25 ± 2.88%), neuron-like (52.63 ± 4.16%), and astrocyte -like (22.36 ± 1.56%) lineages, which we differentiated based on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria. Transplanted rats exhibited a significant partial correction in stepping and placing in non-pharmacological behavioral tests, pole and rotarod tests. Taken together, our data encourage further investigations of the possible use of OBNSCs as a promising cell-based therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Unexpected exacerbations following initiation of disease-modifying drugs in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Which factor is responsible, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, B cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Th17 cells, or others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis, which mainly act on T cells, are ineffective for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and induce unexpected relapses. These include interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, natalizumab, and alemtuzumab. The cases reported here suggest that dimethyl fumarate, which reduces the number of Th1 and Th17 cells and induces IL-4-producing Th2 cells, is also unsuitable for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, irrespective of anti-aquaporin 4 IgG serostatus. Although oral dimethyl fumarate with manageable adverse effects is easy to initiate in the early course of multiple sclerosis, special attention should be paid for atypical demyelinating cases.

  16. Challenges and perspectives to enhance cattle production via in vitro techniques: focus on epigenetics and cell-secreted vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fernandes Bressan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aim to present some clinical problems found in IVP-derived animals focusing on NT procedures and to discuss the possible role of epigenetics in such process. Also, as cell-secreted vesicles have been reported as possible regulators of important physiological reproductive processes such as folliculogenesis and fertilization, it is also presented herein a new perspective of manipulating the pre-implantation period trough effector molecules contained in such vesicles.

  17. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignant proliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Czuczman, Myron S

    2004-08-01

    Overexpression of Bcl-2 oncogene has been clinically associated with an aggressive clinical course, chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, and poor survival in patients with malignant B-cell disorders. Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have limited therapeutic options. Preclinical and early clinical data have shown that Bcl-2 oncoprotein can be decreased by Bcl-2 antisense therapy. Also, downregulation of Bcl-2 protein can result in reversal of chemotherapy resistance and improved antitumor activity of biologic agents. Various clinical trials are evaluating the role of targeting Bcl-2 as a mechanism to enhance the antitumor potential of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Early results from these clinical studies are encouraging and confirm the proof of principle for antisense therapy. As current data mature, these trials will hopefully validate preliminary results and establish Bcl-2 antisense as an important addition to the current armamentarium used in the treatment of patients with B-cell neoplasms.

  18. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Absence of back disorders in adults and work-related predictive factors in a 5-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigo, T; Tropp, H; Timpka, T

    2001-06-01

    Factors important for avoiding back disorders in different age-groups have seldom been compared and studied over time. We therefore set out to study age-related differences in socio-economic and work-related factors associated with the absence of back disorders in a 5-year comparative cohort study using a mailed questionnaire. Two subgroups (aged 25-34 and 54-59 years) derived from a representative sample of the Swedish population were followed at baseline, 1 year and 5 years. Questions were asked about the duration of back pain episodes, relapses, work changes and work satisfaction. A work adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve (APGAR) score was included in the final questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting the absence of back disorders. Absence of physically heavy work predicted an absence of back disorders [odds ratio (OR), 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-6.3] in the older group. In the younger age-group, the absence of stressful work predicted absence of back disorders (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6). Thirty-seven per cent of the younger age-group and 43% of the older age-group did not experience any back pain episodes during the study period. The exploratory work APGAR scores indicated that back disorders were only associated with lower work satisfaction in the older group. The analyses point out the importance of avoiding perceived psychological stress in the young and avoiding perceived physically heavy work in the older age-group for avoiding back disorders. The results suggest a need for different programmes at workplaces to avoid back disorders depending on the age of the employees concerned.

  20. Qualitative Study of the Therapeutic Relationship in Speech and Language Therapy: Perspectives of Adults with Acquired Communication and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Considerations of the negotiated therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy are somewhat scarce, with specific therapeutic factors generally framed from psycholinguistic, behavioural, or neurological perspectives. Aims: To explore the therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy, focusing on the personal…

  1. Multicausal systems ask for multicausal approaches: A network perspective on subjective well-being in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Marie K; Borsboom, Denny; Begeer, Sander; Geurts, Hilde M

    2017-11-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder, an important limitation of much autism spectrum disorder research is that outcome measures are statistically modeled as separate dependent variables. Often, their multivariate structure is either ignored or treated as a nuisance. This study aims to lift this limitation by applying network analysis to explicate the multivariate pattern of risk and success factors for subjective well-being in autism spectrum disorder. We estimated a network structure for 27 potential factors in 2341 individuals with autism spectrum disorder to assess the centrality of specific life domains and their importance for well-being. The data included both self- and proxy-reported information. We identified social satisfaction and societal contribution as the strongest direct paths to subjective well-being. The results suggest that an important contribution to well-being lies in resources that allow the individual to engage in social relations, which influence well-being directly. Factors most important in determining the network's structure include self-reported IQ, living situation, level of daily activity, and happiness. Number of family members with autism spectrum disorder and openness about one's diagnosis are least important of all factors for subjective well-being. These types of results can serve as a roadmap for interventions directed at improving the well-being of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  2. A New Perspective on the Pathophysiology of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Model of the Role of Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2015-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder is characterized by three domains of dysfunction: affect dysregulation, behavioral dyscontrol, and interpersonal hypersensitivity. Interpersonal hypersensitivity is associated with a (pre)attentive bias toward negative social information and, on the level of the brain, enhanced bottom-up emotion generation, while affect dysregulation results from abnormal top-down processes. Additionally, the problems of patients with borderline personality disorder in interpersonal functioning appear to be related to alterations in the (social) reward and empathy networks. There is increasing evidence that the oxytocinergic system may be involved in these domains of dysfunction and may thus contribute to borderline psychopathology and even open new avenues for targeted pharmacotherapeutic approaches. From studies in healthy and clinical subjects (including first studies with borderline personality disorder patients), the authors provide a conceptual framework for future research in borderline personality disorder that is based on oxytocinergic modulation of the following biobehavioral mechanisms: 1) the brain salience network favoring adaptive social approach behavior, 2) the affect regulation circuit normalizing top-down processes, 3) the mesolimbic circuit improving social reward experiences, and 4) modulating brain regions involved in cognitive and emotional empathy. In addition, preliminary data point to interactions between the oxytocin and cannabinoid system, with implications for pain processing. These mechanisms, which the authors believe to be modulated by oxytocin, may not be specific for borderline personality disorder but rather may be common to a host of psychiatric disorders in which disturbed parent-infant attachment is a major etiological factor.

  3. Environment-related health disorders. Experience and perspectives in the care of patients with environment-related health disorders; Umweltbezogene Gesundheitsstoerungen. Erfahrungen und Perspektiven umweltmedizinischer Patientenversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornberg, C.; Malsch, A.K.F. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany); Weissbach, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Wiesmueller, G.A.

    2004-08-15

    Environmental medicine outpatient clinics, counseling centers, and practicing physicians have observed environment-related health disorders in patient groups of mixed age as well as for groups consisting only of adults or children. Practicing physicians suspected correlations between environmental factors and health disorders in 36-45% of cases, environmental medicine outpatient clinics and counseling centers in 4-34% for mixed-age groups, 0-24% for adults, and 9-13% for children. A comparison of these data is difficult due to differences in data acquisition, evaluation methods, and descriptive statistics used. Furthermore, data on children are insufficient. Patient-oriented environmental medicine faces a number of problems regarding determination of exposure, effects, and susceptibility, including a lack of scientifically verified cause-and-effect models as well as incorrect diagnoses, attributions, and conclusions. In view of the scope and intensity of environment-related health disorders, the topic cannot be ignored. A functioning program of environmental medicine counseling and patient care is needed for practicing physicians, universities and/or the public sector to deliver effective primary medical care in this field. As always, the building blocks of environmental medicine counseling are medical history, physical examination, differential diagnosis, human biomonitoring, and on-site inspection with environmental monitoring while also taking gender differences into account. Uniform basic documentation procedures and health science analyses will help to optimize patient care in environmental medicine. The value of a diagnostic algorithm in the care of patients with environment-related health disorders is beyond dispute. Last but not least, quality assurance and control are a sine qua non of patient-oriented environmental medicine. (orig.)

  4. Mean platelet volume and red cell distribution width levels in initial evaluation of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoglu M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Asoglu,1 Mehmet Aslan,2 Okan Imre,1 Yuksel Kivrak,3 Oznur Akil,1 Emin Savik,4 Hasan Buyukaslan,5 Ulker Fedai,1 Abdurrahman Altındag6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey Background: As the relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied in recent years, activated platelets lead to certain biochemical changes, which occur in the brain in patients with mental disorders. However, data relating to the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with panic disorder (PD are both limited and controversial. Herein, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the red cell distribution width (RDW levels combined with MPV levels in patients with PD.Patients and methods: Between January 2012 and June 2015, data of 30 treatment-naïve patients (16 females, 14 males; mean age: 37±10 years; range: 18–59 years who were diagnosed with PD and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (10 females, 15 males; mean age: 36±13 years; range: 18–59 years (control group were retrospectively analyzed. The white blood cell count (WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were measured in both groups.Results: The mean WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were 9,173.03±2,400.31/mm3, 8.19±1.13 fl, and 12.47±1.14%, respectively, in the PD group. These values were found to be 7,090.24±1,032.61, 6.85±0.67, and 11.63±0.85, respectively, in the healthy controls. The WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were significantly higher in the patients with PD compared to the healthy controls (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0

  5. Skewed distribution of circulating activated natural killer T (NKT) cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Karina I; Melo, Karina M; Bruno, Fernanda R; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Nixon, Douglas F; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T; Kallas, Esper G

    2010-09-09

    Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is the commonest cause of primary antibody failure in adults and children, and characterized clinically by recurrent bacterial infections and autoimmune manifestations. Several innate immune defects have been described in CVID, but no study has yet investigated the frequency, phenotype or function of the key regulatory cell population, natural killer T (NKT) cells. We measured the frequencies and subsets of NKT cells in patients with CVID and compared these to healthy controls. Our results show a skewing of NKT cell subsets, with CD4+ NKT cells at higher frequencies, and CD8+ NKT cells at lower frequencies. However, these cells were highly activated and expression CD161. The NKT cells had a higher expression of CCR5 and concomitantly expression of CCR5+CD69+CXCR6 suggesting a compensation of the remaining population of NKT cells for rapid effector action.

  6. Multidisciplinary perspectives for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: hydrogels for protein delivery and cell-based drug delivery as therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmen; Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Tunesi, Marta; Batelli, Sara; Russo, Teresa; Forloni, Gianluigi; Ambrosio, Luigi; Cigada, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    This review presents two intriguing multidisciplinary strategies that might make the difference in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The first proposed strategy is based on the controlled delivery of recombinant proteins known to play a key role in these neurodegenerative disorders that are released in situ by optimized polymer-based systems. The second strategy is the use of engineered cells, encapsulated and delivered in situ by suitable polymer-based systems, that act as drug reservoirs and allow the delivery of selected molecules to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In both these scenarios, the design and development of optimized polymer-based drug delivery and cell housing systems for central nervous system applications represent a key requirement. Materials science provides suitable hydrogel-based tools to be optimized together with suitably designed recombinant proteins or drug delivering-cells that, once in situ, can provide an effective treatment for these neurodegenerative disorders. In this scenario, only interdisciplinary research that fully integrates biology, biochemistry, medicine and materials science can provide a springboard for the development of suitable therapeutic tools, not only for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also, prospectively, for a wide range of severe neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1997-01-01

    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  8. Induction of the GABA cell phenotype: an in vitro model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Subburaju

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the hippocampus have suggested that a network of genes is associated with the regulation of the GAD₆₇ (GAD1 expression and may play a role in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. To obtain a more detailed understanding of how GAD₆₇ regulation may result in GABAergic dysfunction, we have developed an in vitro model in which GABA cells are differentiated from the hippocampal precursor cell line, HiB5. Growth factors, such as PDGF, and BDNF, regulate the GABA phenotype by inducing the expression of GAD₆₇ and stimulating the growth of cellular processes, many with growth cones that form appositions with the cell bodies and processes of other GAD₆₇-positive cells. These changes are associated with increased expression of acetylated tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and the post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95. The addition of BDNF, together with PDGF, increases the levels of mRNA and protein for GAD₆₇, as well as the high affinity GABA uptake protein, GAT1. These changes are associated with increased concentrations of GABA in the cytoplasm of "differentiated" HiB5 neurons. In the presence of Ca²⁺ and K⁺, newly synthesized GABA is released extracellularly. When the HiB5 cells appear to be fully differentiated, they also express GAD₆₅, parvalbumin and calbindin, and GluR subtypes as well as HDAC1, DAXX, PAX5, Runx2, associated with GAD₆₇ regulation. Overall, these results suggest that the HiB5 cells can differentiate into functionally mature GABA neurons in the presence of gene products that are associated with GAD₆₇ regulation in the adult hippocampus.

  9. Automated quantification of apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: a prognostic variable obtained with the Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott) automated hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumi, M; Martins, D; Pancione, Y; Sale, S; Rocco, V

    2014-12-01

    B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL, a neoplastic clonal disorder with monomorphous small B lymphocytes with scanty cytoplasm and clumped chromatin, can be morphologically differentiated in typical and atypical forms with different prognosis: Smudge cells (Gumprecht's shadows) are one of the well-known features of the typical CLL and are much less inconsistent in other different types CLPD. Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire uses the fluorescence after staining with the DNA fluorochrome propidium iodide for the measurement of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) and nonviable cells (FL3+ cell fraction): We have studied the possible correlation between presence and number of morphologically identifiable smudge cells on smears and the percentage of nonviable cells produced by Cell-Dyn Sapphire. 305 blood samples from 224 patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and 40 healthy blood donors were analyzed by CBC performed by Cell-Dyn Sapphire, peripheral blood smear, and immunophenotype characterization. FL3+ fraction in CLPD directly correlated with the percentage of smudge cells and is significantly increased in patients with typical B-CLL. This phenomenon is much less evident in patients with atypical/mixed B-CLL and B-NHL. In small laboratories without FCM and cytogenetic, smudge cells%, can be utilized as a preliminary diagnostic and prognostic tool in differential diagnosis of CLPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Caregiver Perspectives of Stigma Associated With Sickle Cell Disease in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi; Carroll, Yvonne; Porter, Jerlym S

    2016-01-01

    Patients and families affected by various medical conditions report experiencing health-related stigma, which contributes to detrimental physical, psychological, and social outcomes. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that affects 89,000 individuals in the United States and is often associated with negative stereotypes and incorrect assumptions. The present study explored the perception of stigma as reported by caregivers of adolescents with SCD. Focus groups were conducted with 20 caregivers of patients with SCD. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were coded independently by two authors, and then reviewed conjointly until consensus was reached. Caregivers reported the perception of stigma in academic, medical, community, and family settings. They also reported internalized stigma including negative feelings toward having a child with SCD, feeling upset with others, and seeing negative emotions in their child due to SCD. Caregivers reported a general lack of knowledge about SCD across settings. These results demonstrated that stigma may affect individuals with SCD across multiple settings. These results also highlighted areas for intervention, with a focus on increasing communication and education toward medical providers, schools, and communities. Interventions can utilize technology, social media, and advertisement campaigns. Additionally, support groups for patients with SCD may help decrease stigma and validate patients' experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental perspectives on use, benefits, and physician knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autistic disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela; Seshadri, Kapila; Matthews, Tara Anne; Ostfeld, Barbara M

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use appears to be increasing in children with developmental disorders. However, it is not clear whether parents perceive their healthcare providers as resources who are knowledgeable about CAM therapies and are interested in further developing their knowledge. (1) To establish and compare use of, and perceived satisfaction with, traditional medicine and CAM in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and (2) to assess parental perceptions of physician knowledge of CAM and physician interest in continuing education about CAM for the two groups of parents. Families of children with a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD were surveyed regarding the frequency of use of traditional treatment and CAM, parental perceptions of the helpfulness of each therapy, parental perceptions regarding physicians' knowledge level about CAM, and physician interest in continuing education. Thirty-six percent (n=135) of 378 surveys were returned: 41 contained a diagnosis of ADHD and 22 of ASD. Traditional therapies were used by 98% of children with ADHD and 100% of those with ASD. Perceived helpfulness of medication was 92% for children with ADHD and 60% for children with ASD (p<0.05). CAM was used for 19.5% of children with ADHD and 82% of children with ASD. Perceived satisfaction for any form of CAM in the children with ADHD was at an individual patient level. Satisfaction for two of the most commonly used CAM treatments in children with ASD ranged from 50% to 78%. In children with ASD (the diagnostic group with the highest use of and satisfaction with CAM), physician's perceived knowledge of CAM was lower (14% versus 38%; p<0.05), as was perceptions of the physician's interest in learning more (p<0.05). CAM use is significant, especially in children with ASD. Physicians are not perceived as a knowledgeable resource.

  12. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

  13. Mast Cell Activation in Brain Injury, Stress, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Selvakumar, Govindhasamy P; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Ahmed, Mohammad E; Zaheer, Smita; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Iyer, Shankar S; Bhagavan, Sachin M; Beladakere-Ramaswamy, Swathi; Zaheer, Asgar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are localized throughout the body and mediate allergic, immune, and inflammatory reactions. They are heterogeneous, tissue-resident, long-lived, and granulated cells. Mast cells increase their numbers in specific site in the body by proliferation, increased recruitment, increased survival, and increased rate of maturation from its progenitors. Mast cells are implicated in brain injuries, neuropsychiatric disorders, stress, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Brain mast cells are the first responders before microglia in the brain injuries since mast cells can release prestored mediators. Mast cells also can detect amyloid plaque formation during Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Stress conditions activate mast cells to release prestored and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators and induce increased blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into the brain and neuroinflammation. Stress induces the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and mast cells. CRH activates glial cells and mast cells through CRH receptors and releases neuroinflammatory mediators. Stress also increases proinflammatory mediator release in the peripheral systems that can induce and augment neuroinflammation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a traumatic-chronic stress related mental dysfunction. Currently there is no specific therapy to treat PTSD since its disease mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Moreover, recent reports indicate that PTSD could induce and augment neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mast cells play a crucial role in the peripheral inflammation as well as in neuroinflammation due to brain injuries, stress, depression, and PTSD. Therefore, mast cells activation in brain injury, stress, and PTSD may accelerate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including AD. This

  14. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  15. Chronic fatigue syndrome defies the mind-body-schism of medicine. New perspectives on a multiple realisable developmental systems disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Elling

    2008-09-01

    The article maintains that chronic fatigue syndrome can be properly understood only by taking an integrated perspective in which evolutionary, developmental and ecological aspects are considered. The integrative approach, supplemented by a complexity theory and psychoneuroimmunological research, is capable of explaining why there are so few structural aberrations to be found in chronic fatigue syndrome and why specific treatment is so difficult to establish. A major outcome of the investigation, that all individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome are diseased in their own way, emphasises the need to study the development of personalised life histories. It also highlights an ethical dimension; personalised disease defies essentialist thinking on patient management. Another major outcome, which follows from the developmental systems perspective, is the dissolution of ontological mind-body dualism. This in turn allows for a methodological complementation of the biological and phenomenological approaches to knowledge. New research strategies that may help to resolve chronic fatigue syndrome, grounded in the revised perspective on individual development, are suggested.

  16. Addressing access barriers to services for mothers at risk for perinatal mood disorders: A social work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Rouland Polmanteer, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies variables at the micro/individual, mezzo/partner/spouse and family, and macro/health care-system levels that inhibit mothers at risk for perinatal mood disorders from accessing health and mental health care services. Specific recommendations are made for conducting thorough biopsychosocial assessments that address the mothers' micro-, mezzo-, and macro-level contexts. Finally, the authors provide suggestions for how to intervene at the various levels to remove access barriers for mothers living with perinatal mood disorders as well as their families.

  17. Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used in the management of sickle cell disorder in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amujoyegbe, O O; Idu, M; Agbedahunsi, J M; Erhabor, J O

    2016-06-05

    The present study entails the medicinal plant species used to manage sickle cell disorder in Southern States of Nigeria. The ethnomedicinal information was gathered through multistage approach from three geopolitical zones of Southern Nigeria, which were purposively selected. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered on 500 respondents in 125 locations. The ethnomedicinal data collected were analyzed using quantitative value indices such as fidelity level (percentage) and use value. The information got was cross checked using literature search and other related materials. Five hundred respondents comprising 53.12% females and 46.88% males were observed. It was noted that 26.70% were illiterate while 73.30% had formal education. Seventy-nine percent is traditional healers, 27% herb traders and the other 4% are those who have awareness of sickle cell disease . One hundred and seventy five plant species belonging to 70 families, of which Fabaceae made up 26.76% and Euphorbiaceae 16.90% forming the highest occurrence. It was observed that leaves were the most common plant part used (69.10%) followed by root (15%) and stem bark (14%) in the preparation for sickle cell management. Majority (48.57%) of these plants were harvested from wild with 38.86% being trees. Citrus aurantifolia and Newbouldia laevis had highest use values of 0.69 and 0.64 respectively. Plants with the least use value (0.001) include Abrus canescens, Acacia xanthophloea, Aerva lanata and Axonopus compressus. The result of fidelity level values of the plant species for the management of Sickle Cell Disorder (SCD) revealed that Citrus aurantifolia had the highest value of 70.2% while Angraecum distichum and Axonopus compressus had the lowest Fidelity Level value of 0.18%. The study revealed that people in the studied areas were well grounded in the medicinal plants used to manage sickle cell disease. This study reported for the first time 102 plant species having anti-sickling potentials with

  18. Stiffening of Red Blood Cells Induced by Cytoskeleton Disorders: A Joint Theory-Experiment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lipeng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lim, Chwee Teck; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-12-01

    The functions and elasticities of the cell are largely related to the structures of the cytoskeletons underlying the lipid bilayer. Among various cell types, the red blood cell (RBC) possesses a relatively simple cytoskeletal structure. Underneath the membrane, the RBC cytoskeleton takes the form of a two-dimensional triangular network, consisting of nodes of actins (and other proteins) and edges of spectrins. Recent experiments focusing on the malaria-infected RBCs (iRBCs) show that there is a correlation between the elongation of spectrins in the cytoskeletal network and the stiffening of the iRBCs. Here we rationalize the correlation between these two observations by combining the wormlike chain model for single spectrins and the effective medium theory for the network elasticity. We specifically focus on how the disorders in the cytoskeletal network affect its macroscopic elasticity. Analytical and numerical solutions from our model reveal that the stiffness of the membrane increases with increasing end-to-end distances of spectrins, but has a nonmonotonic dependence on the variance of the end-to-end distance distributions. These predictions are verified quantitatively by our atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration measurements of iRBCs. The model may, from a molecular level, provide guidelines for future identification of new treatment methods for RBC-related diseases, such as malaria infection. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring order in disordered systems and disorder in ordered systems: Random matrix theory for isotropic and nematic liquid crystals and its perspective on pseudo-nematic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Stratt, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    Surprisingly long-ranged intermolecular correlations begin to appear in isotropic (orientationally disordered) phases of liquid crystal forming molecules when the temperature or density starts to close in on the boundary with the nematic (ordered) phase. Indeed, the presence of slowly relaxing, strongly orientationally correlated, sets of molecules under putatively disordered conditions ("pseudo-nematic domains") has been apparent for some time from light-scattering and optical-Kerr experiments. Still, a fully microscopic characterization of these domains has been lacking. We illustrate in this paper how pseudo-nematic domains can be studied in even relatively small computer simulations by looking for order-parameter tensor fluctuations much larger than one would expect from random matrix theory. To develop this idea, we show that random matrix theory offers an exact description of how the probability distribution for liquid-crystal order parameter tensors converges to its macroscopic-system limit. We then illustrate how domain properties can be inferred from finite-size-induced deviations from these random matrix predictions. A straightforward generalization of time-independent random matrix theory also allows us to prove that the analogous random matrix predictions for the time dependence of the order-parameter tensor are similarly exact in the macroscopic limit, and that relaxation behavior of the domains can be seen in the breakdown of the finite-size scaling required by that random-matrix theory.

  20. Technological advances for deciphering the complexity of psychiatric disorders: merging proteomics with cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Hendrik; Guest, Paul C; Lago, Santiago G; Bahn, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    Proteomic studies have increased our understanding of the molecular pathways affected in psychiatric disorders. Mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses of post-mortem brain samples from psychiatric patients have revealed effects on synaptic, cytoskeletal, antioxidant and mitochondrial protein networks. Multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have found alterations in hormones, growth factors, transport and inflammation-related proteins in serum and plasma from living first-onset patients. Despite these advances, there are still difficulties in translating these findings into platforms for improved treatment of patients and for discovery of new drugs with better efficacy and side effect profiles. This review describes how the next phase of proteomic investigations in psychiatry should include stringent replication studies for validation of biomarker candidates and functional follow-up studies which can be used to test the impact on physiological function. All biomarker candidates should now be tested in series with traditional and emerging cell biological approaches. This should include investigations of the effects of post-translational modifications, protein dynamics and network analyses using targeted proteomic approaches. Most importantly, there is still an urgent need for development of disease-relevant cellular models for improved translation of proteomic findings into a means of developing novel drug treatments for patients with these life-altering disorders.

  1. Neural stem cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders: The role of neurotrophic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Samuel E; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2017-06-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease currently affect tens of millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, as the world's population ages, the incidence of many of these diseases will continue to rise and is expected to more than double by 2050. Despite significant research and a growing understanding of disease pathogenesis, only a handful of therapies are currently available and all of them provide only transient benefits. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel disease-modifying therapies to prevent the development or slow the progression of these debilitating disorders. A growing number of pre-clinical studies have suggested that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) could offer a promising new therapeutic approach for neurodegeneration. While much of the initial excitement about this strategy focused on the use of NSCs to replace degenerating neurons, more recent studies have implicated NSC-mediated changes in neurotrophins as a major mechanism of therapeutic efficacy. In this mini-review we will discuss recent work that examines the ability of NSCs to provide trophic support to disease-effected neuronal populations and synapses in models of neurodegeneration. We will then also discuss some of key challenges that remain before NSC-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases can be translated toward potential clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is it Important to Talk About Technologies with Eating Disorder Clients? The Health-Care Professional Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmahelová, M.; Čevelíček, M.; Nehybková, E.; Šmahel, D.; Čermák, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, říjen (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1041-0236 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eating disorder s * technology * treatment * anorexia nervosa * bulimia nervosa Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2016

  3. Is it Important to Talk About Technologies with Eating Disorder Clients? The Health-Care Professional Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmahelová, M.; Čevelíček, M.; Nehybková, E.; Šmahel, D.; Čermák, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, říjen (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1041-0236 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eating disorders * technology * treatment * anorexia nervosa * bulimia nervosa Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2016

  4. Perspectives of Student Combat Veterans Diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on Their Experiences in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Richard R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The intention of the this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of military combat veteran college students (MCVCS) who self-identify as having been diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). They were offered the opportunity to answer questions on the experiences they have in higher education. The study inquired on the…

  5. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  6. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  7. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, H.; Broeckhuysen, S. van; Bühring, M.; Kool, M.B.; Dulmen, S. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with

  8. Counseling a Biracial Female College Student with an Eating Disorder: A Case Study Applying an Integrative Biopsychosocialcultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes short-term counseling with a young biracial woman experiencing an eating disorder. A biopsychosocialcultural conceptualization of the problem is described. The counseling approach is informed by feminist and multicultural theory and uses both interpersonal and cognitive behavior therapy. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. Avoiding the "Brick Wall of Awkward": Perspectives of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder on Social-Focused Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Mullins, Teagan S.; Harvey, Michelle N.; Gustafson, Jenny R.; Carter, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    Many youth with autism spectrum disorder participate in school-based, peer-mediated intervention programs designed to improve their social experiences. However, there is little research discerning how these youth view intervention practices currently represented in the literature, information which could improve the social validity of intervention…

  10. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Fahdi, Samiya; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver's variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1)…

  11. The problems of offenders with mental disorders: A plurality of perspectives within a single mental health care organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Jacqueline; Heyman, Bob; Godin, Paul; Shaw, M.; Reynolds, L.

    2006-01-01

    Managers, doctors, nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists, unqualified staff and service users were interviewed for a qualitative study of risk management and rehabilitation in an inner city medium secure forensic mental health care unit. Different professional orientations to service user problems were identified. Doctors focused primarily on the diagnosis of mental disorder, which they managed mainly through pharmaceutical interventions. Psychologists were principall...

  12. Endobronchial Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feuillet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD are increasingly recognized as a fatal complication of hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Thoracic involvement, that may be isolated or part of a disseminated disease, usually encompasses pulmonary nodules or masses and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The current case study presents 2 patients who underwent HSCT, one allogenic and the other autologous, who developed an exceptional endobronchial EBV related PTLD. The first patient had a fleshy white endobronchial mass resulting in a right upper lobe atelectasis and the second had an extensive necrotising mucosa from trachea to both basal bronchi without any significant change of lung parenchyma on the CT scan. In both cases, the diagnosis was made by bronchial biopsies. Physicians should be aware of an endobronchial pattern of EBV associated PTLD after HSCT to permit quick diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

  13. Regulatory T Cells As Supporters of Psychoimmune Resilience: Toward Immunotherapy of Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Pierre; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Encarnita; Leboyer, Marion; Klatzmann, David

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a role in major depressive disorder (MDD). As the main role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to control inflammation, this might denote a Treg insufficiency in MDD. However, neither a qualitative nor a quantitative defect of Tregs has been ascertained and no causality direction between inflammation and depression has been established. Here, after reviewing the evidence supporting a relation between Treg insufficiency and MDD, we conclude that a novel therapeutic approach based on Treg stimulation could be valuable in at least the subset of patients with inflammatory MDD. Low-dose interleukin-2 appears to be a good candidate as it is not only a safe stimulator of Tregs in humans but also an inhibitor of pro-inflammatory Th17 lymphocytes. Here, we discuss that a thorough immune investigation as well as immunotherapy will be heuristic for deciphering the pathophysiology of MDD. PMID:29615964

  14. Regulatory T Cells As Supporters of Psychoimmune Resilience: Toward Immunotherapy of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ellul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a role in major depressive disorder (MDD. As the main role of regulatory T cells (Tregs is to control inflammation, this might denote a Treg insufficiency in MDD. However, neither a qualitative nor a quantitative defect of Tregs has been ascertained and no causality direction between inflammation and depression has been established. Here, after reviewing the evidence supporting a relation between Treg insufficiency and MDD, we conclude that a novel therapeutic approach based on Treg stimulation could be valuable in at least the subset of patients with inflammatory MDD. Low-dose interleukin-2 appears to be a good candidate as it is not only a safe stimulator of Tregs in humans but also an inhibitor of pro-inflammatory Th17 lymphocytes. Here, we discuss that a thorough immune investigation as well as immunotherapy will be heuristic for deciphering the pathophysiology of MDD.

  15. Temporary stages and motivational variables: Two complementary perspectives in the help-seeking process for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo

    2017-10-09

    Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaphylactic Reactions After Discontinuation of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Clonal Mast Cell Disorder Should Be Suspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Pagani, Mauro; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Scaffidi, Luigi; Olivieri, Elisa; Franchini, Maurizio; Reccardini, Federico; Costantino, Maria Teresa; Roncallo, Chiara; Mauro, Marina; Boni, Elisa; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Marcarelli, Anna Rosaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-12-16

    Up to 75% of patients with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera sting are at risk of further severe reactions if re-stung. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in protecting individuals with ascertained Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and previous severe reactions. After a 3- to 5-year VIT course, most patients remain protected after VIT discontinuation. Otherwise, a lifelong treatment should be considered in high-risk patients (eg, in mastocytosis). Several case reports evidenced that patients with mastocytosis and HVA, although protected during VIT, can re-experience severe and sometimes fatal reactions after VIT discontinuation. To evaluate whether patients who lost protection after VIT discontinuation may suffer from clonal mast cell disorders. The survey describes the characteristics of patients who received a full course of VIT for previous severe reactions and who experienced another severe reaction at re-sting after VIT discontinuation. Those with a Red Española de Mastocitosis score of 2 or more or a serum basal tryptase level of more than 25 ng/mL underwent a hematological workup (bone marrow biopsy, KIT mutation, expression of aberrant CD25) and/or skin biopsy. Nineteen patients (mean age, 56.3 years; 89.5% males) were evaluated. All of them had received at least 4 years of VIT and were protected. After VIT discontinuation they were re-stung and developed, in all but 1 case, severe anaphylactic reactions (12 with loss of consciousness, in the absence of urticaria/angioedema). Eighteen patients (94.7%) had a clonal mast cell disorder, 8 of them with normal tryptase. Looking at this selected population, we suggest that mastocytosis should be considered in patients developing severe reactions at re-sting after VIT discontinuation and, as a speculation, patients with mastocytosis and HVA should be VIT-treated lifelong. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Over-expression of CD8+ T-cell activation is associated with decreased CD4+ cells in patients seeking treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Paola; Sanvisens, Arantza; Martínez-Cáceres, Eva; Teniente, Aina; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption may have an impact on the adaptive immune system through an imbalance in T cell subpopulations and changes in cell activation. We aimed to analyze profiles of CD4 and CD8T cell activation in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). We used a cross-sectional study with patients seeking treatment of the disorder. Blood samples for immunophenotyping were obtained at admission. Profiles of T cell activation were defined: (I) CD38 + /HLA-DR + , (II) CD38 + /HLA-DR - , (III) CD38 - /HLA-DR + , (IV) CD38 - /HLA-DR - and compared with healthy controls. We calculated a CD8 + T cell activation indicator (AI) that was defined as the quotient of non-activated cells (CD38 - /HLA-DR - ) and activated cells (CD38 + /HLA-DR + ). 60 patients were eligible (83%M); median age was 49 years [IQR: 44-54] and alcohol consumption was 145g/day [IQR: 90-205]. Mean±SD of CD38 + /HLA-DR - was 50.3±50.6 cells/μL in patients and 33.5±24.5 cells/μL in controls (p=0.03), for the CD38 - /HLA-DR + it was 61±62.2 cells/μL in patients and 21.2±17.3 cells/μL in controls (pcells/μL in patients and 10.8±10.3 cells/μL in controls (pcells, and the percentage of CD38 + /HLA-DR + CD8 + T cells (r=0.37, p=0.003; r=0.2, p=0.086, respectively). Patients with AUD have an increased expression of immune activation with respect to healthy individuals. This excess of activated CD8 + T cells correlates with the absolute CD4 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perspectives on stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration. Advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hyun; Jung, Seok Yun; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Baek, Sang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) accelerates cardiomyocyte loss, but the developing stem cell research could be useful for regenerating a variety of tissue cells, including cardiomyocytes. Diverse sources of stem cells for IHD have been reported, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, skeletal myoblasts, bone marrow-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cardiac stem cells. However, stem cells have unique advantages and disadvantages for cardiac tissue regeneration, which are important considerations in determining the specific cells for improving cell survival and long-term engraftment after transplantation. Additionally, the dosage and administration method of stem cells need to be standardized to increase stability and efficacy for clinical applications. Accordingly, this review presents a summary of the stem cell therapies that have been studied for cardiac regeneration thus far, and discusses the direction of future cardiac regeneration research for stem cells.

  19. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  20. Full-spectrum light management by pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-08-07

    In this paper, the role of pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures on the optical features for application to thin-film solar cells is investigated to realize the superior light management for the full-spectrum solar energy utilization, compared with some ordered structures. Without loss of generality, the c-Si thin film solar cell is taken as the example. The results demonstrate that the fluctuations introduced into the geometry parameters of moth-eye elements can lead to the remarkable absorption enhancement in the wavelength region of 0.3-1.1 μm and high transmission in the wavelength range of 1.1-2.5 μm. Two mechanisms including the increasing spectral density of modes and the intensive forescattering intensity are identified to be responsible for the absorption enhancement. In addition, the optical characteristics of the moth-eye surface with both disordered height and disordered diameter are insensitive to the incident angle.