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Sample records for cell development final

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  2. Development and Demonstration of Carbon Fuel Cell Final Report CRADA No. TC02091.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berner, J. K. [Contained Energy, Inc., Shaker Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Contained Energy, Inc. (CEI), to conduct necessary research and to develop, fabricate and test a multi-cell carbon fuel cell.

  3. Development of molten-carbonate fuel-cell technology. Final report, February-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to focus on the basic technology for producing molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) components. This included the development and fabrication of stable anode structures, preparation of lithiated nickel oxide cathodes, synthesis and characterization of a high surface area (gamma-lithium-aluminate) electrolyte support, pressurized cell testing and modeling of the overall electrolyte distribution within a cell to aid performance optimization of the different cell components. The electrode development program is highlighted by two successful 5000 hour bench-scale tests using stabilized anode structures. One of these provided better performance than in any previous state-of-the-art, bench-scale cell (865 mV at 115 mA/cm/sup 2/ under standard conditions). Pressurized testing at 10 atmosphere of a similar stabilized, high surface area, Ni/Co anode structure in a 300 cm/sup 2/ cell showed that the 160 mA/cm/sup 2/ performance goal of 850 mV on low Btu fuel (80% conversion) can be readily met. A study of the H/sub 2/S-effects on molten carbonate fuel cells showed that ERC's Ni/Co anode provided better tolerance than a Ni/Cr anode. Prelithiated nickel oxide plaques were prepared from materials made by a low temperature and a high temperature powder-production process. The methods for fabricating handleable cathodes of various thicknesses were also investigated. In electrolyte matrix development, accelerated out-of-cell and in-cell tests have confirmed the superior stability of ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/.

  4. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  5. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  6. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  7. Evaluation of Novel Semiconductor Materials Potentially Useful in Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Evaluation of novel semiconductor materials potentially useful in solar cells. NREL will fabricate, test and analyze solar cells from EpiWorks' wafers produced in 2-3 separate growth campaigns. NREL will also characterize material from 2-3 separate EpiWorks material development campaigns. Finally, NREL will visit EpiWorks and help establish any necessary process, such as spectral CV measurements and III-V on Si metalization processes and help validate solar cell designs and performance.

  8. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  9. Research and Development of Zinc Air Fuel Cell To Achieve Commercialization Final Report CRADA No. TC-1544-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haley, H. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The specific goal of this project was to advance the development of the zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) towards commercial readiness in different mobile applications, including motor bikes, passenger cars, vans, buses and off-road vehicles (golf carts, factory equipment), and different stationary applications including generator sets, uninterruptible power systems and electric utility loading leveling and distributive power.

  10. Fundamental Research and Development for Improved Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.

    2007-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2002-2006 period toward high-efficiency, low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. This program emphasize fundamental and applied research on commercial substrates and manufacturable technologies. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, technology development, and complete cell fabrication were used to accomplish the goals of this program. This report is divided into five sections that summarize our work on i) PECVD SiN-induced defect passivation (Sections 1 and 2); ii) the effect of material inhomogeneity on the performance of mc-Si solar cells (Section 3); iii) a comparison of light-induced degradation in commercially grown Ga- and B-doped Czochralski Si ingots (Section 4); and iv) the understanding of the formation of high-quality thick-film Ag contacts on high sheet-resistance emitters (Section 5).

  11. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  12. Leadership Development Program Final Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    TOSC is NASA's prime contractor tasked to successfully assemble, test, and launch the EM1 spacecraft. TOSC success is highly dependent on design products from the other NASA Programs manufacturing and delivering the flight hardware; Space Launch System(SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle(MPCV). Design products directly feed into TOSC's: Procedures, Personnel training, Hardware assembly, Software development, Integrated vehicle test and checkout, Launch. TOSC senior management recognized a significant schedule risk as these products are still being developed by the other two (2) programs; SVE and ACE positions were created.

  13. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  14. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  15. Horticulture Therapy Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sally; And Others

    This final report includes two major components: a narrative describing a project at Edmonds Community College, Washington, to develop a horticultural therapy curriculum and descriptions of six courses developed or revised during the project. The narrative reports the development of a supplementary interdisciplinary certification program to train…

  16. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  17. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS. Final Technical Report (October 2000 - December 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of ∼0.23 ohm-cm 2 has been achieved at 600 C with Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte

  18. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Development of an automated ultrasonic inspection cell for detecting subsurface discontinuities in cast gray iron. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

    1995-08-01

    This inspection cell consisted of an ultrasonic flaw detector, transducer, robot, immersion tank, computer, and software. Normal beam pulse-echo ultrasonic nondestructive testing, using the developed automated cell, was performed on 17 bosses on each rough casting. Ultrasonic transducer selection, initial inspection criteria, and ultrasonic flow detector (UFD) setup parameters were developed for the gray iron castings used in this study. The software were developed for control of the robot and UFD in real time. The software performed two main tasks: emulating the manual operation of the UFD, and evaluating the ultrasonic signatures for detecting subsurface discontinuities. A random lot of 105 castings were tested; the 100 castings that passed were returned to the manufacturer for machining into finished parts and then inspection. The other 5 castings had one boss each with ultrasonic signatures consistent with subsurface discontinuities. The cell was successful in quantifying the ultrasonic echo signatures for the existence of signature characteristics consistent with Go/NoGo criteria developed from simulated defects. Manual inspection showed that no defects in the areas inspected by the automated cell avoided detection in the 100 castings machined into finished parts. Of the 5 bosses found to have subsurface discontinuities, two were verified by manual inspection. The cell correctly classified 1782 of the 1785 bosses (99.832%) inspected.

  19. DK-SOFCa. Development of solid oxide fuel cells. Technical final report; DK-SOFCa, udvikling af fastoxid braendselsceller. Teknisk slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P.H.

    2004-08-01

    This project is part of the Danish strategy for solid oxide fuel cells. The main purpose with the project was to upgrade Danish fuel cell technology within the SOFC area from established laboratory production techniques to pre-pilot scale. This target has been reached, as a 400m{sup 2} production area with equipment capable of producing up to 500 homogeneous, batch-size cells with a low rejection rate has been established. The production processes are described, analysed and optimised systematically in order to create a basis for a future upgrading to industrial production. A number of non-destructive evaluation methods have been developed for quality control of the produced cells. A reproducibility study of the established production process has contributed to identifying reasons for variations in the yield of the cells, and has enabled a continuous quality improvement. The cells produced on the pre-pilot plant are globally competitive as to mechanical strength, service life and electrical yield. Thus, the project has opened an opportunity for a demonstration of Danish fuel cell technology. (BA)

  20. Process Development and Basic Studies of Electrochemically Deposited CdTe-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 15 May 1998 - 17 August 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2002-03-01

    This report describes the long-term research and development issues related to polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Our general research approach is based on combining activities aimed at improvement of cell performance and stability with activities aimed at increasing our fundamental understanding of the properties of materials making up the cells: CdTe, CdS, multi-layer back-contact, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) front-contact. We emphasize the relation between structural and electronic material properties and various processing procedures, as well as the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the cell performance and its degradation. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of basic issues behind the CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority-carrier concentration, mechanisms of the dopant compensation, recombination centers, their nature and properties, diffusion, electro migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that better basic understanding of the specific influence of polycrystallinity, especially for fine-grain materials characteristic of CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction. It is important to study and understand the influence of the grain boundaries on the spatial distribution and migration of impurities and electrically active defects. To fulfill these tasks, one needs to develop new methods and techniques (or adjust existing ones) for material characterization, as well as develop more sophisticated approaches to data analysis and modeling.

  1. HyLIFT-FLEX. ''Development and demonstration of flexible and scalable fuel cell power system for various material handling vehicles''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The project has successfully developed and tested a new fuel cell system from H2 Logic in a tow tractor from MULAG. Based on the project results a positive decision has been taken on continuing commercialisation efforts. Next step will be a large scale demonstration of up to 100 units in a new project named HyLIFT-Europe that is expected to commence in early 2013, with support from the FCH-JU programme. Main efforts in the project have been the development of a new fuel cell system, named H2Drive from H2 Logic, and the integration and test in a standard battery powered COMET 3 towing tractor from MULAG. The system size is exactly the same as a standard battery box (DIN measures) and can be easily integrated into e.g. the MULAG vehicle or other electric powered material handling vehicles using the same battery size. Several R and D efforts on the fuel cell system have been conducted with the aim to reduce cost and improve efficiency, among others the following: 1) New air compressor sub-system and control - improving overall system efficiency with {approx}2,5%. 2) New simplified air-based compressor cooling sub-system. 3) New hydrogen compressor sub-system with improved efficiency and reduced cost. 4) New hydrogen inlet and outlet manifold sub-system - resulting in reduction of more than 50% of all sensor components in the fuel cell system. 5) New DC/DC converter with an average efficiency of 97% - a 3% improvement. 6) A new optimized hybrid system that meets the vehicle cycle requirements. In total the R and D efforts have improved the overall fuel cell system efficiency with 10% and helped to reduce costs with 33% compared to the previous generation. A first prototype of the developed H2Drive system has been constructed and integrated into the MULAG Towing Tractor. Only few modifications were made on the base vehicle, among others integration of cabin-heating, displays and motor control. Several internal tests were conducted at H2 Logic and MULAG before making a

  2. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  3. Final Stage Development of Reactor Console Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2013-01-01

    The Reactor Console Simulator PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor was developed since end of 2011 and now in the final stage of development. It is will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behavior and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of human system interface (HSI) is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate and estimated reactor console parameters. The capabilities in user interface, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics can be expanded and explored to simulation as well as modeling for New Reactor Console, Research Reactor and Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  4. Portable linear accelerator development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberg, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The final report on Project RP 822-6 describes the MINAC 3 development from the recognition of need for a lightweight, portable high-energy device to the successful completion and field use of the MINAC. MINAC, which represents a substantial improvement in field radiographic capability and in technology, rapidly transitioned from proof-of-principle (1978 to 1980) to field-proven product (1980 to 1981). As a result, the decision has been made to develop this report as a users guide as well as a historic record of design, development, and testing program. The first section of this report has the following principal objectives: to describe the existing MINAC equipment capabilities and achievable modifications; to provide applications information for prospective users; and to provide technical information on high-energy radiography useful for familiarization and planning. The users guide section is followed by sections which describe the design basis, development, and application history of MINAC through the course of EPRI RP822 research projects 1 to 5, inclusively

  5. Technology development for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells (TEKSI). Final report; Technologieentwicklung fuer kristalline Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarzellen (TEKSI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Hurrle, A.; Bau, S.; Eyer, A.; Haas, F.; Huljic, D.; Kieliba, T.; Lautenschlager, H.; Luedemann, R.; Lutz, F.; Preu, R.; Reber, S.; Rentsch, J.; Schaefer, S.; Schetter, C.; Schillinger, N.; Warta, W.; Zimmermann, W.

    2002-10-01

    The results of a project aimed at the development of crystalline solar wafers are presented. All process stages were reviewed in detail with a view to industrial fabrication. This included also the further development of machinery, e.g. for selective zone melting recrystallisation, CVD silicon deposition, and characterisation of deposited films and solar cells. Not all the envisaged goals were achieved. For example, efficiencies up to 17.6 percent were possible on direct epitactic, highly doped CZ-Si substrates and with a high-efficiency process, but the normal efficiencies of solar cells on SSP or on ceramic substrates were in the range of 8-11 percent. This underlines the need for further research on the development of appropriate substrates with reproducible properties. [German] Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse eines mehrjaehrigen Projekts zur Entwicklung der kristallinen Silizium-Duennschichtsolarzelle (KSD-Solarzelle) vorgestellt. Die Arbeiten waren eine konsequente Fortsetzung der bereits in einem Vorgaengerprojekt (FKZ 0328986B) bearbeiteten Themen. Alle zur Herstellung solcher Solarzellen noetigen Prozessschritte im Rahmen des am Fraunhofer ISE verfolgten Hochtemperaturpfads wurden detailliert untersucht, insbesondere im Hinblick auf eine industrielle Fertigung. Ein wesentlicher Teil der Arbeiten befasste sich deshalb auch mit der Weiterentwicklung von Geraeten, so z. B. fuer die Zonenschmelzrekristallisation, fuer die Silizumabscheidung mittels CVD-Verfahren und fuer die Charakterisierung abgeschiedener Schichten und Solarzellen. Nicht alle der ehrgeizigen Projektziele konnten erreicht werden. Auf direkt epitaxierten, hochdotierten CZ-Si-Substraten konnten zwar mit einem High-Efficiency-Prozess Wirkungsgrade bis zu 17.6%, mit fertigungsrelevanter Siebdrucktechnologie bis 13% erzielt werden. Die Wirkungsgrade von Solarzellen auf SSP oder auf Keramiksubstraten lagen aber alle im Bereich von 8-11%. Dies zeigt deutlich, dass die Entwicklung

  6. PEM-fuel cells for mobile application. Sub task: development of electrocatalysts. Final report; PEM-Brennstoffzelle fuer mobile Anwendung. Teilprojekt: Katalysatorenentwicklung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starz, K A

    1999-01-01

    PEM fuel cells are gaining increasing importance for use in automotive application. The goal of the research program reported here was to develop the basic technology and components for PEMFC stacks for use in transport applications. The sub-task of Degussa was to develop improved electrocatalysts for PEMFC single cells and stacks. The technical objectives of the research project were met. Electrocatalysts, characterized by a high Pt-dispersion, high surface area and excellent activity, were developed. With this material, considerable progress was made to reduce the total platinum loading of PEMFC cells and stacks to about 0,5 mgPt/cm{sup 2}. With this value, the goal of the program (<0,8 mg/cm{sup 2}) was significantly surpassed. Additionally, higher power densities of >0.4 W/cm{sup 2} were achieved at Degussa for hydrogen/air and reformate/air operation of the PEMFC. A CO-tolerant anode electrocatalyst, exhibiting a CO-tolerance of up to 100 ppm CO, enables the operation of PEMFC stacks with on-board generated methanol reformate. The performance of the new electrocatalyst materials was verified by DaimlerChrysler in a PEMFC demonstration stack at the end of the program. (orig.) [Deutsch] PEM-Brennstoffzellen gewinnen fuer die mobile Anwendung immer mehr an Bedeutung. Im Rahmen des hier beschriebenen Leitprojektes sollten die Basistechnologien fuer den Einsatz der PEM-Brennstoffzelle im mobilen Bereich (Elektrotraktion) entwickelt werden. Das Teilprojekt der Degussa befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von verbesserten Elektrokatalysatoren fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellenstacks. Die technischen Arbeitsziele des Vorhabens wurden erreicht. So konnten Elektrokatalysatoren bereitgestellt werden, die sich durch eine hohe Pt-Dispersion, eine grosse Pt-Oberflaeche sowie eine sehr gute Aktivitaet auszeichnen. Mit diesen Elektrokatalysatoren gelang es, die Platinbeladung der PEM-Elektroden (Anode und Kathode) erheblich abzusenken. Mit einer Gesamtplatinbeladung von 0,5 mg/cm{sup 2

  7. Thayer Lake Hydropower Development -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matousek, Mark [ORENCO Hydropower, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Thayer Lake Hydropower Development (THLD) has been under study since the late 1970’s as Angoon explored opportunities to provide lower cost renewable power to the Community and avoid the high cost of diesel generation. Kootznoowoo Inc. (Kootznoowoo), the tribal corporation for Angoon’s current and past residents, was provided the rights by Congress to develop a hydropower project within the Admiralty Island National Monument. This grant (DE-EE0002504) by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Indian Energy and a matching grant from the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) were provided to Kootznoowoo to enable the design, engineering and permitting of this hydropower project on Thayer Creek. Prior to the grant, the USFS had performed a final environmental impact statement (FEIS) and issued a Record of Decision (ROD) in 2009 for a 1.2 MW hydropower project on Thayer Creek that would Angoon’s needs with substantial excess capacity for growth. Kootznoowoo hired Alaska Power & Telephone (AP&T) in 2013 to manage this project and oversee its development. AP&T and its subcontractors under Kootznoowoo’s guidance performed several activities, aligned with the task plan defined in the grant.

  8. PEM fuel cells for mobile applications. Project part: Membrane development. Final report; PEM-Brennstoffzellen fuer mobile Anwendungen. Teilprojekt: Membranentwicklung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G

    1999-01-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are attractive candidates for next century propulsion systems in passenger cars. The technical feasibility has been demonstrated by several car manufacturers. Today, PEMFC lack economical viability. One of the reasons is the cost of currently used materials, e.g. membranes. This project target towards the development of low cost, non-fluorinated membranes, which fulfil all technical requirements in PEMFC systems. In the frame of this project we were able to successfully develop new membranes based on polyaromatic polymers, which can be produced on a technical scale. These membranes enabled high power densities, exceeding 700 mW/cm{sup 2} at 80 C and their longevity has been demonstrated successfully up to 5,000 hours. Therefore, these membranes have sufficient electrochemical stability for the application in fuel cells. The prices in mass production for these new membranes can get significantly below prices of fluorinated membranes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen (PEMFC) gelten als aussichtsreiche Kandidaten fuer alternative Fahrzeugantriebe fuer das naechste Jahrzehnt. Die technische Machbarkeit ist bereits mehrfach demonstriert worden. Allerdings sind die Kosten der PEMFC-Systeme noch zu hoch u.a. durch zu hohe Kosten der eingesetzten Materialien, so auch der Membranen. Ziel des Projektes war daher die Entwicklung kostenguenstiger, nichtfluorierter Membranen, die die technischen Anforderungen fuer die Anwendung in der PEM-Brennstoffzelle erfuellen. Im Projekt konnten erfolgreich Membranen auf Basis polyaromatischer Polymere entwickelt werden, die sich auch im technischen Massstab herstellen lassen. Die Membranen ermoeglichen hohe Leistungsdichten groesser 700 mW/cm{sup 2} bei Betriebstemperaturen von 80 C. Die Lebensdauer der Membranen wurde erfolgreich ueber 5.000 Stunden nachgewiesen. Die elektrochemische Stabilitaet der untersuchten Materialien ist damit gegeben. Die Preise dieser

  9. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  10. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  11. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  12. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  13. Final flush of the shielded cells melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.M.; Fellinger, T.L.; Harbour, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A flush of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Shielded Cells melter was performed after the completion of a campaign to vitrify loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange medium. The purpose of the flush was to lower levels of radioisotopes accumulated during the campaign and to lower the level of titanium dioxide present in the glass. This in turn would ready the melter for future campaigns involving the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

  14. Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis

    2013-04-30

    Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

  15. Program Development Plan and Team up; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Electric Power Association

    2001-01-01

    The final summary report is a comprehensive view of TEAM-UP, with documented data, information, and experiences that SEPA has collected throughout the program, including lessons learned by participating ventures, and sections covering costs and other information on both large and small systems. This report also covers the barriers that TEAM-UP faced to PV commercialization at the beginning of the program, barriers the project was able to remove or reduce, and what barriers remain on the road ahead

  16. Development of Advanced Deposition Technology for Microcrystalline Si Based Solar Cells and Modules: Final Technical Report, 1 May 2002-31 July 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. M.

    2004-12-01

    The key objective of this subcontract was to take the first steps to extend the radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) manufacturing technology of Energy Photovoltaics, Inc. (EPV), to the promising field of a-Si/nc-Si solar cell fabrication by demonstrating ''proof-of-concept'' devices of good efficiencies that previously were believed to be unobtainable in single-chamber reactors owing to contamination problems. A complementary goal was to find a new high-rate deposition method that can conceivably be deployed in large PECVD-type reactors. We emphasize that our goal was not to produce 'champion' devices of near-record efficiencies, but rather, to achieve modestly high efficiencies using a far simpler (cheaper) system, via practical processing methods and materials. To directly attack issues in solar-cell fabrication at EPV, the nc-Si thin films were studied almost exclusively in the p-i-n device configuration (as absorbers or i-layers), not as stand-alone films. Highly efficient, p-i-n type, nc-Si-based solar cells are generally grown on expensive, laboratory superstrates, such as custom ZnO/glass of high texture (granular surface) and low absorption. Also standard was the use of a highly effective back-reflector ZnO/Ag, where the ZnO can be surface-textured for efficient diffuse reflection. The high-efficiency ''champion'' devices made by the PECVD methods were invariably prepared in sophisticated (i.e., expensive), multi-chamber, or at least load-locked deposition systems. The electrode utilization efficiency, defined as the surface-area ratio of the powered electrode to that of the substrates, was typically low at about one (1:1). To evaluate the true potential of nc-Si absorbers for cost-competitive, commercially viable manufacturing of large-area PV modules, we took a more down-to-earth approach, based on our proven production of a-Si PV modules by a massively parallel batch

  17. Novel diaphragm for electrolytic cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic intent of these studies is to produce a diaphragm permeable to two types of ions, which have properties which are similar to those of asbestos. PTFE in the form of fabric is rendered hydrophilic by grafting monomer acrylic acid by a radio-chemical technique; two methods were utilized to do this: - Direct radio-chemical method under radiation - Pre-irradiation method in air under radiation and accelerated electronic radiation. The monomer acrylic acid was grafted in the presence or non-presence of cross-linking agents, the latter before developing a resistance derived from the diaphragms obtained at the agressivity of the medium in which they would be utilized

  18. The Development of Teacher Perspectives: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B. Robert; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    This longitudinal study of the development of perspectives toward teaching consists of three major phases: (1) an examination of the impact of the student teaching experience on the development of teacher perspectives; (2) an examination of the continuing development of teacher perspectives during the first year of teaching; and (3) further…

  19. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  20. Innovative Technology Development Program. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, J.

    1995-08-01

    Through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a national applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program, whose goal has been to resolve the major technical issues and rapidly advance technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The Innovative Technology Development (ITD) Program was established as a part of the DOE, Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program. The plan is part of the DOE's program to restore sites impacted by weapons production and to upgrade future waste management operations. On July 10, 1990, DOE issued a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) through the Idaho Operations Office to solicit private sector help in developing innovative technologies to support DOE's clean-up goals. This report presents summaries of each of the seven projects, which developed and tested the technologies proposed by the seven private contractors selected through the PRDA process

  1. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  2. Achievement Motivation Development Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Dave C.; Alschuler, Alfred S.

    Two efforts were made to develop achievement motivation in school children and to observe the effect of such training on their behavior in and out of school. These studies were undertaken because: (1) Achievement motivation might help children think more seriously about their work habits and career planning; (2) It might improve the grades of…

  3. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  4. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  5. Development of Prosocial Skills. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrila, Rauno K.; Ma, Xin; Fleming, Darcy; Rinaldi, Christina

    2002-01-01

    In part, this focus is a result of substantial research demonstrating strong links between early social competence and later life adjustment and healthy development. The close connection between prosocial skills and a wide variety of future developmental outcomes provides a compelling rationale to examine what factors are associated with…

  6. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. I n order to achieve these objectives, NAC, a leading U.S. advanced ceramics component manufacturer, assembled a multidisciplinary, vertically integrated team. This team included: a major diesel engine builder, Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC); a corporate ceramics research division, SGIC's Northboro R and D Center; intelligent processing system developers, BDM Federal/MATSYS; a furnace equipment company, Centorr/Vacuum Industries; a sintering expert, Wittmer Consultants; a production OEM, Deco-Grand; a wheel manufacturer and grinding operation developer, Norton Company's Higgins Grinding Technology Center (HGTC); a ceramic machine shop, Chand Kare Technical Ceramics; and a manufacturing cost consultant, IBIS Associates. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration

  7. International development workshops. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

  8. International development workshops. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

  9. Synchronous transmission circuit breaker development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, R D

    1976-08-01

    The need for the development of a synchronous transmission breaker is discussed and the basic preliminary specifications for such a circuit breaker are established and tabulated. The initial exploratory work designed to establish the preferred designs for a synchronous pulse generator, (or current zero predictor), for an operating mechanism and for a suitable interrupter are described in detail. The experimental results obtained with vacuum interrupters and with axial blast interrupters using pure SF/sub 6/, mixtures of SF/sub 6/ and N/sub 2/, and high pressure liquid SF/sub 6/ are reported. The results are then evaluated and the performances obtained with each interrupting media are compared arriving at the end to a choice of a preferred design. This preferred design, an interrupter that uses SF/sub 6/ in the liquid state at pressures of 13.8 megapascals (2000 psi), is completely described. The results obtained in a series of experiments designed to establish limits of performance for this interrupter are also discussed.

  10. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    rated at 500 kW, are on-site and will be installed to the BOP upon completion of the BOP pretests now in the final stages. Full operation and commencement of the formal demonstration is to begin late this year. Now five years old, the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) has grown to include over 30 buyers. The Group's Committees have been actively working with FCE personnel to hone the plant's performance, configuration and cost/benefit trade-offs to assure a market-responsive unit results from the collaboration. A standard contract has been developed for use with the FCCG buyers to streamline the purchase agreement negotiations for the early units. These are essential steps to support a market entry for the 2.8 MW power plant in 1999. The paper details the program's progress and provides additional information on the current demonstration and stack test efforts, with comparisons to earlier test data. Recent accomplishments and planned efforts to affect market entry of the first production units is reviewed as well.

  11. FGF7 and cell density are required for final differentiation of pancreatic amylase-positive cells from human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yoshie, Susumu; Yue, Fengming; Mogi, Akimi; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-01

    The major molecular signals of pancreatic exocrine development are largely unknown. We examine the role of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) in the final induction of pancreatic amylase-containing exocrine cells from induced-pancreatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Our protocol consisted in three steps: Step I, differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) by activin A treatment of hES cell colonies; Step II, differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells by re-plating of the cells of Step I onto 24-well plates at high density and stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid; Step III, differentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells with a combination of FGF7, glucagon-like peptide 1 and nicotinamide. The expression levels of pancreatic endodermal markers such as Foxa2, Sox17 and gut tube endoderm marker HNF1β were up-regulated in both Step I and II. Moreover, in Step III, the induced cells expressed pancreatic markers such as amylase, carboxypeptidase A and chymotrypsinogen B, which were similar to those in normal human pancreas. From day 8 in Step III, cells immunohistochemically positive for amylase and for carboxypeptidase A, a pancreatic exocrine cell product, were induced by FGF7. Pancreatic progenitor Pdx1-positive cells were localized in proximity to the amylase-positive cells. In the absence of FGF7, few amylase-positive cells were identified. Thus, our three-step culture protocol for human ES cells effectively induces the differentiation of amylase- and carboxypeptidase-A-containing pancreatic exocrine cells.

  12. Further development of microparticle image velocimetry analysis for characterisation of gas streams as a novel method of fuel cell development. Final report; Weiterentwicklung des Mikro-Particle Image Velocimetry Analyseverfahrens zur Charakterisierung von Gasstroemungen als neuartige Entwicklungsmethodik fuer Brennstoffzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The project aimed at a better understanding of the complex fluid-mechanical processes in the small ducts of bipolar plates. So far, an appropriate technology for in-situ measurement was lacking. The project therefore focused on the further development of microparticle image velocimetry in order to enable analyses of the local velocity distribution of a gas stream in a microduct. Further, measurements were carried out in the microducts of a fuel cell in the more difficult conditions of actual operation. (orig./AKB) [German] Anlass des Forschungsvorhabens war die komplizierten stroemungsmechanischen Zusammenhaenge in den kleinen Kanaelen der Bipolarplatten zu verstehen. Bisher stand keine Messtechnik zur Verfuegung, dies es erlaubt, die stroemungsmechanischen Prozesse in den Mikrokanaelen unter Realbedingungen in situ zu vermessen und mit der instantanen Zellleistung zu korrelieren, Ziel des Projektes war es daher, die Methode der Mikro-Partikel-Image-Velocimetry in der Art weiterzuentwickeln, dass eine Analyse der lokalen Geschwindigkeitsverteilung einer Gasstroemung in einem Mikrokanal ermoeglicht wird. Darueber hinaus wird als zweites Ziel des Projekts eine solche Messung unter den erschwerten Bedingungen einer betriebenen Brennstoffzelle in Mikrokanaelen einer Zelle durchgefuehrt.

  13. Development of the biosphere code BIOMOD: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, P.

    1983-05-01

    Final report to DoE on the development of the biosphere code BIOMOD. The work carried out under the contract is itemised. Reference is made to the six documents issued along with the final report. These consist of two technical notes issued as interim consultative documents, a user's guide and a programmer's guide to BIOMOD, a database description, program test document and a technical note entitled ''BIOMOD - preliminary findings''. (author)

  14. Development of a computer model for polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.L.; Schwartz, R.J.; Lee, Y.J. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report describes work to develop an accurate numerical model for CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and CdTe-based solar cells capable of running on a personal computer. Such a model will aid researchers in designing and analyzing CIS- and CdTe-based solar cells. ADEPT (A Device Emulation Pregrain and Tool) was used as the basis for this model. An additional objective of this research was to use the models developed to analyze the performance of existing and proposed CIS- and CdTe-based solar cells. The development of accurate numerical models for CIS- and CdTe-based solar cells required the compilation of cell performance data (for use in model verification) and the compilation of measurements of material parameters. The development of the numerical models involved implementing the various physical models appropriate to CIS and CdTe, as well as some common window. A version of the model capable of running on an IBM-comparable personal computer was developed (primary code development is on a SUN workstation). A user-friendly interface with pop-up menus is continuing to be developed for release with the IBM-compatible model.

  15. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  16. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  17. What Do Final Year Engineering Students Know about Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, I.; Conlon, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data from a project that aims to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of engineering students about sustainable development (SD). The data derive from a survey completed by final year engineering students in three Irish Higher Education Institutions. This paper is part of a larger study that examines the…

  18. Continued research, development and test of SOFC Technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The aim of the project was to further develop the SOFC cell and stack technology and drive down manufacturing costs in order to accomplish the performance and economic targets set forward in the SOFC road map, which has been developed in collaboration with the national Danish SOFC Strategy group. The project was divided into four parts. Part 1, Continued cell development covered the successful development of larger cells with a 500 cm2 footprint. Part 2, Cell manufacturing covered the production of 9.859 equivalents (12x12 cm2 standard cells) that were used in the stacks for demonstration projects (EFP 33033-0050)and for in-house research, development and testing in this project. Part 3, Continued stack development covered the successful test of a 3 kW{sub e} stack as well as the planning of a >8.000 hours stack test with new stack technology. The >8.000 hours test that started after the end date for this project will last for 12 months and be reported in the PSO 2008-1-010049 project. Part 4, Stack manufacturing covered a number of small stacks for in-house research, development and testing. (auther)

  19. Programmable SAW development :Sandia/NASA project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-10-01

    This report describes a project to develop both fixed and programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators for use in a low power space communication network. This work was funded by NASA at Sandia National Laboratories for fiscal years 2004, 2003, and the final part of 2002. The role of Sandia was to develop the SAW correlator component, although additional work pertaining to use of the component in a system and system optimization was also done at Sandia. The potential of SAW correlator-based communication systems, the design and fabrication of SAW correlators, and general system utilization of those correlators are discussed here.

  20. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...... was removed and its parameters correlated with carcass weight. Results suggest that both femur length and femur weight act as good predictors of final carcass weight in lambs. However, no effect of paternal genetics, on the femur to carcass correlations, was noted....

  1. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  2. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  3. Development of an In-line Minority-Carrier Lifetime Monitoring Tool for Process Control during Fabrication of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 2 August 2002-15 November 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this subcontract over its two-phase, two-year duration was to design and develop improvements to the existing Sinton Consulting R&D minority-carrier lifetime testers. The improvements enable the possibilities for performing various in-line diagnostics on crystalline silicon wafers and cells for solar cell manufacturing lines. This facilitates manufacturing optimization and improved process control. The scope of work for Phase I was to prototype industrial applications for the improved instruments. A small-sample-head version of the instrument was designed and developed in this effort. This new instrument was complemented by detailed application notes detailing the productive use of minority-carrier lifetime measurements for process optimization and routine process control. In Phase II, the results from the first year were applied to design new instruments for industrial applications. These instruments were then characterized and documented. We report here on four new instruments, each optimized for a specific application as demanded by industrial customers. The documentation for these instruments was very technical and involved considerable R&D. Applications were developed that applied the latest in R&D on industrial silicon materials. By investigating the compromises that would be necessary to measure industrial material directly without the sample preparation that is commonly done for good research, we were able to develop several very innovative applications that can now be done directly in the production line for process control.

  4. LINK2009 Phase 1: Development of 2. generation fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen refueling station. Final report; LINK2009 fase 1: Udvikling af 2. gen. braendselscelle koeretoejer og brinttankstation. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    LINK2009 project was to develop 2nd gen. technologies fuel cell systems for vehicles and 350bar hydrogen refueling stations. Also the LINK2009 project were to ensure a continuously positioning of Denmark and the Scandinavian Region within hydrogen for transport and continue to attract international car manufacturers to conduct demonstration and later market introduction in the region. The LINK2009 project is divided in two phases where this first phase only deals with the development of the 2nd generation technologies, whereas the following phase 2 will include the demonstration hereof as well as additional research activities. This Report describes the results of the phase 1 that was commenced in summer 2008 and ended in late 2009. Phase 1 has resulted in the development of new 2nd generation fuel cell technology for use in a city car and a service vehicle. Stated targets for price and efficiency have been reached and the following demonstration in Phase 2 is to confirm reaching of life time targets. The efficiency of the fuel cell system for the city car has been measured to be 42-48% at a power delivery of respectively 10kW and 2kW, which is significantly above the target of >40%. System simplifications and selection of new components have enabled a 50% reduction in the kW price for the fuel cell system, including 700bar hydrogen storage, now totalling Euro 4.500/kW. This creates sufficient basis for conducting demonstration of the system in vehicles. 9 vehicles are planned to be demonstrated in the following phase 2. Additional 8 vehicles were put in operation in Copenhagen in November 2009. Phase 1 has conducted development of 2nd gen. hydrogen refuelling technology that has resulted in concepts for both 350bar and 700bar refuelling as well as a concept for onsite hydrogen production at refuelling stations. In separate projects the developed 350bar technology has been brought to use in a newly established hydrogen station in Copenhagen, and the hydrogen

  5. Ripeness sensor development. Final report of a Phase 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroshine, R.

    1995-08-01

    This is a final report for the Phase II study entitled ``Ripeness Sensor Development.`` The overall objective of the study was the development of a prototype device capable of testing whole fruits for sugar content. Although ripeness and sugar content are not synonymous, they are closely related. Furthermore, the consumer`s acceptance of or preference for fruits is strongly influenced by sugar content. Therefore, the device was called a ripeness sensor. The principle behind the measurement is proton magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-MR). For several decades, chemists, pharmacists and other scientists have been using {sup 1}H-MR to investigate chemical structure and composition. More recently, the technique has been used in laboratories of the food industry for quality control. This effort represents one of the first attempts to adapt {sup 1}H-MR to use in a commercial facility. 28 refs., 36 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Development of High-Performance Cast Crankshafts. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mark E [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop technologies that would enable the production of cast crankshafts that can replace high performance forged steel crankshafts. To achieve this, the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the new material needs to be 850 MPa with a desired minimum Yield Strength (YS; 0.2% offset) of 615 MPa and at least 10% elongation. Perhaps more challenging, the cast material needs to be able to achieve sufficient local fatigue properties to satisfy the durability requirements in today’s high performance gasoline and diesel engine applications. The project team focused on the development of cast steel alloys for application in crankshafts to take advantage of the higher stiffness over other potential material choices. The material and process developed should be able to produce high-performance crankshafts at no more than 110% of the cost of current production cast units, perhaps the most difficult objective to achieve. To minimize costs, the primary alloy design strategy was to design compositions that can achieve the required properties with minimal alloying and post-casting heat treatments. An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) based approach was utilized, rather than relying only on traditional trial-and-error methods, which has been proven to accelerate alloy development time. Prototype melt chemistries designed using ICME were cast as test specimens and characterized iteratively to develop an alloy design within a stage-gate process. Standard characterization and material testing was done to validate the alloy performance against design targets and provide feedback to material design and manufacturing process models. Finally, the project called for Caterpillar and General Motors (GM) to develop optimized crankshaft designs using the final material and manufacturing processing path developed. A multi-disciplinary effort was to integrate finite element analyses by engine designers and geometry-specific casting

  7. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  8. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmelin, Ann; Brantberger, Martin; Eriksson, Magnus; Gustafson, Gunnar; St ille, Haakan

    2007-06-01

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and practice on the

  9. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  10. Development of Final Running Test System for Digital Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Lee, Eui-Jong; Lim, Hee-Taek; Kim, Min-Seok

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear industry, the newly designed systems to upgrade are qualified to meet IEEE standards and the regulatory guidelines for their functions, performance and reliability requirements. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Hazard Analysis have been used to improve the reliability of the control system. To ensure the completeness of the software, the verification and validation processes are carried out during the development process. In spite of the many efforts depending on the analysis and procedures, there are limitations to improve the reliability. The lessons learned from the currently installed system failures show the incompleteness of the final integration test. The current point-to-point and logic-to-logic separate test procedures manually performed by the engineers can cause some procedures missed and have effects on the critical functions. The design processes of the digital systems are met in accordance with the international standards and regulatory guidelines. The lessons learned from the failures of the running digital systems showed the limitations of the current verification and validation efforts. The various improvements and attempts have been considered including the expert review processes and the completeness of the test. In this paper, the Final Running Test Method evaluating the completeness of the digital system using the control patterns and the Test System Architecture are proposed

  11. Development of Final Running Test System for Digital Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Lee, Eui-Jong; Lim, Hee-Taek; Kim, Min-Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In nuclear industry, the newly designed systems to upgrade are qualified to meet IEEE standards and the regulatory guidelines for their functions, performance and reliability requirements. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Hazard Analysis have been used to improve the reliability of the control system. To ensure the completeness of the software, the verification and validation processes are carried out during the development process. In spite of the many efforts depending on the analysis and procedures, there are limitations to improve the reliability. The lessons learned from the currently installed system failures show the incompleteness of the final integration test. The current point-to-point and logic-to-logic separate test procedures manually performed by the engineers can cause some procedures missed and have effects on the critical functions. The design processes of the digital systems are met in accordance with the international standards and regulatory guidelines. The lessons learned from the failures of the running digital systems showed the limitations of the current verification and validation efforts. The various improvements and attempts have been considered including the expert review processes and the completeness of the test. In this paper, the Final Running Test Method evaluating the completeness of the digital system using the control patterns and the Test System Architecture are proposed.

  12. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  13. Development of Thymic Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; Vaidya, Harsh J.; O'Neill, Kathy E.

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which the T cell repertoire is generated. The complex cellularity of this organ is uniquely designed to facilitate T cell development: defects in thymus development or function can cause immunodeficiencies ranging from the absence of T cell-mediated imm......The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which the T cell repertoire is generated. The complex cellularity of this organ is uniquely designed to facilitate T cell development: defects in thymus development or function can cause immunodeficiencies ranging from the absence of T cell......-mediated immunity to broad-spectrum autoimmune disease. Peak thymus size and output occurs early in life, after which the thymus undergoes a natural process of involution. This results in the progressive loss of functional thymus tissue and correspondingly in decreased production of new naïve T cells with age...... - contributing to the diminished capacity of the aged immune system to adequately respond to new antigenic challenge. Age-related thymic involutions, together with the thymic involutions associated with cytotoxic therapies (e.g., radio- or chemotherapy), have raised interest in development of clinically useful...

  14. NDE reliability and SAFT-UT final development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Green, E.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Reid, L.D.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from October 1987 through September 1988. The program for Validation and Technology Transfer for SAFT-UT is designed to accomplish the final step of moving research results into beneficial application. Accomplishments for FY88 in Synthetic Aperture Focusing of Ultrasonic Test data (SAFT-UT) under this program are discussed in this paper. The information is treated under the copies of Code Activities, Field Validation, and Seminars. (orig.)

  15. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  16. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.

  17. Unraveling Natural Killer T-Cells Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bianca Bennstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T-cells are a subset of innate-like T-cells with the ability to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. There is great interest in harnessing these cells to improve tumor therapy; however, greater understanding of invariant NKT (iNKT cell biology is needed. The first step is to learn more about NKT development within the thymus. Recent studies suggest lineage separation of murine iNKT cells into iNKT1, iNKT2, and iNKT17 cells instead of shared developmental stages. This review will focus on these new studies and will discuss the evidence for lineage separation in contrast to shared developmental stages. The author will also highlight the classifications of murine iNKT cells according to identified transcription factors and cytokine production, and will discuss transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations, and the role of mammalian target of rapamycin. Finally, the importance of these findings for human cancer therapy will be briefly discussed.

  18. Final report of advisory subcommittee on development of JENDL. Guideline for developing next JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Go

    2016-01-01

    An advisory subcommittee on development of JENDL was established in 2013 to discuss future development of JENDL among experts on nuclear data experiments, evaluations and applications. This paper is a summary of a final report which was submitted to the JENDL committee on March in 2014. (author)

  19. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  20. Flow karyotyping and flow instrumentation development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEngh, G.J. van den

    1997-11-01

    The project had three major aims: improvement of technology for high-speed cell and chromosome sorting; the use of such instrumentation in genome analysis; applying the principles developed and the lessons learned to automated processes for the genome program. The work was a continuation of studies that were started at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory before the PI moved to the University of Washington. At Livermore, a high-speed sorter for the selection of human chromosomes was built. The instrument incorporated Livermore`s advanced sorter technology. The engineering focused on improving robustness and reliability so that the full potential of high-speed sorting would become available to the biological research laboratory. The new instrument, dubbed MoFlo for modular flow cytometer, proved to be a very practical and efficient tool during the chromosome isolation phase of the gene-library project. Its reliability and ease of operation exceeded that of the commercial instruments. The technology was licensed to two companies.

  1. Heavy ion induced genetic effects in mammalian cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Brend'amour, M.; Casares, A.; Egenolf, R.; Gutermuth, F.; Ikpeme, S.E.; Koch, S.; Kost, M.; Loebrich, M.; Pross, H.D.; Russmann, C.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Stoll, U.; Weber, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generally assumed to be the most relevant initial event producing radiation-induced cellular lethality, as well as mutations and transformations. The dependence of their formation on radiation quality has been recently reviewed. Contrary to earlier observations there seems to be now agreement that the RBE does not increase above unity with increasing LET in mammalian cells when conventional techniques are applied which are not able to resolve smaller fragments. If they are, however, included in the analysis maximum RBE values around 2 are obtained. The situation is different with yeast: An increased effectiveness for DSB induction has been reported with alpha particles, as well as for heavy ions. This may be due to differences in methods or to chromosomal structure, as discussed in more detail in this paper. DSB induction was measured for a LET range of 100 to 11500 keV/? m in yeast cells using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Under the conditions applied the chromosomes of the yeast cells could be separated according to size allowing the direct quantification of the DSB yield by measuring the intensity of the largest chromosomes. The results demonstrate clearly that DSB induction in yeast depends on radiation quality. The derived cross-sections for DSB induction were also compared to those for cell inactivation determined in parallel experiments under identical irradiation conditions. (orig.)

  2. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology development. Final report, May 15, 1995--December 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This program information release (PIR) summarizes work performed under Task Order Contract SF17787, Task Order 18: Thermophotovoltaic Technology Development, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The period of performance was 15 May 1995 to 1 December 1995. Under this task order, a system model for a thermophotovoltaic (MV) converter was implemented and used to compare a conceptual design for an advanced quaternary III-V cell with integral filter with results previously published for a binary GaSb cell with a freestanding filter. Model results were used to assess the merits of TPV conversion for meeting various levels of space power requirements, including low to medium power isotope applications and high-power reactor applications. A TPV cell development program was initiated to determine the feasibility of fabricating quaternary III-V cells by molecular beam epitaxy. Lastly, a conceptual design was completed for a low-cost demonstration system to test the performance of TPV converters at a multi-cell, sub-system level. The results of these efforts are reported briefly in an executive summary, then in somewhat more detail as a final briefing section in which charts have been reproduced. Additional technical detail is provided in the appendices

  3. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  4. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  5. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  6. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  7. An Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative Induces Neurogenesis by Increasing Final Cell Division in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Yeon; Kong, Sun-Young; Yoon, Hye Jin; Ann, Jihyae; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    P7C3 and its derivatives, 1-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3-(p-tolylamino)propan-2-ol (1) and N-(3-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), were previously reported to increase neurogenesis in rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Although P7C3 is known to increase neurogenesis by protecting newborn neurons, it is not known whether its derivatives also have protective effects to increase neurogenesis. In the current study, we examined how 1 induces neurogenesis. The treatment of 1 in NSCs increased numbers of cells in the absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), while not affecting those in the presence of growth factors. Compound 1 did not induce astrocytogenesis during NSC differentiation. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulsing experiments showed that 1 significantly enhanced BrdU-positive neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that 1 promotes neurogenesis by the induction of final cell division during NSC differentiation.

  8. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  10. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    approx 4,000 hours of operation correspond to a loss of catalytic active area of 58% for the anode and 69% for the cathode respectively, and the MEA can be expected to perform equivalent to MEAs with less than half the catalyst loating. DMFC durability tests were carried out on both Nafion and Hydrocarbon membrane based MEAs using different electrode designs. Several single DMFC cells and stacks have been tested up to 3,000 hours. The degradation rates found for both single cells and stacks were in the range between 10-90 muV/hours per cell, depending on the MEA configuration. Certain performance losses incurred by the cell during the steady-state operation were recovered, fully or in part, after the regular OCV hold. Regeneration of the Pt-catalyst particles include electro-reduction of the surface PtO that gradually forms over time, surface electro-oxidation of adsorbed poisons (namely CO formed from methanol crossover), and chemical reduction of PtO and/or PtOH via crossover methanol. The HT PEM FC results indicate that a degradation rate of approx 5 muV/h for HT PEM FC can be expected under continuous operation with hydrogen and air at 150-160 C, corresponding to a lifetime of 12,000 hours before 10% performance loss. This lifetime is somewhat shorter than aimed at in the national Danish HT PEM Road map (2009: 20,000 h), but it is in this context important to remember the limited knowledge on HT PEM lifetime at the time of the roadmap definition in 2008. The accelerated durability test with potential cycling showed significant catalyst degradation, primarily due to the corrosion of carbon supports, which triggers the platinum sintering/agglomeration. Modified catalyst supports in form of graphite or carbon nanotubes improve the catalyst and therefore the PBI cell durability. (LN)

  11. Micro solid oxide fuel cell on the chip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M.; Hotz, N.; Bieri, N.; Poulikakos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project is the numerical and experimental investigation of hydrocarbon-to-syngas reforming in micro reformers for incorporation into an entire micro fuel cell system. Numerical simulations are used to achieve deeper understanding of several determining aspects in such a micro reformer. These insights are used to optimize the reforming performance by proper choice of operational and geometrical parameters of a reformer. These numerical results are continued by comprehensive experimental studies. In the first chapter, the effect of wall conduction of a tubular methane micro reformer is investigated numerically. Methane is used as the representative hydrocarbon because its detailed surface reaction mechanism is known. It is found that the axial wall conduction can strongly influence the performance of the microreactor and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. In the second chapter, the effect of the catalyst amount and reactor geometry on the reforming process was investigated. It was found that the hydrogen selectivity changes significantly with varying catalyst loading. Thus, the reaction path leading to higher hydrogen production becomes more important by increasing the catalyst surface site density on the active surface. Another unexpected result is the presence of optimum channel geometry and optimum catalyst amount. In the third chapter of this project, the capability of flame-made Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles catalyzing the reforming of butane to H{sub 2}- and CO-rich syngas was investigated experimentally in a packed bed reactor. The main goal of this study was the efficient reforming of butane at temperatures between 500 and 600 {sup o}C for a micro intermediate-temperature SOFC system. Our results showed that Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles proved to be a very promising material for butane-to-syngas reforming with complete butane conversion and a hydrogen yield of 77

  12. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high costs. A researcher monitoring web-line equipment in the Manufacturing Laboratory Many fuel cell

  13. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  14. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  15. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, James F. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services; Johnson, Herbie N. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  16. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  17. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  18. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [ 10 B]. Cytotoxic 7 Li nuclei and α-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 microm, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm 10 B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry

  19. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions

  1. Development of Charge Drain Coatings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-17

    The primary goal of this CRADA project was to develop and optimize tunable resistive coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as charge-drain coatings on the KLA-Tencor digital pattern generators (DPGs).

  2. Development of transportation asset management decision support tools : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This study developed a web-based prototype decision support platform to demonstrate the benefits of transportation asset management in monitoring asset performance, supporting asset funding decisions, planning budget tradeoffs, and optimizing resourc...

  3. Development of Advanced Polymeric Reflector for CSP Applications - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglio, Richard, T; Boyle, Keith, A; Henderson, Hildie

    2013-03-28

    This project attempted to deposit extremely thick and dense protective barrier onto a mirror film stack with a PET substrate. The target thickness was very high for thin film products; particularly since large areas and long production lengths of film are needed to make the final product economic. The technical investigations in this project centered on maintaining a quality barrier (i.e. dense film) while evaporating alumina with a high deposition rate onto a low cost PET substrate. The project found that the proposed configuration, particularly direct ion bombardment, provides too narrow a solution space to effectively and economically produce the ASRM attempted. The initial project goals were met when depositing on a limited width and at a modest rate. However, expanding to wide deposition at aggressive deposition rates did not produce consistent film quality. Economic viability drives the process to maximize deposition rate. The current system configuration has a limiting upper rate threshold that does not appear economically viable. For future work, alternate approaches seem needed to address the challenges encountered in the scale-up phase of this project.

  4. Final Report for NIREC Renewable Energy Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, Walt [Nevada Institute for Renewable Energy Commercialization (NIREC), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-02

    This report is a compilation of progress reports and presentations submitted by NIREC to the DOE’s Solar Energy Technologies Office for award number DE-FG36-08GO88161. This compilation has been uploaded to OSTI by DOE as a substitute for the required Final Technical Report, which was not submitted to DOE by NIREC or received by DOE. Project Objective: The primary goal of NIREC is to advance the transformation of the scientific innovation of the institutional partner’s research in renewable energy into a proof of the scientific concept eventually leading to viable businesses with cost effective solutions to accelerate the widespread adoption of renewable energy. NIREC will a) select research projects that are determined to have significant commercialization potential as a result of vetting by the Technology and commercialization Advisory Board, b) assign an experienced Entrepreneur-in-Residence (EIR) to each manage the scientific commercialization-preparedness process, and c) facilitate connectivity with venture capital and other private-sector capital sources to fund the rollout, scaling and growth of the resultant renewable energy business.

  5. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  6. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this project was to develop novel hydrogen-oxidation electrocatalyst materials that contain reduced platinum content compared to traditional catalysts by developing flexible synthesis techniques to fabricate supported catalyst structures, and by verifying electrochemical performance in half cells and ultimately laboratory fuel cells. Synthesis methods were developed for making small, well-defined platinum clusters using zeolite hosts, ion exchange, and controlled calcination/reduction processes. Several factors influence cluster size, and clusters below 1 nm with narrow size distribution have been prepared. To enable electrochemical application, the zeolite pores were filled with electrically-conductive carbon via infiltration with carbon precursors, polymerization/cross-linking, and pyrolysis under inert conditions. The zeolite host was then removed by acid washing, to leave a Pt/C electrocatalyst possessing quasi-zeolitic porosity and Pt clusters of well-controlled size. Plotting electrochemical activity versus pyrolysis temperature typically produces a Gaussian curve, with a peak at ca. 800 C. The poorer relative performances at low and high temperature are due to low electrical conductivity of the carbon matrix, and loss of zeolitic structure combined with Pt sintering, respectively. Cluster sizes measured via adsorption-based methods were consistently larger than those observed by TEM and EXAFS, suggesting , that a fraction of the clusters were inaccessible to the fluid phase. Detailed EXAFS analysis has been performed on selected catalysts and catalyst precursors to monitor trends in cluster size evolution, as well as oxidation states of Pt. Experiments were conducted to probe the electroactive surface area of the Pt clusters. These Pt/C materials had as much as 110 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt} electroactive surface area, an almost 30% improvement over what is commercially (mfg. by ETEK) available (86 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt}). These Pt/C materials also perform

  7. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  8. Final Report - Development of a Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maracas, Kate; Hooks, Todd

    2006-11-30

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) Tribal Energy Program to develop a comprehensive Tribal energy plan. The grant, awarded under DOE’s First Steps program, supported the development of a strategic energy plan that integrates with the Tribe’s overall planning and economic development goals, and aligns with Tribal cultural, social, political, and spiritual values. The Tribe set out to incorporate its energy plan into (i) a broader economic development strategy developed by investigators at the University of California at Riverside, and (ii) the overarching goals for job-creation and wealth-creation that are held by both the Tribe and the surrounding Coachella Valley. With these wide-ranging objectives in mind, the Tribe and its consultant, Red Mountain Energy Partners, engaged in a phased approach to creating the strategic energy plan. As illustrated in Figure 1 below, the proposed approach involved both “serial” and “parallel” activities. The capacity-building component of this approach occurred throughout the duration of the project period.

  9. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  10. Final project report: High energy rotor development, test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Under the auspices of the {open_quotes}Government/Industry Wind Technology Applications Project{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}Letter of Interest{close_quotes} (LOI) Number RC-1-11101], Flo Wind Corp. has successfully developed, tested, and delivered a high-energy rotor upgrade candidate for their 19-meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The project included the demonstration of the innovative extended height-to-diameter ratio concept, the development of a continuous span single-piece composite blade, the demonstration of a continuous blade manufacturing technique, the utilization of the Sandia National Laboratories developed SNLA 2150 natural laminar flow airfoil and the reuse of existing wind turbine and wind power plant infrastructure.

  11. The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Maria Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-08-01

    Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called "the cell cycle", that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells, which are therefore identical to one another and often share the same fate. In many cases, however, cell division is asymmetrical and generates two daughter cells that differ in specific protein inheritance, cell size, or developmental potential. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an excellent system to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing asymmetric cell division and cytokinesis. Budding yeast is highly polarized during the cell cycle and divides asymmetrically, producing two cells with distinct sizes and fates. Many components of the machinery establishing cell polarization during budding are relocalized to the division site (i.e., the bud neck) for cytokinesis. In this review we recapitulate how budding yeast cells undergo polarized processes at the bud neck for cell division.

  12. DOE SNF technology development necessary for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, D.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Windes, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Existing technology is inadequate to allow safe disposal of the entire inventory of US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Needs for SNF technology development were identified for each individual fuel type in the diverse inventory of SNF generated by past, current, and future DOE materials production, as well as SNF returned from domestic and foreign research reactors. This inventory consists of 259 fuel types with different matrices, cladding materials, meat composition, actinide content, and burnup. Management options for disposal of SNF include direct repository disposal, possible including some physical or chemical preparation, or processing to produce a qualified waste form by using existing aqueous processes or new treatment processes. Technology development needed for direct disposal includes drying, mitigating radionuclide release, canning, stabilization, and characterization technologies. While existing aqueous processing technology is fairly mature, technology development may be needed to apply one of these processes to SNF different than for which the process was originally developed. New processes to treat SNF not suitable for disposal in its current form were identified. These processes have several advantages over existing aqueous processes

  13. Development of a Curriculum in Laser Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, William J.

    A Seattle Central Community College project visited existing programs, surveyed need, and developed a curriculum for a future program in Laser-Electro-Optics (LEO) Technology. To establish contacts and view successful programs, project staff made visits to LEO technology programs at San Jose City College and Texas State Technical Institute, Center…

  14. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  15. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merton Flemings; Srinath Viswanathan

    2001-01-01

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT

  16. Development of rubidium and niobium containing plastic foams. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botham, R.A.; McClung, C.E.; Schwendeman, J.I.

    1978-01-01

    Rubidium fluoride and niobium metal-containing foam samples (rods and sheets) were prepared using two foam sytems: (1) hydrophilic polyurethanes prepared from W.R. Grace Co.'s Hypol prepolymers and (2) polyimides prepared from Monsanto Company's Skybond polyimide resin. The first system was used only for preparation of rubidium fluoride-containing foams while the second was used for both rubidium fluoride and niobium-containing foams. The niobium metal could readily be incorporated into the polyimide foam during molding, to produce foam sheets of the required dimensions and density. The rubidium fluoride-containing polyimide foams were preferably prepared by first rendering the molded polyimide foam hydrophilic with a postcuring treatment, then absorbing the rubidium fluoride from water solution. Similarly, rubidium fluoride was absorbed into the hydrophilic polyurethanes from water solution. Since the high reactive rubidium metal could not be employed, rubidium fluoride, which is very hygroscopic, was used instead, primarily because of its high rubidium content (approximately 82 weight percent). This was important in view of the low total densities and the high weight percentage rubidium required in the foam samples. In addition, at the later request of LLL, a block of rigid Hypol hydrophilic polyurethane foam (with a density of approximately 0.04 g/cm 3 and cell sizes = or <0.2 mm) was prepared without any metal or metal compounds in it. Two shipments of foam samples, which met or closely approximated the project specifications, were submitted to LLL during the course of this project. Information on these samples is contained in Table 1. A complete description of their preparation is given in the Experimental Results and Discussion Section

  17. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the key materials challenges for Generation IV reactor technology is to improve the strength and resistance to corrosion and radiation damage in the metal cladding of the fuel pins during high-temperature operation. Various candidate Gen IV designs call for increasing core temperature to improve efficiency and facilitate hydrogen production, operation with molten lead moderator to use fast neutrons. Fuel pin lifetime against swelling and fracture is a significant limit in both respects. The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite. In the context of the mission of the SBIR program, this Phase I grant has been successful. The development of a means to attain interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic has been a pacing challenge in materials science and technology for a century. It entails matching or grading of thermal expansion across the interface and attaining a graded chemical composition so that impurities do not concentrate at the boundary to create a slip layer. To date these challenges have been solved in only a modest number of pairings of compatible materials, e.g. Kovar and glass, titanium and ceramic, and aluminum and ceramic. The latter two cases have given rise to the only presently available MMC materials, developed for aerospace applications. Those materials have been possible because the matrix metal is highly reactive at elevated temperature so that graded composition and intimate bonding happens naturally at the fiber-matrix interface. For metals that are not highly reactive at processing temperature, however, successful bonding is much more difficult. Recent success has been made with copper MMCs for cooling channels in first-wall designs for fusion

  18. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, Brian [University of Washington

    2014-03-31

    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  19. Final Report National Laboratory Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.

  20. Methodology development to support NPR strategic planning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report covers the work performed in support of the Office of New Production Reactors during the 9 month period from January through September 1990. Because of the rapid pace of program activities during this time period, the emphasis on work performed shifted from the strategic planning emphasis toward supporting initiatives requiring a more immediate consideration and response. Consequently, the work performed has concentrated on researching and helping identify and resolve those issues considered to be of most immediate concern. Even though they are strongly interrelated, they can be separated into two broad categories as follows: The first category encompasses program internal concerns. Included are issues associated with the current demand for accelerating staff growth, satisfying the immediate need for appropriate skill and experience levels, team building efforts necessary to assure the development of an effective operating organization, ability of people and organizations to satisfactorily understand and execute their assigned roles and responsibilities, and the general facilitation of inter/intra organization communications and working relationships. The second category encompasses program execution concerns. These include those efforts required in development of realistic execution plans and implementation of appropriate control mechanisms which provide for effective forecasting, planning, managing, and controlling of on-going (or soon to be) program substantive activities according to the master integrated schedule and budget

  1. Local Energy Matters: Solar Development in Duluth, Minnesota Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slick, Jodi Lyn [Ecolibrium3

    2018-03-30

    The Local Energy Matters project advanced solar deployment in the City of Duluth, MN- a cold-climate community of 86,000. At the beginning of the project, Duluth had 254.57 kW installed solar capacity with an average cost of $5.04/watt installed in 2014. The project worked with cross-sector stakeholders to benchmark the current market, implement best practices for solar deployment and soft cost reduction, develop pilot deployment programs in residential rooftop, community solar, and commercial/industrial sectors, work with the City of Duluth to determine appropriate sites for utility scale developments, and demonstrate solar pus storage. Over the three years of the project, Duluth’s installed residential and commercial solar capacity grew by 344% to 875.9 kW with an additional 702 kW solar garden capacity subscribed by Duluth residents, businesses, and institutions. Installation costs dropped 48% over this timeframe to $4.08/watt installed (exclusive of solar garden construction). This report documents the process used to identify levers for increased solar installation and cost reductions in a nascent cold-climate solar market.

  2. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.C.; Fan, C.Y.; Hsieh, K.C.; McCullen, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  3. Stepwise development of MAIT cells in mouse and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells display two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell receptor (TCRalpha (iTCRalpha chain and restriction by the nonpolymorphic class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule, MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1. MR1 expression on thymus epithelial cells is not necessary for MAIT cell development but their accumulation in the gut requires MR1 expressing B cells and commensal flora. MAIT cell development is poorly known, as these cells have not been found in the thymus so far. Herein, complementary human and mouse experiments using an anti-humanValpha7.2 antibody and MAIT cell-specific iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic mice in different genetic backgrounds show that MAIT cell development is a stepwise process, with an intra-thymic selection followed by peripheral expansion. Mouse MAIT cells are selected in an MR1-dependent manner both in fetal thymic organ culture and in double iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic RAG knockout mice. In the latter mice, MAIT cells do not expand in the periphery unless B cells are added back by adoptive transfer, showing that B cells are not required for the initial thymic selection step but for the peripheral accumulation. In humans, contrary to natural killer T (NKT cells, MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype in the thymus as well as in cord blood where they are in low numbers. After birth, MAIT cells acquire a memory phenotype and expand dramatically, up to 1%-4% of blood T cells. Finally, in contrast with NKT cells, human MAIT cell development is independent of the molecular adaptor SAP. Interestingly, mouse MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype and do not express the ZBTB16 transcription factor, which, in contrast, is expressed by NKT cells and the memory human MAIT cells found in the periphery after birth. In conclusion, MAIT cells are selected by MR1 in the thymus on a non-B non-T hematopoietic cell, and acquire a memory phenotype and expand in the

  4. Development of a selective surface vacuum collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, H.; Simonis, F.

    1980-01-01

    To make solar energy useful for cooling applications a flat plate high performance collector, which can supply solar energy at 100 to 150/sup 0/C, has been developed. To achieve a reasonable efficiency at these temperatures the thermal heat loss must be very small. This has been obtained by (1) concentration of sunlight (c = 1.6); (2) evacuation of the collector housing to eliminate convection currents (pressure less than or equal to 4kPa); (3) spectral selective coating on the absorber; and (4) a low conductive gas in the collector housing (pressure approx. = 2kPa). The collector consists of a metal box with a glass cover hermetically sealed to it in the way double glazing units are manufactured. The sides of the V-trough concentrators support the glass cover. Measurements have been performed concerning heat loss factor and durability of the vacuum. The first prototype, fitted with a spectral selective coating of tin-oxide on enameled steel (epsilon = 0.25) showed a heat-loss of 2.0 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C at 90/sup 0/C, being in reasonable agreement with calculations. Improvements with respect to the spectral selective coating and the use of a low conductive gas are necessary and will lead to a heat loss factor of about 1 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C. Measurements have shown that in the chosen system the desired vacuum level can be maintained for at least 10 to 15 years.

  5. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  6. ORAM-SENTINEL development at Calvert Cliffs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric, in cooperation with EPRI, has installed ORAM-SENTINEL trademark software at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems that are used to display the defense-in-depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During 1997, Baltimore Gas and Electric personnel became familiar with the formal computerized Safety Assessment process associated with on-line and outage maintenance. The report describes the motivation for and the development of ORAM-SENTINEL software. It describes generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and plant susceptibility to critical transient events. To show decreasing safety conditions, their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green through yellow and orange to red. The report describes use of the Calvert Probabilistic Safety Assessment with ORAM-SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  7. Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1996-11-01

    Task 1 of this research was the development of a high-resolution, fully implicit, finite-difference, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional simulator for chemical flooding. The major physical phenomena modeled in this simulator are dispersion, heterogeneous permeability and porosity, adsorption, interfacial tension, relative permeability and capillary desaturation, compositional phase viscosity, compositional phase density and gravity effects, capillary pressure, and aqueous-oleic-microemulsion phase behavior. Polymer and its non-Newtonian rheology properties include shear-thinning viscosity, permeability reduction, inaccessible pore volume, and adsorption. Options of constant or variable space grids and time steps, constant-pressure or constant-rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and multiple slug injections are also available in the simulator. The solution scheme used in this simulator is fully implicit. The pressure equation and the mass-conservation equations are solved simultaneously for the aqueous-phase pressure and the total concentrations of each component. A third-order-in-space, second-order-in-time finite-difference method and a new total-variation-diminishing (TVD) third-order flux limiter are used that greatly reduce numerical dispersion effects. Task 2 was the optimization of surfactant flooding. The code UTCHEM was used to simulate surfactant polymer flooding.

  8. Advanced-laser development for isotope separation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    To address a number of the issues associated with lasers appropriate for both atomic vapor and molecular laser enrichment schemes, MSNW developed pertinent technologies on two test devices. These were a high pulse rate, 100 watt excimer laser named Mistral, and a 20 watt copper-vapor laser (CVL). Mistral is a closed-loop, 100 W, kilohertz rare-gas halide laser system. The first half of the Mistral effort dealt with the study of gas flow and acoustic effects in high PRF rare-gas halide lasers. In burst-mode operation, 1250 Hz operation was demonstrated, the effects on flow quality of acoustic dampers were measured, and gas clearing factors of 2.5 at 1 kHz were demonstrated. The second half of the Mistral program dealt with extending the run time capability of the laser. This effort culminated with the continuous operation of Mistral for almost eight hours at 500 ppS, producing over 50 mJ/pulse at 308 nm on a single fill of XeCl gas mixture. At the end of the program, the effectiveness of using magnetic pulse compression in the modulator circuit of a copper-vapor laser (CVL) was also verified. The magnetic switching/pulse compression scheme as used on both the CVL and Mistral greatly extends thyratron lifetime

  9. Phytoplankton excretion revisited: healthy cells may not do it, but how many cells are healthy? Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.M.

    1996-08-06

    The goal of this project was to develop fluorescent probes that could be used on a individual cell basis to determine the physiological condition of phytoplankton cells in the field. Progress gained and problems encounter are described.

  10. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  11. Further development of vertical-flow final sedimentation tanks; Weiterentwicklung vertikal durchstroemter Nachklaerbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, K.; Purschke, A.; Schuessler, I. [Mannesmann Seiffert GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Because of scarcity of space, the last extension stage of the Berlin-Ruhleben sewage treatment plant was executed with vertical-flow final sedimentation tanks with a square surface. The sedimentation efficiency of these tanks in permanent operation is excellent. In the year past, the operation of such a tank at the limits of its capacity was tested under long-term conditions as a master thesis project with a view to further optimization. Subsequently, this Berlin-type tank was developed further into a multi-cell final sedimentation tank, whose effectiveness was verified by means of flow-technical simulation. (orig.) [German] Im KW Berlin-Ruhleben kamen in der letzten Ausbaustufe infolge sehr begrenzter Bauflaeche vertikal durchstroemte Nachklaerbecken mit quadratischer Oberflaeche zum Einsatz. Diese Becken zeigen im Dauerbetrieb eine hervorragende Klaerwirkung, und im vorigen Jahr wurde im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit zwecks weiterer Optimierung langfristig unter Betriebsbedingungen die Fahrweise eines solchen Beckens an der Auslegungsgrenze getestet. Unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Kostenreduzierung wurde anschliessend der Typ Berliner Becken zum Mehrzellen-Nachklaerbecken weiterentwickelt und seine Wirksamkeit mittels stroemungstechnischer Simulation ueberprueft. (orig.)

  12. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.

    1982-03-01

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  13. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report, Task E-4, April 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feduska, W.

    1978-03-31

    A two-year researth program to design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell is described in detail. A rare-earth chromite, in particular, La /sub 95/Mg /sub 05/Cr /sub 75/Al /sub 25/0/sub 3/ was identified, synthesized by RF-sputtering tested for resistivity, thermal expansion and inertness in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia, and was found promising as a candidate interconnection material. Films of these interconnection materials have been successfully deposited onto stabilized zirconia tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) and the technique has been used to fabricate such films in building fuel cell stacks. Tin-doped indium oxide and antimony-doped tin oxide air electrode current collector materials have been successfully (CVD) chemically vapor deposited, as thin films, onto zirconia tubes. Fabrication procedures for the preparation of thin films of the nickel-cermet fuel electrode and yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte have been re-verified and improved for use in preparing unit cells and cell stacks on the program. An in-house extrusion technology for porous calcia-stabilized zirconia tubes has been developed and has been used to provide suitable support tubes for component combination samples, unit cell and cell stack sample preparation. Test concepts for component combinations and for unit cells and cell stacks have been evolved, particularly, the crossed electrode technique, and test equipment has been designed, built and used to evaluate fuel cell components and their interfaces. A five-cell fuel cell stack has been fabricated and operated for 700 hours at 200 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 950 to 980/sup 0/C and was subjected to three temperature cycles during the testing. Three series connected cells of this five cell stack met the 80% voltage efficiency final target objective of the program (less than 10% voltage degradation in 700 hours - with only 300 hours required.)

  14. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  15. Single cell transcriptome profiling of developing chick retinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboissonniere, Lauren A; Martin, Gregory M; Goetz, Jillian J; Bi, Ran; Pope, Brock; Weinand, Kallie; Ellson, Laura; Fru, Diane; Lee, Miranda; Wester, Andrea K; Liu, Peng; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-15

    The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging. We have analyzed transcriptomes from individual cells isolated from the chick retina throughout retinogenesis. While we focused our efforts on the retinal ganglion cells, our transcriptomes of developing chick cells also contained representation from multiple retinal cell types, including photoreceptors and interneurons at different stages of development. Most interesting was the identification of transcriptomes from individual mixed lineage progenitor cells in the chick as these cells offer a window into the cell fate decision-making process. Taken together, these data sets will enable us to uncover the most critical genes acting in the steps of cell fate determination and early differentiation of various retinal cell types. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Zou, Meng Lin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration system that provides high-quality electricity and hot water has been developed. A specially designed thermal management system together with a microcontroller embedded with appropriate control algorithm is integrated into a PEM fuel cell system. The thermal management system does not only control the fuel cell operation temperature but also recover the heat dissipated by FC stack. The dynamic behaviors of thermal and electrical characteristics are presented to verify the stability of the fuel cell cogeneration system. In addition, the reliability of the fuel cell cogeneration system is proved by one-day demonstration that deals with the daily power demand in a typical family. Finally, the effects of external loads on the efficiencies of the fuel cell cogeneration system are examined. Results reveal that the maximum system efficiency was as high as 81% when combining heat and power. (author)

  17. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  18. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  19. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...

  20. Final report on 'biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, has undertaken a special study of ''biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'' over a 5-year period from April 1981 through March 1986. This is a final report, covering incorporation and metabolism of tritium, physical, chemical, and cellular effects of tritium, tritium damage to the mammalian tissue, and human exposure to tritium. The report is organized into five chapters, including ''Study of incorporation of tritium into the living body and its in vivo behavior''; ''Physical and chemical studies for the determination of relative biological effectiveness''; ''Analytical study on biological effects of tritium in cultured mammalian cells''; ''Study of tritium effects on the mammalian tissue, germ cells, and cell transformation''; and ''Changes in the hemopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte subsets in humans after exposure to some internal emitters''. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  2. Heterogenic final cell cycle by chicken retinal Lim1 horizontal progenitor cells leads to heteroploid cells with a remaining replicated genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Shirazi Fard

    Full Text Available Retinal progenitor cells undergo apical mitoses during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration and newly generated post-mitotic neurons migrate to their prospective retinal layer. Whereas this is valid for most types of retinal neurons, chicken horizontal cells are generated by delayed non-apical mitoses from dedicated progenitors. The regulation of such final cell cycle is not well understood and we have studied how Lim1 expressing horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs exit the cell cycle. We have used markers for S- and G2/M-phase in combination with markers for cell cycle regulators Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1 to characterise the final cell cycle of HPCs. The results show that Lim1+ HPCs are heterogenic with regards to when and during what phase they leave the final cell cycle. Not all horizontal cells were generated by a non-apical (basal mitosis; instead, the HPCs exhibited three different behaviours during the final cell cycle. Thirty-five percent of the Lim1+ horizontal cells was estimated to be generated by non-apical mitoses. The other horizontal cells were either generated by an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis or by a cell cycle with an S-phase that was not followed by any mitosis. Such cells remain with replicated DNA and may be regarded as somatic heteroploids. The observed heterogeneity of the final cell cycle was also seen in the expression of Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1. Phosphorylated Rb1-Ser608 was restricted to the Lim1+ cells that entered S-phase while cyclin B1 and cdc25C were exclusively expressed in HPCs having a basal mitosis. Only HPCs that leave the cell cycle after an apical mitosis expressed p27Kip1. We speculate that the cell cycle heterogeneity with formation of heteroploid cells may present a cellular context that contributes to the suggested propensity of these cells to generate cancer when the retinoblastoma gene is mutated.

  3. Iraqi nuclear weapons development program. Final report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq

  4. The development of sectoral final and basic energy demand in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reents, H.

    1977-08-01

    The detailed knowledge of the demand structures and their determining factors is an important precondition for estimating the possible developments of future energy demand. In this report the past developments of the final and basic energy demand in the different demand categories private households, commercial sector, industry and transportation will be analyzed. The demonstrated relations are the basis for a final energy demand model. With the help of this model a scenario of the future development of the final energy demand in the different sectors will be built. It is the aim of this scenario to show, how alternative actions (insulation, gas-heat pump) influence the future development of the final energy demand. (orig.) [de

  5. Development of New Technologies for Stem Cell Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, the stem cells have been extensively studied including embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. In the recent years, several stem cells have been initially used in the treatment of diseases, such as in bone marrow transplant. At the same time, isolation and culture experimental technologies for stem cell research have been widely developed in recent years. In addition, molecular imaging technologies including optical molecular imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and computed tomography have been developed rapidly in recent the 10 years and have also been used in the research on disease mechanism and evaluation of treatment of disease related with stem cells. This paper will focus on recent typical isolation, culture, and observation techniques of stem cells followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future applications of the new technologies in stem cells are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the paper is then concluded.

  6. Lignification of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm transfer cells and starchy endosperm cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sara; Monjardino, Paulo; Mendonça, Duarte; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Fernandes, Rui; Sampaio, Paula; Salema, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells in maize have extensive cell wall ingrowths that play a key role in kernel development. Although the incorporation of lignin would support this process, its presence in these structures has not been reported in previous studies. We used potassium permanganate staining combined with transmission electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as acriflavine staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine whether the most basal endosperm transfer cells (MBETCs) contain lignified cell walls, using starchy endosperm cells for comparison. We investigated the lignin content of ultrathin sections of MBETCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. The lignin content of transfer and starchy cell walls was also determined by the acetyl bromide method. Finally, the relationship between cell wall lignification and MBETC growth/flange ingrowth orientation was evaluated. MBETC walls and ingrowths contained lignin throughout the period of cell growth we monitored. The same was true of the starchy cells, but those underwent an even more extensive growth period than the transfer cells. Both the reticulate and flange ingrowths were also lignified early in development. The significance of the lignification of maize endosperm cell walls is discussed in terms of its impact on cell growth and flange ingrowth orientation. PMID:24688487

  7. Cell Death in C. elegans Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jennifer Zuckerman; Shaham, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is a common and important feature of animal development, and cell death defects underlie many human disease states. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven fertile ground for uncovering molecular and cellular processes controlling programmed cell death. A core pathway consisting of the conserved proteins EGL-1/BH3-only, CED-9/BCL2, CED-4/APAF1, and CED-3/caspase promotes most cell death in the nematode, and a conserved set of proteins ensures the engulfment and degradation of dying cells. Multiple regulatory pathways control cell death onset in C. elegans, and many reveal similarities with tumor formation pathways in mammals, supporting the idea that cell death plays key roles in malignant progression. Nonetheless, a number of observations suggest that our understanding of developmental cell death in C. elegans is incomplete. The interaction between dying and engulfing cells seems to be more complex than originally appreciated, and it appears that key aspects of cell death initiation are not fully understood. It has also become apparent that the conserved apoptotic pathway is dispensable for the demise of the C. elegans linker cell, leading to the discovery of a previously unexplored gene program promoting cell death. Here, we review studies that formed the foundation of cell death research in C. elegans and describe new observations that expand, and in some cases remodel, this edifice. We raise the possibility that, in some cells, more than one death program may be needed to ensure cell death fidelity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    1996-12-31

    One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

  9. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Wenxu; Xiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enab...

  10. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  11. Keeping the Rhythm : Cardiac Pacemaker Cell Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The heart is the first organ to form and function in the developing vertebrate embryo. Its proper morphogenesis and function is crucial for survival. Here we focus on the development and characterization of a highly specialized subset of cardiac cells, the pacemaker cells. In the mammalian heart,

  12. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  13. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00, 8507.20.80... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  14. Standard house with integrated solar cell system. Technical final report; Typehus med integreret solcelleanlaeg. Faglig slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The interest in solar cell technology among Danish house owners is increasing, but there are many considerations to be made before the house owner choose to install solar cells on the house. Major barriers are the solar cell systems' price and appearance. This interdisciplinary development project will show that both aesthetic and economic advantages can be derived from integrating solar cells already when the first sketches of the house are being made. In order to promote utilization of solar cells in Denmark the solutions must be attractive, both economically and aesthetically. Therefore the solar cell solutions in this project are developed in preparation for marketing both as an aesthetic expression and a high-technological, green and prestigious element. (BA)

  15. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  16. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  17. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  18. Cadmium sulfide/copper ternary heterojunction cell research. Final report, April 1, 1980-August 25, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Chen, W. S.

    1982-08-01

    The properties of polycrystalline, thin-film CuInSe/sub 2//CdS and CuInSe/sub 2//Zn/sub x/Cd/sub 1-x/S solar cells prepared by vacuum-evaporation techniques onto metallized-alumina substrates are described. An efficiency of 10.6% for a 1 cm/sup 2/ area cell and 8.3% for an 8 cm/sup 2/ cell when tested under simulated AM1 illumination is reported. The mixed-sulfide cells are described as exhibiting increased open-circuit voltages, slightly higher short-circuit currents, and improved efficiencies. Mixed-sulfide film preparation by evaporation of CdS and ZnS powders from a single source and from two sources is discussed with preference given to the later technique. Selenide-film preparation in a planetary or rotating substrate vacuum-deposition apparatus is described. A 1 cm/sup 2/ area cell without AR-coating produced by the planetary approach is reported to demonstrate a 7.5% efficiency. The results of cell heat-treatment studies showing a strong environmental dependence are presented and indicate the desirability of an oxygen-containing atmosphere. An automatic, computer-controlled, cell-measurement system for I-V, C-V, and spectral-response analysis is described. The results of the cell-analysis and cell-modeling studies on both the plain CdS and mixed Zn/sub x/Cd/sub 1-x/S thin-film devices are presented. Finally, data obtained from constant illumination and elevated temperature life-tests on the thin-film cells showing little degradation after 9300 hours is reported.

  19. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  20. 77 FR 45944 - Final Priorities and Definitions; State Personnel Development Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    .... Discussion: OSEP agrees that the use of technology can improve the delivery of professional development in... distance education technology for providing professional development to remote areas. Discussion: OSEP... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter III Final Priorities and Definitions; State Personnel...

  1. Staff Development Through the Implementation of Two Innovative Learning/Teaching Modes. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; And Others

    The final report describes the generally successful development and use of two new instructional models for adult basic education (ABE): a peer instruction model and an instructional system for consumer decision making. Section 1 examines the two year application of the peer instruction model, first developed for the military, in various adult…

  2. Hematopoietic (stem) cell development — how divergent are the roads taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-L. Kauts (Mari-Liis); C.S. Vink (Chris); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe development of the hematopoietic system during early embryonic stages occurs in spatially and temporally distinct waves. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), the most potent and self-renewing cells of this system, are produced in the final ‘definitive’ wave of hematopoietic cell

  3. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  4. Development of induction cells at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Zhang Kaizhi; Cheng Nian'an; Zhang Wenwei; Lai Qinggui; Wen Long; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2002-01-01

    The effects to develop induction cells for induction linac and radiography at CAEP are introduced and reviewed in this paper. During the past two decades, several kinds of cells have been designed and tested, and some of them have been used for construction of induction linac, such as Dragon-1 and 12 MeV, and a Synthetic Test Stand (STS) for comprehensive linac technology study. The structure, test results and performance in the induction linac of these cells are given

  5. Hypertranscription in development, stem cells, and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percharde, Michelle; Bulut-Karslioglu, Aydan; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Cells can globally up-regulate their transcriptome during specific transitions, a phenomenon called hypertranscription. Evidence for hypertranscription dates back over 70 years, but it has gone largely ignored in the genomics era until recently. We discuss data supporting the notion that hypertranscription is a unifying theme in embryonic development, stem cell biology, regeneration and cell competition. We review the history, methods for analysis, underlying mechanisms and biological significance of hypertranscription. PMID:27989554

  6. Development of Cell Analysis Software for Cultivated Corneal Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Ishida, Naoya; Kakutani, Kazuya; Hongo, Akane; Hiwa, Satoru; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Koizumi, Noriko

    2017-11-01

    To develop analysis software for cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). Software was designed to recognize cell borders and to provide parameters such as cell density, coefficient of variation, and polygonality of cultured HCECs based on phase contrast images. Cultured HCECs with high or low cell density were incubated with Ca-free and Mg-free phosphate-buffered saline for 10 minutes to reveal the cell borders and were then analyzed with software (n = 50). Phase contrast images showed that cell borders were not distinctly outlined, but these borders became more distinctly outlined after phosphate-buffered saline treatment and were recognized by cell analysis software. The cell density value provided by software was similar to that obtained using manual cell counting by an experienced researcher. Morphometric parameters, such as the coefficient of variation and polygonality, were also produced by software, and these values were significantly correlated with cell density (Pearson correlation coefficients -0.62 and 0.63, respectively). The software described here provides morphometric information from phase contrast images, and it enables subjective and noninvasive quality assessment for tissue engineering therapy of the corneal endothelium.

  7. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  8. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  9. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  10. Regulation of Hematopoietic Cell Development and Function Through Phosphoinositides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Elich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most paramount receptor-induced signal transduction mechanisms in hematopoietic cells is production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5trisphosphate (PIP3 by class I phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3K. Defective PIP3 signaling impairs almost every aspect of hematopoiesis, including T cell development and function. Limiting PIP3 signaling is particularly important, because excessive PIP3 function in lymphocytes can transform them and cause blood cancers. Here, we review the key functions of PIP3 and related phosphoinositides in hematopoietic cells, with a special focus on those mechanisms dampening PIP3 production, turnover, or function. Recent studies have shown that beyond “canonical” turnover by the PIP3 phosphatases and tumor suppressors phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1/2, PIP3 function in hematopoietic cells can also be dampened through antagonism with the soluble PIP3 analogs inositol(1,3,4,5tetrakisphosphate (IP4 and inositol-heptakisphosphate (IP7. Other evidence suggests that IP4 can promote PIP3 function in thymocytes. Moreover, IP4 or the kinases producing it limit store-operated Ca2+ entry through Orai channels in B cells, T cells, and neutrophils to control cell survival and function. We discuss current models for how soluble inositol phosphates can have such diverse functions and can govern as distinct processes as hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, neutrophil macrophage and NK cell function, and development and function of B cells and T cells. Finally, we will review the pathological consequences of dysregulated IP4 activity in immune cells and highlight contributions of impaired inositol phosphate functions in disorders such as Kawasaki disease, common variable immunodeficiency, or blood cancer.

  11. Light and energy - solar cells in transparent facades. Final report; Lys og energi - solceller i transparente facader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The overall purpose with the project 'LIGHT AND ENERGY - solar cells in transparent facades' is to demonstrate and disseminate the potentials for the application of light-filtering solar cells as multi-functional components, which meets the architectural objectives while contributing to a good indoor climate, a suitable quality of lighting indoor and at the same time produces electricity. The project was divided into six activities. The first activity 'zooms in' on the light-filtering solar cells on the market today. The following activities gradually 'zoom out' from the solar cell itself to the building component and ends up in the facade and the room behind. This order - which largely reflects the chronological development of the project - is repeated in the final project report to ensure the best possible overview. The characterisation in the different activities has been a combination of technical measurements, simulations, calculations and a thorough architectural evaluation of solar cell component, facade and room for attain an overall, interprofessional evaluation of the solar cell panels. It is important to stress that the basis of the project is the solar cell products available on the market today and In the near future. The possibilities and ideas have been evaluated and documented using mock-ups in 1:1 scale since the individual components have completely other qualities when they are integrated in a facade - the platform of this project. These models in full scale are a possibility to register and experience the character of the light inside out and under different light settings. It has been important to think of the solar cell filter as a part of the architecture instead of a replacement for windows and actively use the light-filtering features as a possibility in new facade designs - a filter which in combination with the completely transparent glass and completely light-blocking materials opens up for new possibilities

  12. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  13. RBX2 maintains final retinal cell position in a DAB1-dependent and -independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Corinne L; Hino, Keiko; Han, Jisoo S; Miltner, Adam M; Peinado Allina, Gabriel; Brown, Caileigh E; Burns, Marie E; La Torre, Anna; Simó, Sergi

    2018-02-02

    The laminated structure of the retina is fundamental for the organization of the synaptic circuitry that translates light input into patterns of action potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration and layering of the retina are poorly understood. Here, we show that RBX2, a core component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL5, is essential for retinal layering and function. RBX2 regulates the final cell position of rod bipolar cells, cone photoreceptors and Muller glia. Our data indicate that sustained RELN/DAB1 signaling, triggered by depletion of RBX2 or SOCS7 - a CRL5 substrate adaptor known to recruit DAB1 - causes rod bipolar cell misposition. Moreover, whereas SOCS7 also controls Muller glia cell lamination, it is not responsible for cone photoreceptor positioning, suggesting that RBX2, most likely through CRL5 activity, controls other signaling pathways required for proper cone localization. Furthermore, RBX2 depletion reduces the number of ribbon synapses and disrupts cone photoreceptor function. Together, these results uncover RBX2 as a crucial molecular regulator of retina morphogenesis and cone photoreceptor function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Components for the first 5 cell stack (no cooling plates) of the MK-2 design were fabricated. Preliminary specfications and designs for the components of a 23 cell MK-1 stack with four DIGAS cooling plates were developed. The MK-2 was selected as a bench mark design and a preliminary design of the facilities required for high rate manufacture of fuel cell modules was developed. Two stands for testing 5 cell stacks were built and design work for modifying existing stands and building new stands for 23 and 80 cell stacks was initiated. Design and procurement of components and materials for the catalyst test stand were completed and construction initiated. Work on the specifications of pipeline gas, tap water and recovered water and definition of equipment required for treatment was initiated. An innovative geometry for the reformer was conceived and modifications of the computer program to be used in its design were stated.

  15. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enables studies of more complex nanostructured solar cells with higher conversion efficiency and lower production cost. The fundamental principles and important features of these advanced solar cell designs are systematically reviewed and summarized in this paper, with a focus on the function and role of nanostructures and the key factors affecting device performance. Among various nanostructures, special attention is given to those relying on quantum effect.

  16. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  17. Stomach development, stem cells and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. PMID:26884394

  18. Evaluation of the Field Performance of Residential Fuel Cells: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrero, E.; McClelland, R.

    2004-05-01

    Distributed generation has attracted significant interest from rural electric cooperatives and their customers. Cooperatives have a particular nexus because of inherently low customer density, growth patterns at the end of long lines, and an influx of customers and high-tech industries seeking to diversify out of urban environments. Fuel cells are considered a particularly interesting DG candidate for these cooperatives because of their power quality, efficiency, and environmental benefits. The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network residential fuel cell program demonstrated RFC power plants and assessed related technical and application issues. This final subcontract report is an assessment of the program's results. This 3-year program leveraged Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) funding.

  19. Regulation of plant cells, cell walls and development by mechanical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The overall goal of the revised scope of work for the final year of funding was to characterize cell wall biosynthesis in developing cotyledons and in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana, as a way of learning about developmental control of cell wall biosynthesis in plants, and interactions between cell wall biosynthesis and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The proposed work had two parts – to look at the effect of mutation in the SPIRAL2 gene on microtubule organization and reorganization, and to thoroughly characterize the glycosyltransferase genes expressed in shoot apical meristems by RNA-seq experiments, by in situ hybridization of the RNAs expressed in the meristem, and by antibody staining of the products of the glycosyltransferases in meristems. Both parts were completed; the spiral2 mutant was found to speed microtubule reorientation after ablation of adjacent cells, supporting our hypothesis that reorganization correlates with microtubule severing, the rate of which is increased by the mutation. The glycosyltransferase characterization was completed and published as Yang et al. (2016). Among the new things learned was that primary cell wall biosynthesis is strongly controlled both by cell type, and by stage of cell cycle, implying not only that different, even adjacent, cells can have different sugar linkages in their (nonshared) walls, but also that a surprisingly large proportion of glycosyltransferases is regulated in the cell cycle, and therefore that the cell cycle regulates wall maturation to a degree previously unrecognized.

  20. GaAs thin film solar cells. Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bett, A.; Bronner, W.; Cardona, S.; Ehrhardt, A.; Habermann, G.; Habich, A.; Lanyi, P.; Lutz, F.; Nguyen, T.; Schetter, C.; Sulima, O.; Welter, H.; Yavas, O.

    1992-11-01

    This R and D project focused on the development of materials and technologies for the production of GaAs solar cells on GaAs and other substrates. Three subjects were gone into on particular: Material preparation (epitaxy), solar cell technology, characterisation of materials and processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Forschungsvorhaben hatte die Material- und Technologieentwickung fuer die Herstellung von GaAs-Solarzellen auf Eigen- und Fremdsubstrat zum Gegenstand. Drei Hauptaufgabenbereiche waren: Materialpraeparation (Epitaxie), Solarzellentechnologie, sowie Material- und Prozesscharakterisierung. (orig.)

  1. Legal problems inherent in the development of geopressured and geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, T.A.; Pike, R.W.; Wilkins, B.; Hill, T.M.

    1978-03-01

    The legal framework within which the geopressured resource will have to be developed in Louisiana is discussed generally. Those problems which may be created by its development within that framework are identified. Where possible, solutions are offered to those problems or at least techniques or devices are indicated which might be considered in their resolution. Finally, a compendium is assembled of those statutory or regulatory provisions which may regulate or affect the resource to the end that it might serve as a handbook for the evaluation of the legal and institutional problems which will face a prospective developer, when and if the resource development is undertaken in Louisiana. (MHR)

  2. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  3. Cell death induced by gamma irradiation of developing skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, M.; Blanco, R.; Rivera, R.; Cinos, C.; Ferrer, I.

    1995-01-01

    Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a single dose of 2 Gy gamma rays and killed from 6 h to 5 d later. Increased numbers of dying cells, characterised by their extreme chromatin condensation and often nuclear fragmentation were seen in skeletal muscle 6 h after irradiation. Dying cells decreased to nearly normal values 48 h later. In situ labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation identified individual cells bearing fragmented DNA. The effects of gamma rays were suppressed following cycloheximide i.p. at a dose of 1 μg/g body weight given at the time of irradiation. Taken together, the present morphological and pharmacological results suggest that gamma ray induced cell death in skeletal muscle is apoptotic, and that the process is associated with protein synthesis. Finally, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunoreactive cells, which were abundant in control rats, decreased in number 48 h after irradiation. However, a marked increase significantly above normal age values was observed at the 5th day, thus suggesting that regeneration occurs following irradiation-induced cell death in developing muscle. (author)

  4. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  5. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  6. Final report of advisory subcommittee on development of JENDL. Guideline for developing next JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Go; Iwamoto, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Advisory Subcommittee on Development of JENDL was established under JENDL Committee on fiscal year 2013 to discuss the subject concerning on development of next JENDL. Members of the subcommittee were selected from developers and users of JENDL and researchers on nuclear data measurements. They discussed guidelines on next JENDL with exchanging ideas on problems of JENDL and its solution from each view point. This report describes the results of the discussions on the problems and guideline with the present status on the JENDL development. (author)

  7. Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, S. M.; Colter, Peter

    2016-03-30

    The project goal is to enable multijunction cells to operate at greater than 2000× suns intensity with efficiency above forty percent. To achieve this goal the recipients have developed a robust high-bandgap tunnel junction, reduce series resistance, and integrated a practical heat dissipation scheme.

  8. Mission related to regulation and development of the photovoltaic sector in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.M; Sine, A.; Helleisen, Ph.; Tlili, C.; Trink, C.; Stoffaes, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the development of the photovoltaic stock in France (high potential with a middle term development constrained by high costs, consequences of a very strong increase of demands at the end of 2009, perspective of development at a rather high rate). Then, it outlines and discusses the financial consequences of such a high rate development, and the inadequacy between industrial objectives and development rate. It presents a development plan for this sector, stresses the need to implement new purchase obligation measures before the summer 2010, and to define a global action plan to be implemented at the beginning of 2011 for the development of photovoltaic electricity. Elements of international comparison are finally proposed

  9. [Development of a cell phone addiction scale for korean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Young

    2009-12-01

    This study was done to develop a cell phone addiction scale for Korean adolescents. The process included construction of a conceptual framework, generation of initial items, verification of content validity, selection of secondary items, preliminary study, and extraction of final items. The participants were 577 adolescents in two middle schools and three high schools. Item analysis, factor analysis, criterion related validity, and internal consistency were used to analyze the data. Twenty items were selected for the final scale, and categorized into 3 factors explaining 55.45% of total variance. The factors were labeled as withdrawal/tolerance (7 items), life dysfunction (6 items), and compulsion/persistence (7 items). The scores for the scale were significantly correlated with self-control, impulsiveness, and cell phone use. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 20 items was .92. Scale scores identified students as cell phone addicted, heavy users, or average users. The above findings indicate that the cell phone addiction scale has good validity and reliability when used with Korean adolescents.

  10. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  11. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  12. Radiation Hardened Telerobotic Dismantling System Development Final Report CRADA No. TC-1340-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lightman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This project was a collaborative effort between the University of California, LLNL and RedZone Robotics, Inc. for the development of radiation-hardened telerobotic dismantling systems for use in applications such as nuclear facility remediation, nuclear accident response, and Chemobyltype remediation. The project supported the design, development, fabrication and testing of a Ukrainian robotic systems. The project was completed on time and within budget. All deliverables were completed. The final project deliverables were consistent with the plans developed in the original project with the exception that the fabricated systems remained in Ukraine.

  13. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Kab; Kim, Sun Jae; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hoh; Park, Ji Yun; Oh, Suk Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologies that use zirconium oxide as the electrolyte material were studied in this present report. SOFC exhibits a very high power generation efficiency of over 50 %, and does not discharge pollution materials such as dusts, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Zirconia, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia), and La-Sr-Mn-Oxide materials were developed for the electrolyte material, for the anode, and for the cathode, respectively. After making thin zirconia plate using tape casting process, anode and cathode powders were screen printed on the zirconia plate for fabricating unit cells. A test system composed of a vertical tube furnace, digital multimeter, DC current supplier, and measuring circuit was constructed for testing the unit cell performance. This system was controlled by a home-made computer program. Founded on this unit cell technology and system, a multi-stack SOFC system was studied. This system was composed of 10 unit cells each of them had an electrode area of 40 x 40 mm. Based on this system design, large and thin zirconia plates of 70 x 70 mm in area was fabricated for the electrolyte. Different from in the unit cell system, interconnectors are needed in the multi-stack system for connecting unit cells electrically. For this interconnectors, Inconel 750 alloy was selected, sliced into wafers, machined, surface finished, and then Pt-plated. 55 figs, 8 tabs, 51 refs. (Author).

  14. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Kab; Kim, Sun Jae; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hoh; Park, Ji Yun; Oh, Suk Jin

    1995-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologies that use zirconium oxide as the electrolyte material were studied in this present report. SOFC exhibits a very high power generation efficiency of over 50 %, and does not discharge pollution materials such as dusts, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Zirconia, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia), and La-Sr-Mn-Oxide materials were developed for the electrolyte material, for the anode, and for the cathode, respectively. After making thin zirconia plate using tape casting process, anode and cathode powders were screen printed on the zirconia plate for fabricating unit cells. A test system composed of a vertical tube furnace, digital multimeter, DC current supplier, and measuring circuit was constructed for testing the unit cell performance. This system was controlled by a home-made computer program. Founded on this unit cell technology and system, a multi-stack SOFC system was studied. This system was composed of 10 unit cells each of them had an electrode area of 40 x 40 mm. Based on this system design, large and thin zirconia plates of 70 x 70 mm in area was fabricated for the electrolyte. Different from in the unit cell system, interconnectors are needed in the multi-stack system for connecting unit cells electrically. For this interconnectors, Inconel 750 alloy was selected, sliced into wafers, machined, surface finished, and then Pt-plated. 55 figs, 8 tabs, 51 refs. (Author)

  15. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; O'Brien, R.C.; Condie, K.G.; Sohal, M.; Housley, G.K.; Hartvigsen, J.J.; Larsen, D.; Tao, G.; Yildiz, B.; Sharma, V.; Singh, P.; Petigny, N.; Cable, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. From 2003-2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  16. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O' Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  17. SOX2 regulates acinar cell development in the salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Elaine; May, Alison J; Nathan, Sara; Cruz-Pacheco, Noel; Lizama, Carlos O; Maliskova, Lenka; Zovein, Ann C; Shen, Yin; Muench, Marcus O; Knox, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 targets acinar-specific genes and is essential for the survival of acinar but not ductal cells. Finally, we illustrate an unexpected and novel role for peripheral nerves in the creation of acini throughout development via regulation of SOX2. Thus, SOX2 is a master regulator of the acinar cell lineage essential to the establishment of a functional organ. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26620.001 PMID:28623666

  18. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC

  19. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  20. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  1. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); van der Vliet, Dennis [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Cullen, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atanasoska, Ljiljana [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  2. Mathematic model of regional economy development by the final result of labor resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina; Malafeev, Oleg; Strekopytov, Sergei; Bondarenko, Galina; Lovyannikov, Denis

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the mathematic model of regional economy development based on the result of labor resources. The solution of a region development-planning problem is considered for the period of long-lasting planning taking into account the beginning and the end of the planned period. The challenge is to find the distribution of investments in the main and additional branches of the regional economy, which will provide simultaneous transaction of all major sectors of the regional economy from the given condition to the predetermined final state.

  3. Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-05-00158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, M.

    2010-01-01

    NREL and Nuclear Filter Technology collaborated to develop a prototype product for a hydrogen threshold sensor that was used to monitor hydrogen production in the transport of nuclear waste transport containers. This application is a core business area for Nuclear Filter Technology and will provide a basis for creating sensor products that are used in other licensed fields of use. Activities included design and construction of prototype product, product testing and debugging, and finalizing a prototype for initial field tests.

  4. Final Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark

    2012-09-28

    The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.

  5. Reconstructing human pancreatic differentiation by mapping specific cell populations during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramond, Cyrille; Glaser, Nicolas; Berthault, Claire

    2017-01-01

    . Endocrine maturation progresses by up-regulating SUSD2 and lowering ECAD levels. Finally, in vitro differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells mimics key in vivo events. Our work paves the way to extend our understanding of the origin of mature human pancreatic......Information remains scarce on human development compared to animal models. Here, we reconstructed human fetal pancreatic differentiation using cell surface markers. We demonstrate that at 7weeks of development, the glycoprotein 2 (GP2) marks a multipotent cell population that will differentiate...... cell types and how such lineage decisions are regulated....

  6. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 1, Small scale research, development and testing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-03-01

    The development and testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. To date it has consisted of the testing of the aid in small diameter (1.5 and 1.625 inch) holes in Jefferson City Dolomite for both bench and crater blasting configurations. Full scale field trials are being conducted nearby in similar rock in an aggregate quarry. The data acquisition equipment used in Phase 1 included both a Spin Physics SP2000 high speed video motion analysis system and acoustic and seismic monitoring units. Measurements for each test included peak air over pressure, ground surface ppv, stemming displacement and velocity and face movement and extent. The results illustrate that the concept is sound and that its successful application to production blasting at full scale will be a function of manufacturing cost, the development of suitable insertion techniques for large diameter boreholes and the selection of a suitable low cost material for the aid. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  7. Research and development on super heat pump energy accumulation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system, which has been carried out from FY 1985 to 1992. It describes outline of the research and development program, R and D results, final evaluation methodology, evaluation of the R and D, proposals for the commercialization, and so on. The super high performance compression heat pumps are technically evaluated for highly efficient type (for heating, and cooling and heating), high temperature type (utilizing high temperature heat source, and low temperature heat source), working fluids (alcohol-based and nonalcohol-based), stainless steel plate fin type heat exchanger, EHD heat exchanger, and so on. The other techniques evaluated include those for chemical heat storage, combined systems, plant simulation, and systemization. The evaluation works are also directed to the economic and environmental aspects. Finally, the R and D themes are proposed to leap over various hurdles, e.g., reliability and economic viability, for the eventual commercialization of the energy accumulation system. (NEDO)

  8. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    The career of Dr. E.L. Powers, a pioneer in the development of radiobiology, is reviewed. His initial research involved the effects of radiation and certain chemicals on Paramecium, associated ultrastructural studies on protozoan cells, responses of Rickettsia and bacteriophage to irradiation, and the development of techniques for studying bacterial spores. These efforts established the basic radiation biology of the spore and its importance in understanding the effects of free radicals, oxygen, and water. His recent research extended work on the dry spore to the very wet spore and to other selected chemical systems in aqueous suspension. 126 refs., 2 figs

  9. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  11. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  12. Final Report "CoDeveloper: A Secure Web-Invocable Collaborative Software Development Tool"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-11-27

    Modern scientific simulations generate large datasets at remote sites with appropriate resources (supercomputers and clusters). Bringing these large datasets to the computers of all members of a distributed team of collaborators is often impractical or even impossible: there might not be enough bandwidth, storage capacity or appropriate data analysis and visualization tools locally available. To address the need to access remote data, avoid heavy Internet traffic and unnecessary data replication, Tech-X Corporation developed a tool, which allows running remote data visualization collaboratively and sharing the visualization objects as they get generated. The size of these objects is typically much smaller than the size of the original data. For marketing reasons, we renamed the product CoReViz. The detailed information on this product can be found at http://www.txcorp.com/products/CoReViz/. We installed and tested this tool at multiple machines at Tech-X and on seaborg at NERSC. In what follows, we give a detailed description of this tool.

  13. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Low Cost, High Capacity Non- Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevsky, Gene [Sila Nanotechnologies, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Commercial Li-ion batteries typically use Ni- and Co-based intercalation cathodes. As the demand for improved performance from batteries increases, these cathode materials will no longer be able to provide the desired energy storage characteristics since they are currently approaching their theoretical limits. Conversion cathode materials are prime candidates for improvement of Li-ion batteries. On both a volumetric and gravimetric basis they have higher theoretical capacity than intercalation cathode materials. Metal fluoride (MFx) cathodes offer higher specific energy density and dramatically higher volumetric energy density. Challenges associated with metal fluoride cathodes were addressed through nanostructured material design and synthesis. A major goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate Li-ion cells based on Si-comprising anodes and metal fluoride (MFx) comprising cathodes. Pairing the high-capacity MFx cathode with a high-capacity anode, such as an alloying Si anode, allows for the highest possible energy density on a cell level. After facing and overcoming multiple material synthesis and electrochemical instability challenges, we succeeded in fabrication of MFx half cells with cycle stability in excess of 500 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation) and full cells with MFx-based cathodes and Si-based anodes with cycle stability in excess of 200 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation).

  15. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  16. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  17. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  18. Development of a thermionic-reactor space-power system. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Initial experimental work led to the award of the first AEC thermionic contract on May 1, 1962, for the development of fission heated thermionic cells with an operating life of 10,000 hours or more. Two types of converters were fabricated: (1) electrically heated, and (2) fission heated where the fuel was either uranium carbide or uranium oxide. Competition between GGA and GE was climaxed on July 1, 1970 by the award to GGA of a contract to develop an in-core thermionic reactor. This report is divided into the following: thermionic research, materials technology, thermionic fuel element development, reactor technology, and systems technology

  19. Final report: Seven-layer membrane electrode assembly - an innovative approach to PEM fuel cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-07-01

    Costs of materials and fabrication, rather than appropriateness of technology, are the major barriers to the sales of fuel cells. With the objective of reducing costs, potential alternative component materials for (a) the fluid flow plate (FFP) and (b) the gas diffusion layers were investigated. The concept of a 7-layer membrane electrode assembly (MEA), in which components are bonded into a unitised module, was also studied. The advantages of the bonded cell, and the flow field design, are expounded. Low-cost carbon particle composites were developed for the FFPs. The modular 7-layer MEA has an order of magnitude saving over current materials. Overall, the study has led to a greater volumetric power output, lower costs and greater reliability. The work was carried out by Morgan Group Technology Limited and funded by the DTI.

  20. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  1. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  2. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  3. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sumit [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Krok, Michael [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  4. Development status and operational features of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1976-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the maturity of HTR-technology and to look out for possible technical problems, concerning introduction of large HTR power plants into the market. Further state and problems of introducing and closing the thorium fuel cycle is presented and judged. Finally, the state of development of advanced HTR-concepts for electricity production, the direct cycle HTR with helium turbine, and the gas-cooled fast breeder is discussed. In preparing the study, both HTR concepts with spherical and block-type fuel elements have been considered

  5. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Onishi, Celia Tiemi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This is the final report for the five-year program of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project (hereafter called the Project): Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones, under a NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. Detailed results from the past four years of study can be found in the each year’s year-end report (Karasaki et al., 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011; Kiho et al., 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011). In this report, we discuss the results of the studies conducted in FY2011. We also give a summary of the overall results and findings, as well as the lessons learned during the course of the Project.

  6. Uranium development in the San Juan Basin region: a report on environmental issues. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a regional analysis of the effect of uranium development on the human and natural environment of northwest New Mexico from the present until the year 2000. This report contains comments on the published draft of this study from representatives of federal and state agencies, public interest groups, local governments, leading citizens, and the uranium industry. Many of the comments led to substantial changes in the text and were carefully considered in the final edition of the study

  7. The biochemistry of hematopoietic stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakis, P; Crisan, M; Dzierzak, E

    2013-02-01

    The cornerstone of the adult hematopoietic system and clinical treatments for blood-related disease is the cohort of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that is harbored in the adult bone marrow microenvironment. Interestingly, this cohort of HSCs is generated only during a short window of developmental time. In mammalian embryos, hematopoietic progenitor and HSC generation occurs within several extra- and intraembryonic microenvironments, most notably from 'hemogenic' endothelial cells lining the major vasculature. HSCs are made through a remarkable transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to a hematopoietic fate that is long-lived and self-renewable. Recent studies are beginning to provide an understanding of the biochemical signaling pathways and transcription factors/complexes that promote their generation. The focus of this review is on the biochemistry behind the generation of these potent long-lived self-renewing stem cells of the blood system. Both the intrinsic (master transcription factors) and extrinsic regulators (morphogens and growth factors) that affect the generation, maintenance and expansion of HSCs in the embryo will be discussed. The generation of HSCs is a stepwise process involving many developmental signaling pathways, morphogens and cytokines. Pivotal hematopoietic transcription factors are required for their generation. Interestingly, whereas these factors are necessary for HSC generation, their expression in adult bone marrow HSCs is oftentimes not required. Thus, the biochemistry and molecular regulation of HSC development in the embryo are overlapping, but differ significantly from the regulation of HSCs in the adult. HSC numbers for clinical use are limiting, and despite much research into the molecular basis of HSC regulation in the adult bone marrow, no panel of growth factors, interleukins and/or morphogens has been found to sufficiently increase the number of these important stem cells. An understanding of the biochemistry of HSC

  8. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  9. Prospects for development of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Шабер

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of a complex of problems that arise in small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium-capacity power plants associated with the processing of crude methane and the possibility of reducing the greenhouse effect.The economic feasibility of the development of fuel cells (FC on raw biomethane was demonstrated by the authors in previous publications.The specificity of the solution of problems is focused on small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium power plants.The aim of the study is to show the possibility of solving a multicomponent task of developing fuel cells, including the experimental determination of the actual use of sodium formate as a reducing agent for the production of electricity in a fuel cell (FC.Results are the following: the possibility of solving the issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere during processing of waste products of human vital activity is proved. A method for converting methane and carbon dioxide emissions into useful products is shown.

  10. Development of telemetry for high-speed rotor instrumentation and monitoring: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, G.T.; Nenno, P.N.; Parker, J.H.; Eckels, P.W.

    1987-06-01

    A modern data acquisition and telemetry system for rotating systems was developed as a part of a program, jointly funded by EPRI and Westinghouse, to develop a 300 MVA superconducting generator. While the overall program was terminated before completion, the telemetry development task was essentially complete at termination. It had been planned that the data acquisition and telemetry system was to be used in large scale models and the final 300 MVA rotor testing for transmitting sensor data from the rotating frame. An important part of this development was the qualification of a number of cryogenic sensors that were to be used in conjunction with the telemetry system for measuring temperature, strain and liquid helium level. The telemetry system that was developed handled the data transmission by digital frequency shift keying with a carrier of 200 kHz. The analog sensor signals were amplified and filtered ''on-board'' before being multiplexed and converted to a digital signal. All of this was under the control of a single chip microcomputer (Intel 8748) in the rotating frame. The overall sensor, data acquisition and telemetry system were operated and tested under rotation for a period of over one hundred hours. Overall, the system has proven itself to be reliable and effective. The present report covers all aspects of this development in detail, including the circuit and software design and performance. 27 refs., 58 figs.

  11. Development of an international safeguards approach to the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Moran, B.W.; Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently pursuing development of an international safeguards approach for the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories through consultants meetings and through the Program for Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories (SAGOR). The consultants meetings provide policy guidance to IAEA; SAGOR recommends effective approaches that can be efficiently implemented by IAEA. The SAGOR program, which is a collaboration of eight Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), was initiated in July 1994 and has identified 15 activities in each of three areas (i.e. conditioning facilities, active repositories, and closed repositories) that must be performed to ensure an efficient, yet effective safeguards approach. Two consultants meetings have been held: the first in May 1991 and the last in November 1995. For nuclear materials emplaced in a geological repository, the safeguards objectives were defined to be (1) to detect the diversion of spent fuel, whether concealed or unconcealed, from the repository and (2) to detect undeclared activities of safeguards concern (e.g., tunneling, underground reprocessing, or substitution in containers)

  12. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    The sustainable manufacturing of medicines, materials and chemicals is enabled with biotechnology, and the key to the development of new processes, as well as improvement of existing ones, lies in our fundamental understanding of the biological systems we manipulate. Recombinant protein production...... is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed over the past four decades for this purpose. Understanding of the genetic code and our ability to manipulate genetic material, paves the way for the microbial cell factory development that enables production......, and building a platform for enhanced expression of certain plant genes in bacteria. The relevance of the conducted research to the field of biotechnology is covered, as well as necessary scientific background and history. Specifically, the surprisingly minor effects of tRNA overexpression on the production...

  13. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  14. Silicon solar cells with high efficiencies. Final report; Silicium-Solarzellen mit hoechsten Wirkungsgraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Knobloch, J.; Glunz, S.W.; Henninger, V.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Koester, B.; Leimenstoll, A.; Schaeffer, E.; Schumacher, J.; Sterk, S.; Warta, W.

    1996-06-01

    In this report the basic activities for the development of the silicon high efficiency solar cell technology are described. The project had two main goals: (i) The improvement of efficiencies using a systematic optimization of all cell parameters and technology steps and (ii) the simplification of the technology towards the possibilities of an industrial production, keeping the cell efficiency at a high level. Starting from the LBSF technology, developed at Fraunhofer ISE, the reduction of all loss mechanisms led to efficiencies up to 22.5% on FZ-silicon. Using a modification of this technology efficiencies of up to 21.7% have been reached on Cz-silicon. Even after the reduction of the number of photolithographic steps from six to three efficiencies up to 21.6% on FZ- and 19.5% on Cz-silicon have been obtained. These are best values in an international comparison. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Projektbericht werden grundlegende Arbeiten zur Entwicklung der Silicium-`Highefficiency`-Solarzellentechnologie beschrieben. Das Projekt hatte zwei Hauptziele: (i) Die Erhoehung der Wirkungsgrade durch eine systematische Optimierung aller Zellparameter und aller Technologieschritte und (ii) die Vereinfachung der Technologie unter Beibehaltung sehr hoher Wirkungsgrade mit dem Ziel einer Annaeherung an die Moeglichkeiten der Industriefertigung. Ausgehend von der im Fraunhofer ISE entwickelten LBSF-Technologie gelang es durch Reduzierung aller Verlustmechanismen, Wirkungsgrade bis zu 22.5% auf FZ-Silicium zu erreichen. Nach Anpassung der Technologie wurden auf Cz-Silicium Wirkungsgrade bis 21.7% erzielt. Ein von sechs auf drei Fotomaskenschritte reduzierter Prozess erzielte immerhin noch Werte bis 21.6% auf FZ- und 19.5% auf Cz-Material. Alle dieser Werte stellen im internationalen Vergleich Spitzenleistungen dar. (orig.)

  15. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Christensen, Josef; Gao, Yu

    2009-01-01

      The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.......  The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... (LIF, LIFR, GP130), FGF pathway (bFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2), BMP pathway (BMP4), and downstream-activated genes (STAT3, c-Myc, c-Fos, and SMAD4). We discovered two different expression profiles exist in the developing porcine embryo. The D6 porcine blastocyst (inner cell mass stage) is devoid...

  16. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  17. The development of in-cell remote inspection system in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yuzo

    1985-01-01

    In the Tokai fuel reprocessing plant, the containment is triple, i.e. the vessel containing radioactive material, then the concrete cell structure and finally the housing building. The fuel reprocessing plant is now proceeding with the development of an in-cell remote inspection system. The inspection system is for inspection of the cell itself and the equipment etc. in the cell, concerning the integrity. Described are the following: the course taken and problems in development of the remote inspection system; development of the floor rambling type remote inspection equipment and the multiple armed type, both for inspection of in-cell ''drip trays''; in-cell equipment inspection devices in specifications etc.; problems in its future development. (Mori, K.)

  18. A New Scientific Paradigm may be Needed to Finally Develop an HIV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, José

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of current HIV vaccine research is conducted within the infectious disease paradigm that has been very successful in developing vaccines against many other viral diseases. Different HIV vaccine concepts, based on the induction of neutralizing antibodies and/or cell mediated immunity, have been developed and clinically tested over the last 30 years, resulting in a few small successes and many disappointments. As new scientific knowledge is obtained, HIV vaccine concepts are constantly modified with the hope that the newly introduced tweaks (or paradigm drifts) will provide the solution to one of the most difficult challenges that modern biomedical research is confronting. Efficacy trials have been critical in guiding HIV vaccine development. However, from the five phase III efficacy trials conducted to date, only one (RV144) resulted in modest efficacy. The results from RV144 were surprising in many ways, including the identified putative correlates of protection (or risk), which did not include neutralizing antibodies or cytotoxic T-cells. The solution to the HIV vaccine challenge may very well come from approaches based on the current paradigm. However, at the same time, out-of-the-paradigm ideas should be systematically explored to complement the current efforts. New mechanisms are needed to identify and support the innovative research that will hopefully accelerate the development of an urgently needed HIV vaccine.

  19. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  20. Development of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells for enhanced antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Yasuharu; Omasa, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Cell culture platform processes are generally employed to shorten the duration of new product development. A fed-batch process with continuous feeding is a conventional platform process for monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To establish a simplified platform process, the feeding method can be changed from continuous feed to bolus feed. However, this change induces a rapid increase of osmolality by the bolus addition of nutrients. The increased osmolality suppresses cell culture growth, and the final product concentration is decreased. In this study, osmotic resistant CHO host cells were developed to attain a high product concentration. To establish hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells, CHO-S host cells were passaged long-term in a hyper osmotic basal medium. There were marked differences in cell growth of the original and established host cells under iso- (328 mOsm/kg) or hyper-osmolality (over 450 mOsm/kg) conditions. Cell growth of the original CHO host cells was markedly decreased by the induction of osmotic stress, whereas cell growth of the hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was not affected. The maximum viable cell concentration of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was 132% of CHO-S host cells after the induction of osmotic stress. Moreover, the hyper osmotic resistant characteristic of established CHO host cells was maintained even after seven passages in iso-osmolality basal medium. The use of hyper osmotic resistance CHO host cells to create a monoclonal antibody production cell line might be a new approach to increase final antibody concentrations with a fed-batch process. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  2. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  3. Development of high field superconductors for fusion energy applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conductor design and a manufacturing procedure for a composite multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for winding a magnet for use in a fusion energy power plant. Effort was concentrated on the design of a conductor with tubular niobium filaments in a copper matrix. Bronze in the bores of the filaments would react with the niobium to form Nb 3 Sn on the inside diameter of the niobium tubular filaments during a heat treatment at final size. Four filament geometries were evaluated. The addition of titanium to the bronze was found to increase the current density. The use of a hydrogen atmosphre did not appear to cause any increase in current density. Primary billets were assembled and extruded with five tubular filament designs and for comparison, five rod type filament designs. Billet designs are described

  4. Development of a criticality alarm system neutron detector: Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype neutron detector for use in criticality alarm systems (CASs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor facilities wherever significant amounts of fissile material are processed or stored. Constraints placed on the design of the detector were that the overall size of the detector was to be as small as practical, the input voltage requirements were to be no more than 24 V, and that the gamma sensitivity would be as low as possible. Also, the detector should give dosimetric neutron response, and should have sufficient temporal capabilities to measure the entire range from fast (>1 ms) to slow (seconds to minutes) excursions, and sufficient dynamic range to measure from background to over 100 times background levels to insure proper activation of the Immediate Evacuation Alarm (IEA). Finally, the detector should insure rapid (<1 s) activation of the IEA in the event of a criticality excursion. 24 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2011-12-15

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.

  6. User's Manual and Final Report for Hot-SMAC GUI Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington, Phil

    2001-01-01

    A new software package called Higher Order Theory-Structural/Micro Analysis Code (HOT-SMAC) has been developed as an effective alternative to the finite element approach for Functionally Graded Material (FGM) modeling. HOT-SMAC is a self-contained package including pre- and post-processing through an intuitive graphical user interface, along with the well-established Higher Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials (HOTFGM) thermomechanical analysis engine. This document represents a Getting Started/User's Manual for HOT-SMAC and a final report for its development. First, the features of the software are presented in a simple step-by-step example where a HOT-SMAC model representing a functionally graded material is created, mechanical and thermal boundary conditions are applied, the model is analyzed and results are reviewed. In a second step-by-step example, a HOT-SMAC model of an actively cooled metallic channel with ceramic thermal barrier coating is built and analyzed. HOT-SMAC results from this model are compared to recently published results (NASA/TM-2001-210702) for two grid densities. Finally, a prototype integration of HOTSMAC with the commercially available HyperSizer(R) structural analysis and sizing software is presented. In this integration, local strain results from HyperSizer's structural analysis are fed to a detailed HOT-SMAC model of the flange-to-facesheet bond region of a stiffened panel. HOT-SMAC is then used to determine the peak shear and peel (normal) stresses between the facesheet and bonded flange of the panel and determine the "free edge" effects.

  7. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christini, R.A.; Dawless, R.K.; Ray, S.P.; Weirauch, D.A. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  8. Processing development for ceramic structural components: the influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride has been studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, 4 pt. bend test, and mecury intrusion porosimetry. It has been shown that presintering at 1050/sup 0/C will not affect the final nitrided properties. At 1200/sup 0/C, the oxide layer is removed, promoting the formation of B-phase silicon nitride. Presintering at 1200/sup 0/C also results in compact weight loss due to the volatilization of silicon, and the formation of large pores which severely reduce nitrided strength. The development of the structure of sintered silicon compacts appears to involve a temperature gradient, with greater sintering observed near the surface.

  9. Final Technical Report - Use of Systems Biology Approaches to Develop Advanced Biofuel-Synthesizing Cyanobacterial Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use a systems biology approach to evaluate the potentials of a number of cyanobacterial strains for photobiological production of advanced biofuels and/or their chemical precursors. Cyanobacteria are oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes. Among them, certain unicellular species such as Cyanothece can also fix N2, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such incompatible processes in a single cell, Cyanothece produces oxygen during the day, and creates an O2-limited intracellular environment during the night to perform O2-sensitive processes such as N2-fixation. Thus, Cyanothece cells are natural bioreactors for the storage of captured solar energy with subsequent utilization at a different time during a diurnal cycle. Our studies include the identification of a novel, fast-growing, mixotrophic, transformable cyanobacterium. This strain has been sequenced and will be made available to the community. In addition, we have developed genome-scale models for a family of cyanobacteria to assess their metabolic repertoire. Furthermore, we developed a method for rapid construction of metabolic models using multiple annotation sources and a metabolic model of a related organism. This method will allow rapid annotation and screening of potential phenotypes based on the newly available genome sequences of many organisms.

  10. Development of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.T.; Goldstein, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The historical focus of the electric utility industry has been central station power plants. These plants are usually sited outside urban areas and electricity was delivered via high voltage transmission lines. Several things are beginning to change this historical precedent One is the popular concern with EMF as a health hazard. This has rendered the construction of new lines as well as upgrading old ones very difficult. Installation of power generating equipment near the customer enables the utility to better utilize existing transmission and distribution networks and defer investments. Power quality and lark of disturbances and interruptions is also becoming increasingly more important to many customers. Grid connected, but dedicated small power plants can greatly improve power quality. Finally the development of high efficiency, low emission, modular fuel cells promises near pollution free localized power generation with an efficiency equal to or exceeding that of even the most efficient central power stations.

  11. Regenerative toxicology: the role of stem cells in the development of chronic toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas-Jorda, David; Louisse, Jochem; Pistollato, Francesca; Zagoura, Dimitra; Bremer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Human stem cell lines and their derivatives, as alternatives to the use of animal cells or cancer cell lines, have been widely discussed as cellular models in predictive toxicology. However, the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities and carcinogenesis has not received great attention so far, despite growing evidence indicating the relationship of stem cell damage to adverse effects later in life. However, testing this in vitro is a scientific/technical challenge in particular due to the complex interplay of factors existing under physiological conditions. Current major research programs in stem cell toxicity are not aiming to demonstrate that stem cells can be targeted by toxicants. Therefore, this knowledge gap needs to be addressed in additional research activities developing technical solutions and defining appropriate experimental designs. The current review describes selected examples of the role of stem cells in the development of long-term toxicities in the brain, heart or liver and in the development of cancer. The presented examples illustrate the need to analyze the contribution of stem cells to chronic toxicity in order to make a final conclusion whether stem cell toxicities are an underestimated risk in mechanism-based safety assessments. This requires the development of predictive in vitro models allowing the assessment of adverse effects to stem cells on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  12. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Beamline Collaborative Development Team Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This is the final report for the project to create a beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source. The facility is complete and operating well, with spectrometers for both high resolution and medium resolution measurements. With the advent of third generation synchrotron sources, inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) has become a valuable technique to probe the electronic and vibrational states of a wide variety of systems of interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. IXS is a weak probe, and experimental setups are complex and require well-optimized spectrometers which need a dedicated beamline to function efficiently. This project was the result of a proposal to provide a world-class, user friendly beamline for IXS at the Advanced Photon Source. The IXS Collaborative Development Team (IXS-CDT) was formed from groups at the national laboratories and a number of different universities. The beamline was designed from the front end to the experimental stations. Two different experimental stations were provided, one for medium resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (MERIX) and a spectrometer for high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX). Funding for this project came from several sources as well as the DOE. The beamline is complete with both spectrometers operating well. The facility is now open to the general user community and there has been a tremendous demand to take advantage of the beamline's capabilities. A large number of different experiments have already been carried out on the beamline. A detailed description of the beamline has been given in the final design report (FDR) for the beamline from which much of the material in this report came. The first part of this report contains a general overview of the project with more technical details given later.

  13. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  14. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  15. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HD, D{sub 2}, HT, DT, T{sub 2}) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author).

  16. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  17. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.L.

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  18. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  19. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  20. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  1. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.; Andersson, J.O.

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  2. Renewable electricity market developments in the European Union. Final Report of the ADMIRE REBUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Daniels, B.W.; De Noord, M.; De Vries, H.J.; De Zoeten - Dartenset, C.; Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Lescot, D.; Hoffmann, T.; Stronzik, M.; Gual, M.; Del Rio, P.; Hernandez, F.

    2003-10-01

    Which countries offer the best markets for renewables? Are present support policies sufficient to meet the EU (European Union) renewables target for 2010? Which renewable technologies will have the largest growth in the present decade? The ADMIRE REBUS project has addressed these questions by giving an outlook on the future of electricity from renewable energy sources. The ADMIRE REBUS project team has analysed the market barriers, support policies and potentials for renewable electricity production in Europe. For these analyses a new tool was developed that simulates the development of the European renewable electricity market under different policy scenarios. The report starts with describing the approach and key assumptions used in the analysis. Next, an overview is provided of EU legislation and different support policies for renewable energy. After a brief overview of the different challenges that an investor faces when investing in renewable energy technologies with respect to lead times, risks and transaction costs, several policy scenarios for the future are discussed. Next, the report presents ADMIRE REBUS model analyses of different policy strategies for meeting the targets stated in the EU Renewables Directive. The report continues the analysis of model results with presenting prospects for individual technologies and market prices under different scenarios. Next, case studies are presented for four different EU Member States. The analysis results are put into perspective by a sensitivity analysis. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are formulated based on the above

  3. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N 2 and H 2 -D 2 distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N 2 distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H 2 , HD, D 2 , HT, DT, T 2 ) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H 2 -D 2 distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H 2 -D 2 distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H 2 -D 2 distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author)

  4. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  5. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34"+/CD117"+/CD13"+multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  6. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  7. Keynote address: hypoxic cell sensitizers: clinical developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dische, S.

    1989-01-01

    Tumors having small islands of cells should be radiosensitive, and those having large masses, radioresistant. This was found to be the case and there is a ready explanation for this: the outside cells are close to blood vessels and will thus be well supplied with oxygen, while the inside cells are not well placed in this respect. Now it is known that cells well supplied with oxygen are radiosensitive, compared to the same cells deprived of oxygen; it is therefore likely that for this reason, variation in blood supply, that the outside cells are more easily destroyed than those within.''29 references

  8. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The

  9. PROGEOTHERM - National program for the development of geothermal energy in Switzerland - Final report; PROGEOTHERM - Programme national de developpement de la geothermie en Suisse - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the current situation with respect to the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland and the problems faced. Action to be taken is examined. The report proposes that specialised further education, including the setting up of a Master of Advanced Studies course at the University of Neuchatel and support for courses at Universities of Applied Sciences. Research and development in the geothermal area and support for pilot and demonstration installations, new machinery and exploration methods are proposed. Also, political, organisational and financial aspects of the support programme are discussed.

  10. Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability And Security Research And Development Initiative. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, S.; Meeker, R.; Steurer, M.; Li, H.; Pamidi, S.; Rodrigo, H.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Cartes, D.; Ordonez, J.; Domijan, A.; Liu, W.; Cox, D.; McLaren, P.; Hovsapian, R.; Edwards, D.; Simmons, S.; Wilde, N.; Woodruff, S.; Kopriva, D.; Hussaini, Y.; Mohammed, O.; Zheng, J.; Baldwin, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security R and D Initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, under award number DE-FG02-05CH11292. This report covers results from the FSU-led, multi-institution effort conducted over the period 8/15/05 to 10/14/2007. Building upon existing infrastructure for power systems research, modeling, and simulation, the Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) at Florida State University (FSU) is developing world-class programs in electric power systems research and education to support future electric power system needs and challenges. With U.S. Department of Energy Support, FSU CAPS has engaged in a multi-faceted effort to conduct basic and applied research towards understanding, developing, and deploying technologies and approaches that can lead to improved reliability and security of the North American electric power generation and delivery infrastructure. This wide-reaching project, through a number of carefully selected thrusts cutting across several research disciplines, set out to address key terrestrial electric utility power system issues and challenges. The challenges and the thrusts to address them were arrived at through analysis of a number of national reports and recommendations combined with input from an experienced multi-disciplined team of power systems research staff and faculty at FSU CAPS. The resulting project effort can be grouped into four major areas: - Power Systems and New Technology Insertion - Controls, Protection, and Security - Simulation Development - High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS)

  11. Silicon-Film(TM) Solar Cells by a Flexible Manufacturing System: Final Report, 16 April 1998 -- 31 March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, J.

    2002-02-01

    This report describes the overall goal to engineer and develop flexible manufacturing methods and equipment to process Silicon-Film solar cells and modules. Three major thrusts of this three-year effort were to: develop a new larger-area (208 mm x 208 mm) Silicon-Film solar cell, the APx-8; construct and operate a new high-throughput wafer-making system; and develop a 15-MW single-thread manufacturing process. Specific technical accomplishments from this period are: Increase solar cell area by 80%, increase the generation capacity of a Silicon-Film wafer-making system by 350%, use a new in-line HF etch system in solar cell production, design and develop an in-line NaOH etch system, eliminate cassettes in solar cell processing, and design a new family of module products.

  12. Plant cell wall architecture. Final report, 1 June 1994--30 October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The authors have successfully finished the DOE-supported project entitled ``Plant cell wall architecture.`` During the funding period (June 1, 1994--October 30, 1996), they have published 6 research papers and 2 review articles. A brief description of these accomplishments is outlined as follows: (1) Improved and extended tissue printing techniques to reveal different surface and wall architectures, and to localized proteins and RNA. (2) Identification of an auxin- and cytokinin-regulated gene from Zinnia which is mainly expressed in cambium. (3) It was found that caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase is involved in an alternative methylation pathway of lignin biosynthesis. (4) It was found that two different O-methyltransferases involved in lignification are differentially regulated in different lignifying tissues during development. They propose a scheme of monolignol biosynthesis combining both methylation pathways. (5) Identification of cysteine and serine proteases which are preferentially expressed during xylogenesis. This is the first report to identify an autolysis-associated cDNA in plants. (6) Characterization of two ribonuclease genes which are induced during xylogenesis and by wounding. (7) Isolation of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene and analysis of its expression patterns during lignification.

  13. Analytical cell decontamination and shielding window refurbishment. Final report, March 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokowski, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the decontamination and refurbishment of five inactive contaminated analytical cells and six zinc bromide filled shielding windows. The analytical cells became contaminated during the nuclear fuel reprocessing carried out by Nuclear Fuel Services from 1966 to 1972. The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work was performed in these cells to make them useful as laboratories in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. To accomplish this objective, unnecessary equipment was removed from these cells. Necessary equipment and the interior of each cell were decontaminated and repaired. The shielding windows, essentially tanks holding zinc bromide, were drained and disassembled. The deteriorated, opaque zinc bromide was refined to optical clarity and returned to the tanks. All wastes generated in this operation were characterized and disposed of properly. All the decontamination and refurbishment was accomplished within 13 months. The Analytical Hot Cell has been turned over to Analytical Chemistry for the performance high-level waste (HLW) characterization analysis

  14. Final Report, Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Dr Scott L.; Thrun, Dr Lora B.; Arkenberg, Mr Gene B.; Chenault, Ms Kellie M.

    2012-01-03

    This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm2. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year).

  15. Advanced-safeguards systems development for chemical-processing plants. Final report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartan, F.O.

    1981-04-01

    The program is installing a computer system to test and evaluate process monitoring as a new Safeguards function to supplement the usual physical security and accountability functions. Safeguards development sensors and instruments installed in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) provide information via a data acquisition system to a Safeguards analysis computer. The monitoring function can significantly enhance current material control (accountability) and containment surveillance capabilities for domestic and international Safeguards uses. Installation of sensors and instruments in the ICPP was more than 75% complete in FY-1980. Installation work was halted at the request of ICPP operations near the end of the year to eliminate possible conflict with instrument calibrations prior to plant startup. Some improvements to the computer hardware were made during FY-1980. Sensor and instrument development during FY-1980 emphasized device testing for ICPP monitoring applications. Pressure transducers, pressure switches, a bubble flowmeter, and load cells were tested; an ultrasonic liquid-in-line sensor was developed and tested. Work on the portable, isotope-ratio mass spectrometer led to the comparison of the HP quadrupole instrument with a small magnetic instrument and to the selection of the quadrupole

  16. Development of safety-relevant components for the transport and handling of final storage casks for waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.; Geiser, H.; Kloeckner, F.; Rittscher, D.; Schlesinger, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was the development, construction and testing of a transportation system that is able to transport cylindrical waste containers as well as containers from the deliverer to the 'KONRAD' final repository. A transport palette has been developed that can carry two cylindrical waste containers with type B requirement or classification II. An Open-All-Container for the transport of palettes and 'KONRAD' containers has been developed. A storage of cylindrical waste containers and containers in the final repository is possible with the newly developed transportation system. Safety specifications of the transportation system have been passed successfully. (orig.). 30 refs., 8 tabs., 74 figs [de

  17. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  18. Cell wall heterogeneity in root development of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Somssich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signalling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modelling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes.

  19. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO 2 tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study

  20. Development of controlled solid-state alignment for alnico permanent magnets in near-final shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver E. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 price shock in the rare earth (RE permanent magnet (PM marketplace precipitated realization of extremely poor RE supply diversity and drove renewed research in RE-free permanent magnets such as “alnico.” Essentially, alnico is an Al-Ni-Co-Fe alloy with high magnetic saturation and TC, but low coercivity. It also was last researched extensively in the 1970’s. Currently alnico “9” magnets with the highest energy product (10MGOe are manufactured by directional solidification to make highly aligned anisotropic magnets. This work developed novel powder processing techniques to improve on unaligned anisotropic alnico “8H” with elevated coercivity. Gas atomization was used to produce pre-alloyed powder for binder-assisted compression molding of near-final shape magnets that were vacuum sintered to full density (250g showed reduced overall loop squareness compared to unaligned (equiaxed 8H due to grain rotation-induced misalignment, while low stresses improved squareness and greatly improved alignment compared to equiaxed magnets, with squareness approaching 0.30 and remanence ratio as high as 0.79.

  1. Development of the ITER Continuous External Rogowski: From conceptual design to final design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.jacques.moreau@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Spuig, Pascal; Le-luyer, Alain; Malard, Philippe; Cantone, Bruno; Pastor, Patrick; Saint-Laurent, François [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vayakis, George; Delhom, Dominique [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arshad, Shakeib [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lister, Jonathan; Toussaint, Matthieu; Marmillod, Philippe; Testa, Duccio; Schlatter, Christian [Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Peruzzo, Simone [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER Continuous External Rogowskis are designed for plasma current measurement. • CER are located in the casing of Toroidal Field Coils and will operate at 4.5 K. • The design of the sensors has been completed and validated through prototypes. • Detailed assembly procedure inside the toroidal field coil casing has been defined. • The CER has passed all the ITER and F4E design review procedures. - Abstract: In ITER, an accurate measurement of plasma current, with high reliability, is mandatory as this parameter is used to demonstrate licensing compliance with regulatory limits. For that purpose, several independent measurements based on magnetic diagnostics have been proposed. Rogowski coils are standard inductive sensors for current measurement in many applications. In ITER, three continuous external Rogowski coils are to be installed in the casing of the toroidal field coils. These sensors are remarkable from several points of view: overall length is about 40 m, high sensitivity needed, located in the toroidal field coil casing at 4.5 K and complex 3D routing with tight bending radius of 50 mm. Since 2005 an extensive work has been carried out to develop and analyze several design options complying with ITER specifications. Prototypes of a selected continuous external Rogowski design were built and tested successfully in terms of electrical, thermal, mechanical and vacuum characteristics. Finally a detailed assembly procedure inside the toroidal field coil casing has been defined according to the coil manufacturing and assembly constraints.

  2. Immunologic glycosphingolipidomics and NKT cell development in mouse thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Thapa, Prakash; Hawke, David

    2009-01-01

    Invariant NKT cells are a hybrid cell type of Natural Killer cells and T cells, whose development is dependent on thymic positive selection mediated by double positive thymocytes through their recognition of natural ligands presented by CD1d, a nonpolymorphic, non-MHC, MHC-like antigen presenting...

  3. Development of a new osmium-191: Iridium-191m radionuclide generator: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.; Packard, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of iridium-191m (T/sub 1/2/ = 5s) for first-pass radionuclide angiography offers the potential advantages of lower patient radiation dose and the ability to obtain repeated studies without interference from the previously administered radioisotope. These potential advantages have been offset by the absence of satisfactory 191 Os-/sup 191m/Ir generators. The goal of this project was, therefore, the development of an 191 Os-/sup 191m/Ir generator that would be suitable for clinical use. This goal was first sought through modifications of an existing 191 Os-/sup 191m/Ir generator design (i.e., changes in the ion exchange material and eluent) but these changes did not lead to the required improvements. A new approach was then undertaken in which different chemical forms of the 191 Os parent were evaluated in prototype generators. The complex trans-dioxobisoxalatoosmate (VI) led to a generator with higher /sup 191m/Ir yield (25 to 30%/mL) and lower 191 Os breakthrough ( -4 %) with a more physiologically compatible eluent than had been previously achieved. Toxicity studies were conducted on the eluate and an IND subsequently obtained. While this is not a final solution to the problem of developing a clinically acceptable 191 Os-/sup 191m/Ir generator, the ''oxalate'' generator is the most significant improvement of the 191 Os-/sup 191m/Ir generator to date and will be used in an expanded program of clinical studies. 16 refs., 16 tabs

  4. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Development of CFD software for the simulation of thermal hydraulics in advanced nuclear reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachar, Abdelaziz; Haslinger, Wolfgang; Scheuerer, Georg; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the project were: Improvement of the simulation accuracy for nuclear reactor thermo-hydraulics by coupling system codes with three-dimensional CFD software; Extension of CFD software to predict thermo-hydraulics in advanced reactor concepts; Validation of the CFD software by simulation different UPTF TRAM-C test cases and development of best practice guidelines. The CFD module was based on the ANSYS CFD software and the system code ATHLET of GRS. All three objectives were met: The coupled ATHLET-ANSYS CFD software is in use at GRS and TU Muenchen. Besides the test cases described in the report, it has been used for other applications, for instance the TALL-3D experiment of KTH Stockholm. The CFD software was extended with material properties for liquid metals, and validated using existing data. Several new concepts were tested when applying the CFD software to the UPTF test cases: Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) were performed for the first time. This led to better agreement between predictions and data and reduced uncertainties when applying temperature boundary conditions. The meshes for the CHT simulation were also used for a coupled fluid-structure-thermal analysis which was another novelty. The results of the multi-physics analysis showed plausible results for the mechanical and thermal stresses. The workflow developed as part of the current project can be directly used for industrial nuclear reactor simulations. Finally, simulations for two-phase flows with and without interfacial mass transfer were performed. These showed good agreement with data. However, a persisting problem for the simulation of multi-phase flows are the long simulation times which make use for industrial applications difficult.

  6. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cells for combined heat and power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottrup Barfod, R.; Juel Jensen, K.; Holt, T.; Drejer Jensen, M.; Danoe, S. (TOFC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mikkelsen, L.; Lund Frandsen, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The project has focused on examining three aspects that are important to the commercialization of ceramic fuel cells. The three main topics are: - the life and durability of ceramic fuel cells - the design of scalable units - increasing the electrical power. The studies range widely - from fundamental materials studies of the components in a stack to analysis of the requirements from the system that affect the design and the electrical connection of individual cells. In previous designs the lifetime was limited by the corrosion of the metal plate that electrically and mechanically connects the individual fuel cells in a stack. In this project, studies of various commercial types of steel, however, show that the lifetime can be increased significantly by choosing the right type of steel and an optimum operating temperature. In the project a lifetime of the steel of about seven years was achieved, and the steel is both cheaper and stronger than that which has hitherto been used. Another important result from the project is a significant increase of the electrical power. Compared with results from a previous project, the electrical power for a stack with the same area, same operating temperature and the same cell voltage increased by 130 %. This is achieved by a new design of the connection between the individual cells, optimized cells and improved utilization of the cell area. (ln)

  8. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and

  9. HyPro: A Financial Tool for Simulating Hydrogen Infrastructure Development, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D. James, Peter O. Schmidt, Julie Perez

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI) project to study the build-out of hydrogen production facilities during the transition from gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The primary objectives of the project are to develop an enhanced understanding of hydrogen production issues during the transition period (out to 2050) and to develop recommendations for the DOE on areas of further study. These objectives are achieved by conducting economic and scenario analysis to predict how industry would provide the hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing capabilities necessary to satisfy increased hydrogen demand. The primary tool used for the analysis is a custom created MatLab simulation tool entitled HyPro (short for Hydrogen Production). This report describes the calculation methodology used in HyPro, the baseline assumptions, the results of the baseline analysis and several corollary studies. The appendices of this report included a complete listing of model assumptions (capital costs, efficiencies, feedstock prices, delivery distances, etc.) and a step-by-step manual on the specific operation of the HyPro program. This study was made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Atrial Model Development and Prototype Simulations: CRADA Final Report on Tasks 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Villongco, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lightstone, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this CRADA was to develop essential tools needed to simulate human atrial electrophysiology in 3-dimensions using an anatomical image-based anatomy and physiologically detailed human cellular model. The atria were modeled as anisotropic, representing the preferentially longitudinal electrical coupling between myocytes. Across the entire anatomy, cellular electrophysiology was heterogeneous, with left and right atrial myocytes defined differently. Left and right cell types for the “control” case of sinus rhythm (SR) was compared with remodeled electrophysiology and calcium cycling characteristics of chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF). The effects of Isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic agonist that represents the functional consequences of PKA phosphorylation of various ion channels and transporters, was also simulated in SR and cAF to represent atrial activity under physical or emotional stress. Results and findings from Tasks 3 & 4 are described. Tasks 3 and 4 are, respectively: Input parameters prepared for a Cardioid simulation; Report including recommendations for additional scenario development and post-processing analytic strategy.

  11. Future CIS Manufacturing Technology Development: Final Report, 8 July 1998--17 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. J.; Crisalle, O. D.; Li, S. S.; Holloway, P. H.

    2003-06-01

    The University of Florida served as the basis for educating 12 graduate students in the area of photovoltaics engineering and research with a focus on thin-film CIS manufacturing technologies. A critical assessment of the thermodynamic data and of the phase diagrams for the Cu-Se and In-Se binary systems were carried out. We investigated the use of two novel precursor structures that used stacked In-Se and Cu-Se binary layers instead of conventional elemental layers, followed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to produce CIS films. We investigated the evolution of electrical and microstructural properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Al thin films. An assessment of the thermodynamics of the pseudobinary Cu2Se-Ga2Se3 system was done by using available experimental data, as well as an empirical method for estimating interactions in semiconductor solid solutions. Optimization studies were conducted to characterize the RTP of binary bilayer precursors for CIS synthesis using a newly acquired AG Associates Heatpulse furnace. Progress was made on the calculation of the 500C isothermal section of the phase diagram of the ternary Cu-In-Se system. Pursuit of developing alternative buffer layers for Cd-free CIS-based solar cells using a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) process has resulted in specific recipes for deposition. A rigorous model has been derived to predict the metal mass fluxes produced by conical thermal effusion sources. A two-dimensional model of the heat transfer was developed to model the substrate temperature distribution in the UF PMEE Reactor that features a rotating platen/substrates and effusion sources. We have grown and characterized polycrystalline CIS epitaxial films on single-crystal GaAs substrates under conditions that enhance the influence of surface effects on the resulting films and their properties. Progress was made on the study of CIS and CGS single-crystal growth, along with accompanying morphological and compositional characterizations. We have

  12. Development of a central final repository management for the coordination of the waste for Schacht Konrad from public authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, Iris; Dominke-Bendix, Carola; Waldek, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The central final repository management is supposed to fulfill the following tasks: active collaboration of Konrad contract draft, signing of internal contracts and agreements, cooperation contract with GNS, cooperation with coordination authorities, inventory taking of wastes (existing inventory and prognosis) and interim storage capacities of public authorities, development of planning and management software, optimization of the final repository documentation, container management, logistics concept, long-term disposal planning and prognosis, planning and coordination of the annual waste amount, management and documentation of disposed waste allocation, coordination of transport schedules, consulting service for waste obligations (final repository requirements, product control, documentation).

  13. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high

  14. Develop improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.

    1998-12-04

    The overall objective was to develop commercially viable metal hydrides capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen for use with PEM fuel cells and hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (HICE) applications. Such alloys are expected to result in system capacities of greater than 2 wt.%, making metal hydride storage systems (MHSS`s) a practical means of supplying hydrogen for many consumer applications. ECD`s (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.) past work on sputtered thin films of transition metal-based alloys led to the commercialization of it`s nickel/metal hydride batteries, and similar work on thin film Mg-based alloys demonstrated potential to achieve very high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities approaching 2,500 Wh/Kg and 2,500 Wh/M{sup 3} respectively. Under this 2-year cost shared project with the DOE, the authors have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up the Mg-based hydrides from thin film to bulk production without substantial loss of storage capacity. ECD made progress in alloy development by means of compositional and process modification. Processes used include Mechanical Alloying, Melt spinning and novel Gas Phase Condensation. It was showed that the same composition when prepared by melt-spinning resulted in a more homogeneous material having a higher PCT plateau pressure as compared to mechanical alloying. It was also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg-Al-Zn results in much higher plateau pressures, which is an important step towards reducing the desorption temperature. While significant progress has been made during the past two years in alloy development and understanding the relationship between composition, structure, morphology, and processing parameters, additional R and D needs to be performed to achieve the goals of this work.

  15. Development of In Vitro Systems for Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) - Final Report for 1992 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B.V.

    2003-01-16

    Our project began on July 1, 1992, with the objective of developing systems that could be used in biotechnological approaches to switchgrass improvement. Within six months after initiation of the project, we had worked out protocols in which plants could be regenerated from callus cultures through both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Documentation for both modes of regeneration was provided in our progress reports and in publications. One thousand regenerated plants were established in the field during the first year. We found that Alamo (lowland type) was much more amenable to in vitro culture, and plants could be regenerated much more easily than from Cave-in-Rock (upland type). During the first three years of the project, we studied the influence of genotype, culture medium components, explant type, etc., on regeneration. As mentioned, we found that the lowland cultivars Alamo and Kanlow were much easier to regenerate than upland cultivars, such as Trailblazer, Blackwell, and Cave-in-Rock. For callus induction, we initially used mature caryopses, young leaf tissue, and portions of seedlings. We were successful in inducing callus and regenerating plants from all explants. Two other systems developed during the 4th to 6th year period of the project included multiple shoot formation initiated from germinated seedlings and regenerable suspension cultures. The latter were initiated from embryogenic calluses produced from in vitro developed inflorescences. An important factor for producing multiple shoots was the presence of thidiazuron in the medium. The shoots could be easily rooted and numerous plantlets produced. The last 3 to 4 years of the project focused on anther and microspore culture experiments to produce haploid plants and on genetic transformation. Although thousands of putative haploid plants were produced from a few anthers, they were very weak and difficult to keep alive. Chromosome counts revealed the gametic number in cells where it was

  16. Efficiency Improvement of Crystalline Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 January 2002 - 30 September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E. R.

    2007-11-01

    UC-Berkeley study of transition metal related defects in PV-grade mc-Si to understand their pathways into solar cells; chemical state/distribution; interaction with structural defects; defect engineering.

  17. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Bakiza Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural

  18. Chromatin Repressive Complexes in Stem Cells, Development, and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anne; Helin, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin environment is essential for the correct specification and preservation of cell identity through modulation and maintenance of transcription patterns. Many chromatin regulators are required for development, stem cell maintenance, and differentiation. Here, we review the roles...

  19. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Baard

    2003-03-01

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmental aspect superior to the traditional automobile using internal combustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuel cell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuel cell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board. However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently not feasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generated on-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol and gasoline. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a catalytic hydrogen generator for automotive applications using methanol as the hydrogen carrier. The first part of this work gives an introduction to the field of methanol reforming and the properties of a fuel cell based power system. Paper I reviews the catalytic materials and processes available for producing hydrogen from methanol. The second part of this thesis consists of an experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst composition, materials and process parameters on the activity and selectivity for the production of hydrogen from methanol. In Papers II-IV the influence of the support, carrier and operational parameters is studied. In Paper V an investigation of the catalytic properties is performed in an attempt to correlate material properties with performance of different catalysts. In the third part of the thesis an investigation is performed to elucidate whether it is possible to utilize oxidation of liquid methanol as a heat source for an automotive reformer. In the study which is presented in Paper VI a large series of catalytic materials are tested and we were able to minimize the noble metal content making the system more cost efficient. In the final part of this thesis the reformer prototype developed in the project is evaluated. The reformer which was constructed for serving a 5 k W{sub e} fuel cell had a high performance with near 100 % methanol conversion and CO

  20. Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Stewart, Lyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Morris, Maureen M; Armstrong, Lyn; Sanchez, Paula; Flannery, Liz

    2014-03-01

    It remains a grave concern that many nursing students within tertiary institutions continue to experience difficulties with achieving medication calculation competency. In addition, universities have a moral responsibility to prepare proficient clinicians for graduate practice. This requires risk management strategies to reduce adverse medication errors post registration. To identify strategies and potential predictors that may assist nurse academics to tailor their drug calculation teaching and assessment methods. This project builds on previous experience and explores students' perceptions of newly implemented interventions designed to increase confidence and competence in medication calculation. This mixed method study surveyed students (n=405) enrolled in their final semester of study at a large, metropolitan university in Sydney, Australia. Tailored, contextualised interventions included online practice quizzes, simulated medication calculation scenarios developed for clinical practice classes, contextualised 'pen and paper' tests, visually enhanced didactic remediation and 'hands-on' contextualised workshops. Surveys were administered to students to determine their perceptions of interventions and to identify whether these interventions assisted with calculation competence. Test scores were analysed using SPSS v. 20 for correlations between students' perceptions and actual performance. Qualitative open-ended survey questions were analysed manually and thematically. The study reinforced that nursing students preferred a 'hands-on,' contextualised approach to learning that was 'authentic' and aligned with clinical practice. Our interventions assisted with supporting students' learning and improvement of calculation confidence. Qualitative data provided further insight into students' awareness of their calculation errors and preferred learning styles. Some of the strongest predictors for numeracy skill performance included (1) being an international student, (2

  1. Formation of resonances with final state photons in two photon interactions, and development of calorimetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, R.

    1986-07-01

    In this thesis, resonances produced in two photon interactions were investigated with the TASSO detector at PETRA. The η ' and A 2 resonances were studied in a final state of charged pions and low energy photons. The couplings of these resonances to γγ were measured: Γ γγ (η ' (958)) 5.1±0.4(stat.)±0.65(syst.) Kev, Γ γγ (A 2 (1320)) 0.90±0.27(stat.)±0.16(syst.) Kev. A search for ι(1460) and η c (2980) was initiated. Upper limits on the γγ widths of these resonances times their branching ratio to the decay channel were obtained: Γ γγ (ι→γγ) x B(ι→ρ 0 γ) γγ (η c →γγ) x B(η c →η ' π + π - ) < 2.6 keV (95% C.L.). A proportional tubes electromagnetic calorimeter operating in the proportional mode was constructed. Tower readout was incorporated. The calorimeter gave an energy resolution of σ/E = 19%/√E. Large surface, thin Gap Chambers (TGC), were developed and constructed for the OPAL hadron pole-tip-calorimeter. The TGC operate in a high gain mode. They provide large signals for both pad and strip readout, without the need for amplification. To form a hadron calorimeter, ten chambers were interlaced with 8 cm thick iron slabs between them. An energy resolution of: σ/E = 105%/√E was obtained

  2. Impact of the safe drinking water act on energy development. Final issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymont, F.J.; Shore, R.; Goldberg, M.

    1977-11-01

    Energy development activities will be impacted by the Underground Injection Control Regulations that are formulated under Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The thrust of Part C of the Act is to protect groundwater that now is or in the future might be used for drinking water. A new draft of the regulations, on which this analysis is based, is currently being considered. These regulations will be either another set of proposed regulations or will be interim final which means they can be enforced immediately but EPA will still entertain comments on them and modify them if necessary. There are four possible situations in which the Underground Control Regulations would not apply. They are: If the aquifer in question can be left unprotected despite the fact that its solids level is less than 10,000 mg/1; if the aquifer is oil or mineral producing; if the aquifer is located at a depth that would made recovery of drinking water uneconomical; and if the aquifer is already contaminated. However, the individual states have to demonstrate this to the satisfaction of the EPA administrator. If none of the conditions holds, construction, monitoring operating and reporting requirements will be necessary to receive a permit. The economic impact of these requirements is uncertain but could involve significant economic and time expenditures. Permits do not have to be renewed and one permit can serve for a whole field of wells. However, the permit application requires a significant amount of information and will take a considerable amount of time and expense to fill out. Solution mining operations also will incur extra expenses establishing initial water quality profiles and maintaining monitoring wells

  3. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Final report, January 1, 1973-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.T.; Billen, D.

    1986-01-01

    These studies have focussed on agents which cause damage to DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty DNA replication or repair. The overall goal of this project has been to understand how environmental agents interact with the DNA of cells and how cells cope with any resulting damage. In particular we have been concerned with the nature of the repair systems involved in restoration of damaged DNA and the cellular responses to radiation or chemical damage

  4. The development of microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Karube, Isao [University of Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-02-01

    The production of electricity by biocatalytic fuel cells has been feasible for almost two decades and can produce electric power at a practical level. These fuel cells use immobilized microorganisms or enzymes as catalysts, and glucose as a fuel. A microfabricated enzyme battery has recently been made that is designed to function as a power supply for microsurgery robots or artificial organs. (author)

  5. A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobowale Oluwaseun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.

  6. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  7. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  8. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  9. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  10. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  11. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case simulating a pump trip

  12. Novel Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, Angus [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, Robert [Univesity of Toledo

    2018-04-15

    This program has explored a number of novel materials for contacts to CdTe solar cells in order to reduce the back contact Schottky barrier to zero and produce an ohmic contact. The project tested a wide range of potential contact materials including TiN, ZrN, CuInSe2:N, a-Si:H and alloys with C, and FeS2. Improved contacts were achieved with FeS2. As part of understanding the operation of the devices and controlling the deposition processes, a number of other important results were obtained. In the process of this project and following its conclusion it led to research that resulted in seven journal articles, nine conference publications, 13 talks presented at conferences, and training of eight graduate students. The seven journal articles were published in 2015, 2016, and 2017 and have been cited, as of March 2018, 52 times (one cited 19 times and two cited 11 times). We demonstrated high levels of doping of CIS with N but electrical activity of the resulting N was not high and the results were difficult to reproduce. Furthermore, even with high doping the contacts were not good. Annealing did not improve the contacts. A-Si:H was found to produce acceptable but unstable contacts, degrading even over a day or two, apparently due to H incorporation into the CdTe. Alloying with C did not improve the contacts or stability. The transition metal nitrides produced Schottky type contacts for all materials tested. While these contacts were found to be unsatisfactory, we investigated FeS2 and found this material to be effective and comparable to the best contacts currently available. The contacts were found to be chemically stable under heat treatment and preferable to Cu doped contacts. Thus, we demonstrated an improved contact material in the course of this project. In addition, we developed new ways of controlling the deposition of CdTe and other materials, demonstrated the nature of defects in CdTe, and studied the distribution of conductivity and carrier type in Cd

  13. FINAL REPORT - Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Donald [Hexagon Lincoln LLC, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2017-08-04

    $575/kg H2 delivered. [Based on product pricing in 1Q2017.] Emphasis was placed on configuration of larger capacity systems within the vehicle weights and dimensions allowed on federal and state highways in the United States and other countries. These activities resulted in the design and development of integrated tube trailer systems that have increased delivery capacities by 45%. The hydrogen delivery capacity of our largest system is 845 kg, exceeding the project’s 2015 target of 700 kg H2 delivered. Emerging technologies offering improvement of the safety systems used on the equipment were investigated, with particular focus on improving the reliability and cost of the emergency venting system for fire protection. Finally, investment in our materials laboratory improved detection and characterization of hydrogen-induced damage in polymer materials, supporting the development of operational protocols to avoid damage to pressure vessel liners and valve components.

  14. Multiscale mechanisms of cell migration during development: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Rebecca; Dyson, Louise; Prather, Katherine W; Morrison, Jason A; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Kulesa, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    Long-distance cell migration is an important feature of embryonic development, adult morphogenesis and cancer, yet the mechanisms that drive subpopulations of cells to distinct targets are poorly understood. Here, we use the embryonic neural crest (NC) in tandem with theoretical studies to evaluate model mechanisms of long-distance cell migration. We find that a simple chemotaxis model is insufficient to explain our experimental data. Instead, model simulations predict that NC cell migration requires leading cells to respond to long-range guidance signals and trailing cells to short-range cues in order to maintain a directed, multicellular stream. Experiments confirm differences in leading versus trailing NC cell subpopulations, manifested in unique cell orientation and gene expression patterns that respond to non-linear tissue growth of the migratory domain. Ablation experiments that delete the trailing NC cell subpopulation reveal that leading NC cells distribute all along the migratory pathway and develop a leading/trailing cellular orientation and gene expression profile that is predicted by model simulations. Transplantation experiments and model predictions that move trailing NC cells to the migratory front, or vice versa, reveal that cells adopt a gene expression profile and cell behaviors corresponding to the new position within the migratory stream. These results offer a mechanistic model in which leading cells create and respond to a cell-induced chemotactic gradient and transmit guidance information to trailing cells that use short-range signals to move in a directional manner.

  15. Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Bryan M. [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Bishop, Sean [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Gore, Colin [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Wang, Lei [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Correa, Luis [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Langdo, Thomas [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Deaconu, Stelu [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Pan, Keji [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States)

    2018-02-15

    In this project, we improved the power output and voltage efficiency of our intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) with a focus on ~600 °C operation. At these temperatures and with the increased power density (i.e., fewer cells for same power output), the stack cost should be greatly reduced while extending durability. Most SOFC stacks operate at temperatures greater than 800 °C. This can greatly increase the cost of the system (stacks and BOP) as well as maintenance costs since the most common degradation mechanisms are thermally driven. Our approach uses no platinum group metal (PGM) materials and the lower operating temperature allows use of simple stainless steel interconnects and commercial off-the-shelf gaskets in the stack. Furthermore, for combined heating and power (CHP) applications the stack exhaust still provides “high quality” waste heat that can be recovered and used in a chiller or boiler. The anticipated performance, durability, and resulting cost improvements (< $700/kWe) will also move us closer to reaching the full potential of this technology for distributed generation (DG) and residential/commercial CHP. This includes eventual extension to cleaner, more efficient portable generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and range extenders for transportation. The research added to the understanding of the area investigated by exploring various methods for increasing power density (Watts/square centimeter of active area in each cell) and increasing cell efficiency (increasing the open circuit voltage, or cell voltage with zero external electrical current). The results from this work demonstrated an optimized cell that had greater than 1 W/cm2 at 600 °C and greater than 1.6 W/cm2 at 650 °C. This was demonstrated in large format sizes using both 5 cm by 5 cm and 10 cm by 10 cm cells. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that high stability (no degradation over > 500 hours) can be achieved together with high performance in large

  16. Impaired B cell development in the absence of Krüppel-like factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thanh; Gatto, Dominique; Turner, Vivian; Funnell, Alister P W; Mak, Ka Sin; Norton, Laura J; Kaplan, Warren; Cowley, Mark J; Agenès, Fabien; Kirberg, Jörg; Brink, Robert; Pearson, Richard C M; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-11-15

    Krüppel-like factor 3 (Klf3) is a member of the Klf family of transcription factors. Klfs are widely expressed and have diverse roles in development and differentiation. In this study, we examine the function of Klf3 in B cell development by studying B lymphopoiesis in a Klf3 knockout mouse model. We show that B cell differentiation is significantly impaired in the bone marrow, spleen, and peritoneal cavity of Klf3 null mice and confirm that the defects are cell autonomous. In the bone marrow, there is a reduction in immature B cells, whereas recirculating mature cells are noticeably increased. Immunohistology of the spleen reveals a poorly structured marginal zone (MZ) that may in part be caused by deregulation of adhesion molecules on MZ B cells. In the peritoneal cavity, there are significant defects in B1 B cell development. We also report that the loss of Klf3 in MZ B cells is associated with reduced BCR signaling strength and an impaired ability to respond to LPS stimulation. Finally, we show increased expression of a number of Klf genes in Klf3 null B cells, suggesting that a Klf regulatory network may exist in B cells.

  17. T25 ITER ECH window development 110 GHz ECH distributed window development. Final report, May 1, 1994 - December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Moeller, C.P.; Grunloh, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is one of the major candidates for Heating and Current Drive on ITER. ECH is extremely attractive from a reactor engineering point of view, offering compact launch structures, high injected power density, and a simple interface with the shield/blanket. Economic deployment of ECH for ITER requires MW unit microwave sources (gyrotrons). The present technology limitation is the availability of suitable low loss output windows. These are needed for the torus as well as the tube. The torus window, in particular, is a demanding application as it also serves as a tritium barrier. Several distinct window concepts are under development by the various Parties. This report summarizes the efforts to make and test a open-quotes distributedclose quotes window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 110 GHz. A companion report (Final Report on Task 245+) describes the efforts to make a distributed window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 170 GHz, the main frequency of interest to ITER. General Atomics (GA) fabricated a 4 in. x 4 in. 110 GHz distributed window which was delivered in September 1995 to Communications and Power Industries (CPI). Hot tests at CPI confirmed the power handling capability of the window. Tests were conducted with a reduced beam size at 200 kW with 0.7 s pulses without any arcing or excessive window temperatures. The power density and pulse length were equivalent to that in a full size 1.2 MW CW beam with a peak-to-average power ratio of 2.7. This window was assembled using a gold braze material to bond the sapphire strips to the niobium frame. The braze was successful except for small leaks at two locations, and re-braze efforts were unsuccessful

  18. Development of materials and processes for low-cost production of high-temperature bipolar plates for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Final report; Material- und Verfahrensentwicklung fuer eine kostenguenstige Herstellung von Hochtemperatur-Bipolarplatten zum Einsatz in Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzellen (PEM-BZ). Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In the context of the project 'Verfahren zur spritzgiesstechnischen Herstellung von HT-BPP' (processes for injection moulding of high-temperature fuel cells), bipolar plates for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEM-FC) were produced by an injection moulding process suited for mass production. This implied extensive material analyses of fillers and matrix materials. A specific compound for application in fuel cells and suited for mass production was produced on this basis. (orig./AKB)

  19. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  20. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M. St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G 2 phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed. (author)

  1. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis

  2. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  3. Cytoview: Development of a cell modelling framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is an important aspect of cell modelling. ... 1Supercomputer Education and Research Centreand 2Bioinformatics Centre, Indian Institute ... Important aspects in each panel are listed. ... subsumption relationship, in which the child term is a more.

  4. Notochord Cells in Intervertebral Disc Development and Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Matthew R.; Séguin, Cheryle A.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is a complex structure responsible for flexibility, multi-axial motion, and load transmission throughout the spine. Importantly, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is thought to be an initiating factor for back pain. Due to a lack of understanding of the pathways that govern disc degeneration, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments to delay or prevent degenerative disc disease. This review presents an overview of our current understanding of the developmental processes that regulate intervertebral disc formation, with particular emphasis on the role of the notochord and notochord-derived cells in disc homeostasis and how their loss can result in degeneration. We then describe the role of small animal models in understanding the development of the disc and their use to interrogate disc degeneration and associated pathologies. Finally, we highlight essential development pathways that are associated with disc degeneration and/or implicated in the reparative response of the tissue that might serve as targets for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27252900

  5. Notochord Cells in Intervertebral Disc Development and Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. McCann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intervertebral disc is a complex structure responsible for flexibility, multi-axial motion, and load transmission throughout the spine. Importantly, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is thought to be an initiating factor for back pain. Due to a lack of understanding of the pathways that govern disc degeneration, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments to delay or prevent degenerative disc disease. This review presents an overview of our current understanding of the developmental processes that regulate intervertebral disc formation, with particular emphasis on the role of the notochord and notochord-derived cells in disc homeostasis and how their loss can result in degeneration. We then describe the role of small animal models in understanding the development of the disc and their use to interrogate disc degeneration and associated pathologies. Finally, we highlight essential development pathways that are associated with disc degeneration and/or implicated in the reparative response of the tissue that might serve as targets for future therapeutic approaches.

  6. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-29

    , and confidence, thus removing some current blocks to feasibility and significantly increasing access to potential geothermal sites. During the Phase 1 effort summarized in this final report, the ATA Team modeled and built two TRL 3 proof-of-concept test units for two competing rotational sensor technologies. The two competing technologies were based on ATA's angular rate and angular displacement measurement technologies; Angular rate: ATA's Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor (Seismic MHD); and Angular displacement: ATA's Low Frequency Improved Torsional Seismometer (LFITS). In order to down-select between these two technologies and formulate a go / no go decision, the ATA Team analyzed and traded scientific performance requirements and market constraints against sensor characteristics and components, acquiring field data where possible to validate the approach and publishing results from these studies of rotational technology capability. Based on the results of Phase 1, the ATA Team finds that the Seismic MHD (SMHD) technology is the best choice for enabling rotational seismometry and significant technical potential exists for micro-seismic monitoring using a downhole 7-DOF device based on the SMHD. Recent technical papers and field data confirm the potential of rotational sensing for seismic mapping, increasing confidence that cost-reduction benefits are achievable for EGS. However, the market for geothermal rotational sensing is small and undeveloped. As a result, this report recommends modifying the Phase 2 plan to focus on prototype development aimed at partnering with early adopters within the geothermal industry and the scientific research community. The highest public benefit will come from development and deployment of a science-grade SMHD rotational seismometer engineered for geothermal downhole conditions and an integrated test tool for downhole measurements at active geothermal test sites.

  7. Development of a standardised cup anemometer suited to wind energy applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Gustavsson, J.; Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Westermann, D. [German Wind Energy Inst., Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Errors associated with the measurements and interpretation of the measured wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well calibrated anemometers of different types often show significant and not acceptable differences. The objective were to determine the optimum design for a cup anemometer which should be free from the design faults associated with all of the instruments currently commercially available. The objective were also to prepare a classification system for cup anemometers which will allow users of anemometry in the wind energy field to rank and select anemometers suited to specific required applications. The extensive experiments including tests in wind tunnels, of more than 500 anemometer configurations, fields tests and tests in laboratories together with the assessment and modelling work have helped to build up a thorough knowledge of the importance of different design parameters in terms of various behavioural effects. Influenced by trends from the international standardisation work, an early decision was made to focus on a vector, 3D, (angle-insensitive anemometer) cup-anemometer and to focus on conical cups since their sensitivity to vertical velocity components appeared to be less sensitive to the wind speed. The key measures taken to develop the new design consisted of an appropriate selection of the detailed design of the cup geometry's and mounting the cups at appropriate radius on a slender symmetric body. The development finally ended with an anemometer that gave a very good flat response within 1 % over the range from -45 deg to +35 deg and had a good linear calibration curve. Four prototypes of the anemometer optimised for flat response were produced. The flat response was also confirmed by field tests over the range {+-}20 deg. A patent application of the new anemometer was filed on the 6th of October 2000. By the time the project was initiated there was a

  8. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  9. Optimised fuel cell operation management. Final report; Optimiertes Betriebsmanagement von Brennstoffzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-05

    Investigations were carried out on two fuel cell systems of the type ONSI PC 25C (large fuel cells) and three fuel cell heaters of the type HXS 1000 PREMIERE by Sulzer HEXIS (small fuel cells) for long periods of time and in different modes of operation. Information was obtained on efficiencies and performance, pollutant emissions, degradation and availability. The status of the project is reported and compared with the goals stated initially. (orig.) [German] Das Hauptziel des Projektes bestand darin, Kriterien fuer den optimalen Betrieb (hohe Verfuegbarkeit, geringe Anzahl von Abschaltungen, hohe Energienutzung etc.) von Brennstoffzellen im Zusammenspiel mit den peripheren Komponenten der Gebaeudetechnik zu ermitteln. Hierzu wurden Untersuchungen an zwei Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen vom Typ ONSI PC 25C (grosse BZ) und an drei Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeraeten HXS 1000 PREMIERE von Sulzer HEXIS (kleine BZ) ueber laengere Zeitraeume und bei weitestgehend unterschiedlichen Betriebsweisen durchgefuehrt. In Auswertung dieser Messkomplexe wurden Aussagen zum Betriebsverhalten der Brennstoffzellen, wie z.B. zu Wirk- und Nutzungsgraden, Schadstoffemissionen, Verlauf der Degradation sowie zur Verfuegbarkeit getroffen. Im vorliegenden Bericht wird der erreichte Sachstand detailliert dargestellt und mit den Zielsetzungen des FuE-Antrages verglichen. (orig.)

  10. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  11. Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter M. Ray

    2000-04-01

    The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).

  12. Microglia and Beyond: Innate Immune Cells As Regulators of Brain Development and Behavioral Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Lenz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life. We also summarize the effects of early life perturbations on microglia function in the developing brain, the role that biological sex plays in microglia function, and the potential role that microglia may play in developmental brain disorders. Finally, given how new the field of developmental neuroimmunology is, we highlight what has yet to be learned about how innate immune cells shape the development of brain and behavior.

  13. Microglia and Beyond: Innate Immune Cells As Regulators of Brain Development and Behavioral Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Kathryn M; Nelson, Lars H

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life. We also summarize the effects of early life perturbations on microglia function in the developing brain, the role that biological sex plays in microglia function, and the potential role that microglia may play in developmental brain disorders. Finally, given how new the field of developmental neuroimmunology is, we highlight what has yet to be learned about how innate immune cells shape the development of brain and behavior.

  14. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  15. CD44-positive cells are candidates for astrocyte precursor cells in developing mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Na; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-03-01

    Neural stem cells are generally considered to be committed to becoming precursor cells before terminally differentiating into either neurons or glial cells during neural development. Neuronal and oligodendrocyte precursor cells have been identified in several areas in the murine central nervous system. The presence of astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) is not so well understood. The present study provides several lines of evidence that CD44-positive cells are APCs in the early postnatal mouse cerebellum. In developing mouse cerebellum, CD44-positive cells, mostly located in the white matter, were positive for the markers of the astrocyte lineage, but negative for the markers of mature astrocytes. CD44-positive cells were purified from postnatal cerebellum by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and characterized in vitro. In the absence of any signaling molecule, many cells died by apoptosis. The surviving cells gradually expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for mature astrocytes, indicating that differentiation into mature astrocytes is the default program for these cells. The cells produced no neurospheres nor neurons nor oligodendrocytes under any condition examined, indicating these cells are not neural stem cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor greatly promoted astrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive cells, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) did not. Fibroblast growth factor-2 was a potent mitogen for these cells, but was insufficient for survival. BMP4 inhibited activation of caspase-3 and greatly promoted survival, suggesting a novel role for BMP4 in the control of development of astrocytes in cerebellum. We isolated and characterized only CD44 strongly positive large cells and discarded small and/or CD44 weakly positive cells in this study. Further studies are necessary to characterize these cells to help determine whether CD44 is a selective and specific marker for APCs in the developing mouse cerebellum. In conclusion, we succeeded in

  16. Development and Trial of a Two Year Program of String Instruction. Appendix F, Music. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Music.

    This appendix contains music for the violin, viola, and cello, as well as rhythm games. The three parts of the appendix are: I. Tunes for the String Player, II. Our First Exercises, and III. Sight Reading. See TE 499 832 for the final report proper. (DB)

  17. A drug target that stimulates development of healthy stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have overcome a major impediment to the development of effective stem cell therapies by studying mice that lack CD47, a protein found on the surface of both healthy and cancer cells. They discovered that cells obtained from the lungs of CD47-de

  18. Development of high efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, A.; Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Schmidt, D. N.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1984-01-01

    Web base material is being improved with a goal toward obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon was investigated, techniques were developed to reduce carrier recombination in the web, and web cells were fabricated using effective surface passivation. The effect of stress on web cell performance was also investigated.

  19. Hydrogen production from wastes. State-of-the-art and development potential. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megret, O.; Hubert, L.; Calbry, M.; Trably, E.; Carrere, H.; Garcia-Bernet, D.; Bernet, N.

    2015-09-01

    show promising results although economic profitability on a large scale is not yet evaluable. By considering the whole hydrogen market (presented at the beginning of the study), it appears inappropriate to consider that these technologies can compete on a large scale with the traditional processes of production of hydrogen. Indeed, the traditional processes are currently strongly competitive and are inserted in a total diagram of production - distribution - consumption, balanced and controlled by only few powerful gas actors. Moreover, the economic preliminary studies carried out show that the competitiveness of such a sector, with respect to the classical processes like the steam reforming or electrolysis, seems difficult to reach without energy optimization of the processes. However, a cost-distances analysis between classical producer classical and consumer highlights advantageous areas for competitiveness achievement. Microbial electrolysis cells appear then as a promising track because they enable to almost completely get rid of the purity issues that the other processes meet. For this reason, it constitutes a strong track of development which will get even more interesting as the cost of electricity increases (impacting negatively the cost of classical alkaline electrolysis). Availability of wind mills, photovoltaic, etc. power plants can punctually generate negative electricity costs and thus delay the development of the microbial electrolysis cell. However, the increase in the electrolysis output by these micro-organisms can be very attractive within the framework of an electricity market in rise on average. Also, the resource 'biogas' being available on existing units or project, it is relevant to consider the coupling of the processes of H 2 production and valorization of the residues in CH 4 starting from lignocellulosic substrates to reduce the environmental impacts of production of renewable energy. This is valid at the same time if the objective

  20. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  1. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  2. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  3. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horsepower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability

  4. The biochemistry of hematopoietic stem cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kaimakis (Polynikis); M. Crisan (Mihaela); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The cornerstone of the adult hematopoietic system and clinical treatments for blood-related disease is the cohort of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that is harbored in the adult bone marrow microenvironment. Interestingly, this cohort of HSCs is generated only during a short

  5. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA's hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R ampersand D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required

  6. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  7. Continued development of modeling tools and theory for rf heating. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.

    1998-01-01

    The work performed during the grant has been reported long before this date, specifically in: (1) the grant's annual performance report for 1991, MRC/WDC-R-277; (2) the published AIP Conference Proceedings number-sign 244, Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Charleston, SC 1991, ''Evaluation of Wave Dispersion, Mode-Conversion, and Damping for ECRH with Exact Relativistic Corrections,'' by D.N. Smithe and P.L. Colestock; and (3) an unpublished paper entitled ''Temperature Anisotropy and Rotation Upgrades to the ICRF Modules in SNAP and TRANSP'', presented at the 1992 ICRF Modeling and Theory Workshop, at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This final report contains copies of number (1). The specifics of the grant's final months' activities, which to the authors recollection have never been reported to the DOE, are as follows. The original grant, which was to terminate August 15, 1991, was extended without additional funds to October 31, 1992. The primary reason for the extension was to permit attendance at the 1992 ICRF Modeling and Theory Workshop at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), which was finally held August 17--18, 1992, after having been rescheduled several times during the summer of 1992. The body of this report contains copies of the 1991 annual report, which gives detailed discussion of the work accomplished

  8. The development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda J.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Narvaez del Pilar, Odemaris; Vila-Ellis, Lisandra; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Evans, Scott E.; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Chen, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover >95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal development is required for alveolar angiogenesis. Notably, a majority of AT1 cells proliferate upon ectopic SOX2 expression and undergo stage-dependent cell fate reprogramming. These results provide evidence that AT1 cells have both structural and signaling roles in alveolar maturation and can exit their terminally differentiated non-proliferative state. Our findings suggest that AT1 cells might be a new target in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases associated with premature birth. PMID:26586225

  9. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut

    in the regulatory regions of targetgenes. RA has been reported to play a direct role in regulating multiple aspects of peripheralT cell responses1, but whether endogenous RA signalling occurs in developingthymocytes and the potential impact of such signals in regulating T cell developmentremains unclear. To address......RARα. This blocks RA signalling in developing thymocytes from the DN3/4 stageonwards and thus allows us to study the role of RA in T cell development...

  11. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  12. Advanced fuel cell development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are being developed in the United States to complement and/or supplant phosphoric acid cells for commercial and utility use. This paper described the two technologies and the programs for their development

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  14. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornforth, Michael N. [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  15. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'

  16. Development of integrated superconducting devices for signal preprocessing. Final report; Entwicklung supraleitender Bausteine der Signalvorverarbeitung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, M.; Koch, R.; Neuhaus, M.; Scherer, T.; Jutzi, W.

    1998-02-01

    SPICE and CADENCE based tools for designing, simulating and optimizing SFQ and RSFQ circuits have been developed as well as a standard cell library corresponding to the fabrication technology established at the IEGI. A 12 bit flux shuttle shift register using Nb/Al Josephson junctions with a new write and readout gate has been fabricated and tested successfully; the power dissipation is 9 nW/bit/GHz. A pseudo random pulse generator was developed correspondingly. Simulations of RSFQ toggle flipflops during a large number of clock cycles demonstrated that the digital performance of counters is limited to clock frequencies below 100 GHz by dynamic effects, especially of parasitic inductances. Therefore dc measurements based on the voltage-frequency Josephson relationship must be followed by real time measurements of single SFQ word pulses. A four stage Nb based RSFQ counter in a coplanar waveguide test jig was tested up to a frequency of 2 GHz, limited by the available 32 bit pattern generator and the bandwith of the sampling oscilloscope, yielding bit error rates of about 10{sup -12}. Using YBCO technology, a 4 bit SFQ shift register (T=40 K) as well as miniaturized coplanar microwave devices for satellite and communication applications at 10 GHz (T=77 K) have been designed and fabricated. A 4 bit instantaneous real time frequency meter (IFM) and a microwave filter with a 3-dB bandwidth of only 1.8% have been mounted on the cold head of a split-cycle Stirling cooler (AEG, 1.5 W rate at 80 K) and tested successfully. Hybrid devices, e.g. amplifiers and oscillators, combining active semiconductor components and low loss coplanar YBCO transmission lines operated at 77 K seem very promising. (orig.) [Deutsch] Werkzeuge der Auslegung, Simulation und Optimierung von SFQ- und RSFQ-Schaltungen auf der Basis von SPICE und CADENCE wurden am IEGI entwickelt und eingesetzt. Eine auf die Technologien des Instituts zugeschnittene Bibliothek von Zellen ist vorhanden. Mit der

  17. Radiomimetic effect of cisplatin on cucumber root development: the relationship between cell division and cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrovsky, J. G. [Division of Experimental Biology, Center for Biological Research (CIB), PO Box 128, La Paz, BCS 23000 (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    Cisplatin [DDP, cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II)], a strong cytostatic and antineoplastic agent, was tested on seedlings of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. for its general effect on root development and its particular effects on root cell division and cell growth. DDP was characterized as a radiomimetic compound since both DDP (1·3 × 10{sup -5} M) and γ-irradiation (2·5-10 kGy) drastically and irreversibly stopped development of embryonic lateral root primordia (LRPs) in the radicle by inhibiting both mitotic activity and cell growth. In 20% of the LRPs of DDP-treated roots, cells did not divide at all. Dividing cells completed no more than two cell cycles. These effects were specific because when DDP was available to the roots only at the onset of cell division, cell proliferation and cell growth were similar to that produced by constant incubation. Neither DDP nor γ-irradiation affected non-meristematic cell elongation. It was concluded that cell growth of meristematic cells is closely related to cell division. However, non-meristematic cell growth is independent of DNA damage. This suggests DDP as a tool to reveal these autonomous processes in plants development and to detect tissue compartments in mature plant embryos which contain potentially non-meristematic cells. (author)

  18. Peroxidase Biocathodes for a Biofuel Cell Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Celso; Shipovskov, Stepan; Ferapontova, Elena

    at 1.5 V for 6 days; the maximum power density of the cell was 98 W cm-2 at 0.6 V and pH 6. When coupled to the H2O2-producing glucose oxidizing enzymes (glucose oxidase or pyranose oxidase), the HRP-biocathode could function in the presence of glucose with no essential loss in I - V characteristics...

  19. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  20. A development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hee Chun; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwy Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Kim, Ho Ki; Kim, Young Sik; Mun, Sung In; Eom, Sung Wuk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cell which was consisted of ceramics has high power density and is very simple in shape. The project named A development of SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) technology is to develop the unit cell fabrication processing and to evaluate the unit cell of solid oxide full cell. In this project, a manufacturing process of cathode by citrate method and polymeric precursor methods were established. By using tape casting method, high density thin electrolyte was manufactured and has high performance. Unit cell composed with La{sub 17}Sr{sub 13}Mn{sub 3} as cathode, 8YSZ electrolyte and 50% NiYSZ anode had a performance of O.85 W/cm{sup 2} and recorded 510 hours operation time. On the basis of these results. 100 cm{sup 2} class unit cell will be fabricated and tests in next program (author). 59 refs., 120 figs.

  1. A development of solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hee Chun; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwy Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Kim, Ho Ki; Kim, Young Sik; Mun, Sung In; Eom, Sung Wuk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cell which was consisted of ceramics has high power density and is very simple in shape. The project named A development of SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) technology is to develop the unit cell fabrication processing and to evaluate the unit cell of solid oxide full cell. In this project, a manufacturing process of cathode by citrate method and polymeric precursor methods were established. By using tape casting method, high density thin electrolyte was manufactured and has high performance. Unit cell composed with La{sub 17}Sr{sub 13}Mn{sub 3} as cathode, 8YSZ electrolyte and 50% NiYSZ anode had a performance of O.85 W/cm{sup 2} and recorded 510 hours operation time. On the basis of these results. 100 cm{sup 2} class unit cell will be fabricated and tests in next program (author). 59 refs., 120 figs.

  2. Fast Response, Load-Matching Hybrid Fuel Cell: Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. S.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Geist, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    Hybrid DER technologies interconnected with the grid can provide improved performance capabilities compared to a single power source, and, add value, when matched to appropriate applications. For example, in a typical residence, the interconnected hybrid system could provide power during a utility outage, and also could compensate for voltage sags in the utility service. Such a hybrid system would then function as a premium power provider and eliminate the potential need for an uninterruptible power supply. In this research project, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is combined with an asymmetrical ultracapacitor to provide robust power response to changes in system loading. This project also considers the potential of hybrid DER technologies to improve overall power system compatibility and performance. This report includes base year accomplishments of a proposed 3-year-option project.

  3. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  4. Final Report - Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagat [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) technology’s potential to enable a commercially viable high energy density is the key to a lower $/Wh, thereby a low cost battery. The design of a LIB with high energy, high power, safety and long life is a challenge that requires cell design from the ground up and synergy between all components. 3M Company (3M), the Recipient, led by its Principal Investigator, Jagat Singh, pursued this challenging task of a LIB by ‘teaming’ key commercial businesses [General Motors (GM), Umicore and Iontensity] and labs [Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL)]. The technology from each team member was complimentary and a close working relationship spanning the value chain drove productivity.The completion of this project is a significant step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles, making America less dependent on imported oil.

  5. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribatti, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.ribatti@uniba.it

    2016-03-15

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34{sup +}/CD117{sup +}/CD13{sup +}multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  6. Development of molten carbonate fuel cells for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The broad and comprehensive program included elements of system definition, cell and system modeling, cell component development, cell testing in pure and contaminated environments, and the first stages of technology scale up. Single cells, with active areas of 45 sq cm and 582 sq cm, were operated at 650 C and improved to state of the art levels through the development of cell design concepts and improved electrolyte and electrode components. Performance was shown to degrade by the presence of fuel contaminants, such as sulfur and chlorine, and due to changes in electrode structure. Using conventional hot press fabrication techniques, electrolyte structures up to 20" x 20" were fabricated. Promising approaches were developed for nonhot pressed electrolyte structure fabrication and a promising electrolyte matrix material was identified. This program formed the basis for a long range effort to realize the benefits of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants.

  7. Prediction of linear B-cell epitopes of hepatitis C virus for vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background High genetic heterogeneity in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major challenge of the development of an effective vaccine. Existing studies for developing HCV vaccines have mainly focused on T-cell immune response. However, identification of linear B-cell epitopes that can stimulate B-cell response is one of the major tasks of peptide-based vaccine development. Owing to the variability in B-cell epitope length, the prediction of B-cell epitopes is much more complex than that of T-cell epitopes. Furthermore, the motifs of linear B-cell epitopes in different pathogens are quite different (e. g. HCV and hepatitis B virus). To cope with this challenge, this work aims to propose an HCV-customized sequence-based prediction method to identify B-cell epitopes of HCV. Results This work establishes an experimentally verified dataset comprising the B-cell response of HCV dataset consisting of 774 linear B-cell epitopes and 774 non B-cell epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database. An interpretable rule mining system of B-cell epitopes (IRMS-BE) is proposed to select informative physicochemical properties (PCPs) and then extracts several if-then rule-based knowledge for identifying B-cell epitopes. A web server Bcell-HCV was implemented using an SVM with the 34 informative PCPs, which achieved a training accuracy of 79.7% and test accuracy of 70.7% better than the SVM-based methods for identifying B-cell epitopes of HCV and the two general-purpose methods. This work performs advanced analysis of the 34 informative properties, and the results indicate that the most effective property is the alpha-helix structure of epitopes, which influences the connection between host cells and the E2 proteins of HCV. Furthermore, 12 interpretable rules are acquired from top-five PCPs and achieve a sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 71.3%. Finally, a conserved promising vaccine candidate, PDREMVLYQE, is identified for inclusion in a vaccine against HCV. Conclusions This work

  8. Chemical dissection of the cell cycle: probes for cell biology and anti-cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, S; Lo, Y C; Huang, D; Zangle, T A; Gholkar, A A; Robert, L; Homet, B; Ribas, A; Summers, M K; Teitell, M A; Damoiseaux, R; Torres, J Z

    2014-10-16

    Cancer cell proliferation relies on the ability of cancer cells to grow, transition through the cell cycle, and divide. To identify novel chemical probes for dissecting the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression and cell division, and for developing new anti-cancer therapeutics, we developed and performed a novel cancer cell-based high-throughput chemical screen for cell cycle modulators. This approach identified novel G1, S, G2, and M-phase specific inhibitors with drug-like properties and diverse chemotypes likely targeting a broad array of processes. We further characterized the M-phase inhibitors and highlight the most potent M-phase inhibitor MI-181, which targets tubulin, inhibits tubulin polymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, arrests cells in mitosis, and triggers a fast apoptotic cell death. Importantly, MI-181 has broad anti-cancer activity, especially against BRAF(V600E) melanomas.

  9. Cell cycle in egg cell and its progression during zygotic development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawa, Yumiko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Rice egg is arrested at G1 phase probably by OsKRP2. After fusion with sperm, karyogamy, OsWEE1-mediated parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, zygote progresses cell cycle to produce two-celled embryo. In angiosperms, female and male gametes exist in gametophytes after the complementation of meiosis and the progression of nuclear/cell division of the haploid cell. Within the embryo sac, the egg cell is specially differentiated for fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis, and cellular programs for embryonic development, such as restarting the cell cycle and de novo gene expression, are halted. There is only limited knowledge about how the cell cycle in egg cells restarts toward zygotic division, although the conversion of the cell cycle from a quiescent and arrested state to an active state is the most evident transition of cell status from egg cell to zygote. This is partly due to the difficulty in direct access and analysis of egg cells, zygotes and early embryos, which are deeply embedded in ovaries. In this study, precise relative DNA amounts in the nuclei of egg cells, developing zygotes and cells of early embryos were measured, and the cell cycle of a rice egg cell was estimated as the G1 phase with a 1C DNA level. In addition, increases in DNA content in zygote nuclei via karyogamy and DNA replication were also detectable according to progression of the cell cycle. In addition, expression profiles for cell cycle-related genes in egg cells and zygotes were also addressed, and it was suggested that OsKRP2 and OsWEE1 function in the inhibition of cell cycle progression in egg cells and in checkpoint of parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, respectively.

  10. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  11. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  12. Developing an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architecture for the KIPDA region : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the development of a regional Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture for the five-county urban area under the auspices of the Kentuckiana Regional Planning and Development Agency (KIPDA). The architecture developm...

  13. Graetzel solar cell modules for outdoor applications, phase 2. Final report; Graetzel-solcellsmoduler foer utomhusapplikationer, fas 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Henrik [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The project 'Monolithic Dye PV Modules for Outdoor Applications' has been performed at IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation in Moelndal over the period June 2003 to December 2004. The possibility of the dye-sensitised solar cell technology compared to other PV technologies is to realise PV products with low cost/W{sub peak} in combination with a low investment cost for setting up a production unit. The latter is important since it opens for production by smaller companies and reduces the risk related to commercialisation. The technical efforts of the project have resulted in monolithic dye PV cells with efficiencies up to 7 %. The module preparation has been scaled up to module sizes of 200 cm{sup 2} using industrial manufacturing methods. These devices will be further developed in 2005 in the project 'Flexible Solar Cells'.

  14. DEVELOPING FINAL COURSE MONOGRAPHS USING A TEAM-BASED LEARNING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Mari Hartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experience with the Team-Based Learning (TBL methodology in courses designed to support the planning and execution of final course monographs. It contains both professors’ and students’ perceptions, through observation and assessment. A qualitative approach using observation techniques and desk research was used in conjunction with a quantitative approach based on a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 49 students from a higher education institution, 27 of them in a Communication Course and the remaining 22 in a Business Administration course. Qualitative data analysis was performed through simple categorization with back-defined categories, while the quantitative data analysis employed descriptive statistics and cluster analysis using Minitab 17.1 software. The main findings include the identification of: three student profiles (designated as traditional, collaborative and practical; a preference for guidance and feedback from the professor rather than other students; and a need for a professor-led closing discussion when applying the TBL method. As regards the main benefits to students, they recognized that discussion in groups allowed them to realize how much they really know about the subject studied. Finally, most students seemed to like the TBL approach.

  15. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Condition Based Maintenance Program for Geothermal Power Plants; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Miller; Jim Eddy; Murray Grande; Shawn Bratt; Manuchehr Shirmohamadi

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of the RCM team, identifying plant assets and developing an asset hierarchy, the development of sample Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEAs), identifying and prioritizing plant systems and components for RCM analysis, and identifying RCM/CBM software/hardware vendors. It also includes the Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) for all Class I Systems, Maintenance Task Assignments, use of Conditioned Based Maintenance (CBM) Tools and Displays of the RCM software System Development to date

  17. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate methods of recycling of water and nutrients for algal biofuels production. Recycling was accomplished both internal to the system and, in a broader sense, through import and reuse of municipal wastewater. Such an integrated system with wastewater input had not been demonstrated previously, and the performance was unknown, particularly in terms of influence of recycling on algal productivity and the practical extent of nutrient recovery from biomass residuals. Through long-term laboratory and pilot research, the project resulted in the following: 1. Bench-scale pretreatment of algal biomass did not sufficiently increase methane yield of nutrient solubilization during anaerobic digestion to warrant incorporation of pre-treatment into the pilot plant. The trial pretreatments were high-pressure orifice homogenization, sonication, and two types of heat treatment. 2. Solubilization of biomass particulate nutrients by lab anaerobic digesters ranged from 20% to nearly 60% for N and 40-65% for P. Subsequent aerobic degradation of the anaerobically digested biomass simulated raceways receiving whole digestate and resulted in an additional 20-55% N solubilization and additional 20% P solubilization. 3. Comparisons of laboratory and pilot digesters showed that laboratory units were reasonable proxies for pilot-scale. 4. Pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were designed, installed, and operated to digest algal biomass. Nutrient re-solubilization by the digesters was monitored and whole digestate was successfully used as a fertilizer in pilot algae raceways. 5. Unheated, unmixed digesters achieved greater methane yield and nutrient solubilization than heated, mixed digesters, presumably due to longer the solids residence times in unmixed digesters. The unmixed, unheated pilot digesters yielded 0.16 LCH4/g volatile solids (VS) introduced with 0.15 g VS/L-d organic loading and 16oC average temperature. A

  18. Final Report on the Development of the Long Beach Fire Department Company Officer Orientation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupe, Marvin L.; And Others

    The Long Beach Fire Department (California), developed a program to foster and improve the development of future fire department managers who are promoted from within the department. A 10-day orientation program was developed. The competency-based program featured a mix of management-leadership training (the nature of leadership, personnel…

  19. Understanding and Managing Staff Development in an Urban School System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip; And Others

    A study is reported that examined the way staff development functions in schools, the effects of staff development, and the interaction between staff development and other activities and conditions in school systems. The study took place in a large urban school district (in the Southeast) that is heavily committed to and involved in staff…

  20. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  1. In Vitro Modeling of Human Germ Cell Development Using Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Due to differences across species, the mechanisms of cell fate decisions determined in mice cannot be readily extrapolated to humans. In this study, we developed a feeder- and xeno-free culture protocol that efficiently induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into PLZF+/GPR125+/CD90+ spermatogonium-like cells (SLCs. These SLCs were enriched with key genes in germ cell development such as MVH, DAZL, GFRα1, NANOS3, and DMRT1. In addition, a small fraction of SLCs went through meiosis in vitro to develop into haploid cells. We further demonstrated that this chemically defined induction protocol faithfully recapitulated the features of compromised germ cell development of PSCs with NANOS3 deficiency or iPSC lines established from patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. Taken together, we established a powerful experimental platform to investigate human germ cell development and pathology related to male infertility. : In this article, Wang and colleagues established a feeder- and xeno-free system to robustly induce human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs into spermatogonia-like cells. This chemically defined induction protocol faithfully recapitulated the features of compromised germ cell development of PSCs with NANOS3 deficiency or iPSC lines established from patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. Keywords: pluripotent stem cells, spermatogonia, infertility, non-obstructive azoospermia

  2. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-10-18

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.

  3. Final Report: Simulation Tools for Parallel Microwave Particle in Cell Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of high-power rf fields and the subsequent deposition of rf power into plasma is an important component of developing tokamak fusion energy. Two limitations on rf heating are: (i) breakdown of the metallic structures used to deliver rf power to the plasma, and (ii) a detailed understanding of how rf power couples into a plasma. Computer simulation is a main tool for helping solve both of these problems, but one of the premier tools, VORPAL, is traditionally too difficult to use for non-experts. During this Phase II project, we developed the VorpalView user interface tool. This tool allows Department of Energy researchers a fully graphical interface for analyzing VORPAL output to more easily model rf power delivery and deposition in plasmas.

  4. Low Cost Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Hung, Cheng-Hung [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Ma, Zhixun [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of online deposition of the active layer for thin-film PV modules. The envisioned PV online manufacturing process has a number of discrete unit operations integrated into a single process. Demonstration of feasibility would be deemed successful with the individual demonstration of each of these unit operations and development of the integrated process was not within the scope of this phase.

  5. Hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. Development of CO{sub 2}-selective biogas membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestboe, A.P.

    2012-02-15

    The project started as a literature study and technology development project for a hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. The introduction of hydrogen (for example produced from wind turbines by surplus electricity) in the gas system makes it possible to store energy which can be selectively used with high energy conversion in fuel cells directly located at the end users. In order to make this possible, it is necessary to have a separating unit that can selectively remove hydrogen from the gas mixture and deliver it as fuel to the electrical generator (a fuel cell). In the project, several existing technologies were evaluated with regard to the application in view. It was concluded that while other technologies are ripe, they are costly in energy and unsuitable for the relatively low capacity application that are in question close to the end users. Membrane technology was evaluated to be the most suitable, although the technology is still under development in many cases. In the project it was found that metallic membranes in the form of palladium coated stainless discs would answer the needs for the high purity needed. Laboratory development yielded discs that could separate hydrogen from natural gas, however, the flux was low compared to the needs of the application. It was found that at least 2 bar pressure difference of hydrogen would be needed to get a high enough flux. The way to achieve this pressure would necessitate a compressor which would consume an energy amount high enough to invalidate the concept. When concluding on the results and the study it was found that the direction of the project could be changed towards developing CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with the goal of developing membrane technology that could upgrade biogas by removing CO{sub 2}. The laboratory equipment and setup that were developed in the first part of the project could be used directly in this second part of the project. In this second part of the project it was

  6. Stable amorphous semiconductors for solar cells. Final report; Stabile amorphe Halbleiterfilme fuer Solarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, W.; Lips, K.; Mell, H.; Stachowitz, R.; Will, S.; Ulber, I.

    1997-12-31

    This study was founded on the preceding projects. The main objective was the preparation and characterization of stable amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). For this purpose the deposition conditions were varied in a wide range. The main effort was on the change of the reactor geometry and the increase of the substrate temperature to values beyond 250 C. Comparative studies of the film stability were carried out using different degradation techniques. The electronic and structural properties of the films were investigated with the aim to find correlations between the stability and other film properties. Information on the defect density was obtained from electron spin resonance (ESR), photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and photocurrent spectroscopy (CPM). The influence of native and light-induced defects on the recombination kinetics was studied using both films and solar cells. The techniques mainly used for that were steady-state and frequency-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (FRS) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). The results of these studies were published in international journals and presented at international conferences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Vorhaben baute auf den vorangegangenen Projekten auf. Wichtigstes Ziel war die Herstellung und Charakterisierung stabiler amorpher Siliziumfilme (a-Si:H) durch Plasmadeposition. Dazu wurden die Depositionsbedingungen in einem weiten Bereich variiert. Im Vordergrund standen dabei die Aenderung der Reaktorgeometrie und die Erhoehung der Substrattemperatur auf Werte oberhalb von 250 C. Die Stabilitaet der Filme wurde mit verschiedenen Degradationsverfahren vergleichend geprueft. Die Filme wurden hinsichtlich ihrer elektronischen und strukturellen Eigenschaften mit dem Ziel untersucht, einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Stabilitaet und anderen Probeneigenschaften aufzufinden. Als Messverfahren fuer die Defektdichte standen

  7. Final Report for 'Gyrotron Design and Evaluation using New Particle-in-Cell Capability'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, David N.

    2008-01-01

    ITER will depend on high power CW gyrotrons to deliver power to the plasma at ECR frequencies. However, gyrotrons can suffer from undesirable low frequency oscillations (LFO's) which are known to interfere with the gun-region diagnostics and data collection, and are also expected to produce undesirable energy and velocity spread in the beam. The origins and processes leading to these oscillations are poorly understood, and existing gyrotron R and D tools, such as static gun solvers and interaction region models, are not designed to look at time-dependant oscillatory behavior. We have applied a time-domain particle-in-cell method to investigate the LFO phenomenon. Our company is at the forefront of smooth-curved-boundary treatment of the electromagnetic fields and particle emission surfaces, and such methods are necessary to simulate the adiabatically trapped and reflected electrons thought to be driving the oscillations. This approach provides the means for understanding, in microscopic detail, the underlying physical processes driving the low-frequency oscillations. In the Phase I project, an electron gun region from an existing gyrotron, known to observe LFO's, was selected as a proof-of-principle geometry, and was modeled with the curved-geometry time-domain simulation tool, in order to establish the feasibility of simulating LFO physics with this tool on office-scale, and larger, parallel cluster computers. Generally, it was found to be feasible to model the simulation geometry, emission, and magnetic features of the electron gun. Ultimately, the tool will be used to investigate the origins and life cycle within the trapped particle population. This tool also provides the foundations and validation for potential application of the software to numerous other time-dependant beam and rf source problems in the commercial arena.

  8. SETD2 and PBRM1 inactivation in the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidney cancer of the clear cell type is often lethal and causes more than 100,000 deaths worldwide every year. Understanding the biology of this cancer type may help to develop better ways to diagnose and treat it. Damage in DNA (genes) is present in all cancer cells and clear cell kidney cancer is

  9. A Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TC-02081-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The Phase I STTR research project was targeted at meeting the objectives and requirements stated in STTR solicitation A04-T028 for a Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring. In accordance with the requirements for STTR programs, collaboration was formed between a small business, Kionix, Inc., and The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The collaboration included CytoDiscovery, Inc. (CDI) which, in collaboration with Kionix, provided access to membrane chip technology and provided program support and coordination. The objective of the overall program (excerpted from the original solicitation) was: “To develop a small, portable cell maintenance system for the transport, storage, and monitoring of viable vertebrate cells and tissues.” The goal of the Phase I project was to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the program objectives utilizing a system comprised of a small-size, microfluidic chip-based cell maintenance cartridge (CMC) and a portable cell maintenance system (CMS) capable of housing a minimum of four CMCs. The system was designed to be capable of optimally maintaining multiple vertebrate cell types while supporting a wide variety of cellular assays.

  10. Development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging/spectroscopy for improved petroleum recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrufet, M.A.; Flumerfelt, F.W.; Walsh, M.P.; Watson, A.T.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to develop and apply Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) and CT X-Ray Scanning methods for determining rock, fluid, and petrophysical properties and for fundamental studies of multiphase flow behavior in porous media. Specific objectives are divided into four subtasks: (1) development of NMRI and CT scanning for the determination of rock-fluid and petrophysical properties; (2) development of NMRI and CT scanning for characterizing conventional multiphase displacement processes; (3) development of NMR and CT scanning for characterizing dispersed phase processes; and (4) miscible displacement studies.

  11. Development and regeneration of vestibular hair cells in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph C; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-05-01

    Vestibular sensation is essential for gaze stabilization, balance, and perception of gravity. The vestibular receptors in mammals, Type I and Type II hair cells, are located in five small organs in the inner ear. Damage to hair cells and their innervating neurons can cause crippling symptoms such as vertigo, visual field oscillation, and imbalance. In adult rodents, some Type II hair cells are regenerated and become re-innervated after damage, presenting opportunities for restoring vestibular function after hair cell damage. This article reviews features of vestibular sensory cells in mammals, including their basic properties, how they develop, and how they are replaced after damage. We discuss molecules that control vestibular hair cell regeneration and highlight areas in which our understanding of development and regeneration needs to be deepened. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of basophil and mast cell development by transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Sasaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Basophils and mast cells play important roles in host defense against parasitic infections and allergic responses. Several progenitor populations, either shared or specific, for basophils and/or mast cells have been identified, thus elucidating the developmental pathways of these cells. Multiple transcription factors essential for their development and the relationships between them have been also revealed. For example, IRF8 induces GATA2 expression to promote the generation of both basophils and mast cells. The STAT5-GATA2 axis induces C/EBPα and MITF expression, facilitating the differentiation into basophils and mast cells, respectively. In addition, C/EBPα and MITF mutually suppress each other's expression. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of how transcription factors regulate the development of basophils and mast cells.

  13. Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, JB

    2005-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.

  14. Final storage of radioactive waste - how soon will we be able to catch up again with international developments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the final storage of radioactive waste from the beginning has been a topic very much influenced by the political debate, especially by party politics. The development initiated after the 1998 change in government has greatly contributed to Germany clearly losing contact with cutting edge international developments in final storage. Here are some proposals for improving the present situation: - The political demand for a single-repository concept should be given up. - Preparatory work on the Konrad repository should be started. - Underground exploration of the Gorleben salt dome should be resumed without any strings attached. - A TSPA should be conducted for the Gorleben project. - After completion of the TSPA, an international peer review should be carried out of the Gorleben project. - An underground laboratory in salt should be established in Germany. - Repository activities should be transferred to a company organized and operating along industrial lines. - Competence for licensing radioactive waste repositories should be concentrated on a national level. (orig.)

  15. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  16. Modeling Human Natural Killer Cell Development in the Era of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D; Freud, Aharon G; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the discovery of natural killer (NK) cells, their developmental pathways in mice and humans have not yet been completely deciphered. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cells can develop in multiple tissues throughout the body. Moreover, detailed and comprehensive models of NK cell development were proposed soon after the turn of the century. However, with the recent identification and characterization of other subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which show some overlapping functional and phenotypic features with NK cell developmental intermediates, the distinct stages through which human NK cells develop from early hematopoietic progenitor cells remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to reassess and refine older models of NK cell development in the context of new data and in the era of ILCs. Our group has focused on elucidating the developmental pathway of human NK cells in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs), including tonsils and lymph nodes. Here, we provide an update of recent progress that has been made with regard to human NK cell development in SLTs, and we discuss these new findings in the context of contemporary models of ILC development.

  17. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium.

  18. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing.

  19. Development and Implementation of Domain Referenced Testing in Vocational Welding. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Dan

    A project was undertaken to develop and implement domain-referenced tests (DRTs) for welders' helpers. After analyzing the results of a state survey of welding job titles and related tasks and after consulting with postsecondary educators and industry personnel, researchers developed DRTs to measure various tasks typically performed by welders.…

  20. Development of an Occupational Orientation Program for Grades K-6. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ray M.; Brown, Sandra

    This report presents the development, methodology, and findings of an Occupational Orientation Program for Grades K-6 in Monongalia County, West Virginia. The objectives of the program were to develop a curriculum for an elementary school that would give students the assistance needed to make realistic, attainable career choices, to assist…

  1. VTAE Equity Staff Development Workshops and Services--Phase II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Lorayne; Nelson, Orville

    The Phase II Equity Staff Development project was revised in response to a need to develop an equity strategic planning model with a vision statement, goals, and objectives. The Equity Strategic Planning Model was presented to administrators of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) colleges for their use in district strategic…

  2. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  3. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  4. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium

  5. Development of a data base on radon in US homes and applications. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1991-12-31

    This research led to the development of the compilation of data on radon in homes which is included in this document. This research also contributed to the development of two papers analyzing the results. These are a case control study test and tests of the liner no-threshold theory for lung cancer induced by exposure to radon in residential buildings.

  6. Development of radiative-cooling materials. Final technical report: FY 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Work on research and development on glazing and selective emitter materials that will enhance day and night sky radiative cooling is described. The emphasis is on glazing development with a secondary interest in the appropriate selective emitter. The testing focused on the individual material properties. (MHR)

  7. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Laser/Electro-Optics Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in laser/electro-optics technology. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  8. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing

  9. Development of a Post-Master's Fellowship Program in Oncology Nursing Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Dorothy; Henderson, Billie

    A one-year Post-Master's Fellowship in Oncology Nursing Education for nurse educators was developed through the collaboration of San Jose State University (California) and University of Alabama at Birmingham. The project was designed to: develop or update undergraduate/graduate oncology nursing programs; provide continuing education for practicing…

  10. Final Report: Systematic Development of a Subgrid Scaling Framework to Improve Land Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Robert Earl [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We carried out research to development improvements of the land component of climate models and to understand the role of land in climate variability and change. A highlight was the development of a 3D canopy radiation model. More than a dozen publications resulted.

  11. Curriculum Development for the Tourism Option of the Hospitality, Restaurant Management Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Mary

    A project was undertaken to develop classroom materials for a tourism program that would integrate work experience and classroom instruction. After reviewing available literature, conferring with other educators, and conducting a series of interviews with persons employed in the hospitality industry, the researcher developed a set of instructional…

  12. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  13. Targeting development of incretin-producing cells increases insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; van Es, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid-based mouse and human culture...... of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control....

  14. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  15. Green Chemistry Technology and Product Development. Final Report for Intermediary Biochemicals, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J. Gregory [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics

    2010-08-28

    The DOE funds in this award were applied to developing systems to cost effectively produce intermediate (1 dollar$-$1,000 dollars per kg) and fine ($1,000 per kg) chemicals from renewable feedstocks using environmentally responsible processes via collaboration with academic research laboratories to provide targeted technology and early product development. Specifically, development of a thermostable alkaline phosphatase overexpression system to provide supplies and reagents for improved biological test kits, creation of a microbial strain for the efficient production of aspartate from glucose (replacing oil-derived fumarate in aspartate production), and early development research for an electrochemical bioreactor for the conversion of glucose to mannitol were targeted by this research. Also, establishing this positive academic/industrial collaboration with Michigan State University Laboratories and fostering greater inter-laboratory collaboration would also support the strategy of efficiently transitioning academic green chemistry research into the commercial sector and open an avenue to low cost early product development coupled with scientific training.

  16. Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.

  17. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  18. Cell Factory Stability and Genetic Circuits for Improved Strain Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter

    . However, all synthetic gene systems -­ including the target metabolic pathways themselves -­ represent a possible fitness burden to the cell and thus constitute a threat to strain stability. In this thesis, several studies served to develop genetic systems for optimizing cell factory development...... systems can challenge the stability of strain designs. A metabolite-­producing Escherichia coli strain was long-­term cultured to study production stability and the dynamic effects of mutations within the cell population. A genetic error landscape of pathway disruptions was identified including particular......Development of new chemical-­‐producing microbial cell factories is an iterative trial-­and-­error process, and to screen candidate cells at high throughput, genetic biosensor systems are appealing. Each biosensor has distinct biological parameters, making modular tuning networks attractive...

  19. Apoptotic cell elimination during early tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Chovancová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 34 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : tooth development Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  20. Development and demonstration of biosorbents for clean-up of uranium in water. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faison, B.D.; Hu, M.Z.C.; Norman, J.M.; Reeves, M.E.; Williams, L.; Schmidt-Kuster, W.; Darnell, K.

    1997-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU, a nongenetically engineered bacterial strain known to bind dissolved hexavalent uranium, shows particular promise as the basis of an immobilized-cell process for removal of dissolved uranium from contaminated wastewaters. It was characterized with respect to its sorptive active. Living, heat-killed, permeabilized, and unreconstituted lyophilized cells were all capable of binding uranium. The uranium biosorption equilibrium could be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of uranium adsorption increased following permeabilization of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by organic solvents such as acetone. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was significantly more sorptive toward uranium than certain novel, patented biosorbents derived from algal or fungal biomass sources. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was also competitive with commercial cation-exchange resins, particularly in the presence of dissolved transition metals. Uranium binding by P. aeruginosa was clearly pH dependent. Uranium loading capacity increased with increasing pH under acidic conditions, presumably as a function of uranium speciation and due to the H + competition at some binding sites. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests that this microorganism is also capable of binding anionic hexavalent uranium complexes. Ferric iron was a strong inhibitor of uranium binding to P. aeruginosa CSU biomass, and the presence of uranium also decreased the Fe 3+ loading when the biomass was not saturated with Fe 3+ , suggesting that Fe 3+ and uranium may share the same binding sites on biomass

  1. Development and demonstration of biosorbents for clean-up of uranium in water. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faison, B.D.; Hu, M.Z.C.; Norman, J.M.; Reeves, M.E.; Williams, L.; Schmidt-Kuster, W.; Darnell, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Ogden Environmental Service, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU, a nongenetically engineered bacterial strain known to bind dissolved hexavalent uranium, shows particular promise as the basis of an immobilized-cell process for removal of dissolved uranium from contaminated wastewaters. It was characterized with respect to its sorptive active. Living, heat-killed, permeabilized, and unreconstituted lyophilized cells were all capable of binding uranium. The uranium biosorption equilibrium could be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of uranium adsorption increased following permeabilization of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by organic solvents such as acetone. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was significantly more sorptive toward uranium than certain novel, patented biosorbents derived from algal or fungal biomass sources. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was also competitive with commercial cation-exchange resins, particularly in the presence of dissolved transition metals. Uranium binding by P. aeruginosa was clearly pH dependent. Uranium loading capacity increased with increasing pH under acidic conditions, presumably as a function of uranium speciation and due to the H{sup +} competition at some binding sites. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests that this microorganism is also capable of binding anionic hexavalent uranium complexes. Ferric iron was a strong inhibitor of uranium binding to P. aeruginosa CSU biomass, and the presence of uranium also decreased the Fe{sup 3+} loading when the biomass was not saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, suggesting that Fe{sup 3+} and uranium may share the same binding sites on biomass.

  2. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Larsen, Peter Halvor; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    on larger anode-supported cells as well as a new generation of SOFCs based on porous metal supports and new electrode and electrolyte materials. The SOFC program comprises development of next generation of cells and multi stack modules for operation at lower temperature with increased durability...

  4. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  5. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  7. Development of an X-Ray Catheter Final Report CRADA No. TC-1265-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schlossberg, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Toe goal of this CRADA project was to develop a catheter-based x-ray source to provide treatment of restenosis in arteries with a radiation source which can be precisely controlled and turned on and off at will.

  8. The impact of transit-oriented development on social capital : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the ability of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) to improve social capital and interactions within a community. The expectation is that TOD has a positive impact on the lifestyle and activities of individuals who reside, work, ...

  9. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    2000-01-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated

  10. Draft project management update to the Iowa DOT Project Development Manual : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This work supported drafting project management guidance for the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT). The goal is to : incorporate a greater focus on project management in their project development process. : A technical advisory committee (TAC) ...

  11. Development of Weldable Superplastic Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheet Final Report CRADA No. TC-1086-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Numerous applications could exist for superplastic formable, weldable aluminum alloys in the automotive, aerospace, architectural, and construction industries. In this project, LLNL and Kaiser worked with the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems to develop and evaluate weldable superplastic alloys.

  12. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  13. Manual for research, development and technology program and project evaluations : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This manual provides the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Research, Development and Technology (RD&T) a : framework, standards, and procedures for planning, conducting, reporting, and using sound evaluations of RD&Ts projects fo...

  14. Development of requirements and functional specifications for crash event data recorders : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. DOT has conducted research on the requirements for a Crash Event Data Recorder to facilitate the reconstruction of commercial motor vehicle crashes. This report documents the work performed on the Development of Requirements and Functiona...

  15. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  16. Development of a process for quantifying the benefits of research : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    MnDOT Research Services funds and administers approximately 180 transportation research projects annually at a cost of slightly more than $3 million. This project developed an easy-to-apply process for quantifying the potential benefits of research a...

  17. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  18. Efficient development of offshore windfarms (ENDOW): Final report to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Pryor, S.

    2003-01-01

    in complexity from empirical solutions to the most advanced models based on solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using eddy viscosity combined with ak-epsilon turbulence closure. Results of wake model performance in different wind speed, stability and roughness conditions provided criteria...... for their improvement. Mesoscale model simulations were used to evaluate the impact of thermal flows, roughnessand orography on offshore wind speeds. The model hierarchy developed under ENDOW forms the basis of design tools for use by wind energy developers and turbine manufacturers to optimise power output from...... offshore wind farms through minimised wake effectsand optimal grid connections. The design tools are being built onto existing regional scale models and wind farm design software which was developed with EU funding and is in use currently by wind energy developers. This maximises the expected impact ofthis...

  19. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  20. Development of Physics Package Sensors Final Report CRADA No. TC02094.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpenko, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salmon, J. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The goal of this project was to work together through the project phases to conceive, demonstrate, and produce concepts for detecting, locating, tracking, imaging, and assessing emissions passively or actively. The initial Sensor Concept Exploration Phase was postulated and assessed concepts at a first-order level to ascertain whether the parties’ concepts (either separately developed or jointly developed) had merit for missile defense and homeland security applications

  1. CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 Uppsala University Final report 2006-01-01 - 2007-06-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edoff, Marika (Thin Film Solar Cell group, Dep. Technical Sciences, Uppsala Univ., P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)) (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 2 has been going on for 18,5 months and was interrupted in advance on the 14th of June, 2007. The decision to shorten the period was taken by the board of the Swedish Energy Agency the 14th of February. It was decided to reevaluate and re-direct the financial support to the group. A new project, CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells, phase 3, superseded this project and will go on for the initially planned project period (until 2009-12-31). During the project much of the focus has been on research on Cd-free buffer layers, with an emphasis on the interface properties between the CIGS and the buffer layer. (CIGS is a commonly used acronym for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}, which is the active absorption layer in this type of solar cells) The combination of high quality CIGS and the new buffer layers has been another field of interest. CIGS solar cell module development and computer modelling of solar cells and modules has been the third major research area. The results show that the group still holds a position as one of the leaders in the world in this field. The 18.5 % efficient Cd-free solar cell, which was obtained and independently confirmed is only one percent away from the world record and in addition it is Cd-free using a Zn(O,S) buffer layer (the world record from NREL contains Cd). By alloying ZnO with MgO instead of ZnS almost equally good results can be achieved. During the last half year an 18.1 % cell has been measured with a (Zn,Mg)O buffer layer. Solar cell module technology includes several research issues, both fundamental as e.g. modelling of cell voltage and losses as a function of distance from interconnect to interconnect, but also more development as e.g. encapsulation routines. The harsh environment test (damp heat test) run at 85 deg C and 85 % relative humidity for 1000 hours was passed for both a small (12.5x12.5 cm2) and a large (27.5x30 cm2) module within the degradation limits stated by the IEC standards, using

  2. Effective clinical-scale production of dendritic cell vaccines by monocyte elutriation directly in medium, subsequent culture in bags and final antigen loading using peptides or RNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Michael; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Strasser, Erwin; Hendelmeier, Martin; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice

    2007-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination approaches are advancing fast into the clinic. The major obstacle for further improvement is the current lack of a simple functionally "closed" system to generate standardized monocyte-derived (mo) DC vaccines. Here, we significantly optimized the use of the Elutra counterflow elutriation system to enrich monocytic DC precursors by (1) developing an algorithm to avoid red blood cell debulking and associated monocyte loss before elutriation, and (2) by elutriation directly in culture medium rather than phosphate-buffered saline. Upon elutriation the bags containing the collected monocytes are simply transferred into the incubator to generate DC progeny as the final "open" washing step is no longer required. Elutriation resulted in significantly more (> or = 2-fold) and purer DC than the standard gradient centrifugation/adherence-based monocyte enrichment, whereas morphology, maturation markers, viability, migratory capacity, and T cell stimulatory capacity were identical. Subsequently, we compared RNA transfection, as this is an increasingly used approach to load DC with antigen. Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC could be electroporated with similar, high efficiency (on average >85% green fluorescence protein positive), and appeared also equal in antigen expression kinetics. Both Elutra-derived and adherence-derived DC, when loaded with the MelanA peptide or electroporated with MelanA RNA, showed a high T cell stimulation capacity, that is, priming of MelanA-specific CD8+ T cells. Our optimized Elutra-based procedure is straightforward, clearly superior to the standard gradient centrifugation/plastic adherence protocol, and now allows the generation of large numbers of peptide-loaded or RNA-transfected DC in a functionally closed system.

  3. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  4. Kidney stem cells in development, regeneration and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Klaudyna; Pleniceanu, Oren; Dekel, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    The generation of nephrons during development depends on differentiation via a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) of self-renewing, tissue-specific stem cells confined to a specific anatomic niche of the nephrogenic cortex. These cells may transform to generate oncogenic stem cells and drive pediatric renal cancer. Once nephron epithelia are formed the view of post-MET tissue renal growth and maintenance by adult tissue-specific epithelial stem cells becomes controversial. Recently, genetic lineage tracing that followed clonal evolution of single kidney cells showed that the need for new cells is constantly driven by fate-restricted unipotent clonal expansions in varying kidney segments arguing against a multipotent adult stem cell model. Lineage-restriction was similarly maintained in kidney organoids grown in culture. Importantly, kidney cells in which Wnt was activated were traced to give significant clonal progeny indicating a clonogenic hierarchy. In vivo nephron epithelia may be endowed with the capacity akin to that of unipotent epithelial stem/progenitor such that under specific stimuli can clonally expand/self renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. Finding ways to ex vivo preserve and expand the observed in vivo kidney-forming capacity inherent to both the fetal and adult kidneys is crucial for taking renal regenerative medicine forward. Some of the strategies used to achieve this are sorting human fetal nephron stem/progenitor cells, growing adult nephrospheres or reprogramming differentiated kidney cells toward expandable renal progenitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Development of materials for fuel cell application by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Junju; Lee, Gyoungja; Lee, Byung Cheol; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang; Kang, Philhyun; Sohn, Joon Yong; Rang, Uhm Young

    2012-06-01

    The development of the single cell of SOFC with low operation temperature at and below 650 .deg. C(above 400 mW/cm 2 ) Ο The development of fabrication method for the single cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by dip-coating of nanoparticles such as NiO, YSZ, Ag, and Ag/C, etc. Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of SOFC by using nanoparticles. Ο The preparation of samples for SOFC with large dimension. The development of fluoropolymer-based fuel cell membranes with crosslinked structure by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of fuel cell membranes with low methanol permeability via the introduction of novel monomers (e. g. vinylbenzyl chloride and vinylether chloride) by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of hydrocarbon fuel cell membrane by radiation crosslinking technique Ο The structure analysis and the evaluations of the property, performance, and radiation effect of the prepared membranes Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of DMFC fuel cell membrane via the structure-property analysis (power: above 130 mW/cm 2 /50 cm 2 at 5M methanol) Ο The preparation of samples for MEA stack assembly

  6. 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    This report offers examples of real-world applications and technical progress of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, including policies adopted by countries to increase technology development and commercialization.

  7. Predictive value of clinical risk indicators in child development: final results of a study based on psychoanalytic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Kupfer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the final results of a study using the IRDI (Clinical Risk Indicators in Child Development. Based on a psychoanalytic approach, 31 risk signs for child development were constructed and applied to 726 children between the ages of 0 and 18 months. One sub-sample was evaluated at the age of three. The results showed a predictive capacity of IRDIs to indicate developmental problems; 15 indicators for the IRDI were also highlighted that predict psychic risk for the constitution of the subject.

  8. Development of the PRO-LOCA Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Code, MERIT Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Paul; Kurth, Robert; Cox, Andrew; Olson, Rick; Rudland, Dave

    2010-12-01

    The MERIT project has been an internationally financed program with the main purpose of developing probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code named PRO-LOCA. The principal objective of the project has been to develop probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code. The MERIT program has produced a code named PRO-LOCA with the following features: - Crack initiation models for fatigue or stress corrosion cracking for previously unflawed material. - Subcritical crack growth models for fatigue and stress corrosion cracking for both initiated and pre-existing circumferential defects. - Models for flaw detection by inspections and leak detection. - Crack stability. The PRO-LOCA code can thus predict the leak or break frequency for the whole sequence of initiation, subcritical crack growth until wall penetration and leakage, instability of the through-wall crack (pipe rupture). The outcome of the PRO-LOCA code are a sequence of failure frequencies which represents the probability of surface crack developing, a through-wall crack developing and six different sizes of crack opening areas corresponding to different leak flow rates or LOCA categories. Note that the level of quality assurance of the PRO-LOCA code is such that the code in its current state of development is considered to be more of a research code than a regulatory tool.

  9. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  10. Development of the PRO-LOCA Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Code, MERIT Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Paul; Kurth, Robert; Cox, Andrew; Olson, Rick (Battelle Columbus (United States)); Rudland, Dave (Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States))

    2010-12-15

    The MERIT project has been an internationally financed program with the main purpose of developing probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code named PRO-LOCA. The principal objective of the project has been to develop probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code. The MERIT program has produced a code named PRO-LOCA with the following features: - Crack initiation models for fatigue or stress corrosion cracking for previously unflawed material. - Subcritical crack growth models for fatigue and stress corrosion cracking for both initiated and pre-existing circumferential defects. - Models for flaw detection by inspections and leak detection. - Crack stability. The PRO-LOCA code can thus predict the leak or break frequency for the whole sequence of initiation, subcritical crack growth until wall penetration and leakage, instability of the through-wall crack (pipe rupture). The outcome of the PRO-LOCA code are a sequence of failure frequencies which represents the probability of surface crack developing, a through-wall crack developing and six different sizes of crack opening areas corresponding to different leak flow rates or LOCA categories. Note that the level of quality assurance of the PRO-LOCA code is such that the code in its current state of development is considered to be more of a research code than a regulatory tool.

  11. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  12. Significant Problems in Geothermal Development in California, Final Report on Four Workshops, December 1978 - March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-15

    From November 1978 through March 1979 the California Geothermal Resources Board held four workshops on the following aspects of geothermal development in California: County Planning for Geothermal Development; Federal Leasing and Environmental Review Procedures; Transmission Corridor Planning; and Direct Heat Utilization. One of the objectives of the workshops was to increase the number of people aware of geothermal resources and their uses. This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides summaries of all the key information discussed in the workshops. For those people who were not able to attend, this part of the report provides you with a capsule version of the workshop sessions. Part 2 focuses on the key issues raised at the workshops which need to be acted upon to expedite geothermal resource development that is acceptable to local government and environmentally prudent. For the purpose of continuity, similar Geothermal Resources Task Force recommendations are identified.

  13. Development of new business opportunities for minorities in nuclear energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spight, C.

    1980-12-15

    In Part I of this report the basis for the optimal development of new business opportunities for minorities in nuclear energy programs is defined within the successful completion of all contract tasks. The basis presented consists of an identification of a set of qualified minority-owned small businesses, a defined reservoir of highly trained minorities with applicable expertise, a policy context for the development of opportunities, and a proposed networking structure for information transfer/professional development. In Part II a contractor-focused analysis of the structure of the nuclear industry, a breakdown of the DOE nuclear program by region and functional area, and a directory of minority-owned small businesses by region are presented.

  14. Development of low-expansion ceramics with strength retention to elevated temperatures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The development of advanced engines has resulted in the need for new ceramic compositions which exhibit thermo-mechanical properties suitable for the engine environment, e.g., low thermal expansion, stability to 1,200 C, and thermal shock resistance. To meet these goals, a two phase research program was instituted. In the first phase, new oxide ceramics were identified in the AlPO{sub 4}-{beta}-eucryptite, {beta}-cristobalite, mullite and zircon systems. This research focused on screening and property characterization of ceramics in the four systems. The most promising compositions in the AlPO{sub 4}-{beta}-eucryptite and zircon systems were then further evaluated and developed in the second phase with the goal of being ready for prototype testing in actual engines. Of the compositions, calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate (zircon system) exhibits the most desirable properties and is presently being developed for commercialization.

  15. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-01-01

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford

  16. Study of the regional potential for the development of small hydroelectricity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruillet, Mathieu; Buchet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the potential of small hydroelectric plants in the eastern part of the PACA region, and more generally in the whole region appears to be promising to support energy supply safety, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for local development, this study aimed at making an inventory of existing hydraulic plants (to be renewed or developed for a higher production), of existing weirs to be equipped, and of new sites to be possibly developed (non classified rives, irrigation canals, drinkable water networks). Another objective of this study was to propose a selection among the most promising sites or works. Moreover, the power for these existing or possible installations ranges from 100 kW to 10 MW. After a presentation of the adopted methodology, lists of sites are provided, as well as more detailed presentations of selected sites

  17. Development of a Landmine Detection Sensor Final Report CRADA No. TC02133.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheppard, C. [First Alliance Technologies, LLC, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was one of two CRADAs between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and First Alliance Technologies, LLC (First Alliance), to conduct research and development activity toward an integrated system for the detecting, locating, and destroying of landmines and unexploded ordinance using a laser to destroy landmines and unexploded ordinance and First Alliance’s Land Mine Locator (LML) system. The focus of this CRADA was on developing a sensor system that accurately detects landmines, and provides exact location information in a timely manner with extreme reliability.

  18. Final Report for X-ray Diffraction Sample Preparation Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, T. M. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Meznarich, H. K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Valero, T. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    WRPS-1500790, “X-ray Diffraction Saltcake Sample Preparation Method Development Plan/Procedure,” was originally prepared with the intent of improving the specimen preparation methodology used to generate saltcake specimens suitable for XRD-based solid phase characterization. At the time that this test plan document was originally developed, packed powder in cavity supports with collodion binder was the established XRD specimen preparation method. An alternate specimen preparation method less vulnerable, if not completely invulnerable to preferred orientation effects, was desired as a replacement for the method.

  19. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  20. Sodium-sulfur battery development. Phase VB final report, October 1, 1981--February 28, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made under Contract No. DE-AM04-79CH10012 between the U.S. Department of Energy, Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporations and Ford Motor Company, for the period 1 October 1981 through 28 February 1985, which is designated as Phase VB of the Sodium-Sulfur Battery Development Program. During this period, Ford Aerospace held prime technical responsibility and Ford Motor Company carried out supporting research. Ceramatec, Inc., was a major subcontractor to Ford Aerospace for electrolyte development and production.

  1. Development of a cell microarray chip for detection of circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, S.; Yatsushiro, S.; Abe, K.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patients has clinical significance in earlier diagnosis of metastases. In this study, a novel cell microarray chip for accurate and rapid detection of tumor cells from human leukocytes was developed. The chip with 20,944 microchambers (105 μm diameter and 50 μm depth) was made from polystyrene, and the surface was rendered to hydrophilic by means of reactive-ion etching, which led to the formation of mono-layers of leukocytes on the microchambers. As the model of CTCs detection, we spiked human bronchioalveolar carcinoma (H1650) cells into human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CEM) cells suspension and detected H1650 cells using the chip. A CEM suspension contained with H1650 cells was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the cells to settle down into the microchambers. About 30 CEM cells were accommodated in each microchamber, over 600,000 CEM cells in total being on a chip. We could detect 1 H1650 cell per 106 CEM cells on the microarray by staining with fluorescence-conjugated antibody (Anti-Cytokeratin) and cell membrane marker (DiD). Thus, this cell microarray chip has highly potential to be a novel tool of accurate and rapid detection of CTCs.

  2. Development and molecular composition of the hepatic progenitor cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig

    2013-05-01

    End-stage liver diseases represent major health problems that are currently treated by liver transplantation. However, given the world-wide shortage of donor livers novel strategies are needed for therapeutic treatment. Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into the more specialized cell types of a given organ and are found in tissues throughout the body. These cells, whose progeny are termed progenitor cells in human liver and oval cells in rodents, have the potential to treat patients through the generation of hepatic parenchymal cells, even from the patient's own tissue. Little is known regarding the nature of the hepatic progenitor cells. Though they are suggested to reside in the most distal part of the biliary tree, the canal of Hering, the lack of unique surface markers for these cells has hindered their isolation and characterization. Upon activation, they proliferate and form ductular structures, termed "ductular reactions", which radiate into the hepatic parenchyma. The ductular reactions contain activated progenitor cells that not only acquire a phenotype resembling that observed in developing liver but also display markers of differentiation shared with the cholangiocytic or hepatocytic lineages, the two parenchymal hepatic cell types. Interactions between the putative progenitor cells, the surrounding support cells and the extracellular matrix scaffold, all constituting the progenitor cell niche, are likely to be important for regulating progenitor cell activity and differentiation. Therefore, identifying novel progenitor cell markers and deciphering their microenvironment could facilitate clinical use. The aims of the present PhD thesis were to expand knowledge of the hepatic progenitor cell niche and characterize it both during development and in disease. Several animal models of hepatic injury are known to induce activation of the progenitor cells. In order to identify possible progenitor cell markers and niche components

  3. Development of Standards for Textiles and Clothing Postsecondary Programs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    A project was conducted to validate program standards and performance standards for four postsecondary occupational areas--fashion merchandising, fashion design, apparel, and window treatment services. Returns from 117 questionnaires from postsecondary institutions in fifty states were used to develop program standards statements and to provide…

  4. Potential development of an intercity passenger transit system in Texas : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report describes the findings of a research study of the potential for development of an intercity rail and : express bus system in the state of Texas. Rather than focus on regional commuter or light rail systems : radiating from urban areas, th...

  5. REDI: The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index –Measuring regional entrepreneurship Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Autio, Erkko; Komlosi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The main outcome of the project is a new index (REDI - Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index) that describes the entrepreneurial process. The index takes into account both individual attitudes and characteristics and the regional context and, accordingly, not only whether people are

  6. Development of an Interdisciplinary Workshop in Urban Transportation. Final Substantive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Joseph V.

    This project has developed an interdisciplinary graduate workshop in transportation engineering to acquaint students with problems of urban transportation and the role of various disciplines in dealing with these problems. It provides an opportunity for students from the fields of engineering, urban and regional planning, and economics to interact…

  7. Safety analysis of final disposal of nuclear waste - significance, development and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Norrby, Soeren; Simic, Eva; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2007-05-01

    The report starts with a review of the role and development of safety assessments from the middle of the 70's up until today. Then follows a section on how the assessment is performed today. The demands from the licensing authorities is then described. The report ends with a chapter on conclusions and reflections

  8. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in the rotating cone reactor. Reactor development and operation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansekoele, E.; Wagenaar, B.M.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the design and characteristics of BTGs pyrolysis plant with a biomass throughput capacity of 50 kg per hour. The pilot plant has been developed for 2 reasons: to produce modest quantities of bio-oil for application purposes, and to generate know-how for the development of a larger 200 kg/hr pilot plant. The design of the 50 kg/hr plant continues the development line which started in 1995 when a similar unit was delivered to China. Major design improvements of the current pyrolysis unit are that it can be operated in a continuous mode and utilizes the combustion heat of the produced char to heat the pyrolysis process. A measurement program has meanwhile been executed as a means to characterize the pyrolysis plant. Results of the characterization study were the following: the pilot plant produces approx. 35 liters of bio-oil per hour and thus achieves a maximum oil yield of 70 weight percent. The bio-oil yield of the plant was inversely proportional with the reactor temperature and inversely proportional with the gas phase residence time. As a result of the pilot plant operation, a few tons of bio-oil have been produced; alongside with a bulk of know-how. All know-how has successfully been utilized in the development of the 200 kg per hour facility

  9. Business and Management Development Training Program for Hispanic Women. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    A program was conducted to develop and motivate minority women, in particular Hispanic origin women, in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to participate in business ownership and management. Offered at no cost to participants, the training program sought to equip potential managers with information and techniques in the fundamental…

  10. Development of an alpha scattering instrument for heavy element detection in surface materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkevich, A.L.; Economou, T.; Blume, E.; Anderson, W.

    1974-12-01

    The development and characteristics of a portable instrument for detecting and measuring the amounts of lead in painted surfaces are discussed. The instrument is based on the ones used with the alpha scattering experiment on the Surveyor lunar missions. The principles underlying the instrument are described. It is stated that the performance tests of the instrument were satisfactory. (auth)

  11. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  12. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  13. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  14. Laser Drilling Development Trial Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1538-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hebbar, R. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This project performed various laser drilling tests to demonstrate femtosecond laser drilling of fuel injector nozzles with minimal recast, minimal heat affected zone and no collateral damage. LLNL had extensive experience in ultra short-pulse laser systems and developed specialized hardware for these applications.

  15. Industry to Education Technology Transfer Program. Composite Materials--Personnel Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomezsko, Edward S. J.

    A composite materials education program was established to train Boeing Helicopter Company employees in the special processing of new filament-reinforced polymer composite materials. During the personnel development phase of the joint Boeing-Penn State University project, an engineering instructor from Penn State completed a 5-month, full-time…

  16. Applied quantum chemistry advanced laser development. Final progress report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, M.; Stevens, W.J.; Julienne, P.S.; Mies, F.H.

    1979-11-01

    The included summaries are divided into three categories. First, the theoretical analyses of Raman processes in intense fields are described. Second, the electronic structure calculations are presented with a brief description of pseudopotential code development. Third, the analysis of absorption processes, both collision-induced and photoionization, and energy transfer processes is presented

  17. Review of the management of materials research and development in the Department of Energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Materials Working Group of DOE findings and recommendations of a management nature to improve the handling of materials R and D within DOE are presented. The special role of materials in the development of new energy technologies is provided. (FS)

  18. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  19. The Development of Imitation in Children 1-3 Years Old. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.; And Others

    Five studies investigated the development of imitation in children 1-3 years old. Results indicated that children as young as 12 months possess the cognitive capability of translating a perception of an action into their own behavior, but imitation varies as actions requiring direct social commerce with the examiner are imitated less frequently…

  20. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  1. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  2. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Automated Systems/Robotics Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    The project described in this report was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in conjunction with area vocational-technical schools, the second year of a competency-based curriculum in automated systems/robotics technology. During the project, a task force of teachers from the area schools and the college…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROGRAMED TEXT IN SALESMANSHIP FOR FEASIBILITY TESTING IN ADULT EDUCATION. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSSELL, RAYMOND B.

    A PROGRAMED TEXT ON SALESMANSHIP WAS DEVELOPED, FIELD TESTED FOR CLARITY, AND REVIEWED BY AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE. PROMOTION OF THE TEXT IN A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 10 TOWNS OF 2,000 TO 7,000 POPULATION WAS CONDUCTED. THE PROMOTION CONSISTED OF CONTACT WITH THE LOCAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. SIX COMMUNITIES ACCEPTED. WITH 267 ADULTS ENROLLED UNDER LOCAL…

  4. Success Avoidant Motivation and Behavior; Its Development Correlates and Situational Determinants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    This paper reports on a successful attempt to understand success avoidant motivation and behavior by the development of an empirically sophisticated scoring system of success avoidant motivation and the observation of its behavioral correlates and situational determinants. Like most of the work on achievement motivation, the study was carried out…

  5. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  6. Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator: Development of Hardware and Software. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen

    A general purpose maintenance trainer, which has the potential to simulate a wide variety of electronic equipments without hardware changes or new computer programs, has been developed and field tested by the Navy. Based on a previous laboratory model, the Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator (GMTS) is a relatively low cost trainer that…

  7. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  8. Development of YBCO Superconductor for Electric Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2013-03-01

    The proposed project will be collaborative in exploration of high temperature superconductor oxide films between SuperPower, Inc. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This CRADA will attempt to develop YBCO based high temperature oxide technology.

  9. Ethnically diverse pluripotent stem cells for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunle, Eyitayo S; Loring, Jeanne F

    2012-12-01

    Genetic variation is an identified factor underlying drug efficacy and toxicity, and adverse drug reactions, such as liver toxicity, are the primary reasons for post-marketing drug failure. Genetic predisposition to toxicity might be detected early in the drug development pipeline by introducing cell-based assays that reflect the genetic and ethnic variation of the expected treatment population. One challenge for this approach is obtaining a collection of suitable cell lines derived from ethnically diverse populations. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) seem ideal for this purpose. They can be obtained from any individual, can be differentiated into multiple relevant cell types, and their self-renewal capability makes it possible to generate large quantities of quality-controlled cell types. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges of using iPSCs to introduce genetic diversity into the drug development process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems' Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment

  11. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  12. Final Report for completed IPP Project: Development of Plasma Ablation for Soft Tissue and Bone Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    ArthroCare is a medical device company that develops, manufactures, and markets an advanced surgical tool, a plasma electro-surgical system for cutting and removing tissue. The hand-held electrical discharge device produces plasma in a biocompatible conductive fluid and tissue to which it is applied during surgery. Its products allow surgeons to operate with increased precision and accuracy, limiting damage to surrounding tissue thereby reducing pain and speeding recovery for the patient. In the past, the design of ArthfoCare's plasma wands has been an empirical undertaking. One goal of this R and D program was to put the phenomena involved on a sound scientific footing, allowing optimization of existing plasma based electro-surgery system technology, and the design and manufacture of new and improved kinds of scalpels, in particular for the surgical cutting of bone. Another important related goal of the program was to develop, through an experimental approach, new plasma wand approaches to the cutting ('shaving') of hard bone tissue. The goals of the CRADA were accomplished - computer models were used to predict important parameters of the plasma discharge and the bone environment, and several different approaches to bone-shaving were developed and demonstrated. The primary goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an atmospheric-pressure plasma tool that is suitable for surgical use for shaving bone in humans. This goal was accomplished, in fact with several different alternative plasma approaches. High bone ablation speeds were measured. The use of probes ('plasma wand' - the surgical tool) with moving active electrodes was also explored, and there are advantages to this method. Another important feature is that the newly-exposed bone surface have only a very thin necrosis layer; this feature was demonstrated. This CRADA has greatly advanced our understanding of bone removal by atmospheric pressure plasmas in liquid, and puts ArthroCare in a good

  13. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EY A) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  14. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  15. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut

    . Here, using a RA sensitive reporter mouse model, we demonstrate that endogenous RAR responses are induced in CD69+CD4+CD8lo and CD69+CD4+CD8+ thymocytes undergoing positive selection and lineage commitment, and continue to be present in both CD4+ and CD8+ single positive (SP) cells, with RA signaling...... further enhanced in recently generated CD69+ CD4+ SP cells. To address the potential biological significance of RA signaling in developing thymocytes, we evaluated T cell development in CD4Cre-dnRAR mice, where RA signaling is blocked in thymocytes from the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) stage onwards due...

  16. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a fuel mixture flow rate of 0.3 mL min−2. The developed fuel cell features no proton exchange membrane. The simple planar structured membraneless ethanol fuel cell presents with high design flexibility and enables easy integration of the microscale fuel cell into actual microfluidic systems and portable power applications.

  17. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Pakiza

    2016-12-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural changes induced by proteins such as ARC and Cofilin among others in the case of synaptic modification. In this study we used the generalized polarization (GP) property of fluorescent probe Laurdan using two-photon microscopy to determine membrane fluidity as a function of time and for various cell lines. A low GP value corresponds to a higher fluidity and a higher GP value is associated with a more rigid membrane. Four different cell lines were monitored such as hN2, NIH3T3, HEK293 and L6 cells. As expected, NIH3T3 cells have more rigid membrane at earlier stages of their development. On the other hand neurons tend to have the highest membrane fluidity early in their development emphasizing its correlation with plasticity and the need for this malleability during differentiation. This study sheds light on the involvement of membrane fluidity during neuronal differentiation and development of other cell lines.

  18. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  19. [Development of a Fluorescence Probe for Live Cell Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aya

    2017-01-01

     Probes that detect specific biological materials are indispensable tools for deepening our understanding of various cellular phenomena. In live cell imaging, the probe must emit fluorescence only when a specific substance is detected. In this paper, we introduce a new probe we developed for live cell imaging. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells and is involved in the development of resistance to various anticancer drugs. We previously reported the development of a general strategy for the synthesis of probes for detection of GST enzymes, including fluorogenic, bioluminogenic, and 19 F-NMR probes. Arylsulfonyl groups were used as caging groups during probe design. The fluorogenic probes were successfully used to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and were also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST1 activity in living cells. The bioluminogenic and 19 F-NMR probes were able to detect GST activity in Escherichia coli cells. Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for nucleic acid sensing. This strategy exploits the target strand as a template for two functionalized probes and provides a simple molecular mechanism for multiple turnover reactions. We developed a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe completed its reaction within 30 s of initiation and amplified the fluorescence signal from 0.5 pM target oligonucleotide by 1500 fold under isothermal conditions. Additionally, we applied the oligonucleotide-templated reaction for molecular releasing and peptide detection.

  20. Evolutionary insights into postembryonic development of adult intestinal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult vertebrate intestine, multi-potent stem cells continuously generate all of the epithelial cells throughout the adulthood. While it has long been known that the frog intestine is formed via the development of adult intestinal stem cells during thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis, the basic structure of the adult intestine is formed by birth in mammals and it is unclear if the subsequent maturation of the intestine involves any changes in the intestinal stem cells. Two recent papers showing that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1 regulates postnatal epithelial stem cell reprogramming during mouse intestinal maturation support the model that adult intestinal stem cells are developed during postembryonic development in mammals, in a TH-dependent process similar to intestinal remodeling during amphibian metamorphosis. Since the formation of the adult intestine in both mammals and amphibians is closely associated with the adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial life during the peak of endogenous TH levels, the molecular mechanisms by which the adult stem cells are developed are likely evolutionally conserved.